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book report 47 ronin CHÛSHINGURA IN THE 1980S. Henry D. Smith II. Prepared for inspector goole final speech the Modern Japan Seminar, Columbia University, April 13, 1990. Please do not cite or reproduce without permission. Copyright 1990 Henry D. Smith II. Catcher? All rights reserved. My curiosity about Chûshingura was first piqued in December 1981, by a remark of Tsurumi Shunsuke at goole a conference in London to the effect that if you study Chûshingura long enough, you will understand everything about the Physical Public Setting Japanese. My respect for inspector speech Tsurumi as a pioneer scholar of modern Japanese popular culture helped convince me that perhaps I should some day learn more about ict in the early what I had always felt to goole speech, be a distasteful chapter in Japanese cultural history. Education Children? For myself, whose acquaintance with Japan began only in 1962 (the year of the goole speech last full-scale feature film production of Chûshingura and the end of an freud, era in the mass popularity of the legend), Chûshingura was a thing of the past, indelibly linked with feudal values and prewar militarism. Of course, I loved the original joruri version of Kanadehon Chûshingura as I knew it through Donald Keene's translation, which I had used in goole, undergraduate courses, but that seemed something apart from the Song A Bildungsroman larger and vaguer Chûshingura that I associated with prewar Japan. The chance to final speech, rethink the of the Being Emily story of the 47 Ronin came last year, when I had the inspector goole final speech prospect of teaching a graduate seminar at Essay Columbia that I knew would include students in both history and inspector goole speech, literature, both modern and premodern: Chûshingura seemed a good way to bring these various interests into common focus.

This report stems from A Bildungsroman of Milkman that seminar, and I am indebted in final, countless ways to the six graduate students who helped me work through some of the the early years issues treated in this paper--as well as many other issues that I will not have space to mention. (1) As part of my preparations for goole speech the seminar, I stopped by Kinokuniya bookstore in freud religion, Shinjuku during a trip to goole, Japan last summer, looking for for Kinship Essay recent writings about Chûshingura. I discovered not just one book or two, as I had expected, but a dozen and goole final speech, more volumes on Chûshingura, all of them recent. Most were non-fiction (it was, after all, the history section), but some were novels. And of course Kinokuniya did not have everything: in the 1980s alone, I would now estimate, about forty new books on Chûshingura appeared, both fiction and non-fiction (see Appendix for croppies analysis a list of goole final, thirty). What was going on? Why this number and variety of books on what I considered to be safely history? Some of the ict in books of course purported to be real history, revealing the inspector goole truth of the original Akô Incident, but a number were historical fiction, while still others analyzed the in the meaning of Chûshingura in Japanese culture as a whole. Somehow I had not expected much vitality from Chûshingura in the 1980s. As it turns out, the legend seems to remain as durable and inspector, versatile as ever, and it remains quite simply the most widely known and frequently re-presented story in Japan. Requiem Analysis? It seems a good time to try to place the inspector goole entire phenomenon of Essay, Chûshingura in broader historical perspective. A good place to start is goole final speech, with the question posed by the title of the years single most provocative book of the inspector final speech 1980's, Maruya Saiichi's What is Chûshingura? (Chûshingura to ict in, wa nanika, 1984).

I have more simple-minded intentions than Maruya (to whose ideas I shall return at speech the end of this report) in posing this preliminary question. The Nature Of The Emily Essay? It is simply a problem of definition: to what do we refer today when we use the term Chûshingura? Stop and inspector speech, ask yourself the same question, or better yet, ask it of any Japanese who (like most) has never considered the matter. Sigmund Religion? The inevitable hesitation will bring home the dimensions of the goole speech problem: what in the early, fact do we mean by goole speech Chûshingura? The actual word, of course, comes from the joruri Kanadehon Chûshingura of of Solomon: A Bildungsroman, 1748, and goole final, purists continue to use it in this restricted way. (2) In actual usage, however, the term has been constantly expanding over the years. In the late Edo period, it came to be used in catcher rye text, the titles of final speech, variant kabuki versions of the religion story, and increasingly so in inspector goole, Meiji.

In late Meiji, as we shall see, there occurred a radical conflation of the of the Being previous genealogy of the Akô Incident, by which not only the different lineages of stage and inspector goole final speech, story-telling, but also the historical incident itself , were all gathered within Chûshingura as an umbrella term. Ultimately, the of the Emily Essay only sensible definition of Chûshingura is as an all-encompassing term for goole speech the entire body of cultural production that ultimately stems from the Akô Incident of 1701-03. All parts of this body have in Nephrolithiasis, common an intention either to tell the speech story, or to attempt to explain its telling--which becomes simply one more form of re-telling. In this sense, I am merely adding to the vast thing that is Chûshingura in producing this paper. Dealing with Chûshingura is Physical Public Setting, somewhat like dealing with the inspector goole final speech Tar Baby: when you try to stand apart and assault it, you willy-nilly become part of it. This is precisely why Chûshingura is so tantalizing, and ultimately so frustrating for ict in the historian. Inspector Speech? Let me nevertheless make my own effort to stand apart, and to see Chûshingura as something that does in for the croppies, fact have a history--a history in inspector goole final speech, which the Song of Solomon: A Bildungsroman of Milkman very notion of goole, history performs a central function. In so doing, I have ended up strongly opposed to precisely what lured me to catcher rye text, the topic in the first place, Tsurumi's proposal that Chûshingura has come to goole, encompass all of the cultural proclivities of the Physical Public Japanese people. This type of argument is essentially a type of Japanese exceptionalism, whether claiming that Chûshingura must be understood as part of the goole final basic Japanese preference for failed heroes ( hangan biiki ), or in terms of the croppies analysis Japanese tendency to act in groups, or as a reflection of the hierarchal organization of Japanese society--and so on. Of course it is all this, in inspector speech, varying degrees, but such an approach begs the question of Chûshingura's durability, since various other legends that are in these obvious ways Japanese have come and gone.

I propose, then, that the popularity and durability of Nephrolithiasis Essay, Chûshingura deserve historical rather than cultural explanations, and that all those who interpret it as a peculiarly Japanese phenomenon are misleading us. Inspector Goole Speech? The power of Chûshingura can ultimately be explained, I would argue, only by the particular nature of the of the Being original historical incident of 1701-03, and by the particular historical circumstances through which its retelling has evolved in the almost two centuries since. Rather than universally Japanese, I would argue, Chûshingura is particularly historical. The problem begins with giving a name to the incident that began it all. Inspector Goole Final Speech? In Edo times, no one would have called it an incident, but would have referred to Nephrolithiasis, the forty-six--or forty-seven--samurai or the Akô gishi (or gijin). In Meiji times, it became more common to call it the Genroku incident. Inspector Final? Among historians today, however, consensus seems to favor Akô incident, avoiding the ict in the early problems of final speech, whether Terasaka Kichiemon really should be counted as one of the group, or whether the Song of Solomon: A Bildungsroman Akô retainers were in fact righteous, or whether all Genroku need be subsumed by goole speech the affair. (3) A quick reminder of the essentials of the incident, or rather of the series of for the analysis, incidents involved in the Akô affair: it began on the 14th day of the goole Third Month of for the croppies analysis, Genroku 14 [April 21, 1701], when the lord of Akô, Asano Naganori, drew his sword in a corridor of Edo Castle and slashed at the senior bakufu protocol official, Kira Yoshinaka. (4) It was the last day of the visit to goole final, Edo of envoys from the imperial court in for Kinship Children Essay, Kyoto, whose reception had been placed in the hands of Asano and another daimyo. Asano only inspector goole speech, wounded Kira slightly before he was restrained, and was immediately taken into custody and The Nature Being Emily Essay, ordered to commit seppuku later the same day. Twenty-one months later, forty-seven of the former retainers of inspector, Asano, having signed an oath vowing to catcher rye text, complete the inspector deed at Song A Bildungsroman which their lord had failed, attacked the Edo mansion of inspector goole final speech, Kira, took his head, and marched across the city to the temple of A Bildungsroman Essay, Sengakuji, where they offered the final trophy before the grave of years, their master. Final? After fully seven weeks of debate, the Song of Solomon: of Milkman Essay bakufu ordered the seppuku of the forty-six of the ronin who had surrendered themselves at inspector final speech Sengakuji.

The order was carried out the same day, on Genroku 16/2/2 [March 20, 1703], and ict in years, the ashes of the ronin were interred at Sengakuji. Inspector Goole Final? The power of survival of the Akô Incident in later imagination lies less in the drama implicit in this outline sketch than in the complexity and Emily, ambiguity of motivation involved both in the initial palace incident and in the night attack. The historical record, for example, does not explain why Asano attacked Kira in the first place, only goole final, that he cried as he struck, This is for Description that grudge I've had against inspector goole you! (Kono aida no ikon oboetaru ka). This obscurity of Essay, motive, and the rather limited and final, contradictory information that we have about the Education for Kinship Children personalities of the inspector goole speech two men involved, have made it possible to engage in for the croppies, a wide range of final speech, speculation, particularly among amateur historians. To be sure, the freud traditional type of goole final, explanation, that Kira had offended Asano by catcher haughty behavior of inspector final speech, some sort, remains the most plausible. Still, there is of Solomon: A Bildungsroman of Milkman Essay, no hard evidence for goole final speech it, and Education Children, the fact that the ronin in inspector goole speech, their voluminous correspondence never touched on the reason for in the rye text Asano's grudge suggests that even they did not really know. Inspector Goole Final Speech? The even greater ambiguity lies in the motivation and for the analysis, action of the ronin.

They justified the attack as a vendetta ( katakiuchi ) on behalf of their lord, but in no way did the goole case fit either the legal or the of Solomon: Essay customary definition of final speech, katakiuchi . Kira, after all, was not their master's murderer: on the contrary, Asano had tried to murder Kira. Nor was there any justification for avenging the religion death of one's lord, only that of a family member: the ronin even had to goole final speech, call on a Confucian scholar to come up with a textual basis for years their action. Inspector Goole? Legalities aside, what was the for the croppies underlying spirit of speech, their act? Was it indeed personal loyalty to for the, their lord, as the inspector final mainstream of the ict in the early years Chûshingura tradition would have it? Or was it a protest against the bakufu's lenient treatment of Kira for his involvement in the incident? Or was it a simple matter of final speech, personal honor to carry out their master's unfinished task? Or, as one school of interpretation would have it, were they impoverished samurai desperate for requiem for the croppies analysis a new job and trying to inspector goole final speech, prove their credentials? Whatever the truth of the for Kinship Children Essay matter, the ambiguities and complexities of the inspector final event itself provided plenty of for the, leeway for a variety of widely differing interpretations. Goole Speech? This would prove essential to ict in years, the modern survival of goole final, Chûshingura. The Popular Response: Kanadehon Chûshingura. The nature of the catcher in the rye text immediate public response to inspector goole speech, the attack on Kira also presents difficult interpretive problems.

Consider what our own basic texts tell us: that the public was thrilled, (5) and that there was a spontaneous outpouring of admiration for this brave and for Kinship Essay, selfless act. (6) Within Edo, of course, the final speech news must have traveled swiftly, and public interest was surely high, but was there mass public sympathy for Song A Bildungsroman of Milkman Essay the act? One member of the seminar attempted to look at inspector speech the contemporary documentation of the catcher in the incident, and found it to inspector final, be a mass of contradictory and ambiguous evidence. (7) It is religion, difficult to say whether the goole final public was either thrilled or shocked: given the divisions that would soon emerge among samurai leaders on this issue, it seems at least reasonable to question the assumption that the public response was uniformly positive. Interesting new evidence on this score has recently been offered by of the Essay Kôsaka Jirô in his best-selling book on speech the diary of Nephrolithiasis Essay, a Nagoya samurai in the Genroku era. Inspector Goole Final Speech? The diarist, Asahi Bunzaemon, was alert to every bit of gossip that passed his way, and of Solomon: A Bildungsroman of Milkman Essay, he reported such incidents as love suicides in long and consuming detail. Inspector Final Speech? The vendetta of the Essay Akô ronin, however, was reported in one utterly non-committal line, and goole speech, their seppuku was not even mentioned. Kôsaka suggests that if the sigmund freud incident had been such a big stir in Edo, Bunzaemon would clearly have heard much more about it through his many sources and would have reported it in greater detail. (8) The conventional evidence of inspector goole, public interest that has been cited in the past is a kabuki performance in in the, Edo just twelve days after the seppuku of the ronin, which was ostensibly about the goole Soga brothers but clearly modelled on the Akô Incident.

The evidence for Song of Solomon: A Bildungsroman Essay this and another account of inspector, early theatrical reenactments in Edo, however, is highly problematic and years, now discredited by many scholars. Inspector Goole? (9) It was rather in Kyoto and Osaka that one finds the more sustained response. Catcher? Of course, the stricter censorship in inspector goole, Edo is doubtless the key factor, but it remains a fact that the Chûshingura legend was created in Description, Kamigata, where it was easier to fantasize about the inspector speech historical event. Particular revealing is the earliest known piece of fiction based on the incident, an ukiyozôshi of 1705 entitled Keisei budôzakura , by sigmund freud the prolific Osaka writer Nishizawa Ippû. Inspector? (10) The entire incident is catcher, transposed to the pleasure quarters, with Asano (Asamanosuke) as a chonin playboy skilled in the martial arts and final, Kira (Kichikô) as the Education for Kinship Essay pompous son of a nouveau riche merchant. Goole Final? The two conflict over a rivalry for the affections of the courtesan Kurahashi, and it is actually Kichikô who attacks Asamanosuke, reversing the Song of Milkman historical order of aggression. Both are wounded, but Asamanosuke dies. Final Speech? The revenge is sigmund religion, plotted by Densuke, a follower of speech, Asamanosuke, in cahoots with Kurahashi and a band of Essay Education in The School Setting, other courtesans whom Asamanosuke had favored when alive. Densuke and fourteen courtesans attack Kichikô when he lets down his guard and visits the pleasure quarters, and then all commit suicide before Asama's grave.

Nowhere to be found in all of this is goole final speech, any trace of requiem croppies analysis, interest in samurai valor or loyalty: the real point of the goole final story, argued Aoki Sentei, lay in Essay, the contrast of the sui style of Asama and speech, the stingy, boorish style of Kichikô. We are already at a long parodic remove from the event. The subsequent road to Essay about Physical Education Public Setting, Kanadehon Chûshingura of 1748 has been carefully traced by scholars of Edo theater. Final? (11) The pivotal year, it is for Kinship Essay, now agreed, was 1710, the year after Tsunayoshi's death, when there appeared a cluster of plays that drew on the Akô Incident in final, elaborate and Children Essay, only thinly disguised detail. Other plays followed over final speech the succeeding decades. Essay About In The School? Had it not been for the masterful work of final speech, synthesis performed by the team that wrote Kanadehon Chûshingura , however, one wonders whether the Akô vendetta would have survived as any more than one of Education in The Setting, many lesser themes in inspector final, the joruri and Nephrolithiasis and Analysis Essay, kabuki traditions. Inspector Goole? Not only did Kanadehon Chûshingura provide the word Chûshingura, but its tremendous popularity assured that the catcher rye text theme would be imitated on a far more extended and imaginative scale than ever before. Fujino Yoshio has compiled a list of 70 such dramatic variants of the legend from 1748 until mid-Meiji. Inspector Final? (12) Certain interesting trends appear from this data. First, the sigmund religion overwhelming number of new productions until the mid-1810s were created in Kamigata: 24 in Osaka and 4 in Kyoto, versus only 6 in Edo. In this same period, the inspector number of joruri (15) remained about the Education for Kinship Children same as kabuki (19). After this, however, the pattern is reversed, with 30 new works in Edo-Tokyo in the period 1818-1892, and only 6 in goole, Osaka; of these, only one was joruri. And Analysis? As a growing tradition, in inspector goole, other words, one sees a clear shift from Osaka, where Chûshingura originated, to Edo-Tokyo.

It seems possible that this shift from The Nature of the Being Emily west to goole final, east was paralleled by a change of emphasis within the tradition as a whole, from the rye text erotic to inspector goole, the political. For The? The theme of loyalty with which Kanadehon Chûshingura opens and inspector goole final, closes, one might argue, is merely a veneer to make the authorities happy, and freud religion, serves to inspector speech, divert attention from the real concerns of the Kamigata audiences, the catcher in the erotic and romantic themes that run throughout the play. In Edo-Tokyo, by inspector contrast, with its greater traditional emphasis on formalism and on the macho bluster of the aragoto style, the Essay Education Setting theme of loyalty and political struggle is taken more seriously. It is inspector, revealing, for example, that in Kamigata performances, Kô no Moronao is depicted as above all lascivious, while Tokyo actors emphasize rather his haughtiness towards subordinates. Of The Being Emily? (13) Given the richness and complexity of the original joruri text, it is in fact possible to inspector goole speech, get quite different emphases from the play. Even in Edo, however, Chûshingura was not always taken seriously, as demonstrated by the rich parodic tradition that emerged in the later eighteenth century. The earliest of of the Emily, these appears to be Hoseidô Kisanji's kibyôshi parody of 1779, Anadehon tsûjingura (roughly, A Treasury of Those In the Know, A Guide to the Pitfalls of Life). (14) In the final speech preface, Kisanji writes that the loyalty of Ôboshi and the others was grand, but the of Milkman real cause of the whole affair was En'ya Hangan's utter lack of inspector final, sophistication ( tsû ) in freud religion, failing to realize that his bribe was too small. Thus having subverted the inspector basic moral order of the early years, Chûshingura, Kisanji proceeds to final speech, his own version, in which everyone is Song A Bildungsroman of Milkman Essay, utterly preoccupied with worldliness and with whether others are being too stingy or not. Inspector Final Speech? This was followed by Essay numerous other kibyôshi parodies, as well as such similar subversions of the inspector legend as Shikitei Sanba's Chûshingura Henchikiron (1812), a perverse argument that diametrically opposes the received wisdom on for the croppies Chûshingura, and Tsuruya Nanboku's kabuki Tôkaidô Yotsuya kaidan (1825), a tale of one of the disloyal retainers who did not participate in speech, the vendetta. The Popular Response: The Kôdan Retellings. Description? The late Edo period meanwhile saw the goole final speech development of a new and rather different lineage of Chûshingura, in requiem, the genre of oral story-telling known as kôshaku (later kôdan ) that flourished on well into the Meiji period. Inspector Goole Speech? Although these variants derived in rye text, many ways from the stage traditions, they differed in claiming to speech, be real stories of freud religion, real people, so-called jitsuroku , and hence used the actual names of the historical participants in the Akô Incident, rather than the pseudonyms of goole final, Kanadehon Chûshingura . Analysis? As analyzed by inspector goole final Satô Tadao, the kôdan versions tended to emphasize the impetuous, heroic male aspects of the freud legend, minimizing the romantic and inspector goole, domestic complications that were an important part of joruri and kabuki.

Thus the Being Emily Essay kôdan versions almost completely omit the story of the romance of inspector goole, Kanpei and in The, Okaru that came to be so popular in the kabuki tradition. Inspector Goole Speech? Satô sees in about, this a contrast in inspector final, the social class of the audiences, with kabuki appealing to upper-class merchants firmly embedded in the feudal social order, and kôdan to Education Children, lower-class artisans who live by their individual skills. (15) Another feature of the goole speech kôdan version was the elaboration of the heroic exploits of individual members of the and Analysis Essay band of inspector speech, forty-seven, thus developing the genre of gishi meimeiden , separate biographies of the catcher in the rye text loyal retainers. Final Speech? This feature reminds us how important it was that such a large number of individuals were involved in the historical Akô Incident--far more than had been involved in sigmund, almost any of the other great vendettas in inspector speech, Japanese history. Requiem Croppies? Some have interpreted this as a mark of group-oriented behavior, but it is revealing that in goole final, the kôdan tradition it allowed rather for the proliferation of individualistic heroes, each with his own story. (16) In a sense, this division replicates the basic tension in A Bildungsroman Essay, the history of inspector goole final speech, samurai values, between self-centered honor and self-negating loyalty. In the Meiji period, the The Nature of the Being Emily Essay kôdan versions--known by inspector goole final speech such titles as The 47 Samurai of Akô (Akô shijûshichi-shi) or Biographies of the Song Essay Loyal Retainers (Gishiden)--were carried over into goole final speech, the genre of rôkyoku ( naniwa-bushi ), which began in Osaka in the late Edo period and in which oral narration was provided with samisen accompaniment.

The great popularity of the rôkyoku version of the requiem for the croppies analysis Akô gishi in the late Meiji period, emerging directly from the goole final speech kôdan tradition, provided the in the matrix for the modern emergence of Chûshingura as a cornerstone of emperor-system patriotism. The Revival of History and final, the Meiji Synthesis. Nephrolithiasis Description And Analysis Essay? For the first half of the inspector goole Meiji period, Chûshingura survived with no major change in the two great Edo-period lineages of Nephrolithiasis Description, kabuki stage productions and final, kôdan story-telling. To be sure, the new regime seems to freud religion, have appreciated the final speech political uses of the 47 Ronin as early as 1868, when the Meiji emperor, not long after arriving in his new capital of Tokyo, sent an Song of Solomon: Essay, emissary to final speech, Sengakuji to sigmund, place offerings before the graves of the Akô ronin, together with a proclamation addressed to Ôishi and inspector final speech, praising him for upholding the principle of the about Physical Education in The School Setting master-follower bond. Yet this did not lead to any particular official manipulation of the legend to foster imperial loyalty: Chûshingura remained in the possession of the inspector goole final speech people. The modern transformation of Chûshingura into what amounted to a piece of A Bildungsroman of Milkman, propaganda on inspector final behalf of martial values and selfless sacrifice to the state came, revealingly, only after the sigmund way had been paved by the first modern historical studies of the inspector speech Akô incident. (17) This process began in Description and Analysis, 1889 with the goole final appearance of The True Story of the Akô Gishi (Akô gishi jitsuwa), an account by Shigeno Yasutsugu (1827-1910), a pioneer of the modern critical method in Essay in The School Setting, history.

Shigeno insisted on the need to inspector final speech, separate out the many counterfeits among the sigmund freud religion surviving documents of the final incident, in Essay, an effort to tell the true story. Goole Final? The form of the A Bildungsroman Essay book (which was related orally to a newspaper reporter) was an final speech, act-by-act analysis of Kanadehon Chûshingura , indicating what was true and what not. This marks the beginning of a new element in Nephrolithiasis Description and Analysis, the Chûshingura phenomenon, the perception that the historical event constituted a different kind of story to be told, with different tools and goole speech, methods. Public? The way to a greater historicity may have been paved by the kôdan tradition and its stronger sense of the actual event--particularly in inspector final, the use of the historical names of the participants--but the line between history and fiction remained one that was never openly contested. The pivotal work in the modernization of Chûshingura was Fukumoto Nichinan's Genroku kaikyo roku (Record of the Valiant Vendetta of Genroku), published in late 1909. The use of the word Genroku signals Nichinan's consciousness of the historical event, and his work continued the spirit established by Shigeno of trying to Being Emily Essay, recover the goole speech original story. Croppies? Still, Nichinan was a journalist not a historian, and still retained many elements of traditional kôdan-style embellishment.

Less than a year after the publication of Genroku kaikyo roku , however, the historiography of the goole speech Akô Incident entered a new era with the publication of the Song Essay documentary collection Akô gijin sansho (3 vols.), which had first been assembled by Nabeta Shôsan, a samurai antiquarian from Iwaki in the late Edo period. Impressed by the need to establish his story on a firmer documentary basis, Nichinan rewrote his earlier version and published it in 1914 as Record of the speech Truth of the Valiant Vendetta of Genroku (Genroku kaikyo shinsô roku). Although a less readable work, the The Nature of the Essay effort to reach the goole final speech truth of the event marks an entirely new attitude towards the Chûshingura legacy. Nichinan's two works, especially the catcher in the rye text first, were wildly popular in the patriotic climate of Japan following the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05, and lay the goole final speech foundations for the understanding of the Essay about Physical Education in The Public School Setting story as one of martial valor and devotion to superiors. Inspector Goole Speech? Although more conscious of the ict in years truth of the goole historical incident, Nichinan in no way compromised the essential emphasis on loyalty and Nephrolithiasis Description and Analysis Essay, valor. In this way, a more modern consciousness of the history of the goole Akô Incident was fused with the freud religion latent historicity of the kôdan tradition to yield a new rendering of the inspector goole final speech Chûshingura tradition, one particularly well suited to of the Being Emily Essay, the times. The importance of speech, historicity is revealed in Education Children Essay, comparing the fate of Chûshingura with that of the legend of the vendetta of the Soga brothers, which was a far longer and deeper tradition in inspector, many ways than Chûshingura, but which did not survive as a major theme in A Bildungsroman Essay, popular culture after the inspector end of the early, Meiji. The great liability of the Soga brothers is that they were almost impossible to recover for inspector final history, dating from a much earlier period and with virtually no documentary support. Sigmund Religion? The late Meiji period also marks the goole beginning of the entirely new Chûshingura genre of film, which by the time it had run its course in Description and Analysis Essay, the mid-1960s would have brought the story of the 47 Ronin to inspector goole, far more Japanese than ever in the past, and with a new level of requiem analysis, power and goole, immediacy.

The film historian Misono Kyôhei has counted a total of sixty Chûshingura films in late Meiji and Taisho (1907-26), an average of three per year. Education Children Essay? (18) . The number would rapidly multiply in the years that followed. In general, the goole speech film tradition followed in the pattern set by the kôdan-rôkyoku tradition, of for the, treating the Akô incident as a historical event rather than using the inspector goole speech Taiheiki sekai of the stage tradition. The mounting nationalism of the 1930s tended to leave the religion mainstream of Chûshingura locked into the mode that took shape in the 1910s, although some literary efforts subversive of that mainstream were already beginning to emerge among a small minority of intellectual writers, as we shall shortly see. The mainstream itself took a turn in a more intellectual direction with the epic new kabuki version of inspector, Mayama Seika, Genroku Chûshingura , begun in 1934 as a piece for Sadanji II, and for the, continuing through nine more installments until 1941 (by which time Sadanji had died). Inspector Final Speech? Mayama's pretensions as a historian are evident in the long and requiem for the croppies, pedantic explanations he provides in the printed text, alleging his concern for period correctness.

Yet his work is every bit as much a product of the inspector speech ideology of The Nature of the Being Emily Essay, its own time, notably in his depiction of the anxiety of final speech, Ôishi over whether Asano's act might be interpreted as insulting to the emperor; this introduction of Essay Education in The Public Setting, imperial loyalism into inspector speech, the minds of the in the 47 Ronin seems to be Mayama's innovation, with no historical justification. (19) The war interrupted the inspector modern film mainstream of Chûshingura, but did not radically alter its course. Both stage and film versions of the story were prohibited under the early years of the Song Essay Occupation for intimate associations with feudal values and wartime patriotism. From 1949, however, the ban on Chûshingura was lifted, and productions of both kabuki and film proceeded apace. This is by no means to say that the ideological emphasis remained unchanged. Gregory Barrett has suggested that the major shift was to play down the emphasis on abject loyalty to goole final, one's superior, and rather to stress Ôishi Kuranosuke's personal affection for his lord. (20) In a sense, the of Solomon: abstraction of loyalty that had allowed its modern transference from daimyo to emperor now reverted to a more direct and personal sort of inspector goole speech, loyalty. But the theme of in the rye text, loyalty itself remained central. The postwar survival of inspector, Chûshingura, however, was not simply a product of this kind of re-direction. As Satô Tadao notes, Chûshingura was the Children Essay only one of the Three Great Vendettas of the Edo period that did in fact survive the goole final war: nothing more was to be seen of the the early years Soga Brothers or Araki Bunzaemon, names that are today virtually unknown to the majority of Japanese. Final Speech? (21) The advantage of School Setting, Chûshingura lay once again in the ambiguities and complexities offered by the historical incident itself. From even before the war, Chûshingura had already entered a second phase of inspector goole final speech, modernization, one which endowed it with distinctively anti-authoritarian overtones.

The Democratization of Chûshingura. In its very essence, the Akô Incident was politically multivalent. Although carried out in Song of Solomon: of Milkman, the name of loyalty to goole final speech, their feudal lord, the the early vendetta of the 47 Ronin was explicitly in defiance of the final bakufu, as recognized by their death sentence. Given the essentially contradictory demands of loyalty under the bakuhan system, their action could be interpreted in two wholly different ways, either as confirming loyalty in the abstract or as negating loyalty not directed to Education for Kinship Essay, the shogunate. Where the notion of public hung in the balance between bakufu and han, things could go either way. Inspector Speech? And so in in The Public School, the twentieth century, when public was again defined in ambiguous ways, either as personal loyalty to the emperor or as abstract loyalty to goole speech, the state, the sigmund freud Akô Incident was perfectly placed to satisfy both. And even after the democratizing reforms of the Occupation period, the Akô story could still be reoriented to adapt to new times, by conceiving of the actions of the ronin as directed against the autocratic actions of the bakufu. This new democratic phase in the history of final speech, Chûshingura actually had its beginnings before the war, among the Being Emily liberal and inspector final speech, modernist intellectuals of the in the Taisho and early Showa era. The earliest sign was perhaps Akutagawa Ryûnosuke's short story One Day in the Life of Ôishi Kuranosuke (Aru hi no Ôishi Kuranosuke, Chûô kôron , Oct. 1917), a sketch of the leader of the 47 Ronin as he awaited the judgment of the bakufu following the vendetta. (22) It was modern in two senses. First, Akutagawa turned to goole, the primary sources of the historical incident, in particular the sigmund freud religion account of Horikawa Den'emon, who was in charge of guarding the group at the Hosokawa mansion in inspector goole speech, which Ôishi had been placed.

Secondly, Akutagawa was interested in Song A Bildungsroman, the human psychology of inspector final, Ôishi as an individual with both strengths and for the croppies, weaknesses, rather than the stereotypical hero that had appeared in all earlier renditions. Goole Speech? This interest in of the, probing the more complex and inspector final speech, human side of the participants in the Akô affair set into motion a strand of Chûshingura rendition that remains strong to this day. The modern turn also took a radical twist in the early Showa period with the the early years first appearance of interpretations that openly challenged the black-and-white idealism of the older Chûshingura tradition. First seems to have been a March 1928 essay by Hani Gorô seeking to reevaluate Ôishi, but I have not yet located a copy. (23) Another materialist interpretation of the motives of the final 47 Ronin was put forth first in May 1931, in Song of Solomon: A Bildungsroman of Milkman, a Chûô kôron article by the liberal Hasegawa Nyozekan entitled The Akô Gishi in speech, Light of Historical Materialism, in which the motives of the ronin in of the Emily, seeking revenge were attributed not to their loyalty but to their poverty and need for a new job. A similar line of thought was pursued by the Marxist historian Tamura Eitarô in inspector goole final, a series of books and Essay, articles on inspector speech the Akô event extending from Chûshingura monogatari in of Solomon:, 1934 on to Akô rôshi in 1964.

Doggedly pressing his argument that the inspector goole ronin were simply in search of a new master and sigmund, never expected to sacrifice their lives, Tamura set a tone of iconoclasm that opened a new chapter of inspector goole final, revisionist thinking in The Nature Being Essay, the history of the Akô Incident. To be sure, there had been distinguished earlier critics of the ronin's actions, such as Satô Naokata two years after the event and goole, Fukuzawa Yukichi in A Bildungsroman Essay, the Meiji period, but these had been in largely legal grounds. Tamura was the inspector first to impute economic motives. The most important work for Education for Kinship Children Essay the postwar revival of inspector speech, Chûshingura, however, was the ict in years first long modern historical novel on inspector goole the theme of the Akô Incident, Osaragi Jirô's Akô rôshi of 1928 (serialized the of the Being Essay previous year in the Mainichi newspapers). The use of rôshi rather than gishi hints at the diversion of goole, emphasis away from the theme of of Solomon: A Bildungsroman of Milkman, loyalty, and in final, the direction of in the, a conception of the attack on Kira as a protest against the corrupt and goole final speech, venal government of the bakufu under Tsunayoshi. This element was in fact already part of for Kinship, prewar orthodoxy. Inspector Goole Speech? The biography of Ôishi that appeared in the old elementary school textbooks, for example, opened on precisely this theme, stressing the ict in the early looseness of inspector goole speech, Genroku politics and the decadence of about Education, Tsunayoshi and his animal-protection laws. (24) The rônin could thus easily be resurrected after the war as paragons not of loyalty, but of justice and inspector goole final speech, honesty in Essay, politics. Osaragi's text played a key role in the 1960s transition from film to television as the basic medium for goole final speech the mass propagation of Chûshingura.

The year 1962 saw the freud last great feature-film production, Inagaki Hiroshi's Chûshingura , bringing to a close a half-century era. The new era began in 1964, when NHK chose the Chûshingura theme for the second of its year-long saga-dramas ( taiga dorama ), of which a one-hour installment was shown every Sunday evening. Entitled Akô rôshi , it was based in speech, Osaragi's 1927 novel. The power of television, authorized by the government network, brought the images of the 47 Ronin directly into and Analysis Essay, the homes of millions of Japanese over a sustained period of time, reviving the legend just at the point that it was faltering. The production was accompanied by a new outpouring of inspector final, books about the Akô Incident. Essay Physical Education School Setting? It is inspector goole final, surely not without significance that 1964 was also the The Nature of the Being Emily Essay year of the Tokyo Olympics: the triumphal return to the international scene of a democratized Japan was accompanied by inspector goole a revival of the nation's greatest legend, now itself democratized. In the years following, NHK has continued to play the central role in the survival of Chûshingura in mass culture by selecting it twice more for the taiga dorama series, in catcher rye text, 1975 and final, 1982. In both cases, it was occasion for sigmund freud religion the publication of new books about Chûshingura, the inspector goole reissue of old ones, and of the Being, renewed speculation by inspector goole intellectuals about the perpetual appeal of the Education for Kinship Essay theme to the Japanese people.

That things were changing, however, was revealed in goole final speech, the approaches of the two series, neither of which approached the Akô Incident head-on. Of Milkman? The 1975 drama was Genroku Taiheiki , a title that revealingly suggests a return to speech, the indirection of Kanadehon Chûshingura , which used the world of the Taiheiki as a setting. The Early? The series offered a panorama of Genroku society and politics that included the inspector goole Akô Incident, but focused as much on Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu, chamberlain under Tsunayoshi, and on the politics of for Kinship, shogunal succession. Final? The 1982 NHK series was given the abstruse title Tôge no gunzô , translatable as something like group portrait at the divide, implying that the Genroku period was a kind of historical watershed. The Akô Incident here appeared less as the main theme than as the backdrop to the depiction of the lives of a group of catcher rye text, ordinary citizens of Edo. According to final speech, the analysis of Gregory Barrett, sentimentality was used to about Physical Education in The Public School, fashion a contemporary message of inspector final, patriotism through the treatment everyone receives, as reflected in the lenient treatment of Song A Bildungsroman Essay, Kira, of the goole Akô retainers who were not loyal, and even of the of the Being notorious shogun Tsunayoshi himself. Inspector Final? Thus, Barrett argues, NHK's Chûshingura bears a remarkable resemblance to sigmund freud, the Japanese family drama in which no one is to blame for inspector final speech arguments resulting from misunderstandings that are ironed out in the final reconciliation scene. (25) By this process of watering down and deflection of for the croppies analysis, emphasis away from the goole speech theme of in the rye text, either loyalty or protest, the inspector goole speech Chûshingura legend has been further adapted to postwar needs. The kind of lenient treatment of old villains that Barrett detects in the 1982 NHK series, however, reflects more than just a pious wish to in the rye text, show Japan as one big happy family.

Rather it emerges from an on-going process of inspector, critically reexamining the Essay about Physical Public School Setting legend and inspector goole speech, challenging some of its central verities by turning back to the historical event. In a sense, this is in the spirit of discovering the the early years real Akô Incident pioneered earlier in the century by Fukumoto Nichinan, and carried forth in a more explicit mode of inspector goole speech, debunking by Song of Solomon: Tamura Eitarô in his argument of the inspector goole speech 1930s that the Akô vendetta was no more than a campaign to win new employment. Essay About Physical Public Setting? What has changed since the war is a widening of the field of final speech, debunking activity, and the emergence of Education for Kinship, a virtual industry of amateur history-writing aimed at revealing the goole final truth of the Akô Incident in ways that often amount to requiem analysis, the most fantastic speculation. The best example, perhaps, is the problem of the cause of the goole incident that began it all, the requiem attack by goole final speech Asano in religion, the Matsu-no-rôka of Edo Castle. The way was first cleared by the demonstration of final speech, respectable historians--notably Matsushima Eiichi in his judicious 1964 Chûshingura--Sono seiritsu to and Analysis Essay, tenkai in the Iwanami shinsho series--that the surviving documentation gave very few clues as to the real reasons for Asano's grudge against Kira. This means that it is anybody's guess, and as a result a great many theories have been put forward.

Take, for example, the episode on the Matsu-no-rôka incident that appeared in NHK's Invitation to final, History (Rekishi e no shôtai) series, in which academic historians, amateur historians, and Education for Kinship, writers of historical fiction are all happily mixed together to goole final speech, debate a particular issue. Essay About Education In The School Setting? One major topic of discussion in this particular program was the so-called salt-farm theory, deriving from the fact that both Akô and Kira Yoshinaka's own domain of Kira-chô, located 40 km southeast of inspector, Nagoya on Atsumi Bay, just happened to be producers of salt. It was the novelist Ozaki Shirô--a native of Kira-chô--who first proposed in 1949 that the Song A Bildungsroman Essay incident had its origins in a salt rivalry between Asano, whose Akô salt was of superior quality, and Kira, who had easier access to the Edo market. Of the goole final speech several versions of the the early salt-farm theory, the most common envisions Kira sending spies to Akô to steal the secrets of superior salt technology, thereby provoking Asano and inspector goole speech, eventually the Essay about Physical Education in The School Setting Matsu-no-rôka attack. Never mind that there is speech, not a shred of evidence for the theory: the NHK show made a virtue of this by featuring a lengthy discussion by a leading expert of The Nature of the Being Emily, Edo salt production, who conclusively demonstrated that the goole final speech industrial spy theory was in Essay Physical Education, fact implausible, since the final speech geological and labor conditions in Kira-chô would have made Akô's techniques useless anyway.

Also offered on The Nature the same show was a novel theory centering on the abnormal psychology of goole final, Asano, proposed by about Physical Public School Setting Anzai Norio, a specialist in inspector goole speech, the psychology of freud religion, history from Oitemon Gakuin University in Osaka and final speech, the author of such works as A Psychological Walking Tour of Kyoto and The Psychology of the Tea Ceremony . Of Milkman? Professor Anzai diagnoses Asano as a clear case of an inspector goole speech, obsessive-compulsive personality type ( nenchaku kishitsu ), characterized by ict in the early exaggerated attachment to inspector final, form and ceremony, extreme preoccupation with cleanliness, and freud religion, a revulsion against speech money--naturally extending to Essay in The Setting, the offering of goole, bribes. What actually happened in requiem analysis, the Matsu-no-rôka, however, was a kind of epileptic fit to which this type of inspector, personality is of the Emily, susceptible and inspector goole, which allegedly ran in Essay Physical Education School, the Asano family. The immediate provocation of the attack, Anzai speculates, was a sudden burst of inspector final, light that struck Asano's eye, triggering what is rye text, known as an illuminant seizure ( kôgensei hossa ). Inspector? Anzai admits that the Being Emily Essay sun was high and the sky cloudy at inspector goole final the time of the sigmund religion attack, but proposes that the inspector contrasting pattern of light and dark on the floor would have been sufficient. Without going into the five other theories discussed on the NHK show, this should be enough to suggest the of the Emily Essay amount of ingenuity that has been devoted to explaining the twists and turns of the goole speech Akô Incident. These have been put forth in a steady outpouring of books claiming to tell, once again, the Nephrolithiasis and Analysis truth of the inspector Akô Incident. In effect, the of Milkman Essay incident has become much like a mystery story, to inspector, be figured out by requiem for the croppies analysis clever detectives; any concern with the deeper moral and political implications of the goole final event recedes into Essay about Public Setting, the background. In these ways, the goole speech historicity of the A Bildungsroman of Milkman Akô Incident has served to keep the Chûshingura legend alive even when those political implications no longer seem compelling. Inspector Goole Final Speech? Symptomatic of this trend is of Solomon: of Milkman, Izawa Motohiko's Chûshingura Genroku jûgonen no hangyaku (Shinchôsha, 1988), described on the cover as a historical detective story. It involves a young contemporary playwright who is asked to goole final, write a play about Chûshingura and becomes entangled in ict in the early, the mysteries of the goole speech historical event itself. In this way, Chûshingura as history is made palatable to analysis, a new generation.

In the entire body of goole final speech, debunking and revisionism about the Akô Incident, the two themes that stand out are the reevaluation of Kira Yoshinaka and of the disloyal retainers who failed to participate in the attack. Each of these themes has a considerable history. Essay About Physical Education School? In particular, the rescue of Kira from his villainous fate, emphasizing his role as a model lord in inspector goole, his own domain, has been pressed since the 1930s, and has become especially active in The Nature of the Emily, the postwar period. Goole? The town of Kira-chô itself has predictably made much of catcher rye text, this theme, and inspector speech, the temple with Kira's grave has become a popular tourist site, attracting some 10,000 visitors a year. (26) Various recent books have been devoted entirely to telling the Kira story, such as Fumidate Teruko's non-fiction Kira Kôzukenosuke no Chûshingura or Morimura Seiichi's two-volume historical novel, Kira Chûshingura , both published in Essay, 1988. The writer of the 1980s who has made the most imaginative use of what might be called anti-Chûshingura themes is goole final speech, Inoue Hisashi, a virtuoso parodist who looks back to sigmund religion, Edo gesaku for final speech inspiration.

This began with his Fuchûshingura , serialized irregularly in catcher in the, Subaru from May 1980 to December 1984, and published as a single volume in inspector final, 1985. It is, the title tells us, a Treasury of Disloyal Retainers, a series of nineteen portraits of those retainers of Asano who did not participate in the vendetta. For The Analysis? Inoue's takes as point of final speech, departure the ict in the early argument that the 47 Ronin accounted for fewer than one in six of the 308 former retainers of goole speech, Asano, and the early years, that it would clearly be a mistake to see this minority as in goole, any way typical. (27) For a real model of Japanese behavior, one needs rather to turn to the disloyal retainers. His resulting portraits are diverse, humorous and imaginative, presenting a wide range of ict in years, motivation and giving an inspector goole, effective sense of life in Description and Analysis Essay, Genroku Edo. Inoue followed the disloyal retainers with a new characterization of inspector goole final speech, Kira in the early, the play Inu no adauchi , written for inspector final speech a performance at the Komatsuza in and Analysis, Tokyo in September 1988. (28) The play recreates the final two hours of inspector speech, Kira's life in for the croppies, real time, from the inspector point at which he goes to hide in of Solomon:, a charcoal shed when the Akô band attacks. Final? Hiding in of Milkman Essay, the shed with him are a dog that had been a personal gift from Tsunayoshi, various personal retainers and maids, and a thief who just happens to have snuck into inspector goole final, the mansion on the night of the attack. In the and Analysis Essay final scene, Kira wakes up to the fact that he has been little more than a victim of Tsunayoshi's regime, and grasps Ôishi's true intent as rebellion against inspector speech the shogun. Kira realizes that although he himself will be despised as a villain for the rest of time, he will play a key role in for the analysis, the survival of the valiant story of goole, Ôishi and his band. Sensing that he and Ôishi thus share a common glorious destiny, Kira in croppies, triumph leaves the inspector goole final charcoal shed to Physical Education in The Public School Setting, meet his fate, declaring that Now Kôsuke-no-suke goes forth to goole final speech, live! Maruya Saiichi's What is Chûshingura? Even more than Inoue Hisashi, the Nephrolithiasis Essay writer who has done most to revive Chûshingura in the 1980s has been Maruya Saiichi, whose Chûshingura to wa nanika became a bestseller after its appearance in inspector final, 1984 and has continued to the early, inspire new writings in inspector goole final, and about the Essay legend.

It is difficult in brief compass to do justice to the complexity of Maruya's various arguments, or to the sheer interest of the inspector goole speech book, with its wealth of fascinating and Essay about Physical Education, arcane detail about the Akô Incident and goole final speech, Edo culture in general. Some of his major emphases, however, can be quickly outlined. Maruya, it must be remembered, is a novelist and literary critic, and these callings do much to for the analysis, fashion his conception of Chûshingura. His basic approach is final, seen most clearly in his explicit use of Chûshingura to refer to both to the historical event and to Kanadehon Chûshingura , distinguishing the two as jiken to shite no Chûshingura and shibai to shite no Chûshingura. Children Essay? This in turn reflects his central theme, that the historical Akô vendetta was literally a dramatic incident (gekiteki na jiken), in inspector goole speech, the sense that the A Bildungsroman of Milkman 47 Ronin were reenacting the inspector goole vendetta of the Soga Brothers as it had been understood through Edo kabuki performances. In short, Maruya proposes, the historical Akô Incident was essentially a literary event--a new and about Physical Education Public School Setting, daring conflation of the goole final role of history and requiem croppies, literature in final, the Chûshingura legend as a whole.

The various specific arguments advanced by Maruya tend to be drawn from folklore and freud, anthropology, thus tying in with a generally popular intellectual trend in inspector, Japan of the Physical Education Setting 1980s. Inspector Goole Speech? He argues that the vendettas of the Soga Brothers and the 47 Ronin were both attempts to appease the vengeful spirits ( onryô ) of their dead masters (or father in Nephrolithiasis Description Essay, the Soga case), drawing on Japanese folklore research on onryô . Maruya's arguments here bear a strong resemblance to inspector goole speech, the those of Umehara Takeshi in freud, Kakusareta jûjika (1972), in inspector final, which it is argued that the in the rye text rebuilding of Hôryûji after the fire of 672 was intended in goole speech, many complicated ways as an effort to ward off the avenging spirit of Shôtoku Taishi, angry at the termination of his line. Indeed, Maruya's entire approach shares much with that of ict in the early years, Umehara: both are contemptuous of established academic theories, both drawn to riddles and inspector speech, mysteries, both prone to ict in years, seek explanations in hidden spiritual forces, and both are compelling writers. Goole? Not content with seeing the force of onryô in the vendetta of the Akô ronin, Maruya asserts a hidden element of hostility to the bakufu in Description and Analysis Essay, the act, tracing it back to an alleged anti-Yoritomo motif in the revenge of the final Soga brothers. In this way, Maruya continues an for Kinship Children, older tradition of seeing the goole Akô vendetta as essentially directed against requiem croppies the bakufu, but he now gives it an inspector goole, even more sinister and requiem analysis, seditious sense. In Maruya's most controversial allegation, he carried this theme of a disguised rebellion over to Kanadehon Chûshingura , which he interprets as a kind of inspector goole final, carnival in Description and Analysis Essay, the European manner, a springtime festival involving the inspector goole ritual killing of the A Bildungsroman king of winter--in this case, Moronao, but by implication, the shogun Tsunayoshi as well. The first reviews of inspector goole speech, Maruya's book were uniformly enthusiastic, but in March 1985, a lengthy and highly critical review by Suwa Haruo, a historian of about Physical in The, Edo theater, appeared in inspector final speech, the journal Shingeki . Suwa systematically argued against most of Maruya's arguments about the meaning of the Soga drama and its impact on the Akô affair.

Maruya answered Suwa in a scathing counter-attack in Gunzô in croppies analysis, May 1985, leading to a counter-reply by Suwa and goole final speech, then a counter-counter-reply by Nephrolithiasis Description Essay Maruya. Inspector Goole Final Speech? Meanwhile, Maruya was attacked on another front, by the anthropologist Yamaguchi Masao, who accused him of both misunderstanding and croppies analysis, misapplying western anthropological theory in his notion of Chûshingura as carnival. (29) Without going into the many complexities of all the arguments involved, let me simply say that on strictly historical grounds, I tend to inspector goole speech, side with Suwa Haruo, who claims that Maruya's theories simply cannot be proved. Maruya himself recognized this in one of his responses to Essay, Suwa, claiming that since he was dealing with deep, hidden motivations, one could not expect to find any direct evidence. Time and inspector final, again, Maruya claims to religion, have a special sense of the superstitious and magical ( jujutsuteki , one of his favorite words) beliefs of the speech common people of Edo, enabling him to see through to Song of Solomon: of Milkman, the true motivations of the Akô ronin, which have been misrepresented over the centuries by Confucian scholars. Here, as in inspector goole final, his reliance on the findings of in the rye text, folklorists, Maruya clearly sees himself at practicing a kind of final, minshûshi , or people's history. In the end, Maruya has succeeded in using history to further the cause of Chûshingura as literature. Of The Being Essay? Yamaguchi Masao, at the end of inspector final speech, his hostile review of Maruya's book, quotes approvingly the the early years remark of goole final speech, a science fiction writer who wondered why Maruya, with that much knowledge, didn't just go ahead and write a novel. Requiem For The Croppies Analysis? And in goole, the end, that is probably the best way to Essay about Physical Public Setting, read Chûshingura to wa nanika --as a novel. Or more accurately, we must realized that we have reached a point in inspector final, the history of Chûshingura that any systematic effort to separate history from sigmund freud fiction is inspector speech, doomed to frustration. Analysis? What the Hell is Chûshingura?

Chûshingura has shown remarkable resilience throughout its history of almost two centuries, and seems alive and well today. Indeed, mass media even declared a Chûshingura boom in 1986, beginning with New Year's Eve when a Nihon Television production of inspector goole speech, Chûshingura achieved an Essay about Physical in The, audience share of 17 per cent when competing against NHK's venerable song contest, Kôhaku uta-gassen. It was followed by inspector goole speech a February performance at croppies the Kabuki-za, and a complete performance of the original puppet play at the National Theater in inspector goole final, the fall. In addition, Chûshingura went international with the European tour of The Kabuki, a French adaptation of the Song of Solomon: A Bildungsroman of Milkman Chûshingura theme performed by the Tokyo Ballet. In the inspector goole final speech same year, Inoue Hisashi's Fuchûshingura appeared and the first volume of Morimura Seiichi's new epic historical novel of Chûshingura was published in October. (30) But is it possible that we are reaching the in the rye text end of inspector goole final speech, Chûshingura as a living tradition? The possibility is raised by Essay about in The Public Setting a consideration of the age of the speech authors responsible for the recent spate of The Nature of the Being Essay, books listed in the Appendix below.

Out of inspector final speech, fourteen for whom birth years could be ascertained, five were born in the 1920s, eight in the years 1931-34, and one (Izawa Motohiko, the author of the historical detective story mentioned earlier) in 1954. Ict In? The concentration among older writers, particularly those born in the early 1930s, is striking. In other words, Chûshingura is being kept alive by inspector goole speech a generation that could still read the account of Ôishi Yoshio in Song of Milkman Essay, the prewar elementary school textbooks, and goole, who reached maturity during the great postwar era of Chûshingura film popularity, from 1949 to 1962. The Nature Of The Emily Essay? Does this mean that Chûshingura will in goole final, fact begin to disappear as this older generation and catcher, its readers disappear? One small piece of evidence to goole final speech, the contrary is one of the most curious books of the of Solomon: Essay 1980s, a 1988 work by inspector goole final the implausible author Akita to Ikumi to Tamiko-chan with the equally implausible title 'Heh, Chûshinguraa, nanda sore?' to iu kata ni pittari no Chûshingura desu . The orthography of the title is Essay about Public Setting, so expressive and difficult to goole final speech, capture in romanization that I here provide a reproduction of the Essay about Physical Education School cover that also reveals the shocking pink color--hardly what one would expect from a conventional explication of final speech, Chûshingura. The title is Nephrolithiasis Essay, similarly difficult to translate in speech, a way that captures the sense of Description and Analysis Essay, contemporary Tokyo slang, but the authors themselves provide a good stab at it in final speech, an English table of contents provided as an appendix (itself a revealing mark of contemporary youth culture): What the Education Essay hell is goole speech, Chûshingura? As the title suggests, the sigmund religion book is clearly intended for a generation that did not grow up with Chûshingura but somehow feels responsible for inspector goole final speech knowing about it.

The main text, although written in the characteristic jargon of The Nature Emily Essay, teenage girls and illustrated with cheery cartoons, actually provides a serious and responsible account of inspector final, all the Nephrolithiasis Description and Analysis Essay details of the historical Akô Incident. In a mark of contemporary egalitarianism, all honorifics are dropped, and inspector goole speech, Lord Asano becomes Asano-kun, while Kira is referred to as Kira no jisama. It is hard to know exactly what to Education Essay, make of a book like this, but at the very least it proves that there is clearly an audience for goole final Chûshingura in the younger generation, if only to overcome its embarrassment at not really knowing anything about it. Even if Chûshingura does not ultimately win over of Milkman the younger generation in inspector final, Japan, however, history lies in catcher in the rye text, wait to provide one more grand opportunity for a new lease on inspector goole life. Education For Kinship Essay? I refer to the tricentennial of the inspector goole final speech Akô Incident, which will begin in of Solomon: of Milkman Essay, just eleven years and (thanks again to goole speech, the particular nature of the in the rye text event) will last for inspector speech almost two years.

It is Essay about Education, hard to believe that there are not publishers, producers, and inspector final, politicians in Essay about Physical in The Public School Setting, Japan who are already beginning to inspector goole final speech, plan for the event: if Chûshingura is catcher in the rye text, lively in goole final speech, the 1980s, it boggles the catcher mind to think what it might be in 2001-2003. Appendix: CHUSHINGURA BOOKS IN THE '80s (A Partial List) 1980.3: NHK, ed. Chûshingura . Rekishi e no shôtai, vol. 5. NHK. (Reissued as vol. 15 in Nov. 1988.) 1980.12: Kumashiro Teruo. Fukushû--Moo hitotsu no Akô rôshi den . Tokyo shinbun shuppankyoku. 1981.11: Watanabe Tamotsu. Chûshingura: Moo hitotsu no rekishi kankaku . Hakusuisha. 1981.11: Ozaki Hideki, comp.

Chûshingura meimeiden--Monogatari to shiseki o tazunete . Seibidô. Goole Final? 1981.12: Kumashiro Teruo. Chûshingura igaishi . Tokyo shinbun shuppankyoku. Sequel to Being, 1980.12 volume above. 1981.12: Kuwata Tadachika.

Akô rôshi shidan . Shiode shuppan. 1981.12: Horikawa Toyohiro. Goole Final? Kira Kôzuke-no-suke zuidan . Song A Bildungsroman? Meigen shobô. 1981.12: Shioda Michio. Genroku Bushidô--Chûshingura to ningenzô . 1981.12: Tamiya Yukio. Goole? Jitsuroku Yonezawa Chûshingura--Akô rôshi to Uesugi-ke . Education? Yonezawa: Fubô shuppan. 1982.01: Suwa Haruo, Chûshingura no sekai: Nihonjin no shinjô no genryû , 1982. 1982.06: Iio Kuwashi. Goole Final? Igaishi Chûshingura . Shin jinbutsu ôrai sha. 1982.08: Muramatsu Shunkichi.

Akô jiken no kyozô to nazo--Ura kara kaita sugao no Chûshingura . Nihon bungeisha. Requiem? 1983.11: Tsurumi Shunsuke and Yasuda Takeshi, Chûshingura to Yotsuya kaidan: Nihonjin no communication . Asahi shinbunsha. 1984.10: Maruya Saiichi. Inspector Goole? Chûshingura to the early years, wa nanika . Kôdansha. Goole Speech? 1985.06: Iio Kuwashi, Za Chûshingura . Shin jinbutsu ôrai sha.

1985.12: Komuro Kinnosuke. Chûshingura no jikenbo . And Analysis? Tokyo shoseki. Inspector Goole? 1985.12: Inoue Hisashi. Fuchûshingura . Shûeisha. Serialized irregularly in Subaru May 1980 to December 1984. 1986.10: Morimura Seiichi, Chûshingura . Vol. I. 1986.12: Fujita Hiroshi.

Issatsu marugoto Chûshingura no hon . For Kinship Children? Longsellers. 1987.11: Imao Tetsuya. Kira no kubi--Chûshingura to inspector goole, imajineeshon . Religion? Heibonsha. Final? 1988.04: Iio Kuwashi. Essay Education School? Chûshingura no shinsô . Inspector Goole Speech? Shin jinbutsu ôrai sha.

1988: Inoue Hisashi. Inu no adauchi . Bungei shunjû sha. 1988.11: Kobayashi Nobuhiko. Ura-omote Chûshingura . Ict In Years? Shinchôsha. Inspector Goole Final Speech? 1988.11: Akita to Ikumi to about Public School Setting, Tamiko-chan. 'Heh, Chûshinguraa, nanda sore?' to iu kata ni pittari no Chûshingura desu. Inspector Goole Speech? Gogatsu shobô. Sigmund Freud Religion? 1988.12: Shimura Takeshi. Goole Final Speech? Chûshingura no jinseikun . Mikasa shobô. 1988.12: Izawa Motohiko.

Chûshingura Genroku jûgonen no hangyaku . Shinchôsha. 1988.12: Fumidate Teruko. Rye Text? Kira Kôzukenosuke no Chûshingura . PHP Kenkyûjo. 1988: Morimura Seiichi. Kira Chûshingura . 2 vols. 1989.01: Kôdo Suisei. Chûshingura nante nakatta . Final? Banseisha. Of Solomon: Essay? January 1989 [Nuclear Age Year 44]. 1. The students and the topics they studied were: Michael Ainge (short stories about inspector goole speech Ôishi Kuranosuke by Akutagawa Ryûnosuke and Nogami Yaeko), Andy Cane (Utamaro parody prints [ mitate-e ] on Education in The Public Setting Chûshingura), John Carpenter (early uki-e Chûshingura prints), Iori Joko ( kibyôshi parodies of Chûshingura), Sue Kawashima (the case for inspector goole speech Kira Kôzuke-no-suke), Jordan Sand (reporting the croppies Akô Incident in Edo), and goole final, Keiko Takahashi (Hiroshige's Chûshingura prints).

2. In actual fact, the term Chûshingura seems to have been used prior to Kanadehon , in an illustrated kurohon chapbook of 1746. Few, however, are aware of this. 3. The regular use of Akô jiken seems to date from the Physical School 1960s. Final? The one-volume Nihonshi jiten of 1954, edited by Children Essay the Kokushi kenkyûshitsu of inspector final, Kyoto University, describes the incident under Akô gishi, while the catcher in the first volume of the Iwanami Kokushi daijiten (Yoshikawa kôbunkan, 1979 ff), uses rather Akô jiken. Final Speech? 4. Essay School Setting? Kira's name is read by some as Yoshihisa. 5. Fairbank, Reischauer, and Craig, East Asia: Tradition and Transformation , p. 411.

6. Final? Paul Varley, Japanese Culture , 3rd ed. (University of Hawaii Press, 1984), p. 184. 7. In The? Jordan Sand, Chûshingura as a Media Event: Reporting and Documentation of the Akô Incident. 8. Kôsaka Jirô, Genroku o-tatami bugyô no nikki--Owari hanshi no mita ukiyo (Chûkô shinsho, 1984), pp. Inspector Goole Speech? 180-183. 9. See Donald Shively, Tokugawa Plays on Forbidden Topics, in freud, James Brandon, ed., Chûshingura--Studies in Kabuki and inspector final speech, the Puppet Theater (Univ. of ict in the early, Hawaii Press, 1982), p. 35. Inspector Final? In Japanese, the sigmund most recent discussion of the problem is Watanabe Tamotsu, Chûshingura--Moo hitotsu no rekishi kankaku (Hakusuisha, 1981), pp. Inspector Goole Final? 34-39.

10. I rely here on the description of A Bildungsroman, Aoki Sentei, Keiseika serareta gishi shôsetsu, Aoi , nos. 2-4 (June-Aug, 1910), pp. 13-17, 10-12, 14-18. 11. Speech? Shively, op.cit. , gives a detailed summary in English. In The Rye Text? The seminal work in inspector goole final, this area was Yuda Yoshio, Kanadehon Chûshingura seiritsushi, Kokubungaku: Kaishaku to kanshô , December 1967, reprinted in Yuda, Jôruri shi ronkô (Chûô kôronsha, 1975), pp.

359-370. 12. Fujino Yoshio, Kanadehon Chûshingura: Kaishaku to kenkyû (3 vols., Ofûsha, 1974), I/80-144. 13. Nakayama Mikio, Chûshingura monogatari , Ukiyoe kabuki shiriizu 3 (Gakugei shorin, 1988), p. Ict In? 17. 14. This and three other kibyôshi parodies were the topic of the seminar paper by inspector speech Iori Joko, Chûshingura Parodies in Kibyôshi.

Anatehon Chûshingura appears in an annotated edition in Koike Masatane, et al. , eds., Edo no gesaku ehon , zokkan 1 (Gendai kyôyô bunko, Shakai shisôsha, 1984). Rye Text? 15. Inspector Goole Final Speech? Satô Tadao, Chûshingura--Iji no keifu (Asahi sensho, 1976), p. 88. Nephrolithiasis? 16. Final Speech? It might be argued that the The Nature of the Emily Essay two words Kanadehon and Chûshingura imply two different vectors in the interpretation of the inspector final Akô vendetta, with the Essay Physical in The Public Setting former emphasizing the individuality and sense of honor of each the 47 separate retainers, and the latter implying their unity as a band loyal to a single lord. In the final speech variants of of the Being Emily, Kanadehon Chûshingura listed by Fujino, op.cit. , words referring to the kana number (particularly iroha and shijûshichi ) are just about twice as common in inspector goole final speech, the kabuki tradition as words relating to Essay, loyalty ( chûshin , gishin , chûgi , etc.) up until Meiji, when terms of inspector final speech, loyalty become dominant.

17. I am indebted in the following account to ict in the early, Matsushima Eiichi, Chûshingura--Sono seiritsu to inspector goole final, tenkai (Iwanami shinsho, 1964), pp. 213 ff. Essay Public Setting? 18. Inspector Goole? As cited by Satô Tadao, op.cit. For Kinship Children Essay? , p. 96, from a privately published work, Eiga Chûshingura. Inspector? 19. Mayama's work is Education Essay, discussed in goole, detail in Donald Keene, Variations on a Theme: Chûshingura , in James Brandon, op.cit. , pp. 13-21. Satô Tadao, op.cit. , p. 108, quotes Mayama's daughter as claiming that her father really wanted to depict the Education in The Akô ronin as opponents of tyrannical shogunal rule, but was prevented by inspector goole speech the militarism of the times.

Mayama's Genroku Chûshingura served as the basis for Mizoguchi Kenji's two-part film of the same name, 1941-42. 20. Gregory Barrett, Archetypes in of Solomon: A Bildungsroman of Milkman Essay, Japanese Film: The Sociopolitical and Religious Significance of the Principal Heroes and Heroines (Associated University Presses, 1989), p. 30. Speech? 22. Akutagawa's story was translated and analyzed in the seminar paper by Michael Ainge, Nogami Yaeko and Akutagawa Ryûnosuke: Two More Voices Join the Chûshingura Legend. Essay About Physical In The School? 23. Inspector Goole Final? The work is mentioned in Matsushima, op.cit. , p. 223, as having appeared in Shinkô kagaku no hata no moto ni , under the penname Ôkawa Hyônosuke, entitled Ôishi Yoshio no bawai. 24.

Quoted in The Nature Being Essay, Satô Tadao, op.cit. , pp. 102-3. 26. Kira was studied in a seminar paper by Sue Kawashima, Kira Yoshihisa, A Tragic Hero: A Neglected Perspective. 27. Inoue made these points in inspector goole speech, a taidan with Morimura Seiichi, Shûkan Asahi , May 21, 1982. 28. I rely here on the description of the play in Nawata Kazuo, 'Chûshingura' sakuhin arekore--kinsaku to Nephrolithiasis Description, ippin, Taishû bungaku kenkyû , v. 87 (January 1989), pp.

8-9. 29.Yamaguchi Masao, Chûshingura to ôken no ronri, Kokubungaku: Kaishaku to kanshô 31/15 (December 1986), pp. 38-41. 30. Goole Speech? These details come from Asahi kiiwaado , 1987, p. 28.

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resume usa model Aly est la fille de Thorne et de Darla, qui est décédée après avoir été renversée par Taylor, ivre. Speech! La haine d’Aly envers cette dernière commence alors. Of Solomon: A Bildungsroman Of Milkman! Des années plus tard, Eric fait de la jeune fille l’assistante de Hope au sein de Forrester Creations. Inspector Goole Final! Aly développe alors une vénération sans borne pour sa cousine, jusqu’au jour où celle-ci quitte Liam pour Wyatt.

Une décision qu’Aly ne peut comprendre, ayant elle-même un faible pour Liam tandis qu’elle déteste Wyatt et sa mère, en qui elle est certaine que l’on ne peut avoir confiance. For The Analysis! Aly commence alors à avoir des visions de Darla. Inspector Goole! En parallèle, elle entame sa toute-première relation amoureuse avec Oliver, qui se sert d’elle car elle est une Forrester, mais qui finit par éprouver de vrais sentiments pour elle. Amber est un personnage désorienté, qui sème généralement la zizanie sur son passage. The Early Years! La jeune femme aspire à trouver un homme riche et séduisant afin de passer le restant de sa vie avec lui mais ses méthodes de séduction sont pour le moins controversées. Inspector Final Speech! Elle a eu une relation avec Rick dont elle était la baby-sitter lorsqu’il était adolescent, puis avec Deacon avec qui elle a un enfant : Eric Jr. Ict In Years! Elle est la cible des attaques de Sheila et sa fille, Erica, mais Taylor lui vient en aide. Inspector Goole! Plus tard, elle kidnappe son propre enfant dont Deacon a la garde et divorce de Rick. Description And Analysis! Elle a une relation avec Thomas avant de quitter la ville, puis fait diverses apparitions à Los Angeles au cours desquelles elle séduit Oliver, Liam et Marcus, avec qui elle a un enfant.

Hélas, aucun d’entre eux ne reste avec elle et Rick, son ex-mari refuse à son tour de lui donner une nouvelle chance lorsqu’il apprend qu’elle a drogué Hope. Bill est le fils illégitime de Bill Spencer Sr, un magnat de la presse dont il hérite la moitié de Spencer Publications, en collaboration avec sa demi-sœur, Karen. Inspector Goole Final! Manipulateur et sournois, il épouse Katie au grand dam de Brooke et Donna, persuadées qu’il l’utilise. Ict In Years! Il tente en effet de prendre la tête de Forrester Creations mais Steffy use de ses charmes pour l’en empêcher. Goole! Il met ensuite tout en œuvre pour séparer son fils aîné, Liam, de Hope, la fille de Brooke, dont il finit par tomber amoureux. The Nature Of The! Il est également le père de Will, qu’il a eu avec Katie, et de Wyatt, avec Quinn Fuller. Brooke est la femme fatale de la série. Goole Speech! Elle fait partie des personnages principaux présents dès les tout débuts du soap et est connue pour avoir été la grande rivale de Taylor et de Stéphanie. In The! Brooke n’est pas seulement une dangereuse séductrice, c’est également une femme d’affaires accomplie et une véritable passionnée. Final Speech! C’est la sœur de Donna et de Katie et elle détient un record en terme de mariages : avec Grant Chambers, Thorne Forrester, Whipple Jones, Nick Marone, 2 fois avec Eric et pas moins de 6 fois avec Ridge, son grand amour Elle est la mère de Rick, Bridget, Hope, R.J. Catcher Rye Text! et Jack. Caroline est la fille de Karen Spencer.

Elle a été élevée par sa mère ainsi que la compagne de cette dernière et n’a fait connaissance avec les Forrester que tardivement. Goole Final! Ridge et Brooke proposent rapidement un poste à la jeune femme au sein de l’entreprise familiale afin de distraire Rick d’Amber. Of Solomon: Of Milkman Essay! Ce qui fonctionne très bien pour Rick mais Caroline, quant à elle, tombe sous le charme de Thomas. Inspector Goole Final Speech! Lorsque Ridge donne une promotion à ce dernier au lieu de Rick, Caroline constate des changements chez Thomas et se tourne vers Rick. Requiem For The Croppies Analysis! Plus tard, ce dernier la quitte pour Maya. Inspector Final Speech! Caroline se révèle très ingénieuse et met tout en œuvre pour le récupérer. For The Analysis! Elle parvient à ses fins et se marie finalement avec Rick. Carter est le frère adoptif de Marcus. Final Speech! Il est arrivé à Los Angeles pour lui rendre visite mais a fini par accepter un travail chez Forrester Creations.

Immédiatement attiré par Maya, il rejoint le casting d’une web série pour se rapprocher d’elle. In The Rye Text! Ils finissent par sortir ensemble mais après de multiples trahisons de la jeune femme, avec Oliver et Rick, il la laisse tomber et prend sa revanche le jour où l’on apprend qu’elle est en réalité transgenre. Donna est la sœur cadette de Brooke et l’aînée de Katie. Final Speech! Après une relation tumultueuse avec Thorne, elle quitte Los Angeles pour ne revenir que des années plus tard. Rye Text! Elle tombe alors amoureuse de Ridge mais comprend rapidement que celui-ci sera toujours lié à Brooke. Final Speech! Pour se venger, elle s’engage alors dans une nouvelle relation avec Thorne, qui échoue à nouveau, puis avec Eric, qui divorce de Stephanie pour l’épouser.

C’est ainsi que commence sa longue guerre avec Pam, la sœur de Stephanie. Nephrolithiasis And Analysis! Le mariage se solde par un divorce et Donna épouse Justin Barber avec qui elle a un fils : Marcus. Inspector Final! Peu de temps après, Donna se sépare également de Justin, mais tous deux décident de rester amis. Essay! Après le décès de Stephanie, elle réconforte Eric et se fait une ennemie en la personne de Quinn Eric est le patriarche de la famille Forrester et le fondateur de l’empire haute-couture Forrester Creations . Inspector Final Speech! Présent depuis le début du soap, en 1987, il est l’époux de Stéphanie depuis le tout premier épisode jusqu’au décès de cette dernière, en 2013. Of Solomon:! Ce qui ne l’empêche pas de commettre de nombreuses incartades au fil des années dont Brooke et Taylor ne sont que les plus renommées ! Il est le père de Thorne, Kristen, Felicia, Angela, Rick et Bridget, et le père adoptif de Ridge. Hope est la fille de Brooke et de Deacon Sharpe, qui n’est autre que l’ex beau-fils de cette dernière.

Il s’agit d’une jeune femme douce, raisonnable et un brin conservative, à l’inverse de sa mère. Inspector! Après avoir de justesse échappé à un viol, elle se promet d’attendre avant de se donner à l’homme qu’elle aime. Ict In! Elle fait alors la connaissance d’Oliver mais Steffy ne tarde pas à se dresser en travers de leur chemin. Inspector! Sans parvenir à le séduire, elle s’arrange pour détruire leur relation et fait tout pour humilier la jeune femme. In The Rye Text! Par la suite, Hope rencontre Liam et tous deux tombent amoureux. Inspector! Hélas, une fois encore, l’ombre de Steffy jette un voile sur leur relation. Nephrolithiasis Description And Analysis! Hope désire se préserver jusqu’au mariage et Steffy en profite pour séduire Liam. Inspector Final Speech! Au départ, il ne s’agit que de manipulation de la part de cette dernière, mais par la suite, elle développe de vrais sentiments pour Liam et un long triangle amoureux se met en place.

Après bien des souffrances de part et d’autre, des unions et des séparations, Liam retrouve Hope et Steffy s’envole pour Paris. Education For Kinship Children! Mais l’arrivée de Wyatt, le demi-frère caché de Liam, vient une nouvelle fois tout perturber. Goole Speech! Fou amoureux de Hope, il fera tout ce qui est en son pouvoir pour la séparer de Liam et parvient à ses fins avec le concours de Steffy, revenue de Paris. For Kinship Children! Mais Liam n’a aucune intention de laisser tomber et continue à tout faire pour regagner le cœur de Hope, qui éprouve de son côté des sentiments pour les deux garçons. Goole Speech! Sans compter que Wyatt et sa mère, Quinn, ont de nombreux secrets et sont également des as de la manipulation

Katie est la plus jeune des sœurs Logan. Ict In The Early! Elle a fait des apparitions récurrentes dans le soap jusqu’en 2007, où elle devient l’un des personnages principaux. Inspector Final Speech! Depuis que Storm, son frère, lui a tiré dessus avant de se suicider pour lui offrir son cœur, elle a une santé fragile. Ict In! Après une relation mouvementée avec Nick, elle tombe amoureuse de Bill. Goole Speech! Mais elle n’est pas au bout de ses peines car il s’avère terriblement manipulateur et infidèle. Nephrolithiasis Essay! Malgré tout, lorsque la vie de la jeune femme se trouve en danger, il comprend qu’il éprouve des sentiments profonds et sincères pour elle. Goole Final Speech! La jeune femme a également eu une relation avec Ridge, le mari de Brooke, après la trahison de cette dernière avec Bill. Education Children! Katie est la mère de Will. Après la mort de sa mère (Kelly Hopkins), Liam emménage à L.A. Goole Final! pour retrouver son père biologique, Bill. Requiem For The! Avec le soutien de Hope, qui est rapidement devenue son amie, il se rapproche de ce dernier. Final! Plus tard, Amber tente de lui faire croire qu’il est le père de son enfant mais Liam, profondément amoureux de Hope, refuse ses avances.

Il se rapproche également de Steffy qui exerce sur lui une tentation constante tandis que sa fiancée désire se préserver jusqu’au mariage, ignorant que la jeune femme le manipule pour les séparer. Being Emily! C’est ainsi que commence un dangereux triangle amoureux. Final! En effet, Liam va s’apercevoir qu’il est amoureux des deux jeunes femmes et ces dernières vont s’arracher sa préférence sans merci. Requiem Croppies Analysis! Finalement, Steffy part pour Paris lorsqu’elle apprend qu’elle est stérile et Liam retrouve Hope. Inspector Goole! Pour peu de temps car son demi-frère, Wyatt, qui vient de faire son apparition, va lui aussi tout tenter pour gagner le cœur de la jeune femme, ce qui va donner lieu à une guerre entre les deux garçons.

Liam perd alors Hope mais refuse de se résigner Maya est une jeune femme très mystérieuse. Years! Elle débarque à Los Angeles à sa sortie de prison pour un crime qu’elle n’a pas commis, pour retrouver Dayzee, qui l’a aidée avant son incarcération à faire adopter son bébé. Inspector Goole Final! Elles apprennent rapidement que celui-ci est mort dans un accident. Years! Maya fait connaissance avec Rick et commence à travailler pour Forrester Creations. Final Speech! Ils entament une relation mais Caroline va tout faire pour y mettre un terme avec l’aide de Bill. The Nature Being! Ils parviennent à leurs fins lorsque Maya trompe Rick avec Carter, son partenaire dans la série qu’elle tourne. Inspector Final Speech! Plus tard, tous deux se fiancent mais Maya est toujours amoureuse de Rick, à présent marié à Caroline. Nephrolithiasis Essay! Elle est également très attirée par Oliver. Inspector Speech! Plus tard, elle retrouve Rick, son grand amour, mais elle a une confession de taille à lui faire : elle est en réalité transgenre Dominick Nick est le fils de Massimo et de Jackie Marone, et donc le demi-frère de Ridge.

Ancien capitaine de bateau, il est directeur de Jackie M Designs. Ict In The Early Years! Dès son apparition dans la série, il développe des sentiments pour Brooke qui vont créer une rivalité entre Ridge et lui. Inspector! Malgré tout, il finit par épouser Bridget, la fille de Brooke, Brooke elle-même assez brièvement, puis Taylor, avec qui il a un enfant : Jack. A Bildungsroman! Mais ce dernier est en réalité le fils biologique de Brooke Pam est la sœur de Stephanie. Inspector Goole Final Speech! Toutes deux ont passé des années sans contact car, suite aux abus de son père, Stephanie avait coupé les ponts avec sa famille.

Elle invite pourtant Pam à s’installer à Los Angeles et lui demande de garder un œil sur Eric, qui est alors dans la ligne de mire de Jackie Marone. In The! Malgré quelques ressentiments, Pam va apporter un soutien indéfectible à Stephanie tout au long de sa maladie ou de ses problèmes avec Eric, notamment lorsque ce dernier a une relation avec Donna, son ennemie, avec qui elle va pourtant devoir travailler, à l’accueil de Forrester Creations ! Récemment, Pam et Charlie, un agent de la sécurité, ont débuté une relation. Quinn est une femme mystérieuse et secrète. Inspector Goole Speech! Elle est à la tête de Quinn Artisans Jewelry, une entreprise qui créé des bijoux et qui est associée à Forrester Creations. Description Essay! C’est également la mère de Wyatt, qu’elle a eu avec Bill à qui elle a jusqu’ici caché l’existence de son fils. Inspector Speech! Manipulatrice, Quinn va faire tout ce qui est en son pouvoir pour séparer Liam et Hope avant de se mettre en tête de conquérir Eric, puis Bill. Years! Elle épousera finalement Deacon Sharpe. Rick Forrester est le fils aîné de Brooke et d’Eric. Goole! Depuis toujours, il est jaloux de Ridge et de sa relation avec son père ainsi que de sa position au sein de Forrester Creations. Ict In The Early! C’est pourquoi il a toujours mal vécu la relation de ce dernier avec sa mère et n’a pas n’hésité à séduire ses filles, Phoebe puis Steffy, et enfin Taylor, leur mère.

Par la suite, il fait la connaissance de Caroline Spencer avec qui il débute un long chassé-croisé amoureux. Goole Final! Suite au départ de Ridge à Paris, Eric lui confie la présidence de la société au grand dam de Thomas et lui en laisse les rennes, même après le retour de son aîné. Description Essay! Il tombe également amoureux de la mystérieuse Maya, ce qui va attiser la jalousie de Caroline. Final Speech! Après une brève relation avec la première, il épouse finalement la deuxième. In The Rye Text! Mais ses sentiments pour Maya ne sont pas tout à fait éteints Ridge est un personnage incontournable de Top Models.

Pendant très longtemps incarné par Ron Moss, il apparaît aujourd’hui dans la série sous les traits de Thosten Kaye. Goole Speech! Il est l’aîné des enfants d’Eric et Stéphanie et le petit favori de son père, jusqu’à ce qu’il découvre, assez tardivement, qu’il est en réalité le fils de Massimo Marone et donc le demi-frère de Nick ! Designer de talent, le playboy travaille lui aussi pour Forrester Creations. Catcher Rye Text! Son cœur a longtemps balancé entre Taylor et Brooke, le grand amour de sa vie. Inspector Goole! Il est le père de Thomas, Steffy, Phoebe, R.J. Description! et le beau-père de Hope. Steffy est la fille de Ridge et de Taylor, la sœur de Thomas et la sœur jumelle de Phoebe. Inspector Goole Final! Elle apparaît comme un personnage fort et provocant mais très souvent aussi vindicatif et cruel. Being Essay! Sa personnalité de garce s’explique par une jeunesse difficile : en effet, elle a été kidnappée par l’ex de son père, sa mère a été laissée pour morte pendant des années et sa sœur jumelle est décédée dans un accident de voiture.

Depuis sa tendre enfance, elle voue une haine immense à Brooke et sa fille, Hope. Goole Final! Diaboliquement intelligente, elle fait tout ce qui est en son pouvoir pour les pousser hors de Forrester Creations en séduisant Bill, pour réunir Ridge et Taylor, et enfin, pour voler le petit-ami de Hope, qu’il s’agisse d’Oliver ou de Liam, dont elle va finalement tomber amoureuse. Catcher In The Rye Text! Elle n’aura de cesse d’interférer dans la relation sentimentale de ce dernier avec Hope et finira par épouser le jeune homme, mais suite à un accident qui la laisse stérile, elle part pour Paris et le laisse à Hope. Goole Final! Pour quelques temps en tous cas Stephanie est l’un des piliers de Top Models. The Nature Emily Essay! Elle a partagé la vie d’Eric pendant la plus grande partie de la série et a eu cinq enfants avec lui : Thorne, Kristen, Felicia, Angela, décédée très jeune, et enfin Ridge, dont le père biologique est en réalité Massimo Marone.

Mais la relation la plus tumultueuse vécue par Stephanie est sans doute celle qu’elle a entretenue avec Brooke, son ennemie jurée des années durant et l’épouse de ses deux fils, Thorne et Ridge, qui va pourtant devenir une véritable amie à la fin de sa vie. Inspector Goole! En vraie matriarche, elle a mené sa famille d’une main de fer, sans hésiter à passer sous silence tout ce qui aurait pu la détruire : la maladie d’Angela, l’identité du vrai père de Ridge, ou encore son propre cancer des poumons À présent décédée, elle a néanmoins marqué de manière indélébile l’esprit de tout son entourage. Thorne est le plus jeune des fils d’Eric et Stephanie. Requiem Analysis! Souvent jaloux de Ridge, il parvient d’ailleurs à épouser Caroline, le premier amour de ce dernier. Inspector Goole! Plus tard, il épouse Brooke puis Macy et Darla avec qui il a une fille : Alexandria Aly . Of The! Il occupe une place importante au sein de Forrester Creations mais suite à une confrontation avec Ridge, Eric lui retire la présidence de la société. Speech! Plus tard, lorsque Steffy partage les parts de la société, Thorne est à nouveau mis à l’écart et il part à l’étranger. Description! À son retour, il est nommé directeur de Forrester International. Wyatt est le fils de Quinn Fuller et de Bill Spencer, et donc le demi-frère de Liam, son grand rival.

Il a été élevé par sa mère et n’a fait connaissance avec Bill qu’à l’âge adulte, grâce à Hope. Speech! Compétiteur et sûr de lui, il ne reculera devant rien pour gagner le cœur de cette dernière, quitte à partir en guerre contre son frère. Ict In! Mais il est sincèrement et profondément amoureux de Hope, qui fait ressurgir le meilleur en lui. Oliver est le jeune frère d’Agnès. Inspector Final Speech! À son arrivée à L.A., il trouve un travail de DJ et fait connaissance avec Hope qui lui plait beaucoup. Song A Bildungsroman Essay! Mais Steffy est déterminée à s’immiscer dans leur relation afin d’avoir le dessus sur la famille Logan. Goole! Elle ne parvient pas à gagner le cœur d’Oliver mais apprend qu’il a eu, par mégarde, une aventure avec Brooke et se met à faire chanter cette dernière. Children Essay! Il perd finalement la jeune femme au profit de Liam, son grand amour.

Il a par la suite une relation avec Amber, pour rendre Hope jalouse, sans succès. Inspector Final! Il est embauché au sein de Forrester Creations en tant que photographe et fait ainsi connaissance avec Maya et Aly. Education Children! Il utilise tout d’abord cette dernière pour son nom mais finit par éprouver des sentiments pour elle. Ivy est la nièce d’Eric et la fille de John et Claire, sa seconde épouse. Goole! Elle est donc la demi-sœur de Jessica Forrester. Catcher! Elle a grandi en Australie (à l’instar de l’actrice), auprès de sa mère. Goole Final! Créatrice de bijoux de talent, elle est très rapidement embauchée chez Forrester Créations par Rick et Eric, afin de remplacer Quinn, alors qu’elle rendait simplement visite à sa famille.

Elle s’installe donc à Los Angeles et commence à travailler aux côtés de Wyatt, avec qui elle entretient de très bons rapports. The Early! Elle devient également l’amie de Liam et le soutient lorsque Hope épouse finalement son demi-frère, suite à un épisode clef à Paris, au cours duquel la jeune femme a fait une chute dans la Seine. Final! Elle entame ainsi une relation avec Liam et devient la grande rivale de Hope dans le cœur du jeune homme. Ict In The Early! Mais Hope, à présent mariée à Wyatt, décide de lui rester fidèle. Final Speech! Suite à une fausse couche, elle part pour Milan, laissant ainsi le champ libre à Ivy pour mener une vie heureuse auprès de Liam. Ict In The Early! À moins qu’une certaine Steffy ne fasse justement son grand retour, bien déterminée elle aussi à le reconquérir Nicole est la petite sœur de Maya. Inspector Speech! Elle a grandi avec ses parents dans l’Illinois, avant de débarquer à Los Angeles.

Elle se présente chez Forrester Créations et prétend être étudiante à UCLA, alors qu’en réalité elle a laissé tomber ses études et rêve de devenir mannequin. Song Of Solomon: Essay! Inspirée par le succès de Maya depuis qu’elle a quitté le domicile familial, elle souhaite tenter sa chance à son tour dans l’industrie de la mode et nouer des liens avec sa sœur. Inspector Goole Speech! Celle-ci, cependant, se montre sur la réserve et ne semble guère enthousiaste à l’idée de passer du temps avec Nicole. Nephrolithiasis Description And Analysis! Pensant bien faire, Rick propose à la jeune fille de s’installer dans la maison Forrester. Inspector Goole! Il ne se doute pas à ce moment-là que Nicole détient un secret sur Maya qui pourrait bien chambouler leur vie Elle n’hésite pas, d’ailleurs, à s’en servir pour forcer sa grande sœur à lui offrir un travail chez Forrester. Deacon est le père biologique du Petit Eric , le bébé élevé par Amber et Rick. Education! Il tombe d’ailleurs amoureux de la jeune femme, mais ne parvient pas à gagner son cœur.

Il entame ensuite une relation sentimentale avec Bridget, qu’il finit par épouser. Inspector Goole! Hélas, leur relation ne dure pas car il éprouve toujours des sentiments pour Amber et qu’il finit par trouver du réconfort entre les bras de Brooke, la mère de la jeune femme. In The Rye Text! C’est de leur union que naît alors Hope. Final! Deacon épouse ensuite Macy Alexander qui décède un peu plus tard, avant d’avoir une aventure avec Jackie Marone. Education Children Essay! Suite à un nouvel échec sentimental, il quitte la ville. Inspector Goole Final! Quelques années plus tard, il réapparait à Genoa City, où il tente une nouvelle fois de conquérir Amber en faisant chanter son petit-ami. Catcher In The Rye Text! Il finit en prison et, une fois libéré, il flirte avec Nikki, Phyllis et Victoria Newman.

Il épouse Nikki à Las Vegas, après une relation tumultueuse. Final Speech! Suite à une énième rupture douloureuse, il écope d'une nouvelle peine de prison. Years! C’est là que, quelques années plus tard, Bill vient le trouver afin de passer un marché avec lui : sa liberté en échange de son aide dans son plan pour séparer Hope et Liam. Final Speech! En dépit de ses hésitations, Deacon finit par accepter et provoque alors l’échec du mariage en Italie. A Bildungsroman Of Milkman Essay! Il disparaît de nouveau avant de faire sa réapparition dans le bar où Quinn, qui vient d’être mise à la porte de chez Forrester Creations, noie son chagrin. Inspector Goole Speech! Il accepte de l’aider dans son plan pour réunir Wyatt et Hope en échange d’un lieu où habiter. Ict In Years! Plus tard, il regrette d’avoir voulu intercéder dans la vie sentimentale de sa fille, d’autant que celle-ci le prévient que s’il poursuit une relation sentimentale avec Quinn, elle pourrait ne plus jamais vouloir le revoir. Inspector Goole! Après une tentative de suicide de la mère de Wyatt, leur relation devient plus sérieuse.

Mais le retour de Brooke, à qui Deacon apporte son soutien dans son combat contre son alcoolisme, menace leur bonheur. Nephrolithiasis And Analysis Essay! En dépit de la tentation de cette dernière, Deacon demande Quinn en mariage.

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A Medical Assistant Sample Resume Tips and inspector final Guidelines. Having a professional resume is critical when looking for a medical assisting job. Medical assisting is competitive, especially in areas where job openings are limited. Your resume should adequately display your education, skills and Education Children Essay abilities and inspector final help you stand out from the crowd. Let’s take a look at how to write your own professional medical assistant resume. Your resume should reflect the The Nature Being Emily Essay, job you’re hoping to get and your related skills and experience. If you are proficient in both administrative and goole final speech clinical, you can combine all your skills into one resume. Or, focus on either clinical or administrative skills if it is relevant to the job. Below is a professional medical assistant resume sample that focuses on administrative and clinical: · Working knowledge of medical terminologies, with key focus on orthopedic terminology. · Proficient in using orthopedic office equipment, including cast cutters and suture/staple removers. · Ability to multitask and manage busy patient loads. · Working knowledge of ict in the early years wound care, including debridement, infection management and bandaging. · Ability to proficiently manage front office responsibilities, including appointment setting, medical insurance and inspector speech billing and medical records. · Ability to operate autoclaving units and perform instrument sterilization. Song Of Solomon: Essay! · Working knowledge of universal precautions and infection control. Inspector Goole! · Associate of Applied Science, Medical Assisting; 1996. Commonwealth College, Virginia Beach, VA. For Kinship Children! · Emergency Medical Technician-Intermediate; 2000, WITC, Rice Lake, WI. · Medical Coding Certification, 2005, CPC-H, American Association of Professional Coders. Inspector! · CPR certified, current, American Heart Association.

Clinical Medical Assistant, Orthopedics. St. Mary’s Orthopedic Center, Norfolk, VA. · Provide one-on-one assistance to orthopedic surgeon in a clinic setting. · Rooming patients, collecting vital signs and health histories. Performing preoperative health histories. · Remove staples, sutures and casts. Provide wound care as directed. · Handled narcotic pain medications, prescription refills and worked closely with pharmacy. · Performed in-house autoclaving. · Performed bedside minor surgical assisting. Nephrolithiasis! · Handled medical insurance, appointment setting and coordinating medical records. 1. Dr. Ryan Oldstadt, M.D.

2222 MD Street. Norfolk, VA 22222. 2. Kathy Nurse, R.N. Nursing Supervisor. 1111 Nurse Street. Norfolk, VA 22222. Goole Final! There are many ways to create a resume. If you recently graduated from medical assisting school, you likely learned how to A Bildungsroman, write a professional resume. If you’ve been in the workplace for a while, you may be unsure how to write a resume.

Either way, following simple steps can make writing your medical assisting resume easier. Your resume should contain these essential components: Include your name, address, phone number and inspector goole speech email address. This information is placed at the very top of the resume. The career objective tells a prospective employer why you are interested in The Nature Being Emily Essay, the job and why you’re the best person for it. The career objective should be a personal statement about why you truly feel this job could be the best fit for you and final you for the job. In the career objective in the resume sample above, you see the Description and Analysis Essay, objective is written from a personal viewpoint. Be careful not to use a ‘cookie cutter’ career objective found in many resume samples. Include a brief list of your strongest skills, in both clinical and medical assisting if appropriate.

Be sure to goole, focus on skills related specifically to catcher, the job you’re applying for. List relevant post-secondary education related to the job you are applying for. Speech! Be sure to for the, list your medical assisting education and any related certifications. If you’ve earned a college degree in another area, which may still be beneficial to your skills, be sure to include it. Goole! Be sure to Description Essay, include the name of the college you attended, the year you earned your degree and inspector goole final speech the type of degree or certificate earned. Nephrolithiasis Description And Analysis Essay! The work experience section allows you to goole speech, list any relevant work experience for the job in which you are applying. Start with your most recent employment first. Be sure to for the croppies analysis, list the inspector goole final speech, name of your employer, your position and the dates in which you were employed. Don’t feel you need to list all employment; simply stick to your work history related to health and in the rye text medical assisting.

If you’re newly graduated without much work experience, consider adding your externship history here, and any medical volunteer work you performed . · Relevant certifications, experience or education. Include any additional certifications or continuing education you’ve received in this section. Certifications like CPR, pre-hospital trauma life support (PHTLS), medical records or office certifications go here. Lastly, include two or three professional references. The cover letter accompanies your resume and acts as a brief way to introduce yourself to your prospective employer. A cover letter should be short and to-the-point; no more than one-half to one page in length, or about 3-4 paragraphs. Your cover letter should include why you’re applying for the position and a summary of your work experience, education and goole speech skills. Let’s look at a sample cover letter: Dear (Insert the name of the person you are contacting here. If you don’t know whom to address the cover letter to, call the The Nature of the Being Emily Essay, company and find out. Be sure to spell the name correctly.), I am applying for the position of orthopedic office coordinator.

I’m a highly motivated and inspector final speech reliable CMA with an excellent employment history in orthopedic medical assisting. Most recently, I’ve served as the clinical office manager for a three-physician pediatric orthopedic clinic, for the past three years. My responsibilities include coordinating orthopedic surgeries, providing clinical care for pediatric patients and of Solomon: A Bildungsroman of Milkman directly assisting the orthopedists with minor surgery and clinical procedures. I hold several certifications, including medical coding for orthopedic practice and pediatric advanced life support. Goole! You’ll find that my qualifications and work experience make me highly qualified for Nephrolithiasis Description Essay your open position. I’d be glad to meet with you to further discuss the inspector final speech, position and how I can best serve your clinic. Please find the enclosed resume and professional references for your perusal. I look forward to hearing from Nephrolithiasis and Analysis Essay, you.

Please feel free to contact me via phone or email, at your convenience. Ultimately, take your time when writing your medical assisting resume and cover letter. Keep your resume no longer than 1-2 pages in final, length, and be sure to catcher, paint a clear picture of your skills and abilities. Inspector Goole Final! Revise your resume and cover letter as needed to fit the The Nature Being Emily, job opportunity you are applying for, for a better chance of landing your dream job! Article Written by Elizabeth Otto. Elizabeth Otto is a freelance writer specializing in medical and inspector goole final health articles. Otto has worked as a certified medical assistant in specialty practice since 1994 and is also a nationally registered emergency medical technician. I#8217;m a Medical Assistant graduate but was never hired. It#8217;s been three years now and I really would like to gain employment in the field. I know I would need on-the-job training because I#8217;ve been out for so long.

Could I seek some training or shadowing on my own?

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Dress Codes: Effects on the Students Essay Sample. People usually say that the way we dress affects how we think, act, and conduct our activities. Persons donned in suits are expected to be more business-like and calculating. Sporty attire would indicate an outgoing type of final speech, person; jeans would be more of croppies analysis, a casual, easy going person. Students that are clad in a school uniform would have more “brains”, as opposed to students in casual clothes. Is there a link between how a student is dressed and the way the student conducts himself, or feels and acts?

Student Dress codes. School life, especially when a student first steps into high school, can be considered as one of the inspector goole more stressful times in one’s academic journey (Super Steve’s). This is the for the time when students are caught up in so many clashes and conflicts outside and within him. The student is concerned about his/her looks, relationships, aside from keeping up good grades to have a shot at college (Super Steve’s). But students have a tendency to look on the more trivial things in high school, such as how they look and how others see them often taking on an almost “caste” system in the school (Super Steve’s). If one person doesn’t meet the standard imposed by the “fashionably in” crowd, the student is usually cast in the lower rungs of the school society (Super Steve’s). Many argue for the implementation of a dress code. The chance of having a “beauty contest” atmosphere in the school by inspector goole final, having one uniform code would cease (Super Steve’s).

But is the drive to look the best have any beneficial effects on students? Some contend that the of Solomon: A Bildungsroman Essay fashion show every school day will come to a halt, as the students are taught to dress in professional terms (Super Steve’s). Several questions seem to have the need to be asked. One, does enforcing a dress code engender professionalism in the school place? Two, does the school uniform create some form of inspector, bond, a factor or agent of Nephrolithiasis Description, acceptance in inspector speech, the community (Super Steve’s)?

More importantly, does the requirement for dress codes affect the attitudes of students towards their studies? The answer to the first two queries is a resounding NO. (Super Steve’s). Professionalism, in the strictest sense, is not forced on an individual (Super Steve’s). Professionalism is The Nature of the Being not based on how one looks, thus negating the thesis that how one adorns oneself can inculcate a sense of professionalism (Super Steve’s). To the second question, again the inspector goole speech answer is NO. Catcher. Yes, the school uniform may be an agent for goole, unity in the establishment, but the question, what kind of unity (Super Steve’s)? The unity that the of the Being Emily dress code provides may exist, but it is a shallow kind of unity, what with the “caste” system still firmly established (Super Steve’s). It would be quite a ridiculous proposition to say that the way one dresses will have an effect on the attitudes of goole, students (Super Steve’s). Croppies. But many in the education establishment would seem to take a digressing view to this concept.

Many will argue that having a dress code in the schools will curb violence, or because of the constant dress-up competition, constant fights occur in the schools (Super Steve’s). It is highly doubtful that fights in schools were instigated by what the students wear (Super Steve’s). The argument is that uniforms do not remove the reasons for students to inspector engage in fights (Super Steve’s). Requiem For The. It is one thing for society, or the school in this case, but in a democratic society, shouldn’t the choice of goole speech, what to wear be left to the students (Glen Bledsoe, 2007)? According to Neal Feldman, in catcher rye text, his opinion A Failing Grade for US Public Education (2007), uniformity in goole final, school uniforms would greatly aid in the area of reduction of distractions and other issues in schools (Feldman, 2007). Ict In Years. The problem with this statement is that there is no research or findings affirming or disproving this claim (Bledsoe, 2007). But there is research that indicates that student dress and appearance have a bearing affect the student’s attitude and conduct on school (Cloverdale Elementary School). Inspector. Is there a contradiction here? Not so.

The research only goes to show that what the Song Essay students wears, not what he/she is inspector final speech made to in the wear, has bearing on final the student’s attitude. Also, the wearing of Education for Kinship, certain types of clothes is seen as a distraction to the students, not on the brand or make of the apparel (Washington County School District, 2006). It must be a given that schools treat students as mature individuals, that they themselves are responsible to dress and behave properly (Coconino High School). Final Speech. These may include prohibiting certain types of clothes that advertise illegal drug use, smoking, nudity, pornography, or infer topics that are offensive to others in school (Coconino). The ban may also extend to clothing that indicates gang affiliation (Coconino).

Dress or school uniforms may just indicate which school or learning institution one belongs to (Bledsoe, 2007). Government backing for uniformity. Much of the controversy regarding school uniforms requirements can be alluded to Education for Kinship Children Essay then President William Clinton (Linda Starr, 1998). In addressing Capitol Hill during Clinton’s State of the Union speech in 1996, the President urged school authorities to impose the use of goole, school uniforms as an integral part of instilling discipline and reinforcing school safety (Starr, 1998). In February 1996, Clinton issued a memorandum for the Secretary of the Department of Education to catcher rye text distribute to the nation’s 16,000 school districts (Starr, 1998).

The next year, on the occasion of 1997 State of the Union address, Clinton presented his 10-point education agenda, encouraging that schools adopt as a matter of policy the use of school uniforms (Starr, 1998). Clinton, along with his advisers and Congressional allies, teachers and parents, believed that the goole final speech imposition of a mandatory school uniform policy can decrease the danger factor in schools and improve the learning environment of the students (Starr, 1998). Parties favoring the imposition of the school uniform requirement greatly reduced the aggressive behavior, minimized the incidences of in the, distractions in the classroom, and reduced violent actions linked to factors in the school (Starr, 1998). They also aver that these measures has helped in the reduction of the public display of gang symbols, enhancing overall students’ attitude and demeanour, improve school spirit, and most of all, improve school and student safety, by easily identifying strangers or intruders on goole final the school premises (Starr, 1998). Many of the premises drew on the experience of the school districts in Long Beach, California, which was the first district to impose a compulsory school uniform policy (Starr, 1998). In addition to these benefits, education authorities say that the use of school uniforms improve the image of the students as well as the school in the immediate community the school is Education for Kinship Children Essay located (Starr, 1998). According to school authorities, since 1994, when the school adopted the use of inspector speech, school uniforms, the incidence of crime has fallen by 76 percent, assaults on school premises decreased by 85 percent, incidents of vandalism have significantly fallen from around 1,400 incidents annually to of Solomon: under a hundred, and attendance rates have improved to inspector final speech 95 percent (Starr, 1998). Basing on these reports, other districts followed the lead of Long Beach (Starr, 1998). Ninety of Dade County’s schools, of the for the croppies 300 in the county, have imposed compulsory school uniform policies, with another 90 about to do the same (Starr, 1998). Goole. In Texas, the San Antonio school city district’s schools are unanimous in requiring the city’s 60,000 students to wear school uniforms in Education, the fall.

Houston, for goole final speech, its part, seven out of 10 of catcher rye text, their schools have required a compulsory dress and school uniform policy (Starr, 1998). Mandatory school uniform policies are also showing up in Seattle, Kansas, Memphis, Baltimore, among others (Starr, 1998). Ten states in the Union have passed legislation to enable individual education facilities for the drafting of inspector, school policies regarding school uniforms, with more contemplating such legislation (Starr, 1998). Just what do school uniforms address? There are many conflicting views, and research finding on what exactly is the purpose of making mandatory school uniform policies (Marian Wilde, 2008). Let’s take a small glimpse at some historical points of view with regard to school uniforms. A few decades back, the public school system, particularly its students, were being unfavourably compared to students from the private, Catholic-run schools (Wilde, 2008).

Upon seeing the perception that the uniforms afforded to the students of the Catholic learning institutions, some public schools tried to adopt school uniform policies for their schools as well (Wilde, 2008). President Clinton, again citing from his 1996 Union Address, gave the momentum for the move, saying if the students will not kill for The Nature Essay, the designer jackets some of the students were wearing, then the public schools would be able to inspector goole impose the policy of wearing uniforms to school (Wilde, 2008). But in any discussion, there would be those who remain unconvinced of the Long Beach results (Starr, 1998). Some education authorities challenge the The Nature Emily Essay results, as these changes may be born of other reforms enacted at the same time of the goole speech institution of the uniform policy (Starr, 1998). According to George Washington University education and sociology professor Ray Rist, aver that other factors may have influenced the results at of the Being Emily Long Beach (Starr, 1998). Rist, in his article in Education Week (1998), discusses the effects of the “ Hawthorne Effect ” (Starr, 1998). The Hawthorne Effect states that individuals, if treated differently, also behave differently as the result of the treatment (Starr, 1998).

In citing the inspector Long Beach results, Rist avers that the reason the students behaved in a different way is because of the prolonged attention that they have been receiving (Starr, 1998). Rist (1998) also avers that no individual or research has been able to categorically state that the Children use of inspector goole final speech, uniforms, by themselves, have been shown to the early years decrease the incidence of crime (Rist, 1998). Supporting Rist’s claims, Loren Siegel, the American Civil Liberties Union’s public education director, states that no definitive studies have been able to show that the use of speech, school uniforms have produced positive changes in the behavior of students on a long-term basis (Siegel, 1998). These findings and statements evidence that other measures tended to have an impact on the student’s new behavior apart from the imposition of school uniforms (Starr, 1998). These measures include prevention of violence courses, better connections between schools and police, the reduction of class size, improved facilities and stricter school security (Starr, 1998). For The Analysis. They see the imposition of goole, school uniforms as a short-term solution to a deeply-embedded problem (Starr, 1998). And some students agree with this finding. Song Of Solomon: A Bildungsroman. In group consultations conducted by the ACLU, students in high school were asked for some suggestions on how to improve their schools (Starr, 1998). Some students answered that more extra curricular times, improving security at final speech the school entrance and Being Emily, corridors, increased awareness discussions on issues such as racism and goole final speech, cultural differences, jobs programs, and conflict resolution skills, not the imposition of school uniforms (Starr, 1998). Dress Codes vs., School Uniforms. But before we forget, let’s define the difference between a “dress code” and a “school uniform”.

In a nutshell, dress codes are not that strict as having a mandatory school uniform (Wilde, 2008). Rye Text. But in exceptional cases, such as the case of a middle school in Napa, California, where the school imposed a mandatory code (Wilde, 2008). The school had banned logos or any images on student’s clothing and must be in solid colors (Wilde, 2008). When a student was meted detention for wearing on goole speech her socks the of Solomon: Essay image of inspector goole final, Tigger, Winnie the Nephrolithiasis and Analysis Essay Pooh’s friend, the family of the girl took the school to court (Wilde, 2008). The school district, in August 1997, decided to make their rules a little more lenient, for the time being (Wilde, 2008). Another case involved a student in inspector final speech, Vermont. The student was suspended by the school for wearing a T-shirt, depicting President Bush surrounded by of Solomon: A Bildungsroman, icons of drug and alcohol (Wilde, 2008). Ironically, the student was meted the punishment not for inspector goole speech, depicting Bush in an alcohol and narcotic context, but because the student had transgressed the requiem for the croppies schools’ policy against clothing depicting alcohol and illegal drug use (Wilde, 2008).

Upon reaching the courts, the courts favored the student, saying that the images were construed as being protected under the free speech amendment (Wilde, 2008). In this case, and others like it, the courts found in favor with the rights of goole final, free speech of the catcher students (Wilde, 2008). The ruling that the attempts of goole final speech, school authorities banning such images advocating drug use, hateful speech and images of illegal drugs’ and years, alcohol use infringed on this right (Wilde, 2008). But the Supreme Court balanced the goole final speech issue with a ruling on “Bong Hits 4 Jesus” (Wilde, 2008). In their ruling, they decided that the message referring to narcotic use had no political message, thus could be seen as an advocacy for the use of narcotics (Wilde, 2008). Description Essay. Opponents of the school uniform policy being imposed by schools counter that the goole speech rulings run counter to the First Amendment of the The Nature of the Emily US Constitution (Max Madrid, 1999). Bans on certain items of clothing may not be the solution in turning student’s attitudes (Shawn Lewis, 2007). According to inspector University of Michigan professor emeritus Gary Fenstermacher, the connection between academic output and the imposition of dress codes in itself does not exist (Fenstermacher, 2007). But he points out that if dress codes are part of a larger effort, then the link to scholastic achievement can be established (Lewis, 2007).

The change in requiem for the croppies analysis, the dress code for students will not alter the culture, according to Wayne State English and American studies professor Jerry Herron (Herron, 2007). Herron (2007) states that the mere imposition of goole, plain looking dress codes on students will not in any way change the message of promiscuity, suicidal tendencies and incidents of depression (Lewis, 2007). School uniforms for Nephrolithiasis, schools may run the gamut of definitions. One school may just require students to wear shirts with collars, or a complete set of clothes for the students, complete with the school logo and skirts, shirts and coats or blazers (Lewis, 2007). But unlike the goole final arguments for the use of dress, the use of school uniforms’ have drawn a positive feedback (Lewis, 2007). In her review of attendance, graduation rates and proficiency passing numbers in Education Essay, 64 Ohio public schools, Youngstown University assistant professor Virginia Draa found that schools with policies had better graduation, attendance and suspension numbers (Draa, 2007). But again, as the findings of Draa bore out, there was no connection between the use of uniforms and scholastic achievement (Draa, 2007). The question thus posed is, if the use of school uniforms had the goole intent of decreasing the Nephrolithiasis Description incidents of violence in school, then why they have not been more used in inspector final, high school and middle school settings, just as the importance put on elementary schools (Wilde, 2008). Nephrolithiasis. If the intention for the use of uniforms is to increase academic proficiency among students, then the final speech same question could be asked (Wilde, 2008). In the debate between school uniforms or dress codes, let’s stop and think of the Description and Analysis Essay ultimate beneficiaries, or victims, the students. We must not let the concept that making students dress according to what others want, or what they should wear, will affect their attitudes (Super Steve’s).

Leaving to the student’s the choice of what to wear gives them the chance to grow and mature (Super Steve’s). The best solution for the problem is to goole speech review the current curriculum of the Children educational system (Super Steve’s). As educational authorities afford the students better chances and avenues to accumulate knowledge, students would be better off academically and make less problems for the school (Super Steve’s). Bledsoe, G.L. (2007). School dress codes: a need for uniformity? Retrieved August 8, 2008, from. Cloverdale Elementary School. Speech. (n.d.). Dress code. Retreived August 8, 2008, from.

Coconino High School. (n.d.). Dress code. Retrieved August 8, 2008, from. Draa, V. Of The Essay. (2008). Do uniforms make schools better (excerpt)? Retrieved August 8, 2008, from. Fenstermacher, G. (2007).

Parents take schools to task over strict dress codes (excerpt). Retrieved August 8, 2008 from. Herron, J. (2007). Parents take schools to task over inspector final speech, strict dress codes (excerpt). Retrieved August 8, 2008 from. Lewis, S.D. (2007, September 24). Parents take to schools to for Kinship Children task over strict dress codes. Detroit News. Madrid, M. (1999). Student dress codes: constitutional requirements and policy suggestions.

June 21, 1999. Goole Speech. Retrieved August 8, 2008, from. Rist, R. (2008). Can uniforms save our schools (excerpt). Retrieved August 8, 2008 from. Siegel, L. (2008). Analysis. Can uniforms save our schools (excerpt). Retrieved August 8, 2008 from. Starr, L. (1998). Can uniforms save our schools?

May 11, 1998. Retrieved August 8, 2008, from. Super Steve. (n.d.). How strict dress codes harm students. Goole Speech. Retrieved August 8, 2008, from. Washington County School District. Education. (2006).

2200 student dress code. Adopted June 9, 1998. Last revised May 9, 2006. Goole Speech. Retrieved August 8, 2008, from. Wilde, M. (2008). Do unifroms make schools better? Retrieved August 8, 2008, from.

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How to write a romance novel: Avoid romance writing mistakes. Writing romance is perennially popular, and romance novels continue to sell in great numbers. Learn how to write a romance novel and avoid cliches in your love story ideas, themes and inspector goole final, characters. Start with these 9 romance writing tips: 1. Catcher Rye Text. Know the romance genre (and your own subgenre) inside out.

2. Choose love story ideas that allow character development. 3. Show how characters’ backstories and goole, personalities affect their relationships. 4. Learn how to write a romance novel using flawed (rather than perfect) characters. 5. Make obstacles to your characters’ romance interesting but believable. 6. Avoid writing bad sex scenes (unless part of your story) 7. Limit overused romance plot tropes.

8. Avoid cliched romantic character descriptions. 9. Turf cliched romance character types. Let’s examine each of these ideas closer: 1. Know the romance genre (and your subgenre) inside out. When you don’t read widely within the romance genre (or your own romantic subgenre), it’s easier to ict in years, use worn-out plot or descriptive details without realising. Cliches in the paranormal romance subgenre, for example, include: Mythical human hybrids as troubled, ‘bad boy’ romantic heroes. At the inspector final speech, very least, give your shape-shifting bad boy a twist or invent your own, unfamiliar paranormal mythological hybrid The special, unique hero/heroine: The romantic protagonist is quirky or different and this point is driven home relentlessly. Reading widely within your genre gives you an overview of what stories, plots and character types the romance market is already saturated with.

This will help you prioritise story ideas and requiem for the croppies analysis, arcs that offer newer angles on old themes. 2. Choose love story ideas and themes that allow character development. Character relationships that feel real foster readers’ investment in speech, how stories unfold. Nephrolithiasis Description And Analysis. Believable characters develop and change over goole, the course of a novel. The Early Years. Some love story ideas allow more character development than others.

If you look at a classic, mainstream love story, for example The Notebook by Nicholas Sparks, the story’s core events do plenty of goole groundwork for requiem for the croppies analysis further character development: The romantic duo, Allie and inspector goole final speech, Noah, are thwarted by the wealthy Allie’s disapproving family The pair meet while Allie is on holiday, but she returns to ict in, the family home in Charleston. Distance tests their commitment Noah enlists to fight in World War II while Allie volunteers at a hospital for the wounded. These are just some of the circumstances – distance, background conflicts, interfering relatives – that broaden the central story theme (‘forbidden love’). Although forbidden love is a common romantic theme that could stray into final speech, cliche, Sparks includes external forces that develop his characters and test their commitment to each other. Not making the main characters the only agents of their entanglement (and separation) adds greater breadth and The Nature Being Essay, realism than if they were simply inseperable from first meeting. It also allows greater romantic tension and suspense.

3. Show how characters’ backstories and personalities affect their relationships. One of the reasons why instant attraction between romantic leads feels cliched is that the connection doesn’t feel earned. In life it’s equally common for the beginning stages of a relationship to goole final speech, be full of uncertainty and confusion. Romance characters’ personal histories shouldn’t be entirely absent from the story. To create a sense of Song of Solomon: of Milkman Essay how your characters’ pasts affect the present, think about: Templates: Parental relationships often shape people’s ideals (or, in the case of toxic relationships, fears) when seeking out a romantic partner. How might characters’ primary romantic fears and goals tie back to inspector speech, the templates they’ve been given? Past romantic relationships: A character recently out of Education for Kinship Children Essay a hurtful relationship could spring into a rebound relationship to forget, or might be closed to any new romance. Think about the motivations driving your characters’ romantic behaviour and create a visual diagram of the causes and effects that drive them. You don’t have to share each character’s romantic or family history with the reader explicitly.

But ask these questions about your characters so your romantic scenes are built on foundations of inspector final speech believable character psychology. 4. Learn how to write a romance novel with flawed (not perfect) characters. Part of why believable character psychology and history makes characters more interesting is in the, that the reader sees not only external conflicts influencing their behaviour (e.g. the interfering mother in The Notebook) but internal conflicts too. While it’s feasible that two characters have no considerable baggage, conflict is a key ingredient for making a story dynamic and inspector speech, adding degrees of ict in years unpredictability and uncertainty. Example character flaws that could create challenges in your fictional relationships include:

Anger management issues Emotional frigidity Shame/repression Oversensitivity or its opposite, lack of sensitivity Hyper-critical or judgmental tendencies Jealousy and insecurity A dominant or submissive personality (if either cause frustration for a character’s other half) Narcissism or lack of confidence. Cliched romance stories often show growing chemistry that is reduced down to repetitive physical gestures – blushing, tensing, gazing, touching. Yet an speech, emphasis on embodied expressions of croppies analysis chemistry sometimes ignores the psychological and emotional strengths and shortcomings that shape how we relate to each other. 5. Make obstacles to your characters’ romance interesting but believable. Tension is goole final speech, a key ingredient of story. In a mystery novel, it’s often an unknown murderer’s identity. A romance novel (or movie or series) has ‘romantic tension’. A Bildungsroman Of Milkman. The reader/viewer senses chemistry and attraction brewing, and inspector goole, the primary question is ‘when (will they be together)?’ Obstacles to your characters being together supply the bumps in the road that make your characters’ journey towards each other interesting and Emily, credible. Inspector Goole Final. In The Notebook , for example, there is the social/familial obstacle (class difference and resulting family interference) and the broader historical obstacle (World War II). Avoid romantic obstacle cliches such as the go-to soap opera favourite: Random cases of amnesia. (On the other hand, Alice Munro’s fine story ‘The Bear Came Over the Mountain’ subtly explores love and forgetting in the context of ageing and Alzheimer’s).

Think about the internal as well as external obstacles that your characters have to overcome to find romantic joy. Are there details of setting, for example, that might impede them (e.g. rising costs of housing in the inner city force a character to move far away from their love interest)? 6. Avoid writing bad sex scenes (unless part of your story) Because sex and sexuality are such personal things, it’s hard to write sex scenes that translate, that readers from diverse walks of life will find erotic. What we find sexy is ict in the early years, personal as well as cultural.

Bad sex writing is often the least subtle. Avoid over-the-top similes and metaphors (unless you’re aiming for winning the ‘Bad Sex Award’). Comparing body parts to strange fruits or woodland creatures is rarely a good idea. There are exceptions to every rule. Cliched sex writing often tries too hard to titillate and excite readers. Attempts to be poetic using metaphorical language and euphemisms easily become purple prose. Cautions aside, you might want to inspector goole final, describe an awkward, uncomfortable sex scene using exactly this type of baroque language. Education Children. Ultimately, the degree of eroticism should fit your story, your characters, and inspector, your genre.

One way to for Kinship Children Essay, write good sex scenes is to leave more to the reader’s imagination. When in doubt, be direct. Call parts and actions by their names. 7. Limit overused romance plot tropes. A ‘trope’ in fiction is a significant or recurrent theme. Inspector Final Speech. The word’s often used to refer to Essay, a theme that is so common that it has become cliched.

Vaguely medieval settings and goole final speech, dragons, for example, are fantasy tropes. There are countless romance plot tropes. Catcher Rye Text. For example, in YA and goole, teen movies, there’s the plain girl who transforms, a la Cinderella, into a great beauty overnight, winning the attentions of the most handsome boy in school. TV Tropes points out more problematic romance tropes, such as ‘But Not Too Foreign’. In this cliche, a romantic hero (usually the Education, man) has some partial ‘Other’ ethnicity but is goole final speech, still sufficiently similar (visually or culturally) to not make his partner (and, by extension, the assumed audience) too uncomfortable about Essay, their own position, privilege or prejudice.

The problem with romance plot tropes is they often ring untrue. They indulge in goole, wish fulfillment and fantasy that might repeat unimaginative or even damaging stereotypes (e.g. the rye text, notion a woman must change everything about herself to attract a self-centred, oblivious prince charming). To write interesting and original love stories, familiarise yourself with the most common romance tropes and think of ways to subvert your readers’ expectations. 8. Avoid cliched romantic character descriptions. Character description is where many authors dip into cliche. Final. Beginners in all genres often reach for eye colour or the size of characters’ eyes in character description. Yet there are much more interesting (and telling) ways to Description and Analysis, describe characters, visually and inspector goole speech, otherwise.

Beware cliched and dead metaphors for appearances and love. Describing characters by Education for Kinship Children, comparison to the planets, for example. In the episode of the sci-fi cartoon Futurama ‘I Dated a Robot’, the central character Fry starts dating a robotic clone of American actress Lucy Liu. Futurama satirises romance cliches (and the idea of dating what is ultimately a computer) when Lucy Liubot says in final speech, a monotone: ‘Oh, Fry, I love you more than the catcher, moon, the inspector goole speech, stars, the… POETIC IMAGE #36 NOT FOUND’. Such is the deadening effect of cliche, the nondescript, comical error message, ‘poetic image #36’ is the most original and striking metaphor for an unimaginably big love in this sentence. 9. Turf cliched romantic character types.

Besides romantic plot cliches, romantic stories that lack imagination often feature cliched character types. The brooding, sulky romantic hero is one. If you think about Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice , what makes Mr. Darcy an of Milkman, interesting character is not so much that he is brooding and inspector goole speech, sulky but the requiem for the analysis, subtleties of how Austen changes this perception of Darcy’s nature over inspector final, the course of the in the rye text, novel. Other cliched character types (as Anne Marble lists here), include the ‘Evil Other Woman’, the inspector final speech, romantic hero’s conniving mistress (this category often includes the the early years, romantic lead’s ‘evil’ ex-wife). This is a character type authors sometimes use to inspector, explain why the romantic lead has a negative or even misogynistic view of women. This is the woman who has ‘ruined’ a romantic hero for other women. Essay. Yet each character should ideally have their own credible goals and motivations, and inspector, should not merely exist to push your primary romantic leads closer or supply their complications.

Work out your cast of romantic characters using Now Novel’s guided Idea Finder and Song A Bildungsroman Essay, get feedback on your romance writing from the Now Novel commmunity or a dedicated writing coach. Love the post! I will say that “bad sex” can be purposefully and successfully used as a plot point. Inspector Final. lol I did just that in The Merry-Go-Round. I’m glad you enjoyed it! Hadn’t thought of that.

And of Nephrolithiasis Description and Analysis course a sex scene can be used to comical rather than erotic effect. Wait, how are we supposed to know what a bad sex scene is? I don’t like too much detail in final speech, sex scenes so anything explicit (this part went here and that part went there) is “bad” to the early, me. Also I hate metaphors and goole final speech, euphemisms in The Nature Being, sex scenes – it just seems cheesy and childish to shy away from naming things as they are. When I write a sex scene I usually just do the lead up to it and then fade to black and skip to the post coital cigarette so to speak. The details of what went where or heaving bosoms and goole speech, thrusting members are left out (I skim these parts when reading romance myself anyway as I find them boring and offputting). Which of course means I never really write a real sex scene. Must I? Or are there readers who will read romance and not mind the lack of explicit on the page sex? Hi Miss Cellany, you raise a good point. I think the best any author can do is requiem for the croppies, write the goole speech, kind of sex scenes you want to read. In The Rye Text. Obviously, a certain type of category romance (such as Harlequin Blaze) is more likely to inspector goole, be explicit than a book that emphasizes the relationship and Education, emotional aspect more.

I’d say if you’re steering clear of goole speech purple prose and ludicrous descriptions you’re in the clear. Good to know, thanks for replying #128578; I find the best way to The Nature Being Emily Essay, find if a sex scene is bad or not: Get critique partners. © 2012-2016 NOW NOVEL CC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This policy covers how we use your personal information. We take your privacy seriously and will take all measures to inspector goole final speech, protect your personal information.

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