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La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas : un monde plein de vide. En examinant la poetique du vide cultivee par La Celestina (1499), cette etude se propose danalyser lemergence, au sein de lunivers deploye dans la tragicomedie, dune apprehension nouvelle du monde. Education In Pakistan. Une apprehension nouvelle faite de scepticisme et de desillusion que l?uvre fait entendre jusque dans sa celebration des plaisirs et au c?ur meme du rire qui la parcourt. Of Spring Riot. Ce travail souhaite mettre en lumiere la richesse de ce regard nouveau pose sur le monde en tentant de montrer, a travers lanalyse de motifs recurrents en lien avec la notion de vacuite, combien La Celestina est pleine de son vide, feconde du neant dans lequel elle fait sombrer, avec l'elegance d'un desespoir joyeux, le monde ne au fil de ses pages. 1 Fernando de Rojas, La Celestina, Comedia o tragicomedia de Calisto j Melibea, Edicion, introduccion (. Education In Pakistan Essay. ) 2 Pour une etude reliant precisement La Celestina a son contexte, on is the nucleus, pourra consulter Vincent Parello (. In Pakistan Essay. ) 3 Pour une synthese des controverses liees au probleme d'autorite pose par La Celestina, on of spring, pourra se (. In Pakistan. ) 1 La Celestina 1 de Fernando de Rojas voit le jour en 1499, en Espagne, au c?ur de cette periode cruciale pour l'histoire des arts, des peuples, des hommes et des idees, qui vit basculer ce que nous appelons le Moyen Age dans cette epoque que nous disons moderne. Nucleus Function. ?uvre dont l'ecriture cherche a saisir ce mouvement qui l'emporte vers la modernite, ?uvre se donnant a voir en equilibre sur le fil reliant deux mondes, un fil en train de se rompre, La Celestina est aussi nee au c?ur d'une societe, celle de l'Espagne des Rois Catholiques, elle-meme en pleine mutation et a un tournant decisif de son histoire2, notamment dans son rapport aux minorites religieuses. In Pakistan Essay. La Celestina, ?uvre ecrite, dans sa totalite ou en partie3, par Fernando de Rojas, juriste de formation, lettre evoluant dans la sphere universitaire de Salamanque, et convers de la quatrieme generation, prend vie au sein de ce double contexte, dont elle se nourrit. Is The Nucleus Function. Riche de l'imaginaire a la fois collectif et singulier qui la sous-tend, l'?uvre donne en effet a voir l'emergence d'une apprehension nouvelle du monde.

Une apprehension nouvelle faite de scepticisme et de desesperance, et ce jusqu'au plus profond du rire que l'?uvre fait si volontiers entendre, ou des plaisirs qu'avec tant d'allegresse elle celebre. Education Essay. J'aimerais tenter d'en rendre compte ici en proposant un examen de l'une des poetiques cultivees par l'?uvre, celle du vide, d'un monde plein de vide. Le monde plein de vide de La Celestina, c'est tout d'abord celui que met en place l'ecriture de la vacuite de sens du monde. 2 Cette vacuite de sens du monde apparait dans l'?uvre sous diverses formes, et notamment a travers une image tres traditionnelle, celle du monde mis sens dessus dessous, celle du monde a l'envers. Rite Of Spring Riot. Tres nombreux sont les elements de l'?uvre qui renvoient au monde a l'envers et j'attirerai votre attention sur deux exemples, qui me semblent a meme de mettre en lumiere deux visages du monde a l'envers dans l'?uvre. Education In Pakistan Essay. Le monde a l'envers, c'est tout d'abord celui que decrit le valet Parmeno au debut de la tragicomedia, avant de basculer lui-meme de l'autre cote du monde, avant d'incarner lui-meme l'image de l'inversion des valeurs. John Lewis Match Policy. Parmeno vient d'etre violemment rabroue par son maitre Calisto, par celui-la meme qu'il tentait pourtant de prevenir contre la malignite de Celestina, diabolique entremetteuse dont le maitre veut acheter les services afin de conquerir Melibea, la noble jeune fille dont il est fou d'amour.

Transforme par l'ingratitude de son maitre en victime de sa propre vertu, Parmeno deplore : O desdichado de mi ! Por ser leal, padezco mal. Education In Pakistan Essay. Otros se ganan por malos, yo me pierdo por bueno. Of The Character. El mundo es tal.4. 5 C. Education. Heusch, Las desviaciones de Parmeno o la caida de un angel , Celestinesca, 26, 1-2, 2002, p. Rite Of Spring Riot. (. In Pakistan. ) 6 F. Argument Give In Support Of Slave Labor?. de Rojas, ed. Education Essay. cit ., p. John Lewis Match Policy. 269 : no sabes nada del mundo ni de sus deleytes . 3 Le monde ici decrit est donc un monde qui tourne a l'envers, et au sein duquel bien et mal ont echange leur place sur l'echelle des valeurs judeo-chretiennes. Education In Pakistan. Constater que le monde est mis sens dessus dessous est d'ailleurs ce qui motive la metamorphose de Parmeno : les phrases citees sont en effet tres exactement celles qui introduisent sa decision de se mettre a tourner lui aussi dans le sens du monde, c'est-a-dire a dire a contresens du bon sens, ou du sens bon, en devenant le servus fallax qui n'hesitera pas a travailler a la perte de son maitre. John Price Match. Ainsi la figure du monde a l'envers est-elle tout d'abord donnee a voir dans l'?uvre comme cause, et non seulement comme image, de la corruption du monde et des etres.

Une corruption contre laquelle les personnages qui tentent de le faire se battent vainement, vainement et presque par peche d'orgueil, par pretention, cette pretention de la jeunesse qui n'a pas encore pris la mesure de l'ampleur de la tache. Education In Pakistan. Parmeno, celui que Carlos Heusch5 a tres justement presente sous les traits de l'ange revolte qui, une fois dechu, devient diable, ne commence en effet par etre bon que parce qu'il est jeune, une jeunesse sur laquelle le texte insiste a diverses reprises. Of Spring. On notera par exemple la serie des diminutifs utilises par Celestina pour s'adresser a Parmeno et lui signifier qu'il demeure encore, pour quelques instants qui ne sauraient durer, dans le monde de l'enfance, un monde qui justement, comme elle le lui fait remarquer en ce meme endroit de l'?uvre6, ne sait encore rien du monde : Que diras a esto Parmeno ? Neciuelo, loquito, angelico, perlica, simplezico! Lobitos en tal gestico ? Llegate aca, putico.7. 8 Ed. Education Essay. cit ., p. Of The Shrew Character. 502.

9 Ed. In Pakistan. cit ., p. Of A Salesman Act 1. 509 ou 585 par exemple. Education In Pakistan. 10 Ed. Argument Did Southerners Give Of Slave Labor?. cit ., p. In Pakistan. 433. Of A Salesman Summary. 11 F. Education In Pakistan. Delpech, Systeme erotique et mythologie folklorique dans les conjuros amatorios , dans Amours (. Match. ) 12 Jose Maria Diez Borque, Conjuros, oraciones, ensalmos : formas marginales de la poesia oral en lo (. In Pakistan. ) 13 Ed. Of The Shrew Analysis. cit ., p. Education In Pakistan Essay. 332 et 360. About Bittorrent. 14 Ed. Education In Pakistan Essay. cit ., p. Essay About Bittorrent. 416. In Pakistan Essay. 15 Ed. What Is The Function. cit ., p. Education In Pakistan Essay. 382. 4 Il est d'ailleurs un autre personnage de l'?uvre sur la jeunesse duquel le texte insiste aussi et peut-etre plus encore. Lewis Price Match Policy. Il s'agit bien sur du personnage de Tristan : des sa premiere apparition8, Tristan est appele Tristanico, petit Tristan. Education In Pakistan Essay. Ce diminutif, qui se verra decline de facons multiples par l'?uvre9, place d'emblee le personnage sous le signe de l'enfance, une enfance que l'?uvre situe a l'origine de la non-corruption de Tristan, donnant ainsi a entendre cette non-corruption comme vouee a disparaitre, a l'instar de la jeunesse qui la motive. Is The Function. Le monde a l'envers mis en place par l'?uvre, c'est aussi celui que dessine l'entremetteuse et hechicera Celestina. In Pakistan Essay. Bien qu'elle soit hechicera (ensorceleuse) et non bruja (sorciere), Celestina, comme ces dernieres, fait en effet subir une inversion au monde dans son ensemble et, en particulier, au monde religieux. Rite. Tout d'abord parce qu'elle en denonce les desordres, puisque les eveques eux-memes font partie de sa clientele de maquerelle10, mais aussi parce que sa pratique magique integre cette inversion du rite religieux inherente a la pratique de la sorcellerie.

Francois Delpech, qui a etudie le rapport entre systeme erotique et mythologie folklorique au sein de ces prieres destinees a faire naitre l'amour que l'on appelait conjuros amatorios 11 , ou bien encore Jose Maria Diez Borque12, lequel s'est penche sur l'organisation poetique de ces conjuros, ont en effet montre que la pratique de la sorcellerie integrait un renversement de la liturgie chretienne. Education In Pakistan. Dans ces pratiques, on what is the nucleus function, conjurait le diable, certes, mais aussi, dans une optique a contresens de l'optique chretienne, on in pakistan, y conjurait les saints de la liturgie chretienne, jusqu'a faire de cette derniere une liturgie a l'envers. Function. Quelques exemples de ce processus d'inversion opere par le personnage de la presque sorciere Celestina : l'on remarquera tout d'abord que Celestina, a des fins on in pakistan, ne peut plus malignes et selon un procede destine a capturer, comme le fait entendre le terme philocaptio, le c?ur et la volonte de la belle Melibea, utilisera la force de ce meme cordon de Melibea qui a touche, et Celestina ne manque pas d'en faire la remarque a deux reprises13, les reliques de Rome et de Jerusalem. Essay Bittorrent. Ce faisant, Celestina ne detourne pas seulement l'objet de sa vocation initiale, mais va jusqu'a renverser le pouvoir spirituel de l'objet, jusqu'a lui faire subir une parfaite inversion. In Pakistan. De la meme maniere, l'on notera que c'est au sein meme de l'espace de l'eglise que l'entremetteuse un peu sorciere et tout a fait maquerelle qu'est Celestina, fait ses meilleures affaires. Argument In Support Labor?. Ou bien encore, l'on se souviendra que ce sont les grains de son chapelet, las cuentas del rosario 14, qui permettent a celle qui est aussi ravaudeuse des virginites mises a mal, de tenir a jour le decompte des virgos, des hymens, qu'elle a deja restaures ou qui lui restent encore a reparer.

Enfin, l'on pourra aussi et peut-etre surtout se rappeler la parodie des paroles du Christ a laquelle se livre Celestina15. 5 Si le motif du monde sens dessus dessous permet bien la mise en place d'un systeme metaphorique propre a figurer l'inversion de l'Ordre ou a denoncer le desordre du monde, ce motif repose toutefois sur un systeme de pensee qui propose une grille de lecture du monde. Education In Pakistan Essay. La figure du monde a l'envers dit en effet deux choses simultanement : elle dit que le monde ne tourne pas dans le bon sens, mais elle dit aussi en meme temps qu'il existe un bon sens, qu'il existe un endroit a l'envers. Is The Function. Cette figure, et ses multiples formes possibles, s'articulent donc sur la base d'un systeme stable. Education. Bien qu'il renvoie au non-sens du monde, le motif du monde a l'envers etablit en effet encore une frontiere nette, et c'est d'ailleurs pourquoi il etait constitutif de cette parenthese qu'etait le carnaval medieval, entre endroit et envers, il propose encore une discrimination entre norme et non-norme, entre bien et mal. Give In Support Labor?. On ne pourrait en dire autant des procedes qui, dans La Celestina, aboutissent a la peinture d'un monde non plus seulement tournant en sens inverse, mais d'un monde vide, vide de sens. 16 Ed. Education. cit ., p. Essay Bittorrent. 290.

17 Ed. Education In Pakistan Essay. cit ., p. What Is The Nucleus. 477 : ? En quien fallare yo fe ? ? Adonde ay verdad ? ? Quien carece de engano ? ? A (. Education In Pakistan. ) 6 Ces procedes sont nombreux. Argument Did Southerners Labor?. Que l'on songe tout d'abord a ces interrogations laissees sans reponse dont La Celestina est parsemee, et qui tout au long de l'?uvre, questionnent avec entetement le serieux d'une quelconque tentative de discrimination entre bien et mal, vidant ainsi les notions et valeurs de tout contenu stable. Education Essay. Qu'est-ce que la raison ? Qu'est-ce que la passion ? Qu'est-ce que l'honneur, qu'est-ce que l'amour ? interroge Calisto16. Rite Of Spring Riot. Ou bien encore, alors qu'il est en proie au desespoir17, que sont confiance, verite, tromperie, faussete ? Qui est l'ennemi et qui l'ami ? Ailleurs, l'?uvre va jusqu'a montrer une Celestina en train de sommer un fou de bien vouloir lui definir ce qu'est la raison : Que es razon, loco ?18. 19 Ed. Education. cit ., p. Riot. 290-291.

20 Ed. In Pakistan. cit ., p. About Bittorrent. 297. In Pakistan Essay. 21 Ed. Of The Analysis. cit., p. In Pakistan Essay. 520. Of A Salesman Act 1. 22 O. Education. Biaggini, Sentencia a mi ver digna de perpetua y recordable memoria : mise en scene et subve (. Essay. ) 7 Qu'est-ce que la raison, fou ? , demande-t-elle en effet a Parmeno. In Pakistan Essay. Ces questions, parce qu'elles restent sans reponse, mais aussi parce que l'?uvre fait entendre qu'il ne peut en aller autrement19, donnent a voir le vide que l'on risquerait de trouver au fond des notions ou valeurs que l'on chercherait a creuser un peu serieusement. Death Of A Salesman Act 1. Et ce non seulement parce que, comme le dit Sempronio : el bien y el mal (. Education. ) todo pierde con el tiempo la fuerca 20, mais aussi et surtout parce qu'elles ne sont qu'insondable beance, au fond de laquelle git le reve du sens, du sens du monde. Price Policy. Ces questions sur le caractere insoluble desquelles l'?uvre attire l'attention, apres avoir pourtant affiche, dans le paratexte, un objectif didactique indissociable d'une vision claire de la frontiere entre bien et mal, vident donc les valeurs et notions de leur substance signifiante. Education In Pakistan Essay. Une scene, la septieme de l'acte XIV, illustre bien ce fonctionnement de l'?uvre. Did Southerners Give In Support. Dans un tres long monologue21, au cours d'un proces imaginaire cense trancher entre culpabilite ou innocence du juge qui a ordonne la decollation de ses deux valets, Calisto prend tour a tour le role de la defense et celui de l'accusation.

Dans cette scene qui argumente aussi equitablement dans un sens que dans l'autre, on education in pakistan, peut voir transparaitre le juriste Fernando de Rojas qui a questionne la notion de verite, ici donnee a voir comme changeant de visage selon le point de vue adopte. Essay About Bittorrent. Il est d'ailleurs interessant de remarquer que Calisto ne tranche rien a l'issue de ce proces imaginaire. In Pakistan Essay. Piege par sa propre capacite a construire these et antithese, il finit par abandonner la partie et par conclure a l'innocence du juge, non parce qu'il aurait reussi a s'en convaincre intellectuellement, mais parce qu'il sent monter en lui le desir de Melibea, et que la satisfaction de ce desir pourrait etre contrariee par la fastidieuse mise en place d'une vengeance contre le juge. Lewis Match. De la reflexion intellectuelle sur les notions de verite, d'innocence ou de culpabilite, il ne ressort rien, rien qu'une intuition de la vanite de toute tentative d'exploration de leur contenu objectif. In Pakistan. La facon dont l'?uvre joue avec la notion d 'auctoritas, cette reference a l'autorite alors utilisee comme outil de legitimation de la pensee exprimee ou de la verite proclamee, va d'ailleurs dans le meme sens. Nucleus Function. Olivier Biaggini22 l'a bien montre : mise dans la bouche de personnages qui la devoient, la pervertissent, l'exploitent a contresens et en revelent ainsi les failles, l 'auctoritas, la parole de Seneque, d'Aristote ou de Petrarque, n'est plus qu'une parole videe de sa capacite a guider, elle n'est plus qu'amoncellement de references reduites au vide, donnees a voir par l'?uvre dans leur inanite.

Le rire, qui au sein de l'?uvre peut pourtant, notamment lorsqu'il ridiculise le discours courtois dissident, servir le propos moral affirme au sein du paratexte, est aussi, paradoxalement, mis au service de cet aneantissement des valeurs et notions. Education Essay. Sans trop insister ici sur le rire, qu'une autre intervention va prendre pour objet central, je dirai simplement qu'il est aussi dans La Celestina un rire dont la fonction demystificatrice desenchante le monde et reduit a neant les plus beaux reves. Death Salesman. L'amour ? Une gesticulation ridicule dont le fou d'amour Calisto parvient lui-meme a se gausser. In Pakistan Essay. Alors qu'il se meurt d'amour, une plaisanterie grivoise de Sempronio suffit a le faire passer des larmes au rire, un rire qui l'oblige a mettre son amour a distance, comme il le deplore d'ailleurs lui-meme : Maldito seas, que fecho me has reyr 23. 24 J.-P.

Lecertua, Le jardin de Melibee : metaphores sexuelles et connotations symboliques dans quel (. Nucleus Function. ) 8 Maudit sois-tu, car tu m'as fait rire , s'indigne en effet Calisto, qui vient de se prendre lui-meme en flagrant delit de rire, et donc de desacralisation, de ce meme amour qu'un instant plus tot il elevait jusqu'a Dieu, qu'un instant plus tot il mettait a la place de Dieu. Education. La vertu ? C'est celle de Melibea dans son jardin, plumee comme une volaille, selon la comparaison de l'amoureux Calisto soudain transforme en grossier plaisantin, vertu dont Jean-Paul Lecertua24, a travers sa lecture du jardin de Melibea, a si bien analyse la degradation comique. Rite Of Spring. C'est la le rire corrosif qui aneantit, le rire amer de la desillusion, d'un desengano avant la lettre, un rire critique, endeuille d'avoir trop sonde la vanite des choses. C'est cependant surtout a travers la proliferation des images de la folie qu'apparait le reflet de la vacuite de sens du monde. 25 Ed. Education In Pakistan Essay. cit ., p. Taming Shrew Character Analysis. 221. Education Essay. 26 Voir Martine Bigeard, La folie et les fous litteraires en Espagne (1500-1650), Paris, Centre de Rec (. Lewis Match. ) 27 Ed. Education In Pakistan Essay. cit ., p. What Is The Function. 235. 9 Des l 'incipit, au c?ur de la declaration d'intention didactique, la folie est la, folie d'amour qui detourne de Dieu et dont l'?uvre, en reprehension de los locos enamorados 25, pretend vouloir denoncer les dangers. Education In Pakistan. Folie d'amour dont est atteint le protagoniste Calisto.

Atteint, car l'amour passionnel, le fol amour, etait bien, pour les esprits populaires et scientifiques du temps, un mal repertorie dans la liste des troubles mentaux, une forme de demence dont Miguel Sabuco, medecin espagnol du XVI e siecle, ecrit dans sa Nueva Filosofia de la naturaleza del hombre (1587) qu'elle pouvait etre provoquee par le desir exacerbe puis frustre26. Death Salesman. Folie d'amour de Calisto l'amant grotesquement courtois qui dans son fameux Melibeo soy 27 renonce a etre chretien pour se faire Melibeen, mais aussi folie de tous les autres personnages. In Pakistan Essay. Car c'est a chaque page, presque a chaque ligne, en tous sens, a tout moment, a tout propos, de toutes les facons, que l'on se traite de fou, que chacun traite soi-meme et tous les autres de fou, de folle, de petit fou, loquito, loquillo, de sin seso, de fou decervele, de desvariado, de derange. Taming Shrew. Dans La Celestina, meme celui qui n'a pas encore ete identifie, puisqu'on ne lui a pas encore ouvert la porte a laquelle il est en train de frapper, est d'emblee traite de fou. Education In Pakistan Essay. Areusa, entendant frapper fortement a sa porte, dit ainsi a Elicia : Quiero yr abrir, que es loco o privado quien llama.28. 10 Le deferlement de la folie a travers le texte est tel, que le motif en arrive a transformer l'?uvre en une sorte de maison de fous au sein de laquelle chaque fou passerait son temps a pointer du doigt la folie de l'autre, de ses paroles, de ses actes et de ses croyances. What Argument Give Of Slave Labor?. Maison de fous qui bien sur renvoie aussi l'image d'un monde pris de folie, d'un monde insense, denue de sens. Education Essay. Ravi de compter un fou d'amour de plus en la personne de Parmeno, Sempronio fait ainsi le lien entre la folie des personnages et celle du monde : Ya todos amamos ? El mundo se va a perder ! Calisto a Melibea, yo a Elicia ; tu, de envidia, has buscado con quien perder esse poco de seso que tienes.29. 11 Et Parmeno de lui repondre que si la folie etait souffrance, le monde ne serait plus que hurlement de douleur : Luego, locura es amar y yo soy loco y sin seso ? Pues si la locura fuesse dolores, en cada casa avria bozes.30. 31 M. Nucleus Function. Foucault, Histoire de la folie a l'age classique , Paris, Gallimard, 1972, p. In Pakistan Essay. 45-46. Lewis Price Match Policy. 32 lbid., p. In Pakistan. 317.

12 Dans son Histoire de la folie a l'age classique 31 , Michel Foucault montre bien comment, a cette epoque charniere qu'est la Renaissance, tout ce qui a pu etre eprouve de ou formule sur la folie a ete anime par un affrontement que l'on retrouve au sein de La Celestina, affrontement entre deux images opposees de la folie, qui toutes deux renvoient au vide. Of A Salesman. D'un cote on in pakistan, trouve une folie tragique, sombre, reliee au theme de la mort et de la chute, et l'on remarquera a ce propos que dans l'?uvre, trois morts, celles de Calisto, Sempronio et Parmeno, sont reliees avec insistance a l'image des sesos, de la cervelle repandue a terre, de la cervelle qui s'est ecoulee de la tete des sin seso, des fous decerveles. Match. Coincidence textuelle qui tisse un lien entre mort, une forme de neant, et folie. In Pakistan. De l'autre cote on john price policy, trouve une folie rieuse, gorgee de conscience critique, interrogeant le monde, et cette fois on in pakistan essay, se souviendra que le fou Calisto, dans sa comique folie, est aussi celui qui interroge le contenu des notions et donne a voir leur vide, comme le font a un degre ou un autre tous les fous, c'est-a-dire presque tous les personnages, de l'?uvre. What Argument In Support. La folie, en outre, ne renvoie pas seulement a l'idee d'un monde vide de sens. Education Essay. Elle est aussi une incarnation du concept de vide, elle est le vide lui-meme. Rite. Dans l'ouvrage cite plus haut, M. In Pakistan Essay. Foucault souligne ainsi le lien etabli entre folie et vide, des la progressive disparition, a partir du XV e siecle, de la croyance au role du Diable dans la genese des troubles mentaux. Lewis Price Policy. Il ecrit que la folie etait alors devenue : la manifestation (.) du non-etre, (.), une folie eprouvee comme deraison, c'est-a-dire comme negativite vide de la raison 32. In Pakistan Essay. Cette folie entendue comme negativite pure, entendue comme vide de la raison, est d'ailleurs bien celle que l'on retrouve dans la definition qu'en fournit le dictionnaire de Covarrubias, le Tesoro de la lengua castellana, ecrit en 1611, ou Sebastian de Covarrubias donne une etymologie aussi fausse qu'interessante pour l'entree loco (fou). About. Il associe en effet a la fois etroitement et de facons multiples la folie au vide dans sa definition du terme : 33 Sebastian de Covarrubias, Tesoro de la lengua castellana o espanola, Edicion de Martin de Riquer, B (. Essay. ) La etimologia deste vocablo tornara loco a cualquier hombre cuerdo, porque no se halla cosa que hincha su vacio.

Y sea su primera interpretacion de la palabra locus, loci, por el lugar, atento que al loco solemos llamar vacio y sin seso ; y assi aquel lugar parece que queda sin llenarse.33. 34 On pourra lire a ce propos l'introduction de Keith Whinnom a La carcel de amor : Diego de San Pedro (. Is The. ) 13 Ainsi, pour les esprits du temps et ceux de la periode posterieure, c'est aussi l'image du vide que demultiplie l'?uvre lorsqu'elle fait deferler les fous, fous qui sont en outre souvent associes, a la fois par le savoir medical de l'epoque et par les fictions, a l'element aerien, representation materielle au plus pres de cet immateriel qu'est le vide. Education In Pakistan. Pour les medecins34, ce sont ainsi les vapeurs empoisonnees du desir insatisfait qui montent au cerveau de l'amant et le plongent dans la demence, ou bien encore, dans le domaine litteraire, on of spring riot, verra le Criticon de Gracian associer la folie d'orgueil a l'element air. Essay. En ce sens, il n'est pas ininteressant de remarquer que lorsque la prostituee Areusa met en place sa manipulation de Sosia, elle dit a sa compagne Elicia qu'elle projette, pour rendre Sosia fou d'amour, de le gonfler du vent de la flatterie, afin de lui insuffler l'orgueilleuse illusion d'etre le seul homme dans son c?ur. Taming Shrew Character Analysis. Elle dit en effet : lo paro lleno de viento de lisonjas.35.

14 Le monde plein de vide de La Celestina, c'est aussi celui du vide de la parole et de la parole dans le vide. 15 Cette parole vide, je la vois apparaitre notamment a travers l'ostentation, l'exhibition, de la mecanique rhetorique. Education In Pakistan. Cette ostentation releve bien sur en premier lieu du projet esthetique d'un auteur desireux de faire montre de sa capacite a manier les figures de la rhetorique. Rite Of Spring Riot. Le morceau de bravoure artistique n'en est pas moins porteur d'un sens justement en rapport avec le vide de la parole. Education In Pakistan Essay. Quelques courts exemples. John Lewis Match. Pour convaincre Melibea de se rendre, Celestina lui fait valoir la souffrance d'amour de Calisto, strategie qui recueille dans un premier temps la colere de Melibea. Education In Pakistan. Pour se defendre, Celestina recourt alors au syllogisme : mis palabras (. Taming Of The Character Analysis. ) en si no eran malas ; que cada dia ay hombres penados por mugeres y mugeres por hombres, y esto obra la natura y la natura ordenola Dios, y Dios no hizo cosa mala 36 . 16 L'auteur fait ici ostentation du maniement pervers d'une rhetorique sophistique, destinee a tromper grace au masque de la logique. In Pakistan Essay. Or cette ostentation est doublement interessante. Did Southerners Labor?. Parce qu'elle exhibe l'ossature du discours, sa mecanique, elle peut tout d'abord etre lue comme un contre-discours implicite oppose par l'intentionnalite edifiante aux sophismes de Celestina. Education In Pakistan. La parole de Celestina epouse en effet le moule de la rhetorique sophistique au point de se denoncer elle-meme comme sophisme, au point d'attirer l'attention sur sa nature fallacieuse. What Argument Give Labor?. Lorsqu'elle recourt au meme type de figure pour convaincre Parmeno de suivre ses conseils, l'arme rhetorique maniee par Celestina est a ce point apparente que Parmeno ne se laisse pas meme prendre par ce qu'il appelle des [palabras] envueltas en dulce veneno 37, c'est-a-dire des mots baignes dans le doux poison.

Jusqu'a un certain point, Celestina partage cependant sa maitrise des rhetoriques ou des codes formels avec la quasi-totalite des personnages, et chacun y va de son petit discours rhetorique, toujours oriente dans le sens qui l'arrange. Essay. Or, a travers cette exhibition de la mecanique rhetorique, on what argument did southerners give in support labor?, peut lire aussi une volonte de l'auteur de donner a voir, en negatif, le creux qui se trouve a l'interieur du moule. Education Essay. Ce que la parole a de pre-fixe, de pre-etabli, de formel, est exhibe jusqu'a faire naitre l'impression que la parole est toute entiere dans sa seule forme, qu'elle est une forme desincarnee, videe. What Is The. La parole, comme le rappelle Areusa lorsqu'elle projette de souffler la parole flatteuse dans l'esprit de Sosia pour le rendre fou d'amour, c'est du vent. Education. On remarquera en outre la proliferation, tout au long de l'?uvre, des termes vano/vana, de vanus (vide), ou bien hueco (creux), associes a l'idee de parole. What In Support. Parmi de multiples exemples possibles38, on in pakistan, pourrait citer vanos y huecos prometimientos (vaines et creuses promesses), vanas palabras (mots vains), vanos consejos (vains conseils). Essay Bittorrent. Quant a l'inscription du discours dans le registre du code litteraire, elle produit le meme effet : la parole y apparait creuse, desincarnee. Education. Que l'on pense par exemple a la premiere rencontre de Calisto et Melibea dans le jardin. Rite Riot. Le code courtois sous-jacent au discours amoureux de Calisto est a ce point perceptible que la parole d'amour est videe jusqu'a n'etre plus qu'un moule revelateur de son propre creux. In Pakistan Essay. Areusa le fait d'ailleurs remarquer a Sosia, lorsqu'elle se plaint a lui que tous les hommes aient toujours sous la main, pour seduire les femmes, de ces mots coules au moule : todos los hombres traygays proveydas essas razones (.) tan comunes para todas, hechas de molde.39. 17 Quant aux paroles de Melibea dans cette premiere scene de rencontre, elles sont elles aussi truquees, minees de l'interieur par l'ostentation de leur caractere conventionnel, par l'exhibition de l'intertextualite qu'elles integrent.

Derriere la colere de Melibea, de la jeune fille noble a la vertu offensee, on death of a act 1 summary, entend en effet resonner toutes les coleres litteraires de ses cons?urs fictionnelles, mais aussi et surtout, on essay, entend resonner la tradition misogyne medievale, le fameux : 40 Juan Ruiz, Arcipreste de Hita, Libro de Buen Amor, Edicion de G. Essay. B. Essay. Gybbon Monypenny, Madrid, Casta (. Essay About. ) Todas las fenbras han en si estas maneras ; al comienco del fecho syenpre son refferteras40. 41 Ed. Essay. cit., p. Price. 331, 353, 358, etc. Education In Pakistan Essay. 42 Ed. Rite. cit ., p. Education In Pakistan Essay. 460. 18 du Libro de buen amor (1341), qui a l'instar de tant d'autres textes du Moyen Age, predit par ces vers l'immanquable transformation du non initial de la belle en un oui d'autant plus ardent que le non qui l'a precede aura ete violent. About Bittorrent. Celestina est bien la d'ailleurs pour relayer explicitement le message implicite de l'intertextualite, et rappeler que le refus initial de la belle n'est que le premier pas d'une danse bien connue, et ce a diverses reprises41. Essay. Grace a l'intertextualite, grace a la superposition des objets fictionnels que cette derniere implique, la colere initiale de Melibea se voit donc ravalee au rang de toutes ces coleres litteraires, semblables a la sienne ou pires encore qu'elle, et qui pourtant ont fini par ceder le terrain, et ce avec ardeur et allegresse. Essay About. Cette colere initiale de Melibea devient ainsi le signe de son immanquable reddition future, et c'est la force meme de cette colere qui revele sa faiblesse. Education In Pakistan. Ainsi, en denoncant le vide de la parole, l'exhibition du moule formel parvient aussi a vider les personnages de leur substance.

Calisto, par exemple, dans un premier moment de l'?uvre, s'identifie si pleinement, d'un point de vue formel, au code courtois, qu'il en devient une sorte de pantin, une mecanique susceptible de s'enrayer au moindre grain dans le rouage, a la moindre atteinte du code. Is The. Alors que Celestina lui fait valoir a quel point Melibea est deja toute a lui, il implore l'entremetteuse de bien vouloir parler cortes 42, c'est-a-dire a la fois, pour la forme espagnole, courtoisement et en respectant les codes de l'amour courtois. Essay. Le texte donne ainsi a voir le personnage de Calisto comme incapable de fonctionner autrement qu'a travers ce code courtois, code courtois qui veut que lui, le siervo de amor, le serf ou esclave d'amour, soit tout a elle, et non qu'elle, la toute-puissante Dama et alta mugier, soit toute a lui, comme osait le pretendre Celestina. 19 Dans La Celestina, la parole vide est en outre tres souvent proferee dans le vide. 20 Le fonctionnement de la parole adressee au vide apparait par exemple de facon particulierement interessante dans la scene du cordon. Price Match Policy. Victorieuse, car elle attribue a ce don de Melibea une fonction proleptique qui annonce le don futur du corps de la jeune fille, l'entremetteuse remet a Calisto le cordon que Melibea a fini par accorder. Education. Dans un premier temps, Calisto recourt de facon traditionnelle a la figure rhetorique appelee prosopopee, qui permet de s'adresser a un objet inanime comme s'il etait humain. Salesman. De facon traditionnelle, c'est-a-dire en maniant des formes interrogatives et exclamatives dont le caractere formel reste present a l'esprit du personnage. Education In Pakistan Essay. Cependant, tres vite, l'auteur va outrer le procede43, jusqu'a mettre en scene un Calisto attendant veritablement une reponse du cordon, l'implorant ou le sommant tour a tour de repondre, un Calisto amoureux d'un cordon dont il a litteralement oublie le statut d'objet inanime. John Lewis Match Policy. Le Calisto ici mis en scene, c'est bien sur tout d'abord un Calisto fou, fou fetichiste qui reve aux secrets du corps merveilleux que le cordon a du voir : oh que secretos habras visto.44. 21 Le Calisto de cette scene est cependant aussi un Calisto amoureux de l'objet en tant que tel, amoureux d'un vide et adressant ses paroles d'amour au vide, a un objet qui finit par eclipser Melibea elle-meme.

22 Celestina releve bien cette disparition de la personne de Melibea sous l'objet cordon. Education In Pakistan. Elle parle de delire et rappelle Calisto a l'ordre en lui demandant de veiller a traiter le cordon en cordon, sans confondre la personne avec l'objet : deves, senor, (. Taming Of The Character Analysis. ) tratar al cordon como cordon. Education. (. Riot. ) no haga tu lengua yguales la persona y el vestido.45. 23 De meme, Sempronio souligne egalement cet aneantissement progressif de Melibea auquel aboutit le discours d'amour que son maitre Calisto est en train d'adresser au cordon. Essay. C'est sur le mode comique qu'il le fait, en insinuant que son maitre est en train de vivre un instant erotique avec le cordon au lieu de le vivre avec Melibea, grace a un jeu sur l'equivoque des termes holgar, qui dans la langue de l'epoque a pour sens prendre du plaisir, sexuel ou non, et gozar, qui encore aujourd'hui signifie jouir, sexuellement ou non : Senor, por holgar con el cordon no querras gozar de Melibea.46. 47 Ed. Death Salesman. cit ., p. Education Essay. 421 et 538. What Argument Did Southerners Give In Support Labor?. 48 Ed. Education In Pakistan Essay. cit ., p. Of The Character Analysis. 533. 24 Ainsi, en s'adressant au vide de l'objet, Calisto en arrive-t-il a reduire a neant l'existence de Melibea. In Pakistan. Ce n'est pas seulement de sa substance de Dama dont Melibea est ici videe. Death Salesman Summary. Les contre-portraits de Melibea, par exemple ceux que brosse la jalouse Elicia en associant Melibea a des evocations repugnantes47, ou bien plus largement, la degradation comique dont le personnage de Melibea fait l'objet tout au long de l'?uvre, parviennent a vider le personnage de sa substance litteraire de Dama de la tradition courtoise.

Mais il s'agit dans la scene du cordon de plus que cela, car ce n'est pas seulement de sa substance de Dama, mais aussi de son existence aux yeux de celui-la meme qui pretend l'aimer, dont Melibea se voit ici videe. Education Essay. Elle n'est plus qu'idee desincarnee. Is The Nucleus. De nombreux liens tissent une parente entre Melibea et la Dulcinea du Quichotte (1605 et 1615) de Cervantes. Education Essay. Cette scene de La Celestina, en particulier, permet de voir en Melibea les germes de Dulcinea, pure invention de Don Quichotte, lequel decrete qu'il lui faut aimer, puisque les chevaliers aiment tous, et qui dans ce but s'invente une chimere d'amour a adorer dans les regles de l'art, avec la constance et la conviction d'une foi inebranlable. Did Southerners Give In Support Of Slave. Il est d'ailleurs dans La Celestina un autre exemple interessant de cet aneantissement de l'autre au moyen de la parole adressee au vide. In Pakistan. En colere contre Centurio, Areusa commence par s'irriter contre le personnage en s'adressant a lui a la deuxieme personne du singulier.

Puis soudain, Areusa48, alors que Centurio est toujours bien present, recourt a la troisieme personne en parlant devant lui de ce poltron, de ses mensonges, de la folie de l'avoir laisse entrer chez elle, en se demandant ce qu 'il peut bien avoir pour plaire. What Argument Give In Support Of Slave Labor?. Et s'ensuit un portrait de Centurio qui metamorphose ce dernier en un objet grotesquement hideux, portrait qui ne prendra fin qu'avec l'ordre de disparaitre. Education. L'exemple est d'autant plus interessant qu'ici l'interlocuteur est present, mais qu'il est delocute, exclu du champ de l'interlocution. Lewis Match. Ainsi la parole vide de La Celestina peut-elle etre aussi une parole adressee au vide et qui, ce faisant, vide l'autre, le reduit a neant. 49 C. Education. Heusch, L'invention de Rojas : La Celestine, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 2008, p. Essay. 1 (. Education In Pakistan Essay. ) 25 Comme l'a bien remarque Carlos Heusch49 en etudiant l'evolution du dialogue vers le monologue a travers l'?uvre, le creux des personnages se voit progressivement comble, etoffe d'une dimension qui a la fois complexifie, humanise et individualise le personnage. John Lewis Match. Ce comblement progressif du vide des personnages ne marque cependant pas la fin du protagonisme du vide dans l'?uvre. 50 Ed. Education Essay. cit ., p. Riot. 532 et 536.

51 Ed. Education In Pakistan. cit., p. Character. 581-582. 26 Au contraire, a mesure que les personnages s'emplissent, c'est le monde autour d'eux qui se vide, un vide dont ils acquierent une conscience de plus en plus aigue et qui les laisse seuls face au vide tragique du monde. In Pakistan Essay. C'est par exemple Elicia qui se desespere de ne trouver personne avec qui partager sa peine a la mort de son amoureux Sempronio50, c'est Melibea reprochant a Calisto de la laisser lancer ses paroles insensees dans le vide51, c'est Calisto qui, a l'oppose de celui qu'il a ete durant la scene du cordon, devient celui qui s'effraie de parler tout seul, de s'adresser au vide : Que digo ? Con quien hablo ?52. 27 Enfin, c'est surtout Pleberio, Pleberio et le vide immense que son planctus donne a voir. John. Ce planctus, comme tous les llantos, se construit en grande partie sur les figures prefixees de la rhetorique, et s'adresser a l'absent fait justement partie integrante de la convention du planctus. In Pakistan. Il n'empeche. Death Of A Salesman Act 1 Summary. La facon dont Fernando de Rojas joue avec la contrainte, la facon dont il renove la convention, confere a ce planctus une force et une charge emotionnelle extraordinaires, qui font toucher du doigt le vide laisse par l'absence, qui rendent tangible le vide laisse par la mort de l'etre aime. In Pakistan. La force expressive du vide qui plane sur ce planctus de Pleberio gagne, car elle en ressort comme mise en relief et revelee, a etre mise en perspective avec le traitement poetique du vide dans le llanto de la mere du Leriano de la Carcel de amor.

Dans la Carcel de amor (1492), ?uvre de Diego de San Pedro parfaitement contemporaine de La Celestina et dont cette derniere est en partie la parodie, la mere du protagoniste Leriano, apostrophe aussi, bien sur, le fils mort qu'elle est en train de pleurer. What Is The. Pourtant le vide laisse par son absence n'a pas la meme resonance. Education In Pakistan. Tout d'abord parce que la mere de Leriano conclut sur de futures retrouvailles avec son fils dans l'au-dela, sa foi en une vie autre fermant le planctus sur une note d'espoir. Of Spring Riot. Ensuite, parce que son planctus n'a pas le dernier mot de l'?uvre, qui ensuite donne a entendre, a travers le recit de l 'auctor, un Leriano s'enfoncant doucement dans une mort paisible qui met fin a sa souffrance. 53 D. In Pakistan. de San Pedro, Carcel de amor. In Support Of Slave Labor?. p. Education In Pakistan. 176. Acabados son mis males53. 28 ou c'en est fini de ma douleur, dit en effet Leriano avant de s'eteindre, et comme remerciant la mort de le delivrer. Y assi quedo su muerte en testimonio de su fe54.

29 ajoute ensuite l 'auctor, ici le messager, donnant ainsi un sens a la mort de Leriano. Act 1 Summary. Si la poetique du vide mise en ?uvre dans le planctus de Pleberio s'avere dramatiquement plus efficace, c'est aussi cependant parce que Fernando de Rojas, dans le planctus de Pleberio, a su allier a la convention rhetorique, a l'expression emphatique de la douleur, la peinture de la quotidiennete du malheur, le prosaisme de la souffrance et de la solitude laissees par le vide. Education In Pakistan. Le pere s'adresse a sa fille morte, au vide, et a cette fille absente, a ce vide, il parle justement du vide qu'elle laisse. Rite. Du vide qu'elle laisse dans sa vie vue comme abstraction, mais surtout, et c'est la ce que j'appelle le prosaisme de la souffrance laissee par le vide, il parle du vide concret, presque materiel, qu'elle laisse dans va vie quotidienne, sa petite vie de tous les jours. In Pakistan. Que ferai-je quand je rentrerai dans ta chambre et que je la trouverai vide ? Que ferai-je quand je t'appellerai et que tu ne me repondras pas ? , interroge-t-il, en effet55. Taming Of The Character Analysis. C'est precisement dans l'evocation du vide concret laissee par la fille morte que me semble resider une sorte de condensation poetique du vide cree par l'absence, ou du vide irremediable laisse par la mort. 30 Une mort qui progressivement envahit l'?uvre, et dont l'envahissement se voit poetise par la metamorphose, dans la bouche d'Areusa, du locus amoenus du jardin de Melibea en jardin noir plonge dans les tenebres du malheur et de la mort. In Pakistan. Souhaitant voir mourir les amants trop heureux qui ont involontairement cause la mort de son amoureux, Areusa peint ainsi de noir et de desolation le jardin de leurs doux ebats : Las yerbas deleytosas donde tomays los hurtados solazes se conviertan en culebras, los cantares se os tornen lloro, los sombrosos arboles del huerto se sequen con vuestra vista, sus flores olorosas se tornen de negra color.56. 31 Une mort qui vide l'?uvre de presque tous ses personnages, fauchant tout d'abord Celestina, Sempronio, Parmeno, puis Calisto, Melibea, et peut-etre meme, car une ambiguite subsiste a ce propos, Alisa, la mere de Melibea. Did Southerners Give Of Slave. Pourquoi, si tu es bien morte, me laisses-tu porter seul la souffrance ? demande en effet Pleberio a sa femme, qu'il voit couchee sur le cadavre de leur fille57.

Vide de la mort et vide de la solitude de celui qui doit porter seul l'incommunicable souffrance viennent ici se confondre, en cet ultime instant de l'?uvre. Education In Pakistan Essay. Ultime instant de l'?uvre qui donne a voir un personnage seul en scene, s'adressant au vide pour lui parler du vide, du vide laisse en son c?ur par la mort de la fille aimee mais aussi du vide abyssal d'un monde sans immanence et qui n'est plus que beance. Essay About. Personnage seul en scene qui lance les tout derniers mots de l'?uvre dans une interrogation dont le desespoir semble aussi vain que l'espoir : Por que me dexaste triste y solo in education hac lachrimarum valle ?58. 32 Vide de la mort qui est aussi d'ailleurs dans La Celestina mort dans le vide. John Lewis Price Match Policy. C'est en effet d'une fenetre que Parmeno et Sempronio tombent dans le vide avant d'etre acheves. Education Essay. C'est d'une echelle que Calisto tombe dans le vide, ce vide sur lequel Fernando de Rojas fait insister Melibea, lorsqu'elle raconte a son pere la mort de son amant Calisto : Puso el pie en vazio 59, il a mis le pied dans le vide, precise-telle en effet de facon significative. Shrew. Enfin, c'est aussi dans le vide que se jette Melibea depuis le haut de la tour, un vide dont les dernieres paroles de Melibea donnent d'ailleurs a entendre la profondeur. Education In Pakistan. Les derniers mots de Melibea sont en effet ceux-ci, adresses a son pere qu'elle previent de sa chute imminente dans le vide : este cuerpo que alla baxa.60. 33 Dans ces ultimes paroles de Melibea, l'on remarquera en espagnol la forme en a du deictique alla, particulierement propre a dire le deplacement vers, la trajectoire vers, une forme en a qui de cette facon, devient en quelque sorte instrument de mesure du vide qui va engloutir Melibea. Salesman. En ce sens, j'aime bien laisser au mot pozo de la premiere phrase du planctus de Pleberio son sens de puits, meme s'il peut aussi vouloir dire sepulcre dans la langue de l'epoque. Education In Pakistan. Nuestro gozo en el pozo 61 (notre bonheur au fond du puits), dit en effet Pleberio.

Cette image du puits au fond duquel sombre le bonheur me semble en effet en parfaite adequation avec le vide qui hante l'?uvre. 34 Le vide du Planctus de Pleberio et de l'?uvre dans son entier, c'est enfin cette vacance du ciel, ce vide d'un monde que Dieu aurait abandonne ou deserte, ce vide d'un monde prive du sens que lui donnait une providence en laquelle on Bittorrent, ne croit plus, en laquelle Pleberio ne parvient plus a croire62, ce vide d'un monde denue de spiritualite et qui autorise Carlos Fuentes a parler d'une expulsion de Dieu : Entre l'allegresse orale de la jeunesse et la tristesse muette de la vieillesse, Fernando de Rojas se contente d'exister a jamais dans un livre. In Pakistan. Sa vengeance secrete consiste a expulser Dieu, en silence, de la cite et du livre : il n'y a pas une seule reference a Dieu dans La Celestina. Shrew. 63 , 64 J. In Pakistan. Ruiz, Libro. Argument Of Slave Labor?. p. Education. 308, strophe 958. 35 Je ne fournirai qu'un seul exemple, significatif, de ce vide spirituel, grace a un dernier examen du maniement de l'intertextualite par l'auteur. Essay About. Il existe dans le Libro de buen amor (1341) de Juan Ruiz un episode appele episode des serranas. Essay. Je n'entrerai pas ici dans la tres grande complexite des serranas mais dirai simplement que ces entites feminines que sont les serranas integrent une dimension d'initiatrice et de guide du protagoniste, egare dans la froidure des montagnes.

Elles le conduisent, au terme d'epreuves initiatiques, vers le bon chemin, vers la voie menant a la verite de Dieu. John Lewis Policy. Au sein de l'episode, ce role de guide spirituel des serranas est poetiquement figure par l'aide physique qu'elles apportent au personnage, en le prenant sur leur dos pour l'aider a traverser les rivieres et gravir les montagnes64. Education Essay. On trouve une reminiscence de cet episode clef dans La Celestina, lorsque la vieille entremetteuse rassure Calisto sur le succes de son entremise. Essay. Elle reconforte en effet Calisto en lui assurant qu'elle sera capable d'aplanir les rochers sous ses pas, de lui faire franchir des rivieres en crue : que te haria llanas las penas para andar, que te faria las mas crescidas aguas corrientes pasar sin mojarte.65. 36 Cette reminiscence du Libro de buen amor se voit cependant brutalement videe de sa dimension spirituelle par la petite phrase que Fernando de Rojas place dans la bouche de Celestina. In Pakistan. Cette derniere, qui dans les vers cites vient de renvoyer a l'image des serranas du Libro de buen amor, ajoute en effet que Calisto connait bien mal l'efficacite de celle a qui il donne son argent66. Taming Of The Shrew Analysis. En quelques mots ajoutes a la trame primitive du livre de Juan Ruiz, Fernando de Rojas transforme l'initiatrice-guide en entremetteuse cupide que seul l'argent motive, et l'initie en client de la marchande de luxure. Education Essay. En quelques mots, Fernando de Rojas fait basculer la spiritualite du Libro de buen amor dans le vide de La Celestina. 67 Voir sur ce point Joseph Perez, La Celestina , livre converso ou livre de converso ? , dans Fern (. Rite Riot. ) 37 La poetique du vide cultivee par l'ecriture de La Celestina peut etre lue a travers le prisme du lien qui la relie a la transformation de cette societe espagnole qui voit l'argent, celui du Nouveau Monde que Christophe Colomb vient de decouvrir (1492) sous l'egide de la couronne de Castille, affluer et venir se substituer aux valeurs chevaleresques. Education In Pakistan. Tout aussi pertinemment, cette poetique du vide peut etre mise en correlation avec le scepticisme du milieu de convers intellectuels et laics, globalement peu ou non croyants ou pratiquants, parmi lesquels Fernando de Rojas a pu vivre67. Price Match. Ou bien encore et peut-etre surtout, elle peut etre reliee a la desesperance du convers voyant sa terre d'Espagne, celle qui l'a vu naitre comme elle a vu naitre ses ancetres, devenir le theatre d'une chasse a l'Autre que les nouveaux statuts de purete de sang (1449) viennent marquer au fer rouge de l'exclusion et que la recente entree en fonction de l'Inquisition (1480) transforme en cible privilegiee de repression et de suspicion.

Cette poetique du vide me semble cependant aussi devoir etre lue comme signe precoce d'un humanisme naissant qui, pour mener a bien sa vaste entreprise de revision des concepts, doit avant tout vider ces derniers de leur contenu prealable. Education. C'est la une poetique du vide pleine de son vide. Argument Did Southerners In Support Of Slave Labor?. Car le monde de La Celestina est bien plein, riche, de son vide, un vide qui porte en germe les questionnements d'un Cervantes aussi bien que le desengano d'un Quevedo, le monde pris de folie d'un Gracian comme le vide baroque d'un Calderon, et au-dela peut-etre encore, la tabula rasa du rationalisme cartesien, le nihilisme nietzscheen, et tout le vide immense des philosophies de l'absurde. 1 Fernando de Rojas, La Celestina, Comedia o tragicomedia de Calisto j Melibea, Edicion, introduccion y notas de Peter E. Education In Pakistan Essay. Russell, Madrid, Clasicos Castalia, 2008. What Argument Give In Support. Toutes les references a l'?uvre renverront a cette edition. 2 Pour une etude reliant precisement La Celestina a son contexte, on education in pakistan essay, pourra consulter Vincent Parello, Aquel mudar de trajes, aquel derribar j renovar edificios : la modernite historico-sociale de La Celestina , dans Fernando de Rojas : La Celestina, comedia o tragicomedia de Calisto j Melibea, George Martin (dir.), Paris, Ellipses, 2008, p. Rite Riot. 7-20. 3 Pour une synthese des controverses liees au probleme d'autorite pose par La Celestina, on education in pakistan, pourra se reporter a l'introduction de Peter E. Taming Of The Analysis. Russell dans l'edition utilisee. 5 C. In Pakistan Essay. Heusch, Las desviaciones de Parmeno o la caida de un angel , Celestinesca, 26, 1-2, 2002, p. Salesman. 29-44. 6 F. Education Essay. de Rojas, ed. Death Act 1. cit ., p. Education Essay. 269 : no sabes nada del mundo ni de sus deleytes . 9 Ed. What Did Southerners In Support Labor?. cit ., p. Education. 509 ou 585 par exemple.

11 F. Give Labor?. Delpech, Systeme erotique et mythologie folklorique dans les conjuros amatorios , dans Amours legitimes, amours illegitimes en Espagne (XVl e -XVll e siecles), Augustin Redondo (dir.), Paris, Publications de la Sorbonne, 1985, p. Education Essay. 213-230, voir p. Riot. 220. 12 Jose Maria Diez Borque, Conjuros, oraciones, ensalmos : formas marginales de la poesia oral en los siglos de oro , Bulletin hispanique, n1-2, janvier-juin 1985, p. Essay. 47-87. 17 Ed. What. cit ., p. In Pakistan Essay. 477 : ? En quien fallare yo fe ? ? Adonde ay verdad ? ? Quien carece de engano ? ? Adonde no moran falsarios ? ? Quien es claro enemigo ? ? Quien es verdadero amigo ? ? Donde ne se fabrican traiciones ? 22 O. Of A Act 1. Biaggini, Sentencia a mi ver digna de perpetua y recordable memoria : mise en scene et subversion de Yauctoritas dans La Celestine , dans Lectures de La Celestine, Virginie Dumanoir et Ricardo Saez (dir.), Rennes, Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2008, p. Education. 125156. 24 J.-P. Of Spring Riot. Lecertua, Le jardin de Melibee : metaphores sexuelles et connotations symboliques dans quelques episodes de La Celestine , Trames : Etudes Iberiques 2 (1978), p. In Pakistan. 105-138. 26 Voir Martine Bigeard, La folie et les fous litteraires en Espagne (1500-1650), Paris, Centre de Recherches d'Etudes Hispaniques, 1972, p. About Bittorrent. 18.

31 M. In Pakistan Essay. Foucault, Histoire de la folie a l'age classique , Paris, Gallimard, 1972, p. Labor?. 45-46. 33 Sebastian de Covarrubias, Tesoro de la lengua castellana o espanola, Edicion de Martin de Riquer, Barcelona, Alta Fulla, 1993, p. Education In Pakistan Essay. 770b. 34 On pourra lire a ce propos l'introduction de Keith Whinnom a La carcel de amor : Diego de San Pedro, La carcel de amor, Edicion de K. Act 1. Whinnom, Madrid, Clasicos Castalia, 1971, p. In Pakistan Essay. 26. 40 Juan Ruiz, Arcipreste de Hita, Libro de Buen Amor, Edicion de G. John Price Match Policy. B. In Pakistan Essay. Gybbon Monypenny, Madrid, Castalia, 1988, p. What Give Labor?. 237, strophe 632, v. Education In Pakistan Essay. 1-2. 49 C. Bittorrent. Heusch, L'invention de Rojas : La Celestine, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 2008, p. Education In Pakistan Essay. 137-146. 53 D. Of Spring Riot. de San Pedro, Carcel de amor. Education. p. Essay Bittorrent. 176. 62 Ed. Education Essay. cit ., p. Riot. 617 619 notamment.

64 J. Education Essay. Ruiz, Libro. Essay About. p. In Pakistan Essay. 308, strophe 958. 67 Voir sur ce point Joseph Perez, La Celestina , livre converso ou livre de converso ? , dans Fernando de Rojas : La Celestina , p. Salesman Act 1. 21-29, p. Education Essay. 23-28 en particulier. Odile Lasserre Dempure , La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas : un monde plein de vide , Babel , 22 | 2010, 11-30. Odile Lasserre Dempure , La Celestina de Fernando de Rojas : un monde plein de vide , Babel [En ligne], 22 | 2010, mis en ligne le 18 juillet 2013, consulte le 02 octobre 2017. Taming Shrew Analysis. URL : http://babel.revues.org/206 ; DOI : 10.4000/babel.206. Babel (EA 2649) Universite du Sud Toulon-Var. Agregee d'Espagnol, Maitre de Conferences a l'Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, specialiste du domaine Espagne du Siecle d'Or (XVI e et XVII e siecles), membre et membre associe des laboratoires Babel (EA 2649 Universite du Sud Toulon-Var) et CRES-LECEMO (EA 3979 Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle), Odile Lasserre-Dempure a soutenu a l'Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle une these de doctorat intitulee : Maison et femme dans le theatre profane de Luis Velez de Guevara (1578-1644). Education. Recherches sur la dramatisation de l'espace reel et symbolique de la feminite. Rite Of Spring. Ses activites de recherche ont fait l'objet de plusieurs publications et privilegient actuellement l'etude des concepts de theatralite (scenographie), d'alterite (representation litteraire de la diversite religieuse, sexuelle ou identitaire), ainsi que celle de la strategie narrative et de ses implications esthetiques, philosophiques et ideologiques (poetiques de la mobilite, du vide, de la confusion). Agregee d'Espagnol, Maitre de Conferences a l'Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, specialiste du domaine Espagne du Siecle d'Or (XVI e et XVII e siecles), membre et membre associe des laboratoires Babel (EA 2649 Universite du Sud Toulon-Var) et CRES-LECEMO (EA 3979 Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle), Odile Lasserre-Dempure a soutenu a l'Universite de Paris III Sorbonne-Nouvelle une these de doctorat intitulee : Maison et femme dans le theatre profane de Luis Velez de Guevara (1578-1644). Education. Recherches sur la dramatisation de l'espace reel et symbolique de la feminite.

Ses activites de recherche ont fait l'objet de plusieurs publications et privilegient actuellement l'etude des concepts de theatralite (scenographie), d'alterite (representation litteraire de la diversite religieuse, sexuelle ou identitaire), ainsi que celle de la strategie narrative et de ses implications esthetiques, philosophiques et ideologiques (poetiques de la mobilite, du vide, de la confusion). Polichinelle, patrimoine immateriel de notre temps. Lethos en poesie 33 | 2016. Litteratures et arts contemporains : lhybridite a l?uvre 32 | 2015. Histoire culturelle des points cardinaux 31 | 2015. The Masculine South 30 | 2014. Paysages mediterraneens Correspondances poetiques 29 | 2014. Horizons des mondes mediterraneen et atlantique : imaginaires compares 28 | 2013. Le prisme americain 27 | 2013. Actualite(s) de Montherlant 26 | 2012. Renverser la norme : figures de la rupture dans le monde hispanique 25 | 2012.

Images de la folie au tournant du Moyen Age et de la Renaissance 24 | 2011. Litterature et cinema 22 | 2010. La Celestina : etudes croisees 20 | 2009. Ecrire la montagne 19 | 2009. Univers fictionnels dans le monde hispanique 18 | 2008. Du bilinguisme en matiere de poesie 16 | 2007.

La mise en recueil des textes medievaux 15 | 2007. Le Moyen Age mis en scene : perspectives contemporaines 13 | 2006. Figures de la disparition dans le monde hispanique et latino-americain 12 | 2005. Regards culturels sur les phenomenes migratoires 8 | 2003. Le voyage initiatique, decouvertes, rencontres, experiences en montagne (XVII e -XX e siecles) 7 | 2003. Rhetoriques mediterraneennes 6 | 2002. La bibliotheque 1 4 | 2000. Litterature et propheties 3 | 1999. Ecritures heterogenes 2 | 1997. Mere Mediterranee 1 | 1996. ISSN electronique 2263-4746.

Informations Titre : Babel Litteratures plurielles En bref : Revue de litterature comparative et multingue.

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essay on education in pakistan essay hvtn 505 The path forward to an efficacious HIV-1 vaccine will be expedited via the analysis of immune correlates from past and future HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials. Of Spring. Approaches that aim either to education in pakistan improve upon current findings from a partially efficacious vaccine strategy or approaches toward the generation of broadly neutralizing antibodies by what is the nucleus function, rational immunogen design strategies are likely to be fast-tracked through careful probing of the intersections of immune correlate analyses within and among human vaccine clinical trials. When carefully interrogated for essay, correlates of risk (immune responses and host/virus genetics), each of the efficacy trials (failed or partially efficacious) can provide new information to advance the HIV-1 vaccine development field. Taming Of The Shrew Character. In some cases, clues about in pakistan, potentially protective immune responses can be discerned, and of equal importance, potentially detrimental or distracting immune responses can be identified. Lewis Price Policy. Immunogen design strategies may benefit from essay these analyses, such that that immunogens can be paired down to essential components. Moreover, insights from these studies on how host and virus genetics play a role in vaccine-induced immunity will enable the advancement of immunogen designs toward globally efficacious vaccines across different populations. The intersection of correlate analyses or studies involving immune responses (innate, cellular, humoral), host genetics (e.g., FcR expression, HLA) and HIV-1 virus sieve analyses (virus sequence analysis of all infections (placebo and vaccine groups) to determine if there were specific genetic attributes of infecting viruses that were significantly different between the two groups) are areas of the what function, highest information content for follow-up studies (Figure 1).

In this review, the education in pakistan essay, correlate analyses for HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials are described, with an emphasis on those studies that examine the intersection of different components and analyses. Due to the uniqueness of each efficacy trial and taming shrew character analysis outcome, each study can provide information regarding the minimum bar to education in pakistan overcome to death of a salesman achieve HIV-1 vaccine efficacy. Even when there is no overall vaccine efficacy, the heterogeneity of immune responses among vaccines has enabled follow-up studies to identify associations of immune responses with HIV-1 infection risk in subsets of education, vaccines. Shrew Character. Furthermore, an integral part of in pakistan, understanding immune correlates of protection is to also define patterns of immune responses that associate with non-protective vaccines. What Give In Support Labor?. One of the education in pakistan essay, major goals for the HIV-1 vaccine field is to define correlates of protection from HIV-1 infection, such that the field has biomarkers that will clearly predict vaccine outcome in HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials.

There have been six HIV-1 vaccine efficacy studies to date [1,2,3,4,5,6] (Table 1), each testing either a different vaccine strategy, or different populations with different risk factors and geographic locations. HIV-1 vaccine efficacy studies have been analyzed for correlates of john price match policy, infection risk; however, a correlate of protection for an HIV-1 vaccine has not yet been identified. Both the non-efficacious vaccines [7,8,9,10,11] and the one partially efficacious HIV-1 vaccine [12,13,14,15] trial have yielded several correlates of infection risk; although more weight is in pakistan, given to those findings from trials where there was overall vaccine efficacy. In total, three of these studies (VAX004, Step, and RV144) found significant correlations with HIV-1 infection risk/incidence and summary two of these studies (Step and RV144) identified potential sites of immune pressure on the virus (virus sieve). The terminology employed for describing correlates and in pakistan essay surrogates for protection from HIV-1 infection have been the focus of ongoing discussion and is the nucleus clarification [16,17,18,19]. In Pakistan Essay. It is Essay, generally agreed upon that for in pakistan, any one of the correlates of infection risk identified in RV144 to be considered a correlate of protection that reliably predicts protection from HIV-1 infection, it must be tested and proven in another clinical trial either with the same setting or in a different vaccine setting [18]. Ultimately, it is the latter confirmation of the correlate to HIV-1 vaccine efficacy in john lewis match policy, a different geographic region, different virus strains, different risk groups, etc . that is the most sought after for the development of in pakistan essay, a global HIV-1 vaccine. (Efficacy futility determined at first interim analysis after full enrollment ) Vaccine-induced immune responses have been studied to identify immune correlations with infection risk and evidence of virus sieve that can inform the design and evaluation of the next phase of vaccine efficacy trials (shaded boxes indicate reported correlations). Immunizations in argument give of slave labor?, two efficacy studies (Phambili/HVTN 503, HVTN 505) were stopped; however, follow-up of participants continues. a Vaccine Efficacy (VE) Outcome is noted as No Efficacy if there was no overall statistically significant vaccine efficacy; b MSM: Men who have sex with men; c Participants, meeting enrollment criteria, were enrolled from the general population; d TG: Transgender.

3. Cellular Immunity and education HIV-1 Vaccine Efficacy Trials. HIV-1 specific CD8 + T cells are associated with control of HIV-1 replication as demonstrated in rite riot, acute HIV-1 infection [26,27,28,29,30] (reviewed in McMichael et al. [31]) and in studies of those rare individuals who can naturally control HIV-1 infection long term [32,33,34,35,36,37]. Moreover, studies in NHP have demonstrated, as proof of concept, that vaccine induced CD8 + T cells can be protective [38,39,40,41]. In two HIV-1 efficacy trials (Step and Phambili) aimed at inducing CD8 + T cell responses (in the absence of HIV-1 envelope specific antibodies), there was no overall association with vaccine efficacy. However, these studies indicated that there were vaccine-elicited CD8 + T cells that could impact virus replication; although not sufficient enough to provide overall decreased risk of infection in education essay, the trial (either due to low magnitude/breadth/function of T cell responses and/or pre-existing vector immunity etc. ). HVTN 505, also designed to target the taming of the shrew character, induction of education, CD8 + T cell responses (as well as HIV-1 envelope specific antibodies), was discontinued and act 1 unblinded due to lack of efficacy.

Studies of the magnitude and quality of the CD8 + T cell response are ongoing. Since there was evidence of increased infections in two of the education essay, Ad5 vector based vaccine studies, Step and Phambili [42] but not in HVTN 505 [6], there is a greater emphasis on understanding immune responses to Essay vaccine vectors and impact on essay subsequent immunity. Additional studies demonstrated that there may be some cross-reactivity in the T cell responses among the different adenovirus serotypes that will have to be tested carefully going forward as vectors are chosen for clinical trials [43]. An alternate interpretation is lewis price policy, that perhaps many other types of HIV-1 vaccines induce some level of CD4 + T cell activation; however, the key is to have sufficient overall HIV-1 specific immunity to tip the balance toward protection. Despite these setbacks on understanding how to induce protective CD8 + T cell induced immune responses in human HIV-1 clinical trials, a new paradigm for in pakistan, T cell immunity has emerged from NHP vaccine studies.

Picker and Essay colleagues report on a CMV based vaccine regimen that protects NHPs from infection and education in pakistan essay induces a novel subset of of a summary, CD8 + T cells that can broadly recognize HIV-1 epitopes through class II restriction [38]. The series of papers by education in pakistan, Picker and colleagues provide new hypotheses to test for inducing effective cellular immunity, both in of the shrew analysis, terms of both new immunogen vector design and new subsets of CD8 + T cells to target with vaccine approaches. HVTN 502 (Step) and in pakistan essay HVTN 503 (Phambili); Host Genetics and Virus Sieve Analyses. The Step study [3,44] as well as the taming analysis, Phambili study [4] were test of concept studies (double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled) for induction of HIV-1 specific T cells responses. These trials tested the concept of a replication defective adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector with clade B HIV-1 genes ( gag , pol nef ) (MRKAd5) to decrease virus load in essay, those who became infected. This vaccine regimen generated antigen specific T cell responses, but overall these responses did not result in vaccine efficacy. An increased rate of HIV-1 infection was observed in vaccines compared to placebos that was associated with being uncircumcised and having pre-existing Ad5 antibodies (reviewed in Gray et al. [45]). This increased risk was confirmed in follow-up studies that also reported a waning of the increased infection risk over time [46]. In order to understand the lack of efficacy (and enhancement of infection in the vaccine group), follow-up studies were undertaken to understand the what argument did southerners give labor?, immunity that was generated by vaccination. One of the goals of in pakistan essay, these follow-up studies was to examine potentially protective responses that may be subdominant in john, the population but may impact either acquisition or disease progression in some of the vaccines. Notably, detailed analysis of the breakthrough viruses, or viruses that did establish infection despite vaccine-induced immunity, demonstrated that there was selection at in pakistan essay, specific sites indicating potential vaccine induced T cell specific immune pressure [23].

Notably, the antigen specific CD8 + T cells responses induced by what, Ad5 vaccination were to HIV-1 epitope hotspots that were different than those generated in natural infection and education essay were also directed to highly variable regions that likely can tolerate escape mutations from vaccine induced immune responses [47]. Host genetics also played a role in immunity, since those vaccines with HLA alleles (B*27, B*57, B*58:01), known to Essay Bittorrent be associated with HIV-1 control, had lower viral load [48] and their CD8 + T cells exhibited greater killing in in vitro assays [49]. Essay. Recent analysis of rite, those infected within a year of education in pakistan, their last vaccination, identified that total T cell breadth and total magnitude of the immune response after the immunization series and prior to infection significantly correlated with lower mean viral load [50]. A sieve analysis of the Step trial found that there was significant sequence divergence of the infecting viruses compared to the vaccine [23]. However, despite an observed anamnestic T cell response (from vaccine-induced immunity) after infection, the specific T cell responses measured as part of the evaluation of the policy, trial did not correspond with the sieve findings [51]. Moreover, none of the HIV-1 antigen specific T cell responses that were tested were associated with risk of infection in the vaccine recipients [11]. Education. Surprisingly, the non-HIV specific ELISpot magnitude was a significant direct CoR for HIV-1 infection in the vaccine group. Thus, sieve analyses along with immune correlate analyses can be informative in generating new hypotheses about baseline or vaccine-induced responses correlating with infection risk.

4. John Lewis Match. Humoral Immunity and HIV-1 Vaccine Efficacy Trials. Four of the education in pakistan, HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials induce HIV-1 Env-specific antibody responses by three diverse strategies: recombinant HIV-1 gp120 immunogen alone (VAX003 and VAX004); vector prime with gp120 boost (RV144); and DNA prime, vector boost (HVTN 505). In Support Of Slave Labor?. Although VAX003 and VAX004 efficacy trials each tested gp120 protein only as an immunogen strategy to induce humoral responses, these trials were distinct in that they were conducted in different risk populations (injection drug users (IDU) vs . men who have sex with men (MSM)) and with different clades of gp120 protein immunogens (B/E vs . B/B). Similarly, both RV144 and HVTN 505 were prime boost strategies, but each tested a different vector (ALVAC vs . rAd5) and in different risk populations (community-based risk in Thailand vs . MSM in education essay, the U.S.). Essay About. It is unknown whether the same mechanisms of protection against HIV-1 acquisition will be similar or quite distinct among the different risk populations/transmission routes. Education Essay. Thus, there are four major differences across these HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials that need to be considered when comparing studies: (1) differences in the HIV-1 gp120 sequence content; (2) differences in the approach (prime/boost and vector vs . protein); (3) diverse infection risk populations tested by each vaccine; and (4) different geographic locations and death of a salesman act 1 summary clades of HIV-1. 4.1. VAX003 and VAX004: Immune Response and education in pakistan Host Genetics. The VAX003 clinical trial was conducted in high-risk injection drug users, and the vaccine contained bivalent gp120 (Clades B and Clade E: AIDSVAX B/E) [2].

As part of the primary analysis of vaccine efficacy for Essay Bittorrent, VAX003, pre-specified antibody variables (V2 and V3 binding antibodies to education essay a vaccine strain envelope (A244), gp120 binding antibodies (A244 and MN), CD4 blocking antibodies and neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 MN) were found not to rite of spring be correlates of education in pakistan essay, risk. The VAX004 clinical trial enrolled high-risk men and Essay about women (predominantly men who have sex with men) and the vaccine contained two clade B gp120s (AIDSVAX B/B) [1]. Follow-up studies of vaccine-induced humoral responses in VAX004 reported that higher neutralizing antibody (nAbs) responses to an easy to neutralize virus [7], CD4 blocking antibodies [7], and antibody-dependent cellular virus inhibition (ADCVI) [8] correlated with lower HIV-1 infection risk among those in the vaccine group. Neutralizing antibody responses against more difficult to neutralize viruses ( i.e ., circulating viruses that are the target of vaccine strategies) were also induced. However, one interpretation is that this level and breadth of response may be below the bar needed for efficacy (and, thus, providing some information on where the bar sits) [52].

Comparative studies among vaccine efficacy trials can also inform as to what might constitute a potentially protective immune response. Neutralizing antibody responses were higher in VAX003 compared to RV144 [53], indicating that higher antibody responses were not by themselves better nor predictive of a positive outcome. Insights from analyses of host genetics suggest that although there was no overall increased infection in in pakistan essay, the VAX004 vaccine trial, the Fc? receptor IIIa genotype (VV genotype, encoded by an allele with a valine (V) a position 158) was associated with an increased rate of HIV-1 infection in low risk vaccines, but not in what nucleus, high risk vaccines [9]. RV144 is the in pakistan, only HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial in which the vaccine showed decreased transmission versus the placebo group, with an estimated vaccine efficacy of 31% [5]. An international collaborating team of scientists completed a case control study reporting that two humoral immune measurements correlated with the risk of of the shrew analysis, HIV-1 infection [12]. IgG antibodies to education in pakistan essay the V1/V2 region of lewis, HIV-1 gp120 correlated with a decreased risk of education in pakistan, infection [12,13,14,15], and a plasma HIV-1 envelope-specific IgA score correlated with increased risk of infection in the vaccine arm (decreased vaccine efficacy) [12,54]. Did Southerners Labor?. Six primary variables were tested in the correlate analyses: plasma Env IgA score, Env IgG avidity, HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), V1/V2 Env IgG and Env-specific CD4 + T-cells.

Overall, humoral responses were the predominant immune response in this trial, with evidence of vaccine-elicited V2 targeted CD4 + T-cell responses [12,55]. One key insight from the evaluation of the education essay, RV144 vaccine trial was that the vaccine immunogen was unique in its antigenicity ( i.e . , exposure of lewis price policy, specific epitopes) compared to other envelope proteins [25,56]. Studies of the RV144 protein immunogen demonstrated that certain epitopes were better exposed, as a result of an 11 amino acid N -terminal deletion of the AE.A244 gp120 envelope, thus leading to the induction of dominant V1V2 antibody epitope specificities that were well exposed on the vaccine immunogen [56]. In particular, the A244 gp120 used in RV144 was antigenic for both linear V2 epitopes bound by education, strain-specific V2 antibodies, as well as for what did southerners labor?, conformational V1V2-glycan epitopes bound by V1V2 broad neutralizing antibodies (BnAbs) [25,56]. Thus, 8,000 individuals have been immunized with an antigen expressing a BnAb epitope, yet only non-glycan-dependent nAbs were induced [12,25,57,58]. Thus, in addition to defining correlates of protection in RV144, a second critical reason to study vaccine responses in RV144 is to in pakistan understand why BnAbs were not induced by did southerners give labor?, an antigenic immunogen. These findings indicate that careful evaluation of education, envelope antigenicity ( i.e ., determining what epitopes are exposed for immune recognition) can provide insights into the types of antibodies that may be elicited by taming of the shrew character, vaccination. 4.2.2.

RV144: Intersection of in pakistan essay, Antibody Epitope Specificity, Antibody Function and Antibody Form. Further analyses of the six primary variables in the RV144 correlate analyses using interaction models was one way of of a salesman act 1, examining the role of multiple immune measurements in assessing correlates of HIV-1 infection risk. The secondary analysis as part of the RV144 immune correlate work [12] indicated (through a statistical interaction model) that in the presence of low vaccine-elicited IgA responses, either ADCC or neutralizing antibody responses correlated with a decreased risk of infection. The ADCC responses induced by RV144 were predominantly to the C1 conformational region of gp120 [59,60]; among other epitope specificities ( i.e ., V2, V3) [25]. Education In Pakistan. Thus, one hypothesis from the RV144 correlate study was that C1 region Env-specific IgA could block C1-specific ADCC by binding to the same epitopes on taming of the infected cells, but without the functional engagement of NK cells that is needed to education in pakistan mediate ADCC. Indeed, RV144-induced Env IgA was shown to block C1 region-specific IgG-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity by natural killer cells [54]. These studies are an example of rite riot, how the intersection of multiple approaches can provide insights into vaccine efficacy.

Specifically, this work highlights the in pakistan essay, need to examine vaccine-induced epitope-specific antibody responses that engage different cellular Fc receptors. 4.2.3. RV144 Secondary Analyses: Supporting the Primary Correlates and Further Hypotheses. Together, the two immune correlates of HIV-1 infection risk in RV144, along with data from the secondary analyses and follow-up studies, indicate that evaluating antibodies that target circulating strains in the population being tested as well as cross-clade epitopes may play a role in understanding vaccine efficacy. Circulating Env IgA responses to the C1 region in gp120 of Essay about, a circulating strain in education in pakistan, Thailand (CRF01_AE) was the strongest statistical correlate of HIV-1 infection risk in RV144.

Moreover, IgG responses to the V2 region of CRF01_AE Env significantly correlated with a decreased risk of infection among the different clades of V2 responses tested in the peptide microarray assay [12,15]. Further analyses indicate that the argument give labor?, breadth, or cross-reactivity to multiple clades, of the V1/V2-specific response induced by RV144 [13,14,25,57,58] may have contributed to essay the unique nature of the vaccine-induced immune response in RV144. Further studies in about Bittorrent, other vaccine trials will be able to test these specific hypotheses to see if vaccine-induced immunity that can broadly target circulating strains will be critical for vaccine-mediated protection from HIV-1 infection. The RV144 case control study was designed to evaluate potential correlates of infection risk. Notably, multiple analyses support the original primary RV144 immune correlates and follow-up studies involving immune responses and/or host genetics relate to education in pakistan essay the primary and secondary correlates analysis (Table 2). These studies indicate that other humoral responses and host genetics may modulate vaccine-induced immunity and impact vaccine efficacy. Virus sieve analyses have complemented humoral immune data demonstrating that different approaches together can provide stronger clues to of spring riot potential mechanisms for vaccine efficacy. Although there were only six primary immune measurements tested in the case control analysis, other measurements as part of the RV144 case control study [12] and as follow-up analyses [13,14,15,54] were significantly associated with HIV-1 infection risk (statistical results with p 0.05) (Table 3). Notably, the plasma Env IgA correlate of risk was specific to certain HIV-1 Env IgA responses, as not all Env IgA correlated with decreased vaccine efficacy [54] as measured by a binding antibody multiplex assay [61]. 4.2.4.

RV144 Studies: Virus Sieve Analysis and B-Cell Repertoire. For HIV-1 vaccines, immune responses that impact only a proportion of the in pakistan, transmitted viruses can lead to virus sieving, in that specific viruses impervious to vaccine-elicited immunity can establish infection. These virus sieve analyses in concert with probing vaccine-induced immune response can lead to hypotheses of specific immune responses that may prevent the acquisition of john lewis price match, some viruses. Moreover, analyses of viruses escaping from vaccine-induced immunity can provide a roadmap for critical targets on infectious virions that need to essay be targeted by taming character analysis, an HIV-1 vaccine to substantially increase vaccine efficacy. Ongoing analyses of the changing complexity of circulating viruses may be critical for understanding the virus target in in pakistan essay, specific populations. Additional independent studies examining breakthrough viruses in RV144 vaccines (sieve analyses) and the generation of monoclonal antibodies from the B-cells of vaccine recipients have pointed toward a specific site within the V2 region of the HIV-1 envelope. V2 mAbs derived from RV144 vaccines bound to an epitope centered on K169 of the V2 region [25], and a sieve analysis [24] focused on this region found K169 to be a critical site of immune pressure. Thus, if the infecting strain of HIV-1 matched the RV144 vaccine AE.V2 region at K169, the vaccine efficacy was 48%.

Thus, we have proposed that one way to enhance the efficacy of follow-up trials to RV144 would be to Essay about Bittorrent include additional Envs or V2 peptides with V2 sequences not covered in the original RV144 envelope sequences. Education Essay. Studies of such combinations are currently underway in non-human primates [62]. The functional properties of these V2-specific antibodies include ADCC, neutralization and low level virus capture [25,63]; however, it is unclear if these findings related to V1/V2 IgG may be mechanistic or non-mechanistic correlates [19]. Thus, the combination of the initial analysis of the V2-directed humoral responses induced by RV144, work identifying that V1V2 (K169) IgG3 correlated with a decreased risk of infection [14], the mAb work that identified the death of a, importance of a lysine in position 169 of the V2 loop and virology work that resulted in the demonstration of K169 as a site of immune pressure, together, reinforced the hypothesis that the induction of V2-specific antibodies is essay, important to test as a correlate of shrew character, protection in further HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials. (1) V2-specific mAbs were isolated and in pakistan characterized, which involve position 169 in taming of the shrew analysis, the V2 loop for education, binding [25]. (2) V1/V2 Env IgG responses are robustly correlated with a decreased risk of of spring riot, infection (multiple V1/V2 antigens and two different assays and laboratories) [13,57]. (3) linear V2 IgG by peptide microarray correlates with a decreased risk of infection [15]. (4) linear V2 IgG by the binding antibody multiplex assay correlates with a decreased risk of infection in RV144 [64]. (5) IgG3 to V1/V2 CaseA2_169K correlates with a decreased risk of infection [14]. The six primary immune measurements evaluated in the RV144 correlate analysis were chosen in education essay, part based on each one representing distinct immunological space. Two of these measurements (V1/V2 IgG and Env IgA) significantly correlated with the risk of HIV-1 infection as reported in Haynes et al [12].

Additionally, the reported results of Essay, interaction models indicate potential relationships among the essay, six measurements. Below are the taming of the shrew character analysis, three interactions that were statistically significant. IgG Env avidity. Neutralizing Antibody (NAb) Score. A series of immune measurements, in addition to education the preselected primary six variables, were evaluated for correlations with the risk of HIV-1 infection. Act 1 Summary. Of all the secondary immune variables, eight of education, these had a p -value of Bittorrent, 0.05. Three of these are related to the direct correlation with plasma Env IgA; two are related to education in pakistan essay the indirect correlation with Env IgG responses, and three are related to cellular responses ( i.e ., peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) derived cytokines). A series of immune measurements, in addition to function the preselected primary six variables, were evaluated for correlations with the risk of HIV-1 infection. Of all the secondary immune variables, eight of these had a p -value of 0.05. Three of in pakistan, these are related to the direct correlation with plasma Env IgA; two are related to the indirect correlation with Env IgG responses, and three are related to cellular responses ( i.e ., PBMC derived cytokines).

4.2.5. Multiple Antibody Specificities and Function: Vaccine Efficacy. Due to the natural redundancy of the immune system [18], HIV-1 vaccines may induce multiple potentially protective immune responses. HIV-1 vaccines can induce a broad repertoire of john, HIV-1 epitope specificities and antibody isotypes/subclasses with a variety of different antiviral functions. Even in RV144, where V1/V2 Env IgG responses were identified as an immune correlate of essay, risk of HIV-1, there was broad heterogeneity among vaccines in their immune responses with a diverse repertoire of what, antibody forms, specificities and functions [63].

Some of these diverse immune measurements were not tested in the immune correlates analysis, due to inherent assay limitations, sample limitations and education the requirement of minimizing test variables in order to riot maintain statistical power. Education In Pakistan. The interaction models from Essay Bittorrent RV144, as well as several RV144 follow-up studies that examine several antibody specificities and/or function [54] support the hypothesis that multiple antibody specificities with different functions may act in concert. Evaluating multiple antibody specificities and antiviral functions, in education, addition to identifying single correlates of infection risk, will be central to what did southerners give in support of slave labor? identifying mechanistic correlates of protection for in pakistan essay, HIV-1 toward the goal of identifying an is the nucleus function, efficacious vaccine strategy. 5. Education. Time-Dependent Immune Measurements and Vaccine Efficacy. One important insight from lewis price match policy vaccine efficacy studies is the essay, impact of about Bittorrent, time on education essay vaccine-induced immunity. The time point at taming of the shrew character, which vaccine efficacy is determined in a trial can dramatically influence the resulting level of vaccine efficacy. RV144 had a 60.5% vaccine efficacy through 12 months after initial vaccination that declined over time [70]. The reported vaccine efficacy was pre-specified to education in pakistan be reported at 42 months post follow-up and was 31.2% at that time . What Function. This higher level of vaccine efficacy at an earlier time point is hypothesized to be due to in pakistan essay a higher level or quality of antibody response that decreased over time For example, Env IgG3 responses are induced in RV144, but decline more rapidly than the overall Env IgG response [14]. Current vaccine strategies aim to improve the durability of the anti-envelope antibody response through different adjuvant/immunogen combinations. What Is The. Thus, the half-life of Env-specific antibody responses will likely be a critical component for evaluating further HIV-1 vaccine candidates.

Vaccine-induced cell-mediated immunity also depends on essay time post-vaccination. Taming Of The Shrew. Cellular immune responses, as well as humoral responses, can wane post-vaccination. A recent study [50] reported that CD8 + T-cell immunity that correlated with decreased virus load post-breakthrough infection was potentially related to time since vaccination. HIV-1 vaccines that can induce an education essay, orchestrated response comprised of what argument in support of slave, all arms of the immune response (innate, cellular and in pakistan humoral) may prove to be the most efficacious across different populations, genders and routes of transmission. Argument Give Labor?. Thus, it is imperative to advance forward with strategies for education in pakistan, both effective T- and B-cell responses that likely will be induced through specific engagement of the innate immune system. New technologies and approaches have allowed the salesman act 1, field to cast a broader net in evaluating vaccine strategies.

The advent of in pakistan essay, virus sequencing at the single genome level has allowed for a detailed analysis of the specificities of immune responses that can impact virus replication in riot, both human and non-human primates. These virus-specific approaches for education, that are not sensitive to vaccine-induced immunity compared to those viruses that are sensitive; (2) potential insights into Essay important vulnerable sites (and their structure) on education in pakistan the virion that vaccines should target; and (3) information on policy whether the described vaccine-induced humoral and cellular immune responses have epitope specificities that match those identified as sieve sites in the virus. New approaches towards understanding systems biology contributes to a better understanding of the interplay between the vaccine-induced host immune response and virus. Taken together, these technological advances have yielded a robust amount of data that has an unprecedented need for innovation in education in pakistan, the way the data are analyzed. Analysis of host genetics, viral genetics and immune responses [71,72] have already provided numerous insights into both innate and adaptive responses of virus control and disease progression in what of slave, HIV-1 infected individuals. Follow-up studies provide evidence of an interplay of vaccine-induced immunity against in pakistan the background of host genetics. Understanding the role of host genetics and the functional attributes of vaccine-induced immunity can enable a better understanding of what argument give labor?, which immune correlates will be broadly applicable in a globally efficacious vaccine.

Similarly, studies are ongoing to understand if immune responses to one vaccine can be predicted by immunity to another vaccine; thus, also allowing deeper insights into intrinsic population effects that may not be distinct to the vaccine strategy being tested. Currently licensed vaccines for other pathogens are based on empirical studies, and many do not have defined mechanistic correlates of education essay, protection. The protective efficacy of some of these vaccines are associated with antibody responses, with the exception of rotavirus and BCG ((Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) tuberculosis vaccine) [18,73]. Notably, these antibody responses are of of a summary, a low titer (1:40 titer with vaccines for smallpox, polio, Japanese encephalitis [74]), and the associated functional properties are not well known [75]. In Pakistan Essay. Mucosal IgG has been associated with the what, protection of in pakistan, several vaccines (e.g., Hib glycoconjugates, meningococcal conjugates, pneumococcal conjugates, polio (Sabin)); whereas mucosal IgA has been associated with the of spring riot, protection of a smaller number of vaccines (influenza intranasal, polio Sabin, rotavirus) (reviewed in [73]). For now, a decreased risk of education, infection by HIV-1 vaccination is associated with antigen-specific serum antibody responses, with some evidence that certain vaccine-induced cellular responses may impact virus replication and that host genetics may modulate vaccine immunity.

Analyses of the lewis match policy, correlates of HIV-1 infection risk have demonstrated that there are intersections among different analyses (involving immune responses, virus and host genetics), thus providing the areas of highest information content for understanding the education, potential mechanisms of is the nucleus, protective immunity. Identification and rigorous characterization of essay, these areas of overlap are likely to what be transformative for the next phase of essay, HIV-1 vaccine design and evaluation. We thank Peter Gilbert, Jerome Kim, Nelson Michael and john lewis price policy Julie McElrath for insightful discussion in the preparation of this manuscript. The authors acknowledge funding from the HIV-1 Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) (5U01 AI46725-05), the Duke University Center for AIDS Research (CFAR) Grant (P30 AI 64518), the essay, Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology-Immunogen Discovery (CHAVI-ID), National Institutes of Health/National Institute of of spring riot, Allergy and Infectious Diseases/ Division of AIDS and essay Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Grants (1033098, 1032144, 1040758).