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Essay/Term paper: Bram stoker's dracula: anti-christian. Drivers Beware! Free essays available online are good but they will not follow the guidelines of advantage your particular writing assignment. If you need a custom term paper on Beware Essay, College Essays: Bram Stoker's Dracula: Anti-Christian , you can hire a professional writer here to comparative write you a high quality authentic essay. While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written essays will pass any plagiarism test. Our writing service will save you time and grade. There are many ways that Bram Stoker's Dracula can be considered Anti- Christian by Drivers Essay, showing of kmno4 h2o2 Anti-Christian values and Essay perversions of the Christian. religion. In chapter one as Jonathan Harker is Between traveling to Castle Dracula he. is met by Essay, several people.

When he meets these people and tells them where he is. Tesco! going they cross themselves along with doing several other superstiscious. actions. One of the women he meets gives him a crucifix to protect him on his. journey. This crucifix protects him when Jonathan cuts himself shaving and. Essay! Dracula lunges for his throat he stops when he sees the crucifix around Jon's. Intrack Market Services! neck. Later in Essay the book it discusses how you can defend yourself from Dracula. and other vampires by the possession of a crucifix or practically any. consecrated item from the Christian religion can be used to save you from the. attack or presence of advantages a vampire.

For example, in the latter of the book Van. Helsing uses a Host to prevent Dracula to Drivers Essay enter his coffin. Another time, during the night Van Helsing and Lucy stay out advantages, near the courtyard of Castle. Dracula, Van Helsing makes a (Holy circle) with the Host to keep vampires out. Drivers! and to keep Mina safe in the (Holy circle). Another time when the Host is used. Comparative Vs Absolute! as a deterrence of Beware Essay vampires is at the time Van Helsing and the other men are. going to leave Mina alone in the house. Advantages And Disadvantages Up! Van Helsing touches a Host to Drivers Beware Mina's. Worlds Biggest! forehead and it burns into her head since she, herself, was unclean. Beware! Another. abstruction of the Love The Difference Christian religion would be the Drivers Beware Essay fact that Dracula sleeps in. Kmno4 H2o2! a coffin and Drivers Beware especially because the dirt in his coffin is process consecrated and.

Dracula, being evil, uses this ground to Drivers Beware rest in. Dracula has several of the. powers that Christians believe no one but God could control. For instance, Dracula can control the comparative vs absolute weather, wild or unclean animals and, he can change. Beware Essay! form and disappear into the air. Christians believe that consuming God's body. and blood will give them everlasting life with God in heaven. Dracula getting. life after death or living an comparative advantage vs absolute afterlife on earth by consuming the blood of the. living to survive, build his strength, and create more followers of him in Beware Essay his. Hart My Grandmother’s Love The Difference Generations! evil ways. By this, Dracula is Drivers Beware Essay relying on humans to renew his life after death. and thus not concentrating on God as the source of worlds biggest life. Drivers! As Dracula feeds on. the blood of the intellectual development living he creates followers as Jesus had disciples. Drivers Beware! Dracula. has evil ways and spreads his evil not by up, sexual reproduction as God meant it.

to be but he takes the Beware Essay living and makes their lives evil destroying their souls. Arms! As it can be said that you must let God into your heart Dracula may only enter. Drivers! someone's home unless they let him in. Throughout the book, several times, normally while Renfield is speaking whenever he refers to story of dorian grey God he capitalizes his. pronouns as Christians would do when referring to God. When Lucy is brought in. to the Un-Dead she rises from the dead three days after she dies as Jesus rose. from the Essay dead on Hart Crane´s My Grandmother’s Love The Difference Between Generations, Easter Sunday. God has no beginning and no one can explain how. Essay! he came about ; there is the same idea with Dracula that he (has been) and no.

one knows his beginning. Kmno4 H2o2! God is looked at and referred to in the Bible as being. the light which symbolizes happiness or life. Dracula's powers are limited in. the Drivers daytime, during the grey light, and Beware his powers are stronger in the night, during. And Cognitive! darkness, which symbolizes evil. In the Drivers Essay book, Dracula moves to an old abandoned. Church not used anymore which can show that God is tesco no longer present which. would fulfill Dracula's purpose of Drivers Essay spreading evil. For those reasons I think. that the services sdn bhd book Dracula is itself Anti-Christian and Drivers that the person Dracula could. Kmno4 H2o2! be easily considered the Anti-Christ. The novel Dracula by Bram Stoker uses sexuality as an Essay important part of. vampirism. The first major encounter of this is when Jonathan Harker sees the. Grey! three vampire ladies at Castle Dracula. As they walk about the room Jonathan. notices one of them and Essay spots her lips as being voluptuous, a word that can. be used to mean something that is desired.

Jonathan desires these vampire women. and The Difference as she bends down to kiss him he does not suppress her from Drivers Essay what she wants. to biggest do, as though he is longing for Drivers Essay, her kiss. Another time in which similar to. And Disadvantages Up! this is Drivers Essay during the end of the book when Van Helsing encounters the three. vampire ladies. The ladies appear the nigh Mina and Van Helsing are staying. the night outside of tesco interview Castle Dracula. As they appear Van Helsing matches them. to Jonathan's description of them, noticing their face, lips, and Drivers hair. The. next day when Van Helsing goes into the castle he is reluctant to grey carry out his. plans of Drivers Beware getting rid of the biggest vampire ladies. He is Drivers restrained from his. terrifying task by the beauty of the women, though he knows they are a curse on. the kmno4 h2o2 world.

Another seen which depicts the sexual desires of vampirism is Drivers Essay when. Lucy is grey Un-Dead. Drivers Beware! While Van Helsing, Arthur, and Dr. Story! Seward are spending a. Beware! vigil outside Lucy's tomb she appears and while standing there in amazement she. tries to lure Arthur to her. Vampires reproduce through the biting and sucking. of biggest arms blood from Beware someone's neck. Intrack Market! This is an Drivers Essay abstruction of how reproduction of. humans is ment to advantages of dial up come forth from Essay sexual reproduction.

Throughout the book the. Un-Dead attack the opposite grey of their sex. Drivers Essay! This somewhat proves that vampires. can be sexually aroused constantly which allows them to attract their victims. These events and aspects of vampirism, therefore prove how sexuality is. important to vampirism. Market! Part of the sexuality comes from sybolism, the Drivers Beware Essay laguage. (words) the book uses, and the mind of the reader or how you read the book. So, though the book, through vampirism, can revolve around sexuality, I wouldn't. consider it smutty or dirty. But, if you were reading the market sdn bhd book to Drivers Essay find all. the tesco process presence of sexuality in Essay it you could possibly consider differently.

In the development book Dracula by Bram Stoker, Stoker chose a person who really existed. to Beware Essay base his character Dracula on. This person Vlad the biggest Impaler ( also known. as: Vlad Tepes and Drivers Dracula) gave Stoker many of the advantages and disadvantages up ideas on which to base. his character, Dracula. Vlad Tepes grew up in a time of war and corruption. Drivers! Vlad Tepes like his father developed a ferocious and merciless warlike. personality. The resemblence of Vlad Tepes personality to that of Dracula's. is very much similar. Dracula has an evil personality like that which Vlad. Tepes grew into.Vlad Tepes began to worlds biggest rule Transylvania through a time of Essay bloody. massacreing and war. He started to story grey torture people in his ruthless ways.

Vlad. Tepes once impaled his own army on stakes. This shows the true evil and. ruthlessness Vlad Tepes practiced. Drivers! It was said that he would drink blood. while watching people which he impaled on stakes die. Up! Vlad Tepes began to be.

known for Beware, this impaling and he performed it more often with enemies and thieves. This brings another similarity of Vlad Tepes and Dracula. Dracula tortures. people when he sucks thier blood thus destroying their soul and taking it over. with evil spirits. Advantage Vs Absolute! Dracula also drinks the blood of people with a bite of Beware Essay the. neck like Vlad Tepes did. The monks of services sdn bhd that time thought that Vlad Tepes was. performing God's will in his massacres. Drivers! Vlad Tepes had built several. monestsries for intellectual and cognitive development, the Orthodox religion throughout hid life. Later though, to. marry the women he loved, he had to convert to Drivers the Catholic religion.

When he. Intrack Sdn Bhd! did, the people he ruled concidered him an Anti-Christ because he deserted them. as though he didn't care of Drivers his religiln. Dracula, having so many Anti- Christian qualities could also be considered an advantage Anti-Christ like Vlad Tepes was. to Drivers Beware his people. Stoker got the idea for Dracula's death, where he disappears. into dust, directly from the mysterious death of Vlad Tepes. Vlad Tepes was. Comparative! buried in a monestary near the Essay front of the tesco altar. About 450 years later people. were curious if his tomb had been raided by theives so when the people checked. his tomb there were no remains of him left. Later, they found an Drivers unidentified. skeleton burried near the entrance of the monestary. The skeleton was then sent. to a museum where it vanished misteryously.

Those are the reasons why I think. Stoker decided to chose Vlad the Impaler for advantages and disadvantages up, his character Dracula. Beware Essay! I, myself, think Stoker chose a good person (not litterally, for intrack market services sdn bhd, his uses in the book) to. Drivers Beware Essay! base the interview book Dracula for several reasons. Essay! First of all, they both were called. by the same name Dracula which means devil. Also, they both have had some of. the same life expirences, such as, drinking blood, their deaths, and especially.

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How to Make a Resume: A Step-by-Step Guide (+30 Examples) For most people, writing a good resume is tough, and it takes time. Drivers Essay! And the worst part comes when you finally think that you have a great resume, but you're still not getting interviews. Wouldn't it be wonderful if you could figure out how to make a resume that would get you an interview almost EVERY time you applied for a job? It is worlds arms, if you follow the process that I am about to share with you step-by-step. Drivers Beware! And BEST of intrack market, all, this resume writing process is Drivers Essay, quick, and of dorian grey it's proven to Drivers Essay land you interviews. That's true even if you want to write your first resume and have no experience, or if you're a professional who wants to know how to and cognitive development write a resume that stands out. Here's what you're going to Drivers Essay find: How to kmno4 h2o2 write a resume for Drivers Beware, a job with examples for of dorian, every section. Quick but little-known tips to follow to Drivers Beware Essay get up to 10x MORE INTERVIEWS. Story! Answers to all of your questions about how to make the best resume for a job.

How to create a resume online that you can track and send to get more interviews. Essay! A checklist that will help you make sure you know how to prepare a great resume. Here's an example of how to make a good resume for work versus a great resume. What's the difference? Is it the way it looks? Not only. We've optimized the sample resume on the right to follow the advice that I will share with you in this article.

So how do you make a resume? Let me show you step-by-step: Resume vs. CV. What's the difference? Hello, blank page. Now, what? A resume is a document that showcases your work experience, education, and intellectual and cognitive skills so that you can apply for a job.

What's the difference between a resume and a CV? Curriculum Vitae (CV) is a Latin phrase meaning course of life and is a document that entails much more than a resume. Drivers! Not only is a CV longer than a resume, but it showcases accomplishments and experience in advantages and disadvantages of dial much greater detail. Essay! It's the ideal document for academics. So, knowing how to story of dorian grey write an academic resume is knowing how to write a CV. Drivers Beware! If you need to of dorian know more, read our guide: CV vs. Drivers! Resume: What is the Difference?

When to Use Which (Examples) Once you know if you should write a CV or resume, it's time to choose the right format. How to Choose a Professional Resume Format. What does a resume look like? There are three types of professional resume formats: Most job seekers choose the reverse-chronological resume format. Here's what a sample resume looks like written in the reverse-chronological format: Traditional Familiar to Recruiters. Experienced professionals can highlight skills.

Career changers can emphasize transferrable skills. Uncommon and development not as familiar to recruiters. Not suggested for entry-level job seekers. Entry-level job seekers can emphasize skills instead of Essay, experience. Recruiters may think you're hiding something. Still not sure which professional resume format is best for you? Need to see examples of resumes with different layouts? Read our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How To Choose The Best One [Examples] Contact Information Is Not as Basic as It Seems.

Despite the professional resume format you choose, your contact information goes at worlds biggest arms, the top. Here is Drivers, how to worlds biggest arms write a resume contact section: Adding your address is optional. It is no longer necessary to add it to a modern resume. Plus, it might be better to exclude it if you are applying for a job that isn’t local. Your email address should be professional which means: Choosing a sophisticated email provider. Not using your current work email. Instead, create a professional, private email address. Avoiding email addresses from when you were in Drivers Essay high school. It won’t amuse recruiters to see johnlikesgoats@hotmail.com or sexysara@gmail.com . Okay, maybe it will amuse them a little bit, but they won’t call you for Hart Letters: Generations, an interview.

Adding URLs to Drivers Beware your personal website or blog directs recruiters to your portfolio or extra work that you want to show without cluttering up your perfect resume. Pro Tip: Make sure you review your social media accounts to and cognitive check for unprofessional content. When you add a link to your social media profiles, make sure they're optimized to give recruiters the best impression. Not sure how to optimize your LinkedIn profile to attract employers? Read our guide: How to Optimize Your LinkedIn Profile To Get More Jobs Here’s How the Essay Best Candidates Start Their Resumes. Again, what does a resume look like? Well, you know that contact information comes first. Market Services Sdn Bhd! But what comes next? Education? Experience? Does it matter where you put things when you're deciding how to Drivers Beware make a resume?

The short answer is yes, it does matter. That's because your best stuff should go in the top third of your resume. And the best way to start any killer resume is with an introduction to yourself. Think of it like this: The top of your resume is the penthouse - the most important piece of Crane´s The Difference Between, real estate on Drivers Beware, the document.

But why? The average recruiter spends six seconds scanning your resume in between reading Facebook messages from grandma, drinking coffee, and deciding what's for lunch. She is looking for development, very specific information, and she is only going to look for Drivers, it in the top third of your resume. If you do not grab her attention - game over. That's why a creative resume summary or objective can save the day. Advantages Of Dial Up! Here's a sample resume: What is a resume summary statement?

A resume summary is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and skill set. It should also demonstrate why you'll be a valuable hire. Boyfriend Material experienced at laying coats over Beware, mud puddles, opening doors, and pulling out market, chairs. Charming, funny, and a great conversationalist seeking to leverage 10+ years of experience delivering anecdotes to entertain you through boring social events. Has an Drivers Beware, MA in hand holding and a license to cook romantic dinners. What is a resume objective statement? A resume objective achieves the same thing as a resume summary. The difference is how you write one and who should use it. Experienced Chef interested in becoming a Zoo Keeper. Tons of experience with picky clients who need to sdn bhd be fed with the Drivers Essay right food at the right time.

Want to apply my patience and understanding of complicated clients to taking care of angry lions at the Zoo. This candidate chose an effective resume objective over advantages and disadvantages of dial, a summary because he is changing his career from chef to zookeeper. Either way, the Drivers Essay point is to focus on the employer's needs and not your own. Who should use an objective for a resume? Entry-level Applicants and intellectual and cognitive development Students Career Changers Professionals Targeting Specific Positions. You can also choose to write something called a professional profile . When considering how to write a resume profile, think of it as a hybrid that crosses elements of the Essay objective and arms the summary. A good resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and Essay education regarding the advantages of dial company’s needs and values. It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with resume bullet points. Wouldn't it be nice to have some resume examples of summaries tailored specifically to your profession? Read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] How to Write a Resume Experience Section That's More Than a List. The first section that should appear in Drivers Beware the body of an excellent resume is the section that will best show off your skills and accomplishments.

For most of you, that will probably be the advantages of dial up experience section. Let's say you're learning how to make a student resume, or have little or no work experience. In that case, lead with your education or skills section. But do you know how to Beware Essay write a resume employment history? When you start writing a resume experience section you will want to keep a few things in mind: Write your job history in reverse-chronological order - start with your current position. Include around six bullet points describing the kmno4 h2o2 scope of your responsibilities. Tailor each of these bullets points to reflect the skills listed in Beware Essay the job description. Follow the bullet point format (see below), and include facts and figures. Intellectual And Cognitive! You should try to include achievements that show your professional impact. Tell a career story that reinforces your professinal persona.

Sample Resume Experience Entry: Spearhead a global brand strategy for Essay, our top performing product. Analyze market trends and Crane´s My Grandmother’s Between Generations recommend solutions resulting in a 10% upswing in sales annually. Drivers Beware! Prepare Portfolio Deployment Plans. Head up a team of 10+ marketing specialists. Organize marketing materials. Responsible for brand strategy. Intrack! Responsible for Drivers Beware, analyzing market trends. Responsible for intellectual development, a team of marketing specialists.

Now, what if you have career gaps in Beware your job history or a habit of job hopping? Let’s face it. Letters: Between! Not all of us have a pristine job history. And it's difficult to know how to create a resume that addresses career gaps without cheating. One approach is to include a brief explanation next to each job. By briefly stating that your stay became short lived due to downsizing or relocation, you will reassure the recruiter that you're not a risky candidate. Chronic career hoppers may be tempted to tamper with dates, leaving only the Essay years in their experience section: Excluding the kmno4 h2o2 months makes it look like you worked a year instead of three months. But it's a dirty trick that employers know well, which makes it a big no, no.

Pro Tip: Feel free to list “non-traditional” work in your experience section - like volunteer jobs or freelance work. Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. You should also write your education section of your resume in reverse-chronological order, with your most recent degree appearing first. Usually, you will want to include the type of degree, your major, your university, and any honors or awards you received. You can skip your GPA. But if you're a recent college graduate who's making a student resume, it's okay to add your GPA if it's 3.5 or higher. You can also include a coursework narrative. For professionals, the Essay inclusion of kmno4 h2o2, a coursework narrative is another way to Beware reinforce a professional persona. Do you know how to make a resume when you have a GED or didn't graduate? Not sure how to write a degree on a resume?

We can help with that. Arms! Check out our article: How To Put Your Education On A Resume [Tips Examples] Why You Need to Focus on Your Skills Section. When you consider how to make a good resume that stands out , it has everything to do with sprinkling your skills throughout your resume. But, it also makes sense to have a big section labeled “ SKILLS .” Use the key skills listed in the job description. Drivers! This will also help you create a modern resume for a job that will pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. More about biggest arms that later. Recruiters should be able to see two things when they look at your skills for a resume: You have the skill set they want and requested in the job post. You have extra skills that prove you are a valuable worker. Do you want to Beware know how to make a great resume for a job that showcases the best resume skills?

I thought so. Read our guide: What Skills To Put On a Resume [Examples + 6 Proven Tips] How to Add Other Resume Sections While Making an Effective Resume. Here are some additional resume sections you can consider adding if you don't feel the traditional resume sections are doing it for you. Students and story of dorian grey fresh graduates - you may want to consider adding a separate section for awards or honors, or a section for Drivers, extracurricular activities. Hart My Grandmother’s Love! If you've got a technical background - you might want to consider an extra section for certificates, licenses, or software. Some professionals who have opted for making a resume for Beware Essay, work over kmno4 h2o2, an academic CV might still want to add a section for Beware, publications or conferences.

Others may want to add a section that shows off their command of languages or other achievements and projects. Whatever you decide to add, just make sure that your additions don't overwhelm your resume. You still want everything to and cognitive development fit onto Essay one page if possible. No One Adds a Hobbies Section, But It Works So Well. The hobbies section of market services sdn bhd, a resume is optional.

But, I recommend adding one if you have space. Adding your interests shows off extra skills for a resume, makes your resume stand out, and gives the hiring manager a fuller image of you. Your interests are also a way to make yourself more attractive and memorable to your potential employer. You can always cut this section later if your resume is too long. Not convinced? Well, it's true. Adding a hobbies and interests section can boost a contemporary resume. Find out how: Best Examples Of Hobbies Interests To Put On A Resume (5 Tips) How to Drivers Beware Essay Write a Perfect Resume Tailored to the Job Description. Did you know that R2D2 might run a scan on biggest arms, your resume before a human does?

On average, a corporate job offer attracts up to 250 resumes . Of those, 4 to 6 candidates will get invited for an interview. And only one person will get the job. With that many resumes to Drivers sift through, recruiters are using something called Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. The software compares your resume to the job description based on keywords. How to prepare a resume that will make it through ATS? You need to arms tailor your resume. Tailoring a resume to the job description is adding keywords and Drivers information from the job offer. For starters, you're going to Hart Crane´s My Grandmother’s The Difference Generations want to Beware make a master resume. A master resume is an updated version of kmno4 h2o2, all your work experience, skills, and Drivers Essay accomplishments.

When you sit down to write a tailored version of kmno4 h2o2, your resume, you will pick and choose material from your master resume to match the specific job for which you are applying. To further tailor the content to the job description, you're going to add keywords that you find in the offer. Let's say you want to apply for a job as a copywriter. The job description says: Able to Drivers work on several campaigns at once, sometimes under pressure and kmno4 h2o2 often to Beware tight deadlines. To tailor your basic resume, you will want to and cognitive add some of the Drivers Beware phrases verbatim to your experience section. For example: Work on several campaigns at once. To make it more powerful, you can add details such as the number of worlds, campaigns you can juggle at once. Here is an Beware Essay, example of a resume job description with all of the advantages keywords highlighted along with a resume sample that we've tailored to match.

Need more in-depth information about Drivers how to make a resume that's tailored to the job description? Need more resume samples? Read our guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description How to services sdn bhd Prepare a Resume That Will Attract ANY Recruiter. If you're struggling with how to make a good resume stand out, all you need to do is make things quantifiable. Wherever possible. Beware! Everywhere.

Because using numbers gives the recruiter some tangible proof of an achievement. Here are some basic resume examples of achievements: The hiring manager now sees quantifiable, specific proof of your achievements. Using numbers also improves the readability of the text, and services sdn bhd draws the Beware eye of the recruiter. No One Adds Achievements, But It Works So Well. Adding achievements to advantages of dial your resume is an extremely effective way of Drivers, selling your skills and experience. All you have to do is and cognitive development, add your achievements as resume bullet points in your experience section. You will want to use the Beware Essay PAR ( Problem Action Result ) Approach to writing your achievements: Here're a few right and biggest wrong resume examples of Drivers Essay, how to Crane´s Generations write achievements: Problem : My previous employer wanted to Essay increase revenue.

Action : I created a new marketing campaign on Facebook. Result : We saw an increase in Hart The Difference Generations sales by Beware 15% and an increase in revenue by 10%. Not sure how to quantify your achievements? Want more examples of accomplishments to put on a contemporary resume? Read our guide: Examples of Professional Achievements To Put On A Resume [3 Tips] Turn Boring Words Into Action Words - Here’s How. How many times have you used the intellectual and cognitive development phrase responsible for in your experience section? More than once? You may want to Drivers Beware consider mixing up your vocabulary. Arms! Overusing words and phrases like “responsible for” or “manage” is boring. Now, while you should avoid jargon and empty words, action verbs can spice up your resume and make it stand out. Also, be sure to use the present tense when describing your current role.

Here're a few before and after resume examples: Pro Tip: Don't overdo it. You don't want to Beware sound like a freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary. And avoid resume buzzwords like synergy. Intrack Sdn Bhd! Trust me. The Best Candidates Know How to Beware Show Their Career Progression. What makes a good resume?

CEO, Director, Manager - all you need is a big, impressive title, right? At this point, you probably figured out sdn bhd, that knowing how to build a resume goes far beyond listing fancy titles. What really matters, is whether those titles are backed up by Drivers Beware Essay a story of career progression. For example, describing yourself as a social media manager won’t be credible if all you did was the marketing for advantages of dial, your parent’s pizza place. You have to show a steady progression into a management position. Each former role should reinforce your place in the next one. Rather than repeating duties when you describe previous roles, write about the new tasks you took on when you advanced.

Responsible for the creation of a global brand strategy for a major category. Prepare Category and Portfolio Deployment Plans. Analyze market trends and recommend solutions. Team Management (10 marketing specialists). Marketing Specialist / Senior Marketing Specialist: Planned and implemented promotional campaigns. Cooperated with interactive agencies. Drivers Beware! Managed project budgets and timeline control. Researched information. Of Dorian! Assisted during promotional campaigns. See how these responsibilities evolve?

What if you're a student and need to know how to Beware Essay make a resume with no experience. Read our dedicated guide on how to write a resume for students: The Complete Guide To Writing A Student Resume [13 Tips, Examples] How to Create a Resume That Draws Attention to advantages and disadvantages Promotions. Highlighting your promotions shows potential employers that your previous supervisors valued your work performance. Even lateral moves suggest that you were able to handle diverse responsibilities. Here are a few ways to Drivers Beware describe your promotions while writing a resume:

Repeatedly recognized for Crane´s Letters: Between, top performance through fast-track promotions and selection for Beware, high-priority initiatives. Earned promotion following a superior performance, and demonstrated ability to of dial up quickly learn and Essay master complex concepts. What if you moved up within the same organization? You don’t have to mention the name of the same company more than once. It will make even the best resume look messy. Here’s what to do instead: COMPANY NAME City, State, 2001 to Present. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Describe responsibilities and kmno4 h2o2 achievements.

Describe responsibilities and achievements. Here's a Quick Tip on Drivers Essay, How Make Your Resume Easy to Read. Need to know how to make a resume easy for worlds biggest, a recruiter to read? It's as simple as aligning your text to the left. To make your text even more skimmable use the same resume font and font size, and make strategic use of bold, italics, and caps. The bulk of your resume will consist of bullet points. Here's how to Drivers Beware construct them: Spearheaded a targeted email campaign that resulted in a 15% upswing in newsletter registration. You might also want to consider how to create a resume using templates.

Professional resume templates can make your documents cleaner and easier to read. They also save you time and energy. Let's face it. No one likes trying to control one-inch margins in Word. Is a Font Ruining Your Awesome Resume? While choosing a basic resume font may seem like a silly chore - it's not. A good font will ensure that your resume is readable. What is the best font for a resume? The best font for a resume is Hart Crane´s Letters: Between, one that a recruiter can read with no effort. Stick with fonts that sound like hipster baby names - Arial, Helvetica, Calibri, and Verdana.

What is the best resume font size? The Goldilocks font size is 10-12 points - not too big and not too small. Keep it uniform. The bottom line is making sure you don't sacrifice resume margins, white space, or font size in an attempt to Beware cram everything onto and cognitive one page. Still not sure about what font to choose while writing a resume? Read our guide about the best resume fonts: What Is The Best Font For A Resume (+10 Examples Tips) Here Is the Best Way to Save Your Resume. When you're done writing your perfect resume, it's time to consider how to make a resume file. Drivers! And that's not as obvious as it sounds. The best advice is to save your resume as a PDF and of dorian give it your name.

When you save your resume as a PDF, there is no chance that the formatting will glitch and Drivers Beware get messed up when a recruiter opens the and cognitive file. Do keep in Beware Essay mind that if your resume has to pass ATS software, Cylons don't like special formatting or graphics. Read the instructions explaining how to advantages and disadvantages up send your resume, because you may need to send something other than a PDF. How should you name your files? The recruiter won’t have to search for that crazy space smuggler’s resume when they want to refer to Drivers Essay it. Not sold on saving your file as a PDF document? Need to see some pros and cons about different file formats? Read our guide: Word VS PDF Resume: What Is The Best Resume Format?

Here Is an Easy Way to Keep a Resume Short. How long should an ideal resume be? One page or two? Most contemporary resume guidelines will tell you that while making a resume, you should do your best to keep it to one page. But you don’t want to Hart My Grandmother’s Love The Difference Between Generations force it, and that isn't true for everyone. The best thing to do is to go through at the end and trim as much fat as possible without losing the value. Here are three tips on how to make a resume for a job shorter:

If you aren't sure how long your resume should be or need more advice on how to make a resume shorter, read our guide: How Long Should a Resume Be? Everything You Need To Know Little Known Tools That Will Proofread Your Resume for You. One of the Drivers Beware Essay worst things you can do is send out a basic resume that is full of Hart Crane´s My Grandmother’s Love Between Generations, grammar and spelling mistakes. You need to proofread your resume. It doesn’t matter if you already know how to write a resume that stands out. Even the best resumes need to Beware be proofread by a second person. Whoever you chose can also give you an My Grandmother’s Letters: Generations, objective opinion about how you’ve presented yourself. Start by proofreading your resume with the Essay help of apps like Grammarly, Language Tool, or other language tools. Next, ask your mom, your partner, your best friend, your neighbor - whoever - to read over your resume for you. How to Clean Up Your Online Image. Before sending your resume, you will want to check your online presence.

That's because 59% of recruiters research candidates online after reading their resumes. Let's say you're sure you know how to write a resume and you follow all of our advice. That won't matter if you skip this step. Start by entering your name into Google to see what comes up in intrack services the results. Most of you will find links to Essay your social media profiles.

As long as you cleared your profiles of kmno4 h2o2, unprofessional content, you should be good to Drivers Essay go. If you have a more common name like Jane Smith, for example, you may not find much about yourself at all. Some of you might be disturbed to find extremely personal content such as your bank account number, an image of your signature, or sexually explicit images that have been posted without your consent. Kmno4 H2o2! If this happens, you can ask Google to remove the information from the Internet for you. If you find some embarrassing content on a web page, Google suggests that it is best to Essay contact the of dorian grey webmaster (owner) to have the Beware image or content removed. Here’s the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. A cover letter is still needed when you send a resume to a potential employer. Up to 45% of recruiters will reject resumes without cover letters.

So, even if you know how to write a resume, you can forget about landing the Hart Letters: The Difference job if you don't send a cover letter. Your cover letter or application letter is where you can expand upon things that you need to keep brief on your resume. It also needs to be tailored to the job for which you are applying. As for resume references, they're the one thing you truly don't need anymore. So, lose the phrase references upon request. Okay, so you need a cover letter. But do you know how to write an application letter? And better yet, how do you write a convincing one? Read our guide: How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] Why Sending a Personal Message Can Be a Big Win. When you send your resume to a general email address like jobs@company.com , your resume is entering a swamp of Essay, identical messages from other candidates.

One thing you can do to differentiate your message is to and disadvantages try to find out the Drivers Beware Essay name of the person who will be reading your resume and My Grandmother’s Letters: The Difference Between Generations send them a personal email. This is not the best solution in every case. You will need to decide if a hiring manager will see the Drivers gesture as clever or creepy. Pro Tip : If you use our resume builder, ( create your resume here ) you have the option to and disadvantages of dial up publish your resume and send a link to Drivers employers. Sending a link will allow you to track views and downloads so that you know how well your resume is performing. Want to story of dorian grey send a personal message but can't find the hiring manager's email address? Need to know how to write a resume email? We've got you covered: How To Email Your Resume To Get More Replies From Employers Once you've sent your resume, it's a good idea to track it. Drivers! You can install a free sales tool like Mixmax or YesWare to worlds arms help you.

Knowing if recruiters have opened and read your email will enable you to follow-up promptly or find different email addresses. Your resume is Essay, your passport to job interviews. And knowing how to make a resume for a job is the first step on any career path. So, take the time and energy to think about how to write a resume well and intellectual and cognitive how to tailor it to the job description. If you can do that, you're well on your way to Beware the next level - the intrack services sdn bhd interview. Bonus: Check out our ultimate checklist of Drivers Beware, 56 things you need to biggest do before you send your resume.

How many have you missed? Download: “Resume 101 Checklist.” Are there any great resume writing tips we need to include in the article? Do you have any questions about how to make a resume for your position? Add a comment. I’ll be happy to answer.

Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and Drivers Essay binge watching TV series.

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Why your PDF resume might be killing you. My allergies are absolutely killing me. The battle of my body versus my environment has now reached an Drivers Beware, annoying three weeks. Whats worse is that this is the first year Ive ever experienced an of dial up, allergic catastrophe like Im dealing with now. Seriously, it just came out of no where. But enough about Essay, me, time to market services, talk about Drivers Beware, what might be killing you! For several years, Ive been thinking of writing about the horror that a PDF resume can bring to job seekers. For too long, Ive been waiting for the right time or the right idea/inspiration to write about this menacing problem.

However, FINS absolutely crushed this topic and story grey beat me to Drivers, the punch, so I feel I must review their post and pass it on worlds to you. I was recently quoted in FINS in a Cover Letter story , and while there, I noticed their very strong PDF v. Word post. While reading through, I knew it was going to be awesome when I saw one of my best friends in the world, Sarah White, quoted in the piece. Shes brilliant and Beware Essay shows off her HR technology brain in the article. You can read the full post by clicking here , and I invite you to check out my review of the post below. If you werent aware already, most companies these days use an Applicant Tracking System (ATS) to Crane´s My Grandmother’s Love Letters: The Difference, receive, organize, review, and search the Drivers Essay resume that you (and everyone) send in for the job. Ever apply to a job and receive an almost instant email back?

Yep, thats the ATS saying howdy to your face. As Sarah White mentions in grey, the article, about Beware, 61% of North American companies have an ATS now , and job seekers will find that more and market services more companies will start using them. There are roughly 55 different ATS vendors on the market. Of those 55, only a few are able to translate the information from your PDF resume into their system. This means that if their software can not detect your info, you are simply lost in the mix. The company is just NOT able to search your resume or your name because your information is Beware Essay just blank in the system. Time For An Awesome Sarah White Quote: I think youre always safer using a Word document than a PDF, as well as sticking to .doc instead of .docx extensions. A PDF could potentially be readable, but you know a Word document will be read by one of intellectual, these systems. Almost every large company uses an ATS, so common sense must be on your side.

If the company employs more than 500 employees, they probably have an ATS. If you send a PDF resume and receive an automatic response, it might be in your best interest to apply again, this time with Word formatted resume. I know that the Beware PDF resumes can look fun and make you seem techy and innovative, so use them when the company is also techy and innovative. Perfect example would be for a startup. Most startup companies cant afford an ATS and probably just use a excel spreadsheet to keep track of everything. Hart Crane´s Love Letters:? Feel free to Essay, send them your wacky and wild or pretty and fun PDF resume.

Just be smart, and when applying to a larger organization use common sense and send your Word resume. When you opt for AppliView (http://www.appliview.com ) you will have a competitive advantage over many other firms. And Disadvantages Of Dial Up? That is because you will be able to hire the best candidates into your company. A lot of companies struggle hard to hire the finest in the industry. They look for ways to Beware, avoid resume duplication and hefty placement fees. Great article. After learning about resume screeners I didnt want to leave my application to My Grandmother’s Letters: The Difference Between, chance, so I apply using Jobscan https://goo.gl/VBqdNR to make sure my resume is seen. The reason people use pdf documents for Beware Essay, resumes is to protect the intrack market services integrity of the Essay information they provide. Personally, I trust no one. So how do you insure the integrity of the intrack sdn bhd document once it leaves your computer if not by pdf?

Very informative post. Most of the job seekers are not aware of this ATS system. Thanks for the post. Visit following website, they deliver a beautiful resume of yourself. Do you want to track your CV once it leaves your mailbox.Please try http://www.cvticker.com. Well, we just can't win. Drivers? Maybe this is intrack sdn bhd one of the reason why more than 50 percent of the recruitment went to failure. After all if you think about it a resume is just a piece of paper, do it in their way there's no biggie, we are the seekers and they are the choosers.

It's the Drivers Beware reality. With all the people complaining, it's almost funny to be honest.. Like businesses not updating their Word programs when one comes out intellectual development, every couple of years(costing a very large amount of money) and facing some compatibility issues (like not being able to Drivers Beware Essay, read .docx and such new formats), many large businesses will not update/change their text-scanning software and kmno4 h2o2 they will not be able to read stuff like .pdf no matter how 'easy' it apparently is to extract it. Drivers Beware Essay? If it costs more money/time, they probably don't want to deal with it. And I don't blame them one bit.. As for your I spent sooo much time designing this fancy resum in .pdf, and why won't they read it? :'( the skipping out on some resums probably helps these companies. Not only does it lower the number of resums(probably somewhere in the hundreds or thousands) that they have to scan through (thereby lowering the story of dorian grey load on computers and the staff hired to look at Beware Essay, resums), fancy .pdfs are going to have a higher file size than a simple .doc.

The only place where I could see that being justified is in a small design business. Market? Otherwise, your pretty little .pdf means absolutely nothing to them. You can make some very nice documents in most word processors if you know what you`re doing, it shouldn`t be a problem at Drivers Beware Essay, all. Use your design skills there(not really tech skills to be honest, anyone can use that program). Overall, a large business that needs a text-extractor will not care if your resum is a little bit nicer than the biggest arms others. Drivers Beware? They don`t care, in a place where they employ 1000 people if one singular person who was above average was cut out in favour of someone who was average. 0 poos given. If you are trying to highlight yourself before you even get a job offer, do it by researching industry standards(such as this one) and use them to your advantage!

You are now one of the 'x' number of people who didn`t get cut out by the text-scanning system for using a.pdf, congratulations! People, please stop whining, use this stuff to intrack sdn bhd, your advantage! @ Palkia The Office Open XML (DOCX, XLSX etc) standard was designed by Microsoft in 2006 for Office 2007. Drivers Beware Essay? Most businesses should have a version of kmno4 h2o2, Word thats capable of opening a DOCX, as it's over 8 years old. XPDF, a FREE and open source PDF text extractor has been around since 1995. Beware Essay? There's zero excuse for these software packages to not extract text out of intellectual and cognitive development, a PDF.

This just absolutely upsets me in so many ways. Essay? Why are you recruiters depended on kmno4 h2o2 a system that refuses to Essay, adapt? I have been spending hours on my resume to stick out and Crane´s My Grandmother’s The Difference just to find out that it simply doesn't matter what efforts I have made. Yes, I do use these key word in my resume because I was aware of the ATF searches but I had no idea about the PDF issue. I had preferred to submit my resume in PDF because I created my resume on InDesign to highlight my tech and design skills. and Beware Essay plus I figured recruiter would have issues with layout if it was in a doc format. I am sooo upset right now. Advantages Up? Some digital age we are in.

This is absolutely ridiculous. What kind of Drivers Beware Essay, system is not reading my bloody resume in worlds biggest, PDF. RETARDED DESIGN IDEA!! DO YOU KNOW HOW MANY PEOPLE ARE LOSING THEIR MINDS BECAUSE THEY DON 'T KNOW THIS CRUCIAL FUCKING REQUIREMENTS ?? IT 'S NOT LIKE THEY'RE IT TECHNICIANS!! @ huntingbird30 I literally crying. I have sent so many resumes in PDF because they were designed and I spent hours on Beware it.. and to find out they won't be looked just makes me sooo angry!.

I have sent over 1000 resumes under pdf not one response. only in america lol. What about and cognitive development, sending a simple version of the Drivers Beware PDF resume, WITH the PDF resume? The simple version would have all formating removed, and would be the machine readable version, while the PDF itself would be the version the HR person would refer to. What about sending a simple version of the PDF resume, WITH the PDF resume?

The simple version would have all formating removed, and would be the machine readable version, while the PDF itself would be the version the biggest arms HR person would refer to. Seriously? PDF text extraction is easy, there are a million open source tools for this with MIT license. Any program that is designed to Drivers Beware, scan text out of files that cannot read PDFs has some lazy ass programmers. We should not prepare the resumes format in the PDF's style.The recruiters won't allow this type of format. free pdf (lol) resume hosting at http://fresu.me. Hey this is a nice one. Thanks for arms, explaining it so brief. How to transfer car loan to my name? We don't scan for key words so in Drivers Beware, our system it doesn't matter if it's a word doc. or pdf resume you upload. www.ikrut.com = recruitment just got free.

Regarding PDF files. Disclosure: I have NEVER seen the recruiter side of an ATS tool. There seems to intellectual and cognitive development, be two ways to create a PDF: 1) print, scan, save 2) direct from software Option 1 would require OCR technology to convert the Beware scanned picture to text. While this improved over the years it is not perfect and formatting will drive OCR nuts. Option 2 usually embeds the raw text as well.

These are the PDF files you can use the search function of the reader with. My assumption, I know how that can turn out, is that the ATS systems should be able to pull the raw text from the computer generated file where Option 1 would cause issues. Biggest? Regardless, why buck the system? Use the .doc or .txt format when applying and Beware avoid the market issue. If you want to publish your resume online and are concerned with someone modifying it then use the PDF format there or set the Drivers Essay .doc file to read only. Just a thought.

Rich, First, I really enjoy your site and your posts . eh, most of which I agree with. :-) Second, this PDF-v-DOC discussion is one that I have had with with many people over the last several years as I lecture on resume writing and online job searching here in the Atlanta area. I wrote a entry for my blog (http://wp.me/puGHZ-c8) about story, a year ago and discussed this very issue. But, like in my post, let me extend your warning comments to include the .ODT format as well as the .PDF format. Both are a challenge to Beware Essay, current-day ATS platforms. Market Sdn Bhd? For those of you not familiar with .ODT, it's the default file format for Drivers Essay, Open Documents created with a variety of advantages up, Open word processing packages, such as Sun's Open Office suite. Beware Essay? While it is a standard format (ISO/IEC), it's not broadly accepted on ATS platforms yet without additional (sometimes costly) add-on packages. So, as Rich (and others) has pointed out effectively, when applying on-line, the de facto standard for resume file formats continues to be .DOC (.DOCX is almost on-par with .DOC .. give it another year) -- stick with it for now. Keep the great posts coming along! Pardon my ignorance (I'm a job seeker, not a recruiter) but what do you mean by keywords of your industry? How can someone describe their experience and skills without using the worlds biggest arms same words as you may use to Drivers Beware, search for candidates?

Are seekers and recruiters using such different language? How can I get a list of keywords for my industry, so I make sure my resume is market services sdn bhd written in the language of recruiters? Many thanks. Use a word cloud tool like wordle.net or tagcloud.com to Drivers Beware, build a visual of the job descriptions. 1) find a job description that interests you 2) copy text 3) go to word cloud tool, paste text 4) look at visual representation of the words on the cloud. The keywords should be in a larger font Just a thought. Rich, Great column!

Just one question regarding, My allergies are absolutely killing me. And Cognitive? Couldn't be allergic to corn, could you?! AMEN! It is one of Beware, my biggest pet peeves, is havinbg PDF resumes. Kmno4 H2o2? The only thinkg that drives me over the edge is people who send the resume with the title of resume.doc. These people do not think anyone else use that defualt title.

I used to rename them to be a nice recruiter, but when i have volumes of resumes coming in, in is easier to Drivers Beware, reject it since my ATS will not process it since there is ALWAYS one already in kmno4 h2o2, the database! Hi Michael - Thanks for the comment and stopping by! YES, I hate generally titled resumes as well. Drivers Essay? I may need to write a post simply on that. Thanks! I have also found that it is good to place a list of key words at the bottom in very small type and white characters that do not show up when printed however, many ATSs still pick up those key words when searching resumes. Just make sure those key words are relevant to the job and the industry otherwise they are of no use. Hey RBC - thanks for commenting.

Excellent point about keywords. Very important to note that ATS look for keywords and that's how people are found in the systme. Thanks. @rbc, if you are thoughtful in arms, developing accomplishment-based bullets that include the crucial keywords of your industry, then you won't need to rely on tricks such as white font, right? Recruiters and employers will quickly lose respect (and the Beware Essay contact info) of candidates who can't play straight. Services Sdn Bhd? You can also introduce keywords in your Summary Statement (not objective statement). Don't spend your energy playing games, but rather, spend your energy creating useful and unique content.

We have a saying here at ResuMAYDAY and Drivers Essay that's, give yourself the best resume that you've EARNED. Kmno4 H2o2? Nothing more, nothing less. With a bit of Drivers Essay, wordsmithing and strategy, you won't have to resort to trickery. Great comment, ResuMAYDAY! Trickery is certainly not ideal. Thanks for stopping by! Hi Rich - I always knew that job seekers should definitely have multiple formats of their resume, but I didn't realize that submitting .PDFs could be such a problem. If a job seeker is worlds arms emailing their resume, what do you think of attaching all the formats they have (or at least both a .Doc and .PDF)? Whenever there's an online system, the Essay .Doc submission always works better, even if .PDF can be submitted.

In those instances, it seems like the intellectual and cognitive .Doc just translates better into the system. Thanks for the tips! - Corey Career Blogger at Drivers Beware Essay, Urban Interns. Hey Corey - thanks for the comment. Attaching all of the formats may work if it's just through email. Market? That's a good way to go about it if they know for sure it's going to a recruiters inbox. The .doc is always best for Beware, online submissions and online systems. These systems are the ATS which basically shred up the PDF format.

Thanks again! Rich, Great tip on .docx vs. Hart Crane´s Love Between Generations? .doc. It's something I suspected, but wasn't entirely sure. Thanks for the heads up. Lee. Hey Lee - thanks for the comment. I'll give Sarah White the nod for that tip! That was from her brain! Thanks!

Geez . just when I'd decided (based on other articles) that I was going to Drivers Beware Essay, start sending out kmno4 h2o2, .pdf versions of my resume, I read this! Frankly, I have a jam-packed resume, reflecting 30+ years of experience in four or five (depending how one wants to slice-and-dice it) areas of the Communications field, and Drivers it has a nasty habit of trying very hard to push the last few items off the second page when left to the variables of how different systems display a .doc file. Obviously, having a .pdf version keeps all the info where it's supposed to be . Hart My Grandmother’s Love The Difference Between? however, if nobody is Drivers Beware actually READING these (either on-screen or in Hart My Grandmother’s Love The Difference, a print-out), I guess it doesn't matter. Drivers? Heck, from reading the above I'm wondering if the Hart Crane´s Generations no more than two pages rule is Beware still active . if it's a computer scanning my resume for keywords, I can spew out a 10-page EPIC of my professional life and stuff it to the gills with likely keywords. Eh . anyway . you've convinced me to keep attaching the .doc version for the time being! - B.T.

Hey BTRIPP - I'm sorry to have made you start over on this! It may be a hassle, but it MIGHT Be your best option to switch to the word resume. KEEP both formats, but only send the PDF to kmno4 h2o2, smaller companies. Good luck! Excellent advice, Rich. First off, I completely, absolutely, 100 percent agree with everything you've written so don't take anything below as being at all contradictory but instead just additional to Drivers Beware Essay, what you've written: 1. Erin's comment from a few minutes ago is story one that we hear a lot. If she could only see what employers see when they're looking at their ATS then she'd understand.

Most of the ATS software vendors seem to think that formatting is for wimps and Drivers Beware what recruiters really want is a page of grey, unformatted, straight text with no discernible columns, bullet points, numbering, etc. So all that nice formatting like putting your dates of employment in one column and your job title and Drivers Beware Essay description in Hart Crane´s My Grandmother’s Letters: The Difference Generations, another so employers can read at a glance where you've been and what you've done? Forget about it. Drivers? It all mashes together. So any benefit that she or other job seekers perceive being there from a PDF versus a Word document quickly vanishes as soon as that PDF is market services sucked into a typical ATS. 2. In the Drivers Beware Essay 20 years since I founded this business, I've never talked with a recruiter who speaks highly of their ATS. Never. 3. And Cognitive Development? I don't recall the exact percentage but it is something like 60 percent of resumes in ATS are essentially invisible to the recruiters using their ATS. The percentage was given to me by the folks at Preptel, which have created a system which will convert the resume you post at a job board or other web site into a format that is compatible with each of the Drivers Beware major ATS and then posts your resume for you. Incredibly, putting dates in one column and job titles and descriptions in another -- like most resumes seem to be -- is one of the kmno4 h2o2 biggest problems for the ATS.

These resumes often end up with all of the information from the first column (the dates) being lumped together in one paragraph and then all of the information from the Drivers Beware Essay second column (job titles and descriptions) appearing at advantages, the bottom of the resume so the Drivers Beware recruiter has no easy way of determining which dates go with which jobs. Kmno4 H2o2? These ATS have only Drivers Beware Essay been around for 15 years. You'd think they'd care more about the candidates and their clients. If they did, you'd never see a problem like this. By the way, we'll be implementing a partnership with Preptel this fall so candidates who apply to intellectual and cognitive, jobs on our site will have their resumes properly posted to the employer's ATS. 4. If the employer's system allows you to Drivers Beware, do so, upload your resume as a PDF, Word document, AND a plain text document. Look long and intellectual development hard at that last one. Drivers Beware Essay? If you can read it on your screen, then the employer should be able to read it in their ATS. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Dial? Plain text documents force you to trash all of those columns, bullets, etc. so what you end up with is a 1993-looking document that should be perfectly compatible with just about every ATS out there and Drivers Essay that will greatly increase your chances of the grey employer being able to Drivers Beware, find you. 5. Employers using ATS find candidates who have applied to jobs not by reading through a stack of resumes like so many candidates think but instead by keyword searching.

An employer might receive hundreds or even thousands of Hart Love Letters: Between Generations, resumes per day and many of them tell me that at least 90 percent are unqualified. Rather than wasting time reading through the 90 percent, the employers try to Drivers, find the 10 percent by running keyword searches just like we all do when we go to Google, Bing, or Yahoo. But just like those searches, you often end up missing what you're searching for because you didn't use the right keyword phrase or the page that has the information you want didn't include the keyword phrase that you used when you were searching for Crane´s Love Letters: Generations, it. Drivers Essay? So think about what keyword phrases the kmno4 h2o2 employer would use -- even if there's an idiot on their end -- and then use those same phrases in Drivers Beware, your resume. Keep up the good work, Rich! What is the best thing to do if i have pdf resume? im not getting any response. Hey Steven - Anything you say I listen to. Disagreeing with me or not.

Not blowing smoke up your ass here, but I do tend to learn a thing or two from you when you speak (or type). I agree with you on your points. Hart Crane´s Love Letters:? Specifically, ATS programs need to get better. I didn't like the one we had, but I'll tell you that when we didn't have it, things were worse. It didn't complete solve the Drivers problem, but it helped me reach more people. I was more efficient in my job, and as the only recruiter for services, my company, I felt more in control. In regards to Beware Essay, #3, I think recruiters are constantly trying to do their job better. In our field, what slows us down is what we usually think about. If something slows us down, we are to kmno4 h2o2, blame. For that reason, the Drivers ATS is critical. When it fails (which does happen), it hurts us.

I think that's why many don't like their ATS, or at least want something better. Great points in #4. Regards to #5, completely forgot to mention keywords in intrack market services sdn bhd, the post. Beware? Excellent! I shouldn't have wrote it at 3am! If recruiters aren't trained on key word searching, then they are missing out. But if they don't know what key words to market services, search, then they probably have larger issues. Drivers Essay? Thanks again for arms, the kind words and your thoughts! Seriously, WTF? It sounds like ATS systems are the dumbest thing on the planet, HR people hate them, and Drivers Essay yet they keep using them because . . . why?

Why hasn't sheer demand forced the companies that make these systems create something acceptable? And yet job seekers are still expected to worlds, sift through endless conflicting sources of advice despite the fact that almost nothing they will do can give them a reasonable chance of not being rejected by an idiotic system? I suppose I am lucky that I am in Essay, an industry (architecture) where most firms are far too small to use such systems. Sdn Bhd? At least if I am rejected, it's most often by a human being who has actually at least glanced at my resume, instead of a computer system that doesn't properly do the job it was designed to do even half the time. Sheesh. Hey there, Rich, I'm interested in hearing more about Beware Essay, Steve's #4 and your original point #3: If you send a PDF resume and arms receive an automatic response, it might be in your best interest to Drivers Beware Essay, apply again, this time with Word formatted resume. I've thought about applying multiple times with different formats, but hesitated on Hart Crane´s the grounds that it would be redundant, annoying and perceived as unprofessional. You've changed my mind! I still have questions though: Steve's answer was limited to one application with multiple file formats, but it didn't exclude the Drivers multiple applications idea. And Cognitive Development? What do you think of this idea, Steve?

Also, Rich, your original point #3 is Beware not be a popular alternative in the comments, and I'm not sure why, since it appears to solve the intellectual and cognitive development file format problem nicely and increase visibility in the ATS. Could you expound on Drivers Beware Essay this more, and maybe take a stab at kmno4 h2o2, the reasons why someone might not use multiple applications? Also, do you have any resources about the Drivers Beware various ATS systems in story, use? Where and Drivers how can I find information about the capabilities of each system? I understand the the rules of the job hunt are not determined by market services, me. I must humbly conform to Drivers Beware Essay, the needs of HR representatives, and kmno4 h2o2 I do. That being said, I can still grumble grumble a little at this. As a mac user (like many others), I save my resumes as PDFs before submitting. I can save as a Word doc, but I have had issues in the past with formatting not saving properly. I find it hard to imagine that these HR professionals aren't aware that they are missing out on Beware Essay a number of candidates because of a PDF submission. Unless they are looking to filter out as many candidates as possible, why would they intentionally use a software that completely ignores a number of candidates that may be the perfect fit for a position?

Is it just that they don't understand the software or does it make their job easier by cutting the kmno4 h2o2 number of candidates? Can't say I like it, but I understand your point and will take your advice to submit .doc's going forward. Hi Erin - thanks for your comment! Perfectly understand your grumbling, and you aren't alone. Drivers Beware? It's not something that I love about the system. Kmno4 H2o2? It's just how it is.

But I'll say this. As a resume reviewer, I care LESS about the format, than I do about the content. The purpose of the ATS is to organize your information once you're in the system. If your content is solid, I'll probably find you in Drivers Beware Essay, there and review your information. If the The Difference Between Generations format is messed up, I'll still consider you if the information is good. Format is less important than content and grammar. That's key to Beware Essay, understand. But. if you do have the PDF and kmno4 h2o2 it doesn't come through, then I'm not even able to Essay, read your content. Why do people use it? A large company may receive 500 resumes per day.

They simply can not open each one in an email. It would clog their email and they'd miss many people. It's not that recruiters don't understand the software, it's that the software doesn't understand PDF's. That needs to change, and I'm sure in the next couple years that will absolutely change. Thanks again for My Grandmother’s Love Letters: The Difference, your thoughts! [] Medicare fee schedule in effect for Calendar Years 2013 and 2014, or the Beware fee schedule Why your PDF resume might be killing you | Corn on Crane´s Generations the Job Aug 18, 2011 This post explains why you should use a word format for Drivers Beware, your resume. Love The Difference Between? []

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American Military Strategy in Drivers Essay the Vietnam War, 19651973. For nearly a decade, American combat soldiers fought in South Vietnam to advantages and disadvantages of dial up help sustain an Beware independent, noncommunist nation in Southeast Asia. After U.S. troops departed in 1973, the up collapse of South Vietnam in 1975 prompted a lasting search to explain the Drivers Beware United States first lost war. Historians of the conflict and participants alike have since critiqued the ways in which civilian policymakers and uniformed leaders appliedsome argued misappliedmilitary power that led to such an intrack market services undesirable political outcome. While some claimed U.S. Beware? politicians failed to commit their nations full military might to a limited war, others contended that most officers fundamentally misunderstood the nature of the war they were fighting.

Still others argued winning was essentially impossible given the true nature of a struggle over Vietnamese national identity in Hart My Grandmother’s Love Letters: The Difference Between the postcolonial era. Beware? On their own, none of arms, these arguments fully satisfy. Contemporary policymakers clearly understood the difficulties of waging a war in Southeast Asia against an enemy committed to Beware Essay national liberation. Yet the faith of these Americans in their power to resolve deep-seated local and regional sociopolitical problems eclipsed the possibility there might be limits to that power. Kmno4 H2o2? By asking military strategists to simultaneously fight a war and build a nation, senior U.S. policymakers had asked too much of those crafting military strategy to deliver on overly ambitious political objectives. In the end, the Vietnam War exposed the limits of what American military power could achieve in the Cold War era. By mid-June 1951, the Korean War had settled into an uneasy, yet conspicuous stalemate. Having blunted North Korean and Chinese offensives that killed thousands of soldiers and Drivers Beware, civilians, the United Nations forces, now under command of General Matthew B. Advantages Of Dial? Ridgway, dug in as both sides agreed to Drivers open negotiations. Though the enemy had suffered heavily under the weight of allied ground and air power, Washington and its partners had little stomach to press northward. As the U.S.

Joint Chiefs of biggest, Staff declared, the objective was to effect an end to the fighting . . . and a return to Drivers Beware the status quo. 1 Thus, President Harry Trumans decision in April to relieve General Douglas MacArthurwho in Ridgways words envisaged no less than the global defeat of communismsuggested that political limitations were now an intrinsic part of developing and implementing strategy in a time of war. Yet what was the purpose of war and strategy if not the complete destruction of enemy forces? In a time when men had control of kmno4 h2o2, machines capable of laying a world to waste, Ridgway believed escalation without restraint would lead to disaster. Civilian and Essay, military authorities had to set attainable goals and story grey, work closely in Beware Essay selecting the means to achieve them. 2. Ridgways admonitions forecast inherent problems in a Cold War period increasingly dubbed an era of story of dorian, limited war. In short, the very definition of wartime victory seemed in flux. An uncertain end to the fighting in Korea implied there were, in fact, substitutes to winning outright on the field of battle. Even if Korea demonstrated the successful application of communist containment, at Beware Essay, least one student of strategy lamented that limited war connoted a deliberate hobbling of tremendous power. 3 A Manichean view of the intellectual development Cold War, however, presented knotty problems for those seeking to confront seemingly expansion-minded communists without unintentionally escalating beyond some nuclear threshold. How could one fight a national war for survival against communism yet agree to negotiate an Beware Essay end to a stalemated war? Political scientist Robert Osgood, writing in 1957, judged there were few alternatives to Hart contesting communists who themselves were limiting military force to minimize the Drivers Beware Essay risk of precipitating total war. For Osgood, the challenge was to think about of dorian grey, contemporary war as more than simply a physical contest between opposing armies. The problem of Drivers Beware Essay, limited war is not just a problem of biggest, military strategy but is, more broadly, the problem of combining military power with diplomacy and with the economic and psychological instruments of Drivers Beware Essay, power within a coherent national strategy that is capable of story of dorian, supporting the United States political objectives abroad. 4. If Osgood was correct in suggesting that war required more than just an application of Drivers, military power, then strategyas a problem to Crane´s My Grandmother’s Love Letters: be solvedentailed more than just battlefield expertise. Thus, the postWorld War II generation of U.S.

Army officers was forced to think about war more broadly. And they did. Far from being slaves to conventional operations, officers ascending the Drivers Essay ranks in the 1950s to command in up Vietnam understood the rising importance of local insurgency movements. As Andrew Birtle has persuasively argued, by 1965 the army had succeeded in integrating counterinsurgency and counterguerrilla warfare in substantive ways into its doctrinal, educational, and training systems. 5 An examination of contemporary professional journals such as Military Review reveals a military establishment wrestling with the Beware Essay problems of local economic and social development, the importance of kmno4 h2o2, community politics, and the role played by Drivers Beware Essay, indigenous security forces. In truth, officers of the day, echoing the recommendations of market services, Harvard professor Henry Kissinger, did not define limited wars in purely military terms. Rather, they perceived strategic problems as those involving changes in Drivers Essay technologies, societies, and, perhaps most importantly, political ideas. 6. These same officers labored to devise a coherent strategy for a limited contest in Southeast Asia within the larger construct of the Cold War. In an important sense, the development of strategy for all combatants necessitated attention to multiple layers, all interlaced. As Lyndon Johnson recalled of Vietnam in his 1971 memoir, It was a political war, an economic war, and a fighting warall at the same time. 7 Moreover, American political and military leaders found that Cold War calculations mattered just as much as the services sdn bhd fighting inside South Vietnam. Fears of appearing weak against communism compelled the Johnson White House to escalate in 1965 when it looked like Hanoi was making its final bid for Indochinese domination. As Secretary of Defense Robert S. Essay? McNamara told a journalist in April, if the intellectual development United States withdrew from Vietnam there would be a complete shift of Drivers Beware Essay, world power.

Asia goes Red, our prestige and Crane´s My Grandmother’s Love Between, integrity damaged, allies everywhere shaken. Thus, paraphrasing military theorist Basil Liddell Hart, policy imperatives at the level of grand strategy would set the Essay foundations forand later circumscribethe application of military strategy on a lower plane. Grey? 8. Liddell Harts council that strategy involved more than fighting power would lead American officers in Vietnam into a near insolvable dilemma. Clearly, the civil war inside Vietnam was more than just a military problem. Yet in the quest to broaden their conception of war, to consider political and social issues as much as military ones, senior leaders developed a strategy that was so wide-ranging as to Beware Essay be unmanageable. Rather than a narrow focus on enemy attrition, sheer comprehensiveness proved to be a crucial factor undermining American strategy in Hart Crane´s My Grandmother’s Letters: The Difference Vietnam. In attempting to both destroy an adversary and Drivers, build a nation, uniformed leaders overestimated their capacity to manage a conflict that had long preceded American involvement. A near unquestioning faith in the capacity to do everything overshadowed any unease with entanglement in a civil war rooted in competing notions of national liberation and identity. 9 In the end, senior U.S. policymakers had asked too much of those crafting military strategy to deliver on overly ambitious political objectives. Devising Strategy for a New Kind of War. By June 1965, General William C. Westmoreland had been serving in Crane´s My Grandmother’s The Difference the Republic of Drivers Essay, Vietnam for eighteen months.

As the newly appointed commander of the U.S. Market Services? Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV), the former West Point superintendent was heir to Drivers a legacy of grey, varied strategic initiatives aimed at sustaining an Beware independent, noncommunist foothold in Southeast Asia. Worlds? Since the division of Vietnam along the seventeenth parallel in 1954, an American military assistance and advisory group (MAAG) had been training local forces for a threat both externally military and Drivers Beware, internally political. 10 The image of North Korean forces streaming across an international boundary in 1950 surely weighed heavily on U.S. officers. Yet these same men understood the importance of a steady economy and My Grandmother’s Letters:, secure social structure in combating the Essay growing insurgent threat inside South Vietnam. Story Of Dorian Grey? Consequently, the Beware U.S. advisory group focused on more than just advising the Army of the Crane´s Love Letters: The Difference Between Generations Republic of Drivers Beware, South Vietnam (ARVN) for story, conventional operations against Drivers the North Vietnam Army (NVA). 11. As advisers, however, the Americans could not dictate strategy to their Vietnamese allies. My Grandmother’s Love Letters: Between? President Ngo Dinh Diem, struggling to gain popular support for Drivers Essay, his own social revolution, equally sought ways to secure the populationthrough programs like agrovilles and strategic hamletsfrom a rising communist insurgency. Yet achieving consensus with (and between) Americans proved difficult. Staff officers debated how best to balance economic and kmno4 h2o2, political development with population security and the training of South Vietnamese forces.

12 Was the Drivers threat more military or political, more external or internal? Were local paramilitary forces or the conventional army better suited to dealing with these threats? All the while, a shadow government competed for story of dorian, influence within the countryside. When MACV was established in February 1962, its chief, Paul D. Harkins, received the mission to assist and Beware Essay, support the Crane´s My Grandmother’s Love Letters: Between Generations Government of South Vietnam in its efforts to provide for its internal security, defeat Communist insurgency, and Beware, resist overt aggression. 13 Here was a tall order. Moreover, as military operations required a solid political footing for ultimate success, an story of dorian grey unstable Saigon government further complicated American strategic planning. Following Diems overthrow and death in November 1963, the foundations on which the U.S. presence in South Vietnam rested appeared shaky at best. Hanois own escalation in Beware 1964 did little to assuage concern. 14. Though cognizant of the difficulties ahead, American leaders felt they had little choice but to persevere in South Vietnam. By early 1965, with the intellectual development Gulf of Tonkin Resolution authorizing him to take all necessary steps, including the Drivers Beware use of armed force to assist South Vietnam, President Johnson believed he had little alternative but to escalate. He was in a difficult position.

Hoping to preserve his domestic agenda but stand strong against communist aggression, Johnson initially hesitated on committing ground troops. Instead, he turned to airpower. Operation Rolling Thunder, launched in early March 1965, aimed at eliminating Hanois support of the Hart Crane´s Love Letters: The Difference Between Generations southern insurgency. Concurrently, Johnson hoped, in Drivers Michael Hunts words, to bring a better life to the people of Vietnamon American terms. 15 The president would be disappointed on both counts. The punitive bombing of North Vietnam did little to interfere with Hanois support of the development insurgents and nothing to Drivers Beware Essay resolve the internal political problems of South Vietnam. Moreover, military leaders complained that the presidents gradual response, of limiting the tempo and ferocity of the air campaign, unduly limited American military might. (Few worried as restlessly as Johnson about full-blown Chinese or Soviet intervention.) By the spring, it became clear the presidents policies in South Vietnam were failing. In June, Westmoreland officially requested additional troops as a stop-gap measure to of dial save the ARVN from defeat. 16.

The decision to Essay escalate in Vietnam persists as one of the most controversial in advantages and disadvantages twentieth-century American foreign policy. Competing interpretations revolve around the question of purpose. Was escalation chosen as a matter of policy, of containing communism abroad? Was it used as a way to test American capacity in nation-building, of expanding democracy overseas? Or did escalation flow from concerns about prestige and credibility, both national and political? Clearly Johnson considered all these matters in the critical months of Drivers Beware Essay, early 1965, and it is plausible to argue that the president believed he had few alternatives given reports of South Vietnam being on kmno4 h2o2 the verge of collapse. Yet ultimately intervention was a matter of choice. 17 Johnson feared the political ramifications and personal consequences of Essay, losing Vietnam just as Truman had lost China. Thus, when Westmoreland sent a cable to the Pentagon in early June requesting 40,000 combat troops immediately and more than 50,000 later, hasty deliberations in the White House led to support for MACVs appeal. As McNamara later recalled, South Vietnam seemed to be crumbling, with the only apparent antidote a massive injection of US troops. 18. The task now fell to Westmoreland to devise an offensive strategy to use these troops.

Realizing Hanoi had committed regular army regiments and Hart My Grandmother’s Love Letters: The Difference Between Generations, battalions to South Vietnam, the MACV commander believed he had no choice but to contest this conventional threat. But he also had to provide security from the guerrilla, the assassin, the terrorist and the informer. 19 MACVs chief intelligence officer drew attention to these diverse undertakings. As Phillip B. Davidson recalled, Westmoreland had not one battle, but three to fight: first, to contain a growing enemy conventional threat; second, to develop the Republic of Vietnams Armed Forces (RVNAF); and Beware Essay, third, to pacify and protect the peasants in the South Vietnamese countryside. Each was a monumental task. 20 Far from being wedded to a battle-centric strategy aimed at racking up high body counts, Westmoreland developed a comprehensive campaign plan for employing his forces that factored in more than just killing the enemy. Stabilization and security of South Vietnam formed the bedrock of Westmorelands three-phase sustained campaign. Phase I visualized the commitment of U.S. and allied forces necessary to halt the losing trend by 1965. Tasks included securing allied military bases, defending major political and population centers, and strengthening the RVNAF. In Phase II, Westmoreland sought to resume the offensive to destroy enemy forces and reinstitute rural construction activities. In this phase, aimed to begin in 1966, American forces would participate in clearing, securing, reserve reaction and offensive operations as required to support and sustain the resumption of pacification. Finally, in Phase III, MACV would oversee the market sdn bhd defeat and destruction of the remaining enemy forces and Drivers Beware Essay, base areas. It is important to Crane´s Love Letters: The Difference Between Generations note that Westmorelands plan included the term sustained campaign. 21 The general was under no illusions that U.S. forces were engaged in a war of annihilation aimed at the rapid destruction of the enemy. Attrition suggested that a stable South Vietnam, capable of resisting the military and political pressures of both internal and external aggressors, would not arise in a matter of months or even a few years. Hanois political and military leaders equally debated the Essay strategic concerns of time, resources, and capabilities. Johnsons decision to commit U.S. combat troops forced Politburo members to reconsider not only the political-military balance inside South Vietnam, but also Hanois relationship with its more powerful allies.

To be sure, national communists like Vo Nguyen Giap had discussed the role of a long-term revolutionary war strategy and the importance of Hart My Grandmother’s Love Letters: The Difference Between Generations, political education in military training. 22 By 1965, however, the massive American buildup complicated strategic deliberations. In December, Hanois leadership, increasingly under the sway of First Secretary Le Duan, promulgated Lao Dong Party Resolution 12, which outlined a basic strategy to defeat the Americans under any circumstances. The resolution placed greater emphasis on the military struggle as domestic priorities in the North receded into the background. Drivers Essay? As a result, Le Duan battled with senior military officials like Giap over the pace of military operations and intellectual development, the building of Beware Essay, forces for intellectual, a general offensive against Drivers Beware Essay the southern puppets. Escalation proved challenging for both sides. 23.

The strategic decision making leading to My Grandmother’s Love Letters: American intervention in Essay Vietnam illustrates the difficulties of developing and implementing strategy for worlds biggest, a postcolonial conflict in Essay the nuclear era. Of Dial? Even from Hanois perspective, strategy was not a straightforward process. A sense of contingency, of choices, and Beware, of action and reaction permeate the critical years leading to 1965. Why Johnson chose war, and Crane´s Letters: The Difference Generations, the restrictions he imposed on the conduct of that war, remain contentious questions. Beware Essay? So too do inquiries into the nature of the threat that both Americans and their South Vietnamese allies faced. Finally, the relationship between political objectives and intrack services, the strategy devised to Drivers Beware accomplish those objectives offers valuable instruction to those researching the faith in, and limitations of, American power abroad during the Cold War. 24. From Escalation to Stalemate. Of Dial? In March 1965, the first contingent of U.S. Marines landed at Da Nang in Quang Nam province. Their mission, to Drivers Beware Essay defend American airbases supporting the bombing campaign against North Vietnam, called for setting up three defensive enclaves at Phu Bai, Da Nang, and Chu Lai.

As the story summer progressed and additional army units arrived in country, Westmoreland sought authorization to expand beyond his airfield security mission. If South Vietnam was to survive, the general needed to have a substantial and hard-hitting offensive capability . . . with troops that could be maneuvered freely. 25 With the growing recognition that Rolling Thunder was not achieving desired results, the Pentagon gave Westmoreland the green light. The MACV commanders desires stemmed largely from his perception of the Essay enemy. To the general, the greatest threat to advantages up South Vietnam came not from the National Liberation Front (NLF) insurgency but rather from main force units, both NLF and NVA. Westmoreland appreciated the long-term threat insurgents posed to Drivers Beware Essay Saigon, but he worried that since the enemy had committed larger combat units to battle, he ignored them at his peril. 26. Kmno4 H2o2? The Americans thus undertook offensive operations to provide a shield for the population, one behind which ARVN could promote pacification in the countryside.

By early October, the U.S. 1st Cavalry Division had expanded its operations into the Central Highlands, hoping to defeat the enemy and reestablish governmental control in the NLF-dominated countryside. Hanoi, however, had continued its own buildup and three North Vietnam Army regiments had joined local forces in Pleiku province near the Cambodian border. In mid-November, the cavalrys lead battalion, using new techniques of helicopter insertion onto the battlefield, collided with the Drivers Essay NVA. For two days the worlds battle raged. Only the employment of B-52 strategic bombers, called in for close air support, staved off defeat.

The battle of Ia Drang clearly demonstrated the necessity of conventional operationsWestmoreland could not risk NVA regiments controlling the critical Highway 19 and thus cutting South Vietnam in two. But the clash raised important questions as well. Was Ia Drang an American victory? Would such battles truly impact Hanois will? And how could MACV help secure South Vietnam if its borders remained so porous? 27.

Despite the attention Ia Drang drewWestmoreland publicly called it an unprecedented victoryrevolutionary development and nonmilitary programs never strayed far from MACVs sights. Westmoreland continued to stress psychological operations and civic action, even in the aftermath of Ia Drang. In December, he wrote the 1st Infantry Divisions commander detailing how the buildup of forces should allow for an increased emphasis on Drivers Essay pacification: I am inviting this matter to your personal attention since I feel that an effective rural construction program is essential to the success of our mission. 28 Unfortunately, these early pacification efforts seemed to be making little progress as Hanoi continued infiltrating troops into South Vietnam and desertions from the South Vietnamese armed forces rose sharply. 29 Accordingly, Westmoreland requested an additional 41,500 troops. Worlds Biggest? Further deployments might be necessary.

The request staggered the secretary of defense, who now realized there would be no rapid conclusion to the war. The U.S. presence rested on a bowl of Drivers Essay, jelly, McNamara recalled. His doubts, however, were not forceful enough to derail the presidents commitment to and cognitive development a secure, stable, and noncommunist South Vietnam. 30. When American and Beware, South Vietnamese leaders met at Honolulu in early February 1966, Johnson publicly reaffirmed that commitment. While Prime Minister Nguyen Cao Ky and Chief of State Nguyen Van Thieu pledged a social revolution in biggest arms Vietnam, Johnson urged an expansion of the other war, a term increasingly used to describe allied pacification efforts. 31 Concurrently, McNamara and Secretary of Beware Essay, State Dean Rusk defined Westmorelands goals for intellectual, the coming year. Drivers Beware Essay? MACV would increase the South Vietnamese population living in secure areas by 10 percent, multiply critical roads and railroads by 20 percent, and increase the destruction of NLF and NVA base areas by 30 percent. To make sure the advantages up presidents directives were not ignored, Westmoreland was to Drivers augment the kmno4 h2o2 pacified population by Beware Essay, 235,000 and market services sdn bhd, ensure the defense of political and population centers under government control. The final goal directed MACV to attrite, by years end, VC/PAVN forces at a rate as high as their capability to put men in the field. 32. The Honolulu conference is a critical episode for understanding American military strategy in Vietnam.

The comprehensive list of Essay, strategic objectives presented by Rusk and McNamara forced American commanders to consider the war as an Hart Love Letters: The Difference Between effort in both construction and Beware Essay, destruction. The conference also reinforced the necessity of thinking about strategy in broader terms than simply battle. Attrition of enemy forces was only part of a much larger whole. In one sense, pacification of the countryside was a process of trying to create political space so the government of Crane´s My Grandmother’s Love Letters: Between Generations, South Vietnam (GVN) could stabilize. (The New York Times reported in April that a crisis in Saigon was snagging U.S. efforts.) Yet MACVs own definition of pacificationthe military, political, economic, and social process of Drivers Essay, establishing or re-establishing local government responsive to and involving the participation of the peopleseemed problematic. Of Dorian Grey? 33 Critics wondered how foreigners could build a local government responsive to its people. Furthermore, the expansive nature of pacification meant U.S. troops would be asked to fight an elusive enemy while implementing a whole host of nonmilitary programs. Thus, while Westmoreland and senior commanders emphasized the importance of Drivers, winning both control over kmno4 h2o2 and support of the Vietnamese people, American soldiers wrestled with building a political community in a land long ravaged by war.

That they themselves too often brought devastation to the countryside hardly furthered the Drivers Essay goals of pacification. 34. In important ways, waging battlea necessity given Le Duans commitment to a general offensive in South Vietnamundermined U.S. nation-building efforts in 1966 and underscored the difficulties of coordinating so many strategic actors. This management problem long had been a concern of counterinsurgency theorists. British adviser Sir Robert Thompson, a veteran of the services sdn bhd Malayan campaign, articulated the need to find a proper balance between the military and the civil effort, with complete coordination in all fields. Otherwise a situation will arise in which military operations produce no lasting results because they are unsupported by civil follow-up action. 35 The reality of Drivers Beware Essay, South Vietnam bore out Thompsons claims. Worried about Saigons political collapse, American war managers too often focused on short-term, military results. The decentralized nature of strategic implementation equally made it difficult to weave provincial franchises into a larger national effort. 36. My Grandmother’s? This lack of coordination led to pressures for a single-manager to coordinate the increasingly vast American enterprise in South Vietnam. (By the end of 1966, more than 385,000 U.S. military personnel alone were serving in Beware Essay country.) In May, Westmoreland incorporated a new directorate into advantages and disadvantages of dial up, his headquartersCivil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support.

While ostensibly a South Vietnamese program, CORDS redefined the Drivers allied pacification mission. Advantages And Disadvantages Up? 37 The directorates head, Ambassador Robert W. Komer, threw himself into Drivers Beware, the management problem and assigned each senior U.S. military adviser a civilian deputy for intellectual, revolutionary development. MACV now provided oversight for Beware, all of the allied pacification-related programs: territorial security forces, the whole RD effort, care and resettlement of refugees, the Chieu Hoi (Open Arms, or amnesty) program to bring VC [Vietcong] to the GVN side, the police program, the attempts to stimulate rural economic revival, hamlet schools, and so on. 38 In short, CORDS assumed full responsibility for pacification. If CORDS could be viewed as a microcosm of Westmorelands comprehensive strategy, it also underscored the difficulties of implementing so many programs at once. Story? Physically controlling the population did not guarantee allied forces were making inroads against Drivers Beware Essay the insurgencys political infrastructure.

Improved security conditions did not necessarily win civilian hearts and minds. Revolutionary development tasks competed with other urgent operational commitments, further straining American commanders and their staffs. More importantly, pacification required a deeper appreciation of Vietnamese culture than most Americans possessed. 39 Senior officers labored to worlds biggest arms balance the competing requirements of attacking enemy units and performing civic action in Drivers Essay the hamlets and villages. On the ground, many American soldiers made few distinctions between friend and foe when operating in the countryside. The armys personnel rotation policy, under which individual soldiers served for story, twelve months before returning home, only Beware Essay, exacerbated these problems. With some units experiencing a 90 percent personnel turnover within a three-month period, the pacification process was erratic at best. 40. As 1967 wore on, American journalists increasingly used words like stalemate and quagmire to of dorian describe the war in Vietnam. Early-year operations like Cedar Falls and Drivers Beware, Junction City, though inflicting heavy damage on the enemy, failed to break Hanois will. Biggest? At most, pacification was yielding modest results. Political instability in Saigon continued to worry U.S. embassy officials.

Both the Beware White House and MACV thus found it ever more difficult to convince Americans at home that their sacrifices were generating results. 41 Even Westmoreland struggled to assess how well his war was advancing. Body counts told only a fraction of the story. A lack of of dorian grey, fighting in a certain district could either mean the area was pacified or the enemy was in such control that battle was unnecessary. Two years into the war, American soldiers remained unsure of their progress. (MACV and the CIA even debated the number of soldiers within the enemys ranks.) President Johnson, however, watched the growing domestic dissent with concern and, given the wars ambiguities, called Westmoreland and Ambassador Bunker home in support of a public relations campaign. In three appearances in 1967 MACVs commander reported to national audiences his views on the ongoing war. Beware Essay? Though guarded in his commentary, Westmorelands tone nonetheless was optimistic given the presidents desires to disprove claims of a stalemated war. Kmno4 H2o2? 42. Hanois political and military leaders similarly deliberated their own progress in Drivers Essay 1967. Because of the American imperialists aggressive nature, the kmno4 h2o2 Politburo acknowledged the southern insurgency campaign had stalemated in Drivers Beware Essay the countryside.

Still, to worlds arms Le Duan in particular, an opportunity existed. A strategic offensive might break the impasse by instigating a popular uprising in the South, thus weakening the South VietnameseAmerican alliance and forcing the Essay enemy to the negotiating table. A southern uprising might well convince the story of dorian grey international community that the United States was unjustly fighting against an internally led popular revolution. More importantly, a military defeat of the Americans, real or perceived, might change the political context of the entire conflict. 43. During the Drivers Beware Essay plans first phase, to be executed in late 1967, NVA units would conduct conventional operations along South Vietnams borders to services sdn bhd draw American forces away from urban areas and to facilitate NLF infiltration into the cities. Beware Essay? Le Duan planned the second phase for early 1968, a coordinated offensive by advantages of dial, insurgent and Drivers Beware Essay, regular forces to attack allied troops and support popular uprisings in the cities and surrounding areas.

Additional NVA units would reinforce the uprising in the plans final phase by assaulting American forces and wearing down U.S. military strength in South Vietnam. 44. Though Le Duans desired popular uprising failed to materialize, the general offensive launched in story late January 1968 shocked most Americans, especially those watching the war at home. Beware Essay? Commencing during the Tet holiday, communist forces attacked more than 200 cities, towns, and villages across South Vietnam. Though not completely surprised, Westmoreland had not anticipated the ability of Hanoi to coordinate an offensive of intrack market services, such size and scope. The allies, however, reacted quickly and the communists suffered mightily under the weight of American and South Vietnamese firepower. Essay? Yet the damage to the U.S. position in Vietnam, some argued irreparable, had been done.

Even in the offensives first hours, senior CIA analyst George Carver predicted that the degree of success already achieved in Saigon and around the and disadvantages country will adversely affect the image of the GVN (and its powerful American allies as well) in the eyes of the people. 45 Indeed, Tet had taken a heavy psychological toll on the population. After years of U.S. assistance, the Saigon government appeared incapable of securing the country against a large-scale enemy attack. Drivers Beware Essay? Any claims of kmno4 h2o2, progress seemed artificial at best, intentionally deceitful at worst. News reports about Westmorelands late-February request for an additional 206,000 men, followed soon after by the presidents decision not to run for reelection, only reinforced perceptions of stalemate. Beware? Secretary of Defense Clark Clifford, who replaced McNamara in kmno4 h2o2 early March, wondered aloud how MACV was winning the Drivers war yet needed more troops. And Disadvantages? Public opinion mirrored growing doubts within Johnsons inner circle. A 10 March Gallup poll found only 33 percent of Americans believed the United States was making progress in the war. Thus, Johnson approved only Drivers Beware, 10,500 additional troops for kmno4 h2o2, Westmoreland and in late March suspended all air attacks over Beware North Vietnam in hopes of opening talks with Hanoi. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Dial Up? If the Drivers 1968 Tet offensive was not an outright turning point of the warmany historians still consider it to beHanois assault and Washingtons response brought about a shift in American policy and strategic goals. Westmoreland, hoping for kmno4 h2o2, a change in Beware strategy that would expand operations into the Cambodian and Laotian sanctuaries and thus shorten the of dial up war, instead received word in late spring that he would be leaving Vietnam to become the Chief of Essay, Staff of the Army.

The best the general had been able to achieve was a long and bloody stalemate. 46. Historians have seized upon the Tet offensive and mid-1968 impasse as proof of a misguided military strategy crafted by a narrow-minded general who cared only for piling up high body counts. Such arguments should be considered with care. Far from grey, being focused only on Essay military operations against enemy main force units, Westmoreland instead crafted a strategy that took into up, account the issues of Beware Essay, pacification, civic action, land reform, and the training of South Vietnamese units.

If Tet illustrated anything, it was that battlefield successesboth military and nonmilitarydid not translate automatically into larger political outcomes. Despite the wealth of manpower and resources Americans brought to South Vietnam, they could not solve Saigons underlying political, economic, and social problems. Market? Moreover, Westmorelands military strategy could not answer the basic questions over which the war was fought. In a contest over Vietnamese national identity in the postcolonial era, the Drivers Beware U.S. mission in South Vietnam could only keep Saigon from falling to the communists. It could not convince the people a better future lay with an ally, rather than an enemy, of the United States. From Stalemate to Withdrawal. In June 1968, Creighton W. Abrams, a West Point classmate of Westmoreland, assumed command of MACV. Only a month before, the enemy launched a series of new attacks in South Vietnam.

Dubbed mini-Tet, the offensive sputtered out quickly but produced 125,000 new refugees inside a society already heavily dislocated by years of fighting. Reporters were quick to highlight the differences between the outgoing and incoming commanders. But Abrams, in Andrew Birtles words, differed from Westmoreland more in of dorian emphasis than in substance. Stressing a one war concept that viewed the enemy as a political-military whole, the new commander confronted familiar problems. As one officer recalled, By the time Abrams arrived on the scene, there were few options left for Drivers, changing the character of the war. 47 Certainly, Abrams concerned himself more with pacification and ARVN training. These programs rose in importance, though, not because of some new strategic concept, but rather because the American phase of the war had largely run its course.

From this point forward, the wars outcome would increasingly rest on the actions of the Vietnamese, both North and biggest arms, South. While U.S. officials remained committed to an independent, noncommunist Vietnam, peace had replaced military victory as Americans principal national objective. 48. The inauguration of Drivers, Richard M. Nixon in January 1969 underscored the diminishing role of biggest arms, South Vietnam in American foreign policy. The new president hoped to Beware concentrate on and cognitive development his larger aim of improving relations with China and the Soviet Union. Such foreign policy designs hinged on reversing the Americanization of the war in Southeast Asia while fortifying South Vietnam to Drivers Essay withstand future communist aggression. As Nixons national security advisor Henry Kissinger recalled, the challenge was to withdraw American forces as an expression of policy and not as a collapse. 49 Of course, Nixon, still the advantages up Cold War warrior, remained committed to opposing the Drivers Beware Essay expansion of communism. Withdrawal from Vietnam thus required maintaining an image of strength during peace negotiations if the United States was to retain credibility as a world power and a deterrent to communist expansion. Nixons goal of peace with honor thus would hold crucial implications for military strategists inside Vietnam.

50. In truth, Nixons larger policy goals complicated the process of story of dorian grey, de-Americanizing the Essay war, soon dubbed Vietnamization by Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird. Worlds Biggest Arms? In shifting more of the Beware wars burden to the South Vietnamese, the president was quietly redefining success. Realizing, in Nixons words, that total military victory was no longer possible, the new administration sought a fair negotiated settlement that would preserve the independence of services sdn bhd, South Vietnam. 51 (Both Nixon and Laird believed flagging domestic support was limiting their options, long a concern of senior policymakers.) Abrams would preside over an American war effort increasingly concerned with reducing casualties while arranging for U.S. troop withdrawals. Moreover, the impending American departure did little to settle unresolved questions over the most pressing threat to South Vietnam. Drivers Beware Essay? In preparing to hand over the war, should Americans be training the ARVN to defeat conventional North Vietnamese forces or a battered yet resilient insurgency?

52. Worlds? After a detailed examination of the war led by Kissinger, Nixon formulated a five-point strategy to end the war and win the peace. The new policy depended first on pacification, redefined as meaningful continuing security for the Vietnamese people. Nixon also sought diplomatic isolation of North Vietnam and placed increasing weight on negotiations in Paris. Gradual withdrawal of U.S. forces was the Drivers Beware Essay fourth aspect of Nixons strategy. As the president recalled, Americans needed tangible evidence that we were winding down the war, and the South Vietnamese needed to be given more responsibility for and cognitive development, their defense. (Some ARVN officers balked at the insinuation that they hadnt been responsible for Beware, their nations security.) The final element, Vietnamization, aimed at training and equipping South Vietnams armed forces so they could defend the country on of dorian grey their own. Of note, political reform in Saigon, largely a task for Drivers Beware, Ambassador Ellsworth Bunker, accompanied the military side of Vietnamization. Our whole strategy, Nixon declared, depended on biggest whether this program succeeded. 53. For Abrams, the Drivers Beware Essay problem now became one of intellectual development, synchronizing all facets of his one war approach.

Back in Beware Essay August 1968, MACV had to worlds biggest fend off another enemy offensive, the third of the year. Without retreating from the conventional threat, Abrams turned increasing attention to pacification. Beware? Under the influence of the new CORDS chief William Colby, the GVN initiated an Accelerated Pacification Campaign at years end. The campaign endeavored to upgrade 1,000 contested hamlets to relatively secure ratings by the end of advantages and disadvantages of dial up, January 1969. To provide political space for the Saigon government, U.S. military operations increased dramatically to Essay keep the enemy off balance, further depopulating the countryside and creating more refugees. 54 In truth, the biggest war under Abrams was no less violent than under Westmoreland. Still, the new MACV chief hoped to Drivers Beware cut into the NLF infrastructure by boosting the of dorian grey number of those who would rally to Saigons side under the Chieu Hoi amnesty program, reinvigorating local defense forces, and neutralizing the insurgencys political cadre. 55 This last goal fell largely to Phoenix, an Drivers Essay intelligence coordination program that targeted the Hart Between NLF political organization for destruction by Drivers Essay, police and local militia forces.

MACV believed the defeat of the enemy infrastructure essential to kmno4 h2o2 preclude re-establishment of an operational or support base to which the VC can return. 56. While media attention often focused on battles like the costly engagement at Drivers Essay, Hamburger Hill in May 1969, conventional combat operations overshadowed MACVs larger efforts to improve and modernize South Vietnams armed forces. Market Sdn Bhd? For Abrams, any successful American withdrawal was predicated on improvements in this key area of Vietnamization. In the field, U.S. advisers trained their counterparts on small-unit patrolling and coordinating artillery support with infantry and armor operations. In garrison, the Americans concentrated on Beware improving the and disadvantages up ARVN promotion system and building an Drivers effective maintenance program. Moreover, ARVN leadership and and disadvantages, morale needed attention to help reduce desertion rates.

So too did intelligence, logistic, and operational planning programs. Drivers Essay? Abrams also had to propose an optimal force structure and help develop an operational approach best suited to ARVN capabilities. 57. Fundamental problems, though, faced Abrams in building up South Vietnams military forces. After Nguyen Van Thieu, South Vietnams president since the September 1967 election, announced a national mobilization in mid-1968, the size of the kmno4 h2o2 regular army and popular and regional forces increased substantially.

In two years, the total armed forces grew by 40 percent. Finding competent officers during this rapid expansion proved nearly impossible. Additionally, capable ARVN leaders, of which there were many, too often found themselves and Drivers Beware, their units still relegated to secondary roles during allied maneuvers. 58 These officers consequently lacked experience in coordinating multifaceted operations required for effective counterinsurgency. Kmno4 H2o2? Problems within the enlisted ranks rivaled those among ARVNs leadership. Newsweek offered a harsh appraisal of the typical South Vietnamese trooper who was often dragooned into an army where he is poorly trained, badly paid, insufficiently indoctrinated about Beware Essay, why he is fightingand, for the most part, led by incompetent officers. 59 Simply increasing the number of soldiers and supplying them with better weapons would not achieve the market services larger goals of Vietnamization. Moreover, the ultimate success of Vietnamization depended on resolving perennial problems. Hanoi continued to Drivers Beware Essay send men and material into South Vietnam via the advantages and disadvantages Ho Chi Minh Trail. North Vietnamese units still found refuge in sanctuaries along the Cambodian and Laotian borders. Thus, expanding the war into Essay, Cambodia offered an advantages and disadvantages opportunity to Beware give the GVN the breathing space it needed. From his first day in office, Nixon sought to quarantine Cambodia. (Hanoi had taken advantage of the nominally neutral country by building base areas from which NVA units could infiltrate into South Vietnam.) To Nixon and Kissinger, improvements in worlds biggest arms ARVN readiness and pacification mattered only Beware, if South Vietnams borders were secure.

On April 30, 1970, the Between Generations president announced that U.S. troops were fighting in Drivers Cambodia. By expanding the war, Nixon was hoping to kmno4 h2o2 shorten it. Essay? While officials in Saigon and Washington heralded the operations accomplishmentsNixon stated that the performance of the ARVN had demonstrated that Vietnamization was workingthe incursion into Cambodia left a mixed record. NVA units, though beaten, returned to their original base camp areas when American troops departed. By early June, the allies had searched only 5 percent of the and cognitive 7,000 square miles of borderland despite having aimed to disrupt the enemys logistical bases.

Additionally, the ARVNs reliance on American firepower did not augur well for a future without U.S. Drivers Essay? air and artillery backing. 60. Worse, the Cambodian incursion set off a firestorm of political protest at home. After Ohio National Guardsmen fired into a demonstration at Kent State University on May 4, leaving four students dead, a wave of antiwar rallies swept the nation, closing nearly 450 colleges and intellectual development, universities. Less than four months earlier, the New York Times reported on the My Lai massacre. In March 1968, with the Tet offensive still raging, American soldiers on a search and destroy mission had summarily executed more than 300 unarmed civilians. Claims of civilian casualties prompted an informal inquiry, but army investigators covered up the Beware story for nearly eighteen months. 61 While most congressional leaders still supported Nixon, many began openly questioning the wars conduct. In early November, Mike Mansfield (D-MT) publically called Vietnam a cancer. Its a tragedy, argued the Montana senator. Of Dial Up? Its eating out the heart of Essay, America. Its doing us no good. Senator George McGovern (D-SD) joined the chorus of dissenters, imploring Nixon to stop our participation in the horrible destruction of this tiny country and its people. The loss of support incensed the president. Nixon insisted that the pace of intellectual and cognitive development, Vietnamization, not the level of dissent, determine U.S. troop withdrawals.

Still, domestic events clearly were circumscribing Nixons strategic options abroad. 62. Beware? The discord at home seemed matched by discontent within the ranks of U.S. Biggest Arms? troops remaining in South Vietnam. Though contemporary views of a disintegrating army now appear overblown, clearly the strategic withdrawal was taking its toll on American soldiers. By early 1970, with the first units already departed Vietnam and more scheduled to leave, officers worried how the withdrawal was affecting their soldiers capacity to fight. Beware Essay? One journalist recounted how talk of fragging, of hard drugs, of racial conflict, seems bitter, desperate, often dangerous. 63 A company commander operating along the worlds arms Cambodian border with the 1st Cavalry Division found declining motivation among his troops disrupting unit effectiveness. The colonel wants to make contact with the enemy and so do I, reported the young captain, but the men flat dont. 64 Few draftees wanted to be fighting in Vietnam in Drivers Beware Essay the first place and even fewer wanted to risk being killed in a war clearly that was winding down. In addition, Abrams increasingly had to concern himself with racial polarization inside his army. Sdn Bhd? Politically conscious African-American soldiers not only mistrusted their often discriminatory chains of command, but also questioned the wars rationale. Many blacks denounced the ideal of bringing democracy to Drivers Essay South Vietnam when they were denied many freedoms at intellectual, home. Beware Essay? In short, the market U.S.

Army in Drivers Essay Vietnam seemed to be unraveling. 65. By the end of 1970, U.S. strength dropped to some 254,800 soldiers remaining in Hart Letters: The Difference Between Generations country. Kissinger warned that unilateral withdrawals were weakening the bargaining position of the United States in Paris, but Nixon continued with the Essay redeployments to prove Vietnamization was on track. Kmno4 H2o2? 66 With the new year, however, came the Beware realization that NVA logistical bases remained intact. While the Cambodian operation had denied Hanoi the use of the Sihanoukville port, the Ho Chi Minh Trail continued to serve as a major infiltration route into South Vietnam. An invasion of the Laos Panhandle, one ARVN officer recalled, thus became an attractive idea. Such an intrack market sdn bhd operation would retain the Drivers initiative for intellectual, the RVNAF, disrupt the Beware Essay flow of enemy personnel and supplies to South Vietnam, and of dorian grey, greatly reduce the Essay enemys capability to launch an offensive in 1971. 67 The ARVNs spotty performance in the ensuing operation, Lam Son 719, further fueled speculations that Vietnamization might not be working as reported. Though Nixon declared the biggest campaign had assured the Drivers Beware Essay next round of kmno4 h2o2, U.S. troop withdrawals, Kissinger worried that Lam Son had exposed lingering deficiencies that raised questions over South Vietnams ability to bear the full burden of the ongoing war. 68. If Kissinger agonized over the need to Drivers Beware balance negotiations with troop withdrawals and kmno4 h2o2, offensive operations to keep the enemy off balance, he was not alone.

Inside Hanois Politburo, Le Duan equally pondered strategic alternatives in Drivers Beware Essay the aftermath of kmno4 h2o2, Lam Son 719. Though only sixteen U.S. maneuver battalions remained in Drivers South Vietnam by early 1972, on all fronts the war appeared deadlocked. Le Duan hoped a new invasion would defeat the intellectual and cognitive development American Vietnamization policy, gain a decisive victory in 1972, and Drivers Beware Essay, force the U.S. Intellectual And Cognitive? imperialists to negotiate an end to the war from a position of Beware, defeat. 69 Abrams remained unclear regarding enemy intentions. Was a large-scale invasion an act of and disadvantages, desperation, as Nixon believed, or a way to gain leverage in Drivers Essay negotiations by controlling South Vietnamese territory? North Vietnamese strategists certainly were taking risks but not out of desperation.

The 1972 Nguyen-Hue campaign aimed for a collapse of South Vietnams armed forces, Thieus ouster, and the formation of a coalition government. Failing these ambitious goals, Le Duan envisioned the struggle continuing against a weakened ARVN. In either case, the biggest Politburo believed its actions would totally change the character of the war in South Vietnam. 70. The subsequent Easter Offensive, begun on March 30, 1972, unleashed three separate NVA thrusts into South Vietnam. In some areas, the ARVN fought bravely; in others, soldiers broke and ran.

Abrams responded by throwing B-52 bombers into the battle as Nixon ordered resumption of bombing in the North and the mining of Haiphong harbor. Gradually, yet perceptibly, the offensives momentum began to slow. Although North Vietnams spring offensive had ended with no dramatic battlefield victory, it had met its goal of Drivers Essay, changing the kmno4 h2o2 character of the Essay war. 71 U.S. officials proclaimed Vietnamization a final success given that the ARVN had successfully blunted the enemys assault. Overwhelming U.S. air support, however, quite literally saved many units from intellectual development, being overrun and, more intangibly, helped sustain morale during hard months of fighting. Drivers Beware? Equally important, North Vietnamese leaders made several errors during the campaign. The separate offensives into South Vietnam dissipated combat strength while placing overwhelming strain on logistical support capabilities.

Moreover, tactical commanders lacked experience in employing tanks and squandered infantry units in suicidal assaults. 72. By the end of June, only kmno4 h2o2, 49,000 U.S. troops remained in South Vietnam. Beware Essay? Like his predecessor, Abrams was pulled to and cognitive development become the Drivers Beware Essay armys chief of staff before the and disadvantages of dial up guns had fallen silent. Throughout the summer and fall, stalemated discussions in Paris mirrored the military standoff inside South Vietnam. Drivers Beware? In October, Kissinger reported to Nixon a breakthrough with the North Vietnamese delegation and announced an impending cease-fire. President Thieu fumed that Kissinger had conceded too much, allowing NVA units to remain in South Vietnam and refused to sign any agreement. The resulting diplomatic impasse, fueled by Thieus defiance and Hanois intransigence, infuriated Nixon. By December, the president had reached his limits and ordered a massive air campaign against North Vietnam to break the deadlock.

Nixon intended the Crane´s Between Generations bombing assault, codenamed Linebacker II, to induce both Hanoi and Saigon to return to the negotiating table. On December 26, the Politburo agreed to resume talks while Nixon pressed Thieu to support the Beware armistice. Of Dorian? The final settlement changed little from the principles outlined in October. One month later, on January 27, 1973, the United States, North Vietnam, South Vietnam, and the Provisional Revolutionary Government signed the Paris Agreement on Ending the War and Drivers Essay, Restoring Peace in Vietnam. 73. In large sense, Nixons use of B-52 bombers during Linebacker II illustrated the story grey limits of American military power in Vietnam. The press reacted strongly, referring to the bombing of urban targets in North Vietnam as war by tantrum and an act of senseless terror. 74 But by Essay, late 1972, B-52s were the only tools left in Nixons arsenal. Despite years of effort and story of dorian grey, sacrifice, the best the Drivers Beware Essay Americans could achieve was a stalemate only and cognitive, temporarily broken by strategic bombing. Many senior military officers, perhaps unsurprisingly, would point to Linebacker II as proof of a mismanaged war. They argued that if only civilian policymakers had been less restrictive in setting unnecessary boundaries, those in uniform could have won much earlier and at much less cost.

Such arguments, however, tended to discount the larger political concerns of Beware, presidents and their advisers hoping to limit a war that had become the centerpiece of American foreign policy and one that had divided the nation. 75. Others advanced a different if only argument regarding U.S. military strategy for Vietnam. They posited that upon taking command of MACV, Abrams, deviating almost immediately from Westmorelands conventional methods, had changed the American approach to, and thus nature of, the of dorian grey war. This better war thesis found acceptance among many officers in whom a conviction endured that a better application of Drivers, strategy could have yielded better political results. Yet senior American commanders, even before Westmorelands tenure at MACV, tended to see the worlds biggest arms war as a comprehensive whole and devised their strategy accordingly. Despite frequent heavy-handedness in applying military power inside South Vietnam, almost all officers recognized that the Drivers Beware Essay war ultimately was a contest for political power. Intellectual And Cognitive Development? Comprehending the complexities of strategy and effectively implementing it, however, were not one and the same. Officers serving in Vietnam quickly found that strategy included much more than simply drafting a plan of political-military action.

The complexity of the threat, both political and military, confounded U.S. analysts and staff officers. Westmoreland understood the important role played by southern insurgent forces but argued he could not stamp out these irregular termites without substantially eliminating the enemys main force units. Even ascertaining enemy motives proved difficult. Not long after Abrams took command, MACV still faced a real problem, following the Tet offensive, trying to figure out the enemys overall military strategy. 76. Perhaps most importantly, senior U.S. policymakers were asking too much of their military strategists. In the end, the war was a struggle between and among Vietnamese.

For the Essay United States, the foundation on which American forces waged a struggleone that involved both construction of an effective host government and destruction of a committed communist-nationalist enemyproved too fragile. Officers like Westmoreland and Abrams found that nation-building in a time of development, war was one of the most difficult tasks to ask of a military force. Yet American faith in the power to reconstruct, if not create, a South Vietnamese political community led to policies that did not address a fundamental issuethe internal contest to define and come to a consensus on Vietnamese nationalism and identity in the modern age. More than any other conflict during the Cold War era, Vietnam exposed the Essay limits of American military power overseas. It was a reality that many U.S. citizens found, and continue to up find, discomforting. Yet if a perspective is to be gained from the Drivers Beware Essay long American experience in Southeast Asia, it lies here. Not all problems can be solved by military force, even when that force is combined with political, economic, and social efforts. Love Letters: The Difference Between? The capacity of Americans to reshape new political and social communities may not, in fact, be limitless. Writing of his own experiences in the Korean War, Matthew Ridgway offered an important conclusion while the war in Vietnam was still raging.

In setting foreign policy objectives, the general advised that policymakers look to define them with care and to Drivers Essay make sure they lie within the range of our vital national interests and that their accomplishment is worlds arms within our capabilities. 77 For those seeking to understand the Drivers Beware disappointments of American military strategy during the Vietnam War, Ridgways counsel seems a useful starting point. Discussion of the Literature. The historiography on the American experience in Vietnam remains a contentious topic. Of Dorian Grey? For a starting point, the best surveys are , which is Drivers Essay more a diplomatic and political history, and , which places the war in an international perspective. A solid textbook is intellectual An excellent collection of essays can be found in both ) and. Fredrik Logevall, Choosing War: The Lost Chance for Peace and the Escalation of War in Vietnam (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999 Lloyd C. Gardner, Pay Any Price: Lyndon Johnson and the Wars for Vietnam (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1995) Larry Berman has two very good works on LBJ: Planning a Tragedy: The Americanization of the War in Vietnam (New York: W. Drivers Essay? W. Norton, 1982 Larry Berman, Lyndon Johnsons War: The Road to intrack Stalemate in Drivers Beware Vietnam (New York: W. W. Norton, 1989). Brian VanDeMarks Into the Quagmire: Lyndon Johnson and the Escalation of the Vietnam War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991) Robert Dallek, Flawed Giant: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 19611973 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998) The escalation of the war under Johnson is well covered. My Grandmother’s Letters: The Difference? Among the Drivers Essay most important works are ), and story of dorian grey, . ), and is also useful. , provides a balanced overview of the presidents struggles with the war.

Gregory A. Daddis, Westmorelands War: Reassessing American Strategy in the Vietnam War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014) Andrew F. Krepinevich Jr., The Army and Vietnam (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986) Harry G. Summers Jr., On Strategy: A Critical Appraisal of the Drivers Beware Vietnam War (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1982) Jeffrey Record, The Wrong War: Why We Lost in Vietnam (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1998). Andrew J. Birtle, U.S. Army Counterinsurgency and worlds arms, Contingency Operations Doctrine, 19421976 (Washington, DC: Center of Drivers Beware, Military History, 2006). Lewis Sorley, a staunch admirer of the up general, provides insights in Vietnam Chronicles: The Abrams Tapes, 19681972 (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2004) Mark Clodfelter takes on the air war in The Limits of Airpower: The American Bombing of North Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 1989). Thomas L. Ahern Jr. looks at the CIA in Vietnam Declassified: The CIA and Counterinsurgency (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2010). Beware Essay? Robert Buzzanco, Masters of War: Military Dissent and Politics in and disadvantages of dial the Vietnam Era (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996). The topic of U.S. military strategy is hotly debated. Essay? , offers a reinterpretation of those works in suggesting Americans were blind to the realities of the grey war. Samples of these latter works include: ; ; and More persuasive is Though Abrams left behind no written work on Beware the war, . Finally, an often overlooked yet important work on senior military leaders is. Jeffrey Kimball, Nixons Vietnam War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998) Ronald H. Spector, After Tet: The Bloodiest Year in Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 1993) James H. Willbanks, Abandoning Vietnam: How America Left and South Vietnam Lost Its War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004) Lewis Sorleys A Better War: The Unexamined Victories and Final Tragedy of Americas Last Years in Vietnam (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999) On the wars final years, see ; ; and . takes an Crane´s My Grandmother’s Letters: The Difference Between Generations overly sympathetic view of the Abramss years. Essay? James McCargar, Lost Victory: A Firsthand Account of Americas Sixteen-Year Involvement in Vietnam (Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1989) Lyndon Baines Johnson, The Vantage Point: Perspectives on the Presidency, 19631969 (New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston, 1971) Henry Kissinger, Ending the Vietnam War: A History of Americas Involvement in and Extrication from the story Vietnam War (New York: Simon Schuster, 2003) Robert W Komer, Bureaucracy at War: U.S.

Performance in the Vietnam Conflict (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1986) Robert S. Drivers Beware? McNamara, In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of intrack market, Vietnam (New York: Times Books, 1995) Richard Nixon, RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon (New York: Grosset Dunlap, 1978) Bruce, Palmer Jr., The 25-Year War: Americas Military Role in Vietnam (New York: Simon Schuster, 1984) William C. Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1976). Philip Caputo, A Rumor of War (New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston, 1977) David Donovan, Once a Warrior King (New York: Ballantine, 1986) Stuart A. Essay? Herrington, Stalking the Vietcong: Inside Operation Phoenix: A Personal Account (Navato, CA: Presidio, 2004) Harold G. Moore and intrack services sdn bhd, Joseph L. Drivers Beware? Galloway. We Were Soldiers Once . . . and Young (New York: HarperCollins, 1993). Christian G. Appy, Working-Class War: American Combat Soldiers and Vietnam (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993) For memoirs from senior leaders, students should consult William Colby with ; ; ; ; ; ; ; and Among the best memoirs from junior officers and soldiers are: ; ; ; and Less a memoir than an of dorian grey excellent collective biography of the enlisted soldier serving in Vietnam is. David Halberstam, The Best and the Brightest (New York: Random House, 1969) David Halberstam, The Making of a Quagmire: America and Vietnam during the Kennedy Era (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1964, 1988) Michael Herr, Dispatches (New York: Alfred A. Essay? Knopf, 1968) Don Oberdorfer, Tet! (New York: Doubleday, 1971) Neil Sheehan, A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam (New York: Random House, 1988). Hart Crane´s Love The Difference? Peter Braestrup, Big Story: How the American Press and Television Reported and Drivers Essay, Interpreted the Crisis of Tet 1968 in Vietnam and Washington (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1977). Journalists accounts were important in covering the American experience and in and disadvantages setting a foundation for how the war has been outlined in popular memory. Drivers? Among the most indispensable of this genre are ; ; ; ; and Also useful is. Mark P. Bradleys Vietnam at War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009) Andrew Wiest, Vietnams Forgotten Army Vietnams Forgotten Army: Heroism and Betrayal in worlds arms the ARVN (New York: New York University Press, 2008 Robert K. Drivers Essay? Brigham, ARVN: Life and Death in the South Vietnamese Army (Lawrence: University Press of worlds biggest arms, Kansas, 2006) Eric M. Bergerud, The Dynamics of Defeat: The Vietnam War in Drivers Beware Essay Hau Nghia Province (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1991) Jeffrey Race, War Comes to Hart My Grandmother’s Letters: Long An: Revolutionary Conflict in Drivers Beware a Vietnamese Province (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972) James Walker Trullinger Jr., Village at War: An Account of intrack services sdn bhd, Revolution in Vietnam (New York: Longman, 1980).

Frances FitzGerald, Fire in the Lake: The Vietnamese and the Americans in Vietnam (Boston: Little, Brown, 1972). Beware? The South Vietnamese perspective often gets lost in American-centric works on the war but should not be disregarded. is an excellent one-volume history of the war written from the Vietnamese viewpoint. Both ) and , make an important contribution for understanding the U.S. Armys most important allies. Three provincial studies also delve into the war inside South Vietnams villages: ; ; and For an argument on the cultural divide between allies, see. Pierre Asselin, Hanois Road to the Vietnam War, 19541965 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013) Lien-Hang T. Nguyen, Hanois War: An International History of the War for Peace in Vietnam (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012) Ang Cheng Guan, The Vietnam War from the Other Side: The Vietnamese Communists Perspective (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002 Victory in Vietnam: The Official History of the story of dorian Peoples Army of Vietnam, 19541975 , translated by Merle L. Pribbenow (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002) William J. Duiker, The Communist Road to Power , 2d ed. (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1996) Warren Wilkins, Grab Their Belts to Fight Them: The Viet Congs Big Unit War against Drivers the U.S., 19651966 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2011).

If the South Vietnamese perspective often is overlooked, the North Vietnamese also tends to get short shrift in American works. And Disadvantages Up? Relying on new research, the Drivers Essay best among this group are ; ; ) and Ending the advantages and disadvantages up Vietnam War: The Vietnamese Communists Perspective (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004); ; ; and. Bao Ninh, The Sorrow of Drivers Beware Essay, War: A Novel of North Vietnam (New York: Riverhead, 1996) Josiah Bunting, The Lionheads (New York: George Braziller, 1972) Karl Marlantes, Matterhorn: A Novel of the Vietnam War (New York: Atlantic Monthly, 2010) Tim OBrien, The Things They Carried (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1990) Robert Roth, Sand in the Wind (Boston: Little, Brown, 1973). Finally, students should not overlook the value of novels in understanding the war from the market services soldiers viewpoint. Among the best are ; ; ; ; and. Drivers? Among the story of dorian grey best documentary collections are ), and Drivers, Also useful is worlds biggest arms For encyclopedias on Drivers the war, see ), and.

Researchers should also consult two still useful collections of documents: The Pentagon Papers: The Defense Department History of United States Decision making on intellectual development Vietnam, ed. Mike Gravel , 5 vols. (Boston: Beacon, 19711972), and William Conrad Gibbons, The U.S. Government and the Vietnam War: Executive and Legislative Roles and Relationships , 4 vols. (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 19861995). The U.S. Department of State has collected a wonderful array of documents in the Foreign Relations of the Drivers Beware Essay United States ( FRUS ) series. These resources can be found online at http://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments. For researchers delving into primary sources, the kmno4 h2o2 best place to begin is the Virtual Vietnam Archive run by Texas Tech University in Beware Lubbock, Texas.

This online archive houses more than four million pages of materials and is located at http://www.vietnam.ttu.edu/virtualarchive/. The physical archive has much more additional material for researchers. For higher level strategic insights, the kmno4 h2o2 presidential libraries in Boston, Massachusetts (Kennedy), Austin, Texas (Johnson), and Yorba Linda, California (Nixon) have important archival holdings. Those seeking insights into Beware, the U.S. Army will find excellent resources at the U.S. Army Military History Institute in advantages of dial up Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, and the U.S.

Army Center of Military History at Drivers Beware Essay, Fort McNair, Washington, DC. The National Archives in College Park, Maryland, offers a vast amount of of dorian grey, resources as well. Finally, for Essay, those wishing to focus on cultural issues within the region, researchers may wish to consult the John M. Echols Collection on Southeast Asia at kmno4 h2o2, Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Drivers? Researcher information can be found at http://asia.library.cornell.edu/ac/Echols/index. Anderson, David L., ed. The Columbia History of the Vietnam War . New York: Columbia University Press, 2011. Biggest Arms? Find this resource: Cosmas, Graham A. MACV: The Joint Command in the Years of Escalation, 19621967. Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2006. Find this resource:

Cosmas, Graham A. MACV: The Joint Command in Essay the Years of Withdrawal, 19681973 . Intellectual Development? Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2007. Find this resource: Daddis, Gregory A. Drivers Essay? Westmorelands War: Reassessing American Strategy in the Vietnam War . Kmno4 H2o2? Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. Find this resource: Elliott, David W. Essay? P. Crane´s My Grandmother’s Love Between Generations? The Vietnamese War: Revolution and Social Change in the Mekong Delta, 19301975. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2002. Find this resource: Herring, George C. Americas Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 19501975 . Essay? 4th ed.

New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002. Market? Find this resource: Hess, Gary R. Drivers Essay? Vietnam: Explaining Americas Lost War . Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008. Find this resource: Hunt, Richard A. Pacification: The American Struggle for Vietnams Hearts and Minds . Boulder, CO: Westview, 1995. Find this resource: Kimball, Jeffrey. Nixons Vietnam War . Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998. Grey? Find this resource: Lawrence, Mark Atwood. The Vietnam War: A Concise International History . Essay? Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Find this resource: Nguyen, Lien-Hang T. Hanois War: An International History of the War for Peace in Vietnam . Durham: University of North Carolina Press, 2012.

Find this resource: (1.) JCS quoted in Max Hastings, The Korean War (New York: Simon Schuster, 1987), 229. Hastings argued that the worlds Korean War occupies a unique place in history, as the first superpower essay of the nuclear age in the employment of limited force to achieve limited objectives, p. 338. On the relationship of Beware, Korea to Europe, see Stanley Sandler, The Korean War: No Victors, No Vanquished (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1999), 144. (2.) Matthew B. Grey? Ridgway, The Korean War (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1967 ; reprint, New York: Da Capo Press, 1986), 145, 232. (3.) Bernard Brodie, Strategy in the Missile Age (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1959), 311 . For a broader context of Drivers Essay, this period, see Jonathan M. House, A Military History of the Cold War, 19441962 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2012) . (4.) Robert E. Osgood, Limited War: The Challenge to intellectual development American Security (Chicago: University of Drivers, Chicago Press, 1957), 5, 7 . Hart Crane´s Love Letters: The Difference? (5.) Andrew J. Birtle, U.S. Drivers Beware? Army Counterinsurgency and Contingency Operations Doctrine, 19421976 (Washington, DC: Center of kmno4 h2o2, Military History, 2006), 278. See also Douglas Porch, Counterinsurgency: Exposing the Myths of the New Way of War (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2103), 217 . Beware Essay? For a counterargument on how U.S. Army officers shunned learning and thus lost the war in Vietnam, see John Nagl, Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife: Counterinsurgency Lessons from advantages and disadvantages of dial, Malaya and Drivers Essay, Vietnam (Chicago: University of intrack market services sdn bhd, Chicago Press, 2002). (6.) Henry A. Kissinger, Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy (New York: Harper Brothers, 1957), 139 . David Fitzgerald argues that senior MACV leaders made a strong effort to understand the type of war [they] confronted. Learning to Forget: US Army Counterinsurgency Doctrine and Practice from Vietnam to Iraq (Stanford, CA: Stanford Security Studies, 2013), 38 . On multiple dimensions of strategy, see Colin S. Drivers Essay? Gray, Why strategy is difficult, in Strategic Studies: A Reader , 2d ed., ed. Thomas G. Mahnken and advantages up, Joseph A. Maiolo (New York: Routledge, 2014), 43. (7.) Lyndon Baines Johnson, The Vantage Point: Perspectives on the Presidency, 19631969 (New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston, 1971), 241 . On larger Cold War issues, see John Lewis Gaddis, Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar American National Security Policy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), 240 . Beware Essay? (8.) McNamara quoted in Gerard J. DeGroot, A Noble Cause? America and the Vietnam War (Harlow, UK: Longman, 2000), 135 . On enemy escalation and its impact, see David Kaiser, American Tragedy: Kennedy, Johnson, and the Origins of the Vietnam War (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000), 346 . B. H. Liddell Hart, Strategy , 2d rev. Kmno4 H2o2? ed. (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1954), 335336. (9.) Neil L. Jamieson argues that Vietnamese clung to and fought over their own competing and incompatible visions of what Vietnam was and what it might and should become. In Neil L. Jamieson, Understanding Vietnam (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), x . (10.) Ronald H. Spector, Advice and Support: The Early Years, 19411960 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 1983), 336 . Drivers Beware Essay? While early MAAG commanders realized the importance of economic development as part of an overall approach to strategy, Lieutenant General Lionel McGarr, who took over MAAG in August 1960, elevated the importance of counterinsurgency training within the ARVN ranks. Spector, Advice and Support , 365. See also Alexander S. Cochran Jr., American Planning for Ground Combat in advantages and disadvantages up Vietnam: 19521965, Parameters 14.2 (Summer 1984): 65 . (11.) Robert Buzzanco, Masters of War: Military Dissent and Politics in Drivers Essay the Vietnam Era (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 65, 7273 . Intellectual And Cognitive? While sympathetic to Ngo Dinh Diem, Mark Moyar covers the Essay American participation during the advisory years in Triumph Forsaken: The Vietnam War, 19541965 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006) . (12.) Agrovilles were supposedly secure communities to which rural civilians were relocated in hopes of kmno4 h2o2, separating them from NLF insurgents.

On Diem, development, and engineering a social revolution, see Edward Miller, Misalliance: Ngo Dinh Diem, the United States, and the Fate of South Vietnam (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013) . Drivers? For a competing interpretation, see James M. Carter, Inventing Vietnam: The United States and State Building, 19541968 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008). On training of South Vietnam forces, James Lawton Collins Jr., The Development and Training of the South Vietnamese Army, 19501972 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975) . (13.) Graham A. Cosmas, MACV: The Joint Command in the Years of biggest arms, Escalation, 19621967 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2006), 35 . (14.) For the North Vietnamese perspective, especially in the years preceding full American intervention, see Pierre Asselin, Hanois Road to the Vietnam War, 19541965 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013) , and William J. Beware? Duiker, The Communist Road to Power , 2d ed. (Boulder, CO: Westview , 1996) . For a perspective of Diem somewhat at story grey, odds with Miller, and especially Moyar, see Seth Jacobs, Cold War Mandarin: Ngo Dinh Diem and the Origins of Americas War in Vietnam, 19501963 (Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield, 2006) . Drivers Beware? (15.) Michael H. Hunt, Lyndon Johnsons War: Americas Cold War Crusade in Vietnam, 19451968 (New York: Hill Wang, 1996), 94 . On the air campaign, see Mark Clodfelter, The Limits of Airpower: The American Bombing of North Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 1989) , and Lloyd C. Gardner, Lyndon Johnson and the Bombing of Vietnam: Politics and My Grandmother’s Love The Difference Generations, Military Choices, in The Columbia History of the Vietnam War , ed. David L. Anderson (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011). (16.) Westmoreland quoted in Drivers Beware Essay Larry Berman, Planning a Tragedy: The Americanization of the kmno4 h2o2 War in Vietnam (New York: W. Drivers Beware Essay? W. Biggest? Norton, 1982), 71 . For an example of senior officers blaming civilians for Drivers Essay, limiting military means to achieve political ends, see U.S. Grant Sharp, Strategy for Defeat: Vietnam in Retrospect (San Rafael, CA: Presidio, 1978) . (17.) On the contentious topic of escalation, see Fredrik Logevall, Choosing War: The Lost Chance for Peace and the Escalation of War in Vietnam (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999) , and Lloyd C. Gardner, Pay Any Price: Lyndon Johnson and the Wars for Vietnam (Chicago: Ivan R. Intellectual And Cognitive? Dee, 1995). David L. Di Leo offers a treatment of a key dissenter inside the Johnson White House in George Ball, Vietnam, and Essay, the Rethinking of Containment (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991). (18.) Robert S. McNamara, In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam (New York: Times Books, 1995), 188. (19.) Westmorelands assessment in The Pentagon Papers: The Defense Department History of kmno4 h2o2, United States Decisionmaking in Drivers Beware Essay Vietnam, vol.

4, ed. Mike Gravel. (Boston: Beacon Press, 19711972), 606. See also chapter 7, Evolution of Strategy, in William C. Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1976) . (20.) Phillip B. Davidson, Vietnam at War: The History: 19461975 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1988), 354 . On MACV guidance in implementing this broad strategy, see John M. Carland, Winning the Vietnam War: Westmorelands Approach in Two Documents, Journal of Military History 68.2 (April 2004): 553574 . (21.) U. S. Grant Sharp and William C. Westmoreland, Report on the War in Vietnam (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969), 100 . And Disadvantages Of Dial? The Pentagon Papers , Vol. 4, 296. (22.) Vo Nguyen Giap, Peoples War, Peoples Army: The Viet Cong Insurrection Manual for Beware Essay, Underdeveloped Countries (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1962), 46, 61 . On the evolution of Hanois strategic thinking, see David W. P. Elliott, Hanois Strategy in the Second Indochina War, in The Vietnam War: Vietnamese and American Perspectives , ed. Jayne S. Werner and Luu Doan Huynh (Armonk, NY: M. E. Hart Love Between? Sharpe, 1993) . (23.) The strategic debate is best outlined in Lien-Hang T. Nguyen, Hanois War: An International History of the War for Peace in Vietnam (Chapel Hill: University of Essay, North Carolina Press, 2012), 71 . See also Nguyen Vu Tung, Coping with the United States: Hanois Search for an Effective Strategy, in The Vietnam War , ed. Peter Lowe (New York: St. Biggest? Martins Press, 1998), 4648 ; and Hanoi Assessment of Guerrilla War in South, November 1966, Folder 17, Box 06, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 01-Assessment and Strategy, The Vietnam Archive, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas (hereafter cited as TTUVA). Drivers Essay? Resolution 12 in Communist Strategy as Reflected in Lao Dong Party and COSVN Resolutions, Folder 26, Box 07, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 06-Democratic Republic of Vietnam, TTUVA, p. And Cognitive Development? 3. (24.) For a useful historiographical sketch on the debates over intervention and Drivers Beware Essay, American strategy, see Gary R. Biggest Arms? Hess, Vietnam: Explaining Americas Lost War (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2009) , chapters 3 and 4. (25.) Westmoreland quoted in Drivers Beware Davidson, Vietnam at War , 313.

On early U.S. Army actions in Vietnam, see John M. Carland, Stemming the Tide: May 1965 to October 1966 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2000) , and Shelby L. Worlds Biggest Arms? Stanton, The Rise and Beware Essay, Fall of an American Army: U.S. Story Of Dorian? Ground Forces in Vietnam, 19651973 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1985) . (26.) Westmoreland explained his rationale for focusing on main force units in Drivers Essay A Soldier Reports , 180. For a counterargument against this approach, see Andrew F. Krepinevich Jr., The Army and Vietnam (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986) . (27.) The best monograph on of dial up the Ia Drang battles remains Harold G. Moore and Essay, Joseph L. Galloway, We Were Soldiers Once . . . and Young (New York: HarperCollins, 1993) . For a perspective from the enemy side, see Warren Wilkins, Grab Their Belts to Fight Them: The Viet Congs Big Unit War against the U.S., 19651966 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2011) , especially chapter 6. Intrack? (28.) COMUSMACV memorandum, Increased Emphasis on Rural Construction, 8 December 1965, Correspondence, 19651966, Box 35, Jonathan O. Seaman Papers, U.S. Beware? Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania (hereafter cited as MHI). (29.) Westmoreland highlighted Hanois continuing infiltration of forces into worlds, South Vietnam at Drivers Essay, the end of 1965.

An evaluation of U.S. operations in story of dorian early December underscored his concerns that our attrition of their forces in South Vietnam is insufficient to offset this buildup. In Carland, Winning the Vietnam War, 570. On the medias take on these early battles, see G.I.s Found Rising to Vietnam Test, New York Times , December 26, 1965. (30.) Memorandum to President Lyndon B. Johnson from Drivers Essay, Robert S. McNamara: Events between November 329, 1965, November 30, 1964, Folder 9, Box 3, Larry Berman Collection, TTUVA. On McNamara being shaken by the meeting, see Neil Sheehan, A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam (New York: Random House, 1988), 579580 . McNamara, In Retrospect , 221222. (31.) Presidential Decisions: The Honolulu Conference, February 68, 1966, Folder 2, Box 4, Larry Berman Collection (Presidential Archives Research), TTUVA. Story Of Dorian Grey? John T. Essay? Wheeler, Only a Fourth of South Viet Nam Is Under Control of Saigon Regime, Washington Star , January 25, 1966. Of Dorian Grey? (32.) 1966 Program to Increase the Effectiveness of Military Operations and Anticipated Results Thereof, February 8, 1966, in The War in Vietnam: The Papers of William C. Westmoreland , ed. Robert E. Drivers? Lester (Bethesda, MD: University Publications of My Grandmother’s Love Generations, America, 1993) , Incl. Beware? 6, Folder 4, Reel 6. See also U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States , vol. 5, Vietnam, 1967 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002), 216219 (hereafter cited as FRUS ). Westmoreland took to heart the importance of rural construction. See MACV Commanders Conference, February 20, 1966, Counter VCI Folder, Historians Files, U.S.

Army Center of Military History, Fort McNair, Washington, DC (hereafter cited as CMH). (33.) Pacification defined in Handbook for Military Support of intellectual, Pacification, February 1968, Folder 14, Box 5, United States Armed Forces Manual Collection, TTUVA. Seymour Topping, Crisis in Drivers Saigon Snags U.S. Effort, New York Times , April 5, 1966 . Martin G. Clemis, Competing and Incompatible Visions: Revolution, Pacification, and the Political Organization of story grey, Space during the Second Indochina War, paper presented at the 81st Annual Meeting of the Society for Military History, April 2014, Kansas City, MO. (34.) On Westmorelands approach to pacification, see Gregory A. Daddis, Westmorelands War: Reassessing American Strategy in Vietnam (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014) , chapter 5. For a counterargument that dismisses allied pacification efforts, see Nick Turse, Kill Anything That Moves: The Real American War in Vietnam (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2013). (35.) Sir Robert Thompson, Defeating Communist Insurgency: The Lessons of Drivers Beware, Malaya and Vietnam (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1966), 55 . Intellectual? For a contemporary argument of Malaya not being relevant to Vietnam, see Bernard B. Fall, Viet-Nam Witness: 195366 (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1966), 272 . (36.) Thomas L. Ahern Jr., Vietnam Declassified: The CIA and Counterinsurgency (Lexington: University Press of Beware, Kentucky, 2010), 171175 . (37.) The best monograph on pacification remains Richard A. Hunt, Pacification: The American Struggle for Vietnams Hearts and Minds (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1995) . Intellectual? For a balanced treatment of Komer, see Frank L. Jones, Blowtorch: Robert Komer, Vietnam, and American Cold War Strategy (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2013) . See also Robert W. Beware Essay? Komer, Bureaucracy at arms, War: U.S. Performance in the Vietnam Conflict (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1986) . A partial impetus for an increased emphasis on Beware pacification stemmed from a March 1966 report known as PROVN, shorthand for A Program for intrack market, the Pacification and Long-Term Development of South Vietnam. PROVN stressed nonmilitary means and argued that victory could be achieved only by bringing the individual Vietnamese, typically a rural peasant, to support willingly the Beware Essay Government of South Vietnam (GVN). Deputy Chief of Staff for worlds arms, Military Operations, A Program for Drivers, the Pacification and Long-Term Development of South Vietnam (Department of the Army, March 1966), 1, 3. The best review of this still hotly debated document is Andrew J. Birtle, PROVN, Westmoreland, and the Historians: A Reappraisal, Journal of Military History 72.4 (October 2008): 12131247 . (38.) Robert W. Komer, Clear, Hold and Rebuild, Army 20.5 5 (May 1970): 19 . Of Dial Up? On CORDS establishment, see National Security Action Memorandum No. 362, FRUS , 19641968, vol. 5, 398399. Though revolutionary development remained, at Drivers Beware Essay, least nominally, a South Vietnamese program, many observers believed the inability of the ARVN to take over pacification in the countryside helped spur the establishment of CORDS.

Robert Shaplen, The Road from War: Vietnam, 19651970 (New York: Harper Row, 1970), 122 . As of worlds, March 31, 1967, 53 ARVN infantry battalions were performing missions in Drivers direct support of pacification. MACV Monthly Evaluation Report, March 1967, MHI, 13. (39.) For a contemporary discussion on the cultural divide between Americans and Vietnamese and how this impacted both military operations and the pacification program, see Frances FitzGerald, Fire in story of dorian grey the Lake: The Vietnamese and the Americans in Vietnam (Boston: Little, Brown, 1972). Fitzgerald maintained that the political and economic design of the Vietnamese revolution remained invisible to Drivers Beware almost all Americans, (p. 143). (40.) For competing tasks within CORDS, see Chester L. Cooper, et al., The American Experience with Pacification in Vietnam, Volume III: History of Pacification, March 1972, Folder 65, U.S. Marine Corps History Division, Vietnam War Documents Collection, TTUVA, 271. Journalist Ward Just reported that the story of dorian grey real yardsticks of pacifications progress were the Vietnamese view of events, the Vietnamese mood, the Vietnamese will and the Vietnamese capability. See Another Measure of Vietnams War, Washington Post , October 15, 1967. On personnel turbulence, see Mark DePu, Vietnam War: The Individual Rotation Policy, http://www.historynet.com/vietnam-war-the-individual-rotation-policy.htm . (41.) As a sampling of contemporary journalist critiques of the war in 1967, see: Joseph Kraft, The True Failure in SaigonSouth Vietnams Fighting Force, Los Angeles Times , May 3, 1967 ; Ward Just, This War May Be Unwinnable, Washington Post, June 4, 1967 ; and R. W. Apple, Vietnam: The Signs of Stalemate, New York Times , August 7, 1967. On the war in 1967 being perceived as a stalemate, see Sir Robert Thompson, No Exit from Vietnam (New York: David McKay, 1969), 67 ; and Anthony James Joes, The War for South Viet Nam, 19541975, rev. ed. Beware? (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001), 96 . Kmno4 H2o2? On military operations early in 1967, see Bernard W. Rogers, Cedar FallsJunction City: A Turning Point (Washington, DC: U.S. Beware? Government Printing Office, 1974, 2004) . Intellectual And Cognitive Development? (42.) On Johnsons salesmanship campaign, see Larry Berman, Lyndon Johnsons War: The Road to Stalemate in Vietnam (New York: W. W. Norton, 1989) , especially chapters 57. On the MACV-CIA debate, see James J. Wirtz, Intelligence to Please? The Order of Battle Controversy during the Vietnam War, Political Science Quarterly 106.2 (Summer 1991): 239263 . (43.) On Hanois views and its policy for a decisive victory, see Victory in Vietnam: The Official History of the Beware Essay Peoples Army of Vietnam, 19541975 , trans.

Merle L. Pribbenow (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002), 206207 . Of Dial? On overriding political goals of Drivers Beware Essay, Tet, see: Ang Cheng Guan, The Vietnam War from the Other Side: The Vietnamese Communists Perspective (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002),116126 ; James J. Wirtz, The Tet Offensive: Intelligence Failure in War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991), 10, 2021 ; Ronnie E. Ford, Tet 1968: Understanding the Surprise (London: Frank Cass, 1995), 7071 ; and Gabriel Kolko, Anatomy of a War: Vietnam, the market services sdn bhd United States, and the Modern Historical Experience (New York: Pantheon Books, 1985), 303 . (44.) If successful, Hanois leaders also would be in a more advantageous position if forced into a fighting while negotiating phase of the war. Ford, Tet 1968 , 93. See also Merle L. Pribbenow II, General Vo Nguyen Giap and the Mysterious Evolution of the Plan for the 1968 T?t Offensive, Journal of Vietnamese Studies 3 (Summer 2008): 133 . (45.) Carver quoted in Robert J. McMahon, Turning Point: The Vietnam Wars Pivotal Year, November 1967November 1968, in Essay Anderson, The Columbia History of the Vietnam War , 198. For a journalists account, see Don Oberdorfer, Tet! (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1971) . For an accessible reference book, see William T. Allison, The Tet Offensive: A Brief History with Documents (New York: Routledge, 2008) . Kmno4 H2o2? (46.) Gallup poll results in the aftermath of Tet in Essay Berman, Lyndon Johnsons War , 185. Background on LBJs March 31 speech in Robert Mann, A Grand Delusion: Americas Descent into Vietnam (New York: Basic Books, 2001), 600602 ; A. J. Langguth, Our Vietnam: The War, 19541975 (New York: Simon Schuster, 2000), 492493 ; and Kolko, Anatomy of a War , 320321. Decision on troop levels in Mann, A Grand Delusion , 576. (47.) Zeb B. Bradford, With Creighton Abrams during Tet, Vietnam (February 1998): 45 . Media reports in James Landers, The Weekly War: Newsmagazines and Vietnam (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2004), 145146 . As examples arguing for a change in strategy, see A. J. Langguth, General Abrams Listens to a Different Drum, New York Times , May 5, 1968 , and A Different War Now, With Abrams in Command, U.S.

News World Report , August 26, 1968, 12. On Abramss one-war concept, see Lewis Sorley, A Better War: The Unexamined Victories and Final Tragedy of Americas Last Years in Vietnam (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999), 18 . The Westmoreland-Abrams strategy debate remains contentious. In his admiration of Abrams, Lewis Sorley is most vocal in supporting a change in strategic concept. Story Of Dorian Grey? See as an example, Vietnam Chronicles: The Abrams Tapes, 19681972 (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2004), xix . Others are less certain. Phillip Davidson served under both commanders, as did Robert W. Komerneither subscribed to a change in strategy under Abrams. Beware? Davidson, Vietnam at War , 512, and Komer in The Lessons of Vietnam, ed. W. My Grandmother’s Letters: Generations? Scott Thompson and Donaldson D. Essay? Frizzell (New York: Crane, Russak, 1977), 79 . Andrew Birtles argument on the change being more in emphasis than in substance seems most compelling. Intellectual And Cognitive? As MACV admitted in 1970, the basic concept and objectives of pacification, to defeat the VC/NVA and to provide the people with economic and Beware Essay, social benefits, have changed little since the first comprehensive GVN plan was published in 1964. In U.S. Army Counterinsurgency and Contingency Operations Doctrine , 367. (48.) Andrew J. Goodpaster, Senior Officers Debriefing Program, May 1976, MHI, p. Hart My Grandmother’s Love Letters: The Difference Generations? 40. On peace replacing military victory, see Daniel C. Essay? Hallin, The Uncensored War: The Media and Vietnam (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 178 . (49.) On goals, see Richard Nixon, The Real War (New York: Warner Books 1980), 106 , and No More Vietnams (New York: Arbor House: 1985), 98.

Henry Kissinger, The White House Years (Boston: Little, Brown, 1979), 298 . See also Larry Berman, No Peace, No Honor: Nixon, Kissinger, and Betrayal in Vietnam (New York: Free Press, 2001), 50 . And Cognitive? Jeffrey Kimball argues that de-Americanization was a course made politically necessary by the American publics desire to wind down the war and Drivers Essay, doubts among key segments of the foreign-policy establishment about the possibility of winning the war. The Vietnam War Files: Uncovering the worlds biggest Secret History of Nixon-Era Strategy (Lawrence: University Press of Drivers Beware, Kansas, 2004), 12. (50.) On withdrawal not representing a defeat, see Now: A Shift in Goals, Methods, U.S. News World Report , January 6, 1969, 16. Of Dial? On global perspective, see Jeffrey Kimball, Nixons Vietnam War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998), 62 . Michael Lind argues that Nixon had to Essay withdraw in a manner that preserved domestic support for the Cold War in story of dorian other theaters. Vietnam: The Necessary War (New York: Free Press, 1999), 106 . (51.) Richard Nixon, RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon (New York: Grosset Dunlap, 1978), 349 . On realizing limits to U.S. power, see Lawrence W. Serewicz, America at the Brink of Essay, Empire: Rusk, Kissinger, and the Vietnam War (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2007), 10 . Intellectual Development? On containing communism, see U.S. Embassy Statement, Objectives and Beware Essay, Courses of Action of the United States in South Viet-Nam, FRUS , 19641968, vol. 7, 719 . See also Lloyd Gardner, The Last Casualty? Richard Nixon and the End of the Vietnam War, 196975, in advantages up A Companion to the Vietnam War , ed.

Marilyn B. Drivers Essay? Young and Robert Buzzanco (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2002), 230 . (52.) On problems of different types of threats, see Viet-Nam Info Series 20: The Armed Forces of the kmno4 h2o2 Republic of Viet Nam, from Vietnam Bulletin, 1969, Folder 09, Box 13, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 02-Military Operations, TTUVA, ps. Beware? 8, 25. See also Richard Shultz Jr., The Vietnamization-Pacification Strategy of 19691972: A Quantitative and Qualitative Reassessment, in Lessons from an Unconventional War: Reassessing U.S. Strategies for Future Conflicts, ed. Richard A. Hunt and Richard H. Shultz Jr. (New York: Pergamon, 1982), 5556 . Loren Baritz argues that the Nixon administration abandoned counterinsurgency since it realized the NLF no longer was a significant threat. Backfire: A History of How American Culture Led Us into story of dorian grey, Vietnam and Made Us Fight the Way We Did (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985), 279 . (53.) Nixon, No More Vietnams , 104107. Definition of pacification on p. Drivers Beware? 132. (54.) Pacification Priority Area Summary, September 3, 1968, prepared by Hart Crane´s My Grandmother’s Letters: The Difference, CORDS, Folder 65, US Marine Corps History Division, Vietnam War Documents Collection, TTUVA. Drivers Beware Essay? Countryside depopulation in Charles Mohr, Saigon Tries to Recover from the Blows, New York Times , May 10, 1968 ; and David W. P. Elliott, The Vietnamese War: Revolution and Social Change in kmno4 h2o2 the Mekong Delta, 19301975, concise ed. (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2007), 331, 336 . On problems of measuring pacification security, see Gregory A. Daddis, No Sure Victory: Measuring U.S. Army Effectiveness and Progress in the Vietnam War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 118122 . (55.) The Chieu Hoi (Open Arms) program, begun in 1963, aimed to rally Vietcong defectors to the GVN side as part of a larger national reconciliation effort. The plan sought to give former insurgents opportunities for defection, an alternative to the hardships and deprivations of Beware Essay, guerrilla life, political pardon, and in some measure, though vocational training, a means of earning a livelihood. Jeanette A. Koch, The Chieu Hoi Program in kmno4 h2o2 South Vietnam, 19631971 (Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 1973), v . (56.) Vietnam Lessons Learned No.

73, Defeat of VC Infrastructure, November 20, 1968, MACV Lessons Learned, Box 1, RG 472, National Archives and Beware Essay, Records Administration, College Park, Maryland. Hart The Difference Between Generations? See also Dale Andrade, Ashes to Drivers Essay Ashes: The Phoenix Program and the Vietnam War (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1990) ; and Mark Moyar, Phoenix and the Birds of Prey: Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism in intellectual development Vietnam (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997, 2007) . (57.) For an example of the hard fighting still continuing during the Abrams years, see Samuel Zaffiri, Hamburger Hill: May 1120, 1969 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1988). On what U.S. advisers were doing as part of Vietnamization, see Jeffrey J. Clarke, Advice and Drivers Beware Essay, Support: The Final Years, 19651973 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 1988), 342343 . (58.) On ARVN increases, see in intellectual and cognitive development Larry A. Niksch, Vietnamization: The Program and Its Problems, Congressional Record Service, January 5, 1972, Folder 01, Box 19, Douglas Pike Collection: Unit 02-Military Operations, TTUVA, p. CRS-21. The best work on the South Vietnamese Army is Robert K. Brigham, ARVN: Life and Death in the South Vietnamese Army (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2006) . (59.) The Laird Plan, Newsweek , June 2, 1969, 44. On ARVN lacking experience, see James H. Willbanks, Abandoning Vietnam: How America Left and South Vietnam Lost Its War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004), 51 ; and Samuel Zaffiri, Westmoreland: A Biography of General William C. Drivers Beware? Westmoreland (New York: William Morrow, 1994), 211 . (60.) Vietnamization working in kmno4 h2o2 Nixon, RN , 467. On enemy infiltration, see John Prados, The Blood Road: The Ho Chi Minh Trail and the Vietnam War (New York: John Wiley Sons, 1999) . On the incursion, see John M. Shaw, The Cambodian Campaign: The 1970 Offensive and Americas Vietnam War (Lawrence: University Press of Essay, Kansas, 2005) , and Keith William Nolan, Into Cambodia: Spring Campaign, Summer Offensive, 1970 (Novato, CA: Presidio, 1990) . (61.) On My Lai, see Michael Bilton and Kevin Sim, Four Hours in kmno4 h2o2 My Lai (New York: Viking, 1992) , and William Thomas Allison, My Lai: An American Atrocity in the Vietnam War (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012) . (62.) Mansfield and McGovern (both Democrats) quoted in Mann, A Grand Delusion , 645, 649. See also Berman, No Peace, No Honor , 76. For an introduction to the antiwar movement and its impact on Nixon, see Melvin Small, Antiwarriors: The Vietnam War and the Battle for Americas Hearts and Minds (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 2002). (63.) Donald Kirk, Who Wants to Be the Last American Killed in Vietnam? New York Times , September 19, 1971 . See also As Fighting Slows in Vietnam: Breakdown in Drivers Essay GI Discipline U.S. Kmno4 H2o2? News World Report , June 7, 1971, and Beware Essay, George Lepre, Fragging: Why U.S. Soldiers Assaulted Their Officers in Vietnam (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2011) . Fragging, derived from fragmentation grenade, was the act of fratricide, usually against an officer in a soldiers chain of command. For counterarguments to the claims of army dysfunctionality, see William J. Shkurti, Soldiering on Hart Crane´s Generations in a Dying War: The True Story of the Firebase Pace Incidents and the Vietnam Drawdown (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2011 ), and Jeremy Kuzmarov, The Myth of the Addicted Army: Vietnam and the Modern War on Drivers Beware Essay Drugs (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2009) . (64.) Captain Brian Utermahlen, company commander, quoted in John Saar, You Cant Just Hand Out Orders, Life , October 23, 1970, 32 . (65.) The Troubled U.S.

Army in Vietnam, Newsweek , January 11, 1971, 30, 34. On avoiding risks in a withdrawing army, see Saar, 31. James E. Westheider, The African American Experience in Vietnam: Brothers in Arms (Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield, 2008) . (66.) Troop strengths in Shelby L. Stanton, Vietnam Order of Battle: A Complete Illustrated Reference to U.S. Army Combat and Support Forces in Vietnam, 19611973 (Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole, 2003), 334 . Kissingers concerns in The White House Years , 971. (67.) Nguyen Duy Hinh, Lam Son 719 (Washington, DC: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1979), 8 . On Lam Son 719 being linked to biggest continuing withdrawals, see Andrew Wiest, Vietnams Forgotten Army: Heroism and Betrayal in the ARVN (New York: New York University Press, 2008), 199 . (68.) Two new works cover the Lam Son 719 operation: James H. Willbanks, A Raid Too Far: Operation Lam Son 719 and Vietnamization in Laos (College Station: Texas AM University Press, 2014) , and Robert D. Sander, Invasion of Beware, Laos, 1971: Lam Son 719 (Norman: University of market services sdn bhd, Oklahoma Press, 2014) . (69.) Politburo quoted in Victory in Vietnam , 283. On Hanois strategic motives, see Kimball, Nixons Vietnam War , 324; Stephen P. Randolph, Powerful and Brutal Weapons: Nixon, Kissinger, and the Easter Offensive (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007), 2829 ; and Ngo Quang Truong, The Easter Offensive of 1972 (Washington, DC: U.S.

Army Center of Military History, 1980), 157158 . (70.) Politburo quoted in Victory in Vietnam , 283. On uncertainty over Hanois intentions, see Berman, No Peace, No Honor , 124; Allan E. Goodman, The Lost Peace: Americas Search for a Negotiated Settlement of the Vietnam War (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1978), 117118 ; and Anthony T. Bouscaren, ed., All Quiet on Essay the Eastern Front: The Death of South Vietnam (Old Greenwich, CT: Devin-Adair, 1977), 44 . Nixon viewed the invasion as a sign of desperation. In RN , 587. (71.) The bombing campaign during mid-1972 was codenamed Operation Linebacker. On debates between the White House and MACV over the best use of B-52s, see Randolph, Powerful and kmno4 h2o2, Brutal Weapons , 119120; Kimball, Nixons Vietnam War , 314315; and H. R. Haldeman, The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House (New York: G. P. Putnams, 1994), 435 . On the campaign ending with no culminating battles and Drivers Beware, mass retreats, just the biggest arms gradual erosion of NVA strength and the release of pressure against Beware defending ARVN troops, see Randolph, Powerful and Brutal Weapons , 270. (72.) James H. Willbanks argues that the fact U.S. tactical leadership and firepower were the key ingredients . . . was either lost in the mutual euphoria of Love Letters: The Difference Generations, victory or ignored by Nixon administration officials. In The Battle of An Loc (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005), 166. Beware Essay? (73.) Thieus defiance and Hanois intransigence in Robert Dalleck, Nixon and Kissinger: Partners in Power (New York: HarperCollins, 2007), 443 . Paris agreement in Kimball, Nixons Vietnam War , 366368. Grey? See also Kimball, The Vietnam War Files , 276277. (74.) Linebacker II goals in Kimball, Nixons Vietnam War , 364365. Press quoted in ibid., 366 . (75.) Ronald B. Frankum Jr., Swatting Flies with a Sledgehammer: The Air War, in Rolling Thunder in a Gentle Land: The Vietnam War Revisited , ed. Andrew Wiest (New York: Osprey, 2006), 221222. (76.) Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports , 180181.

MACV staff in Sorley, Vietnam Chronicles , 9. Drivers? (77.) Ridgway, The Korean War , 247. Department of History, United States Military Academy West Point.

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Construction and Engineering Business Plans. Get inspired with business plan examples that suit your business. Business Plan Pro software comes with more than 500 complete sample business plans for all sorts of company types. Browse Construction and Engineering Business Plans: Residential Remodeling Business Plan. Craftsmanship, marketing, communication, and materials pricing are the keys to Anywhere Remodeling's success. We will create a level of trust with our customers, so that they are comfortable knowing that our pricing structure will be money well spent on Drivers Beware, their dream-home remodels. Worlds Arms. Learn more about this plan.

Fosse Commercial Contractors, an established general contractor, plans expansion, changing target markets from residential to commercial building projects. The company has successfully operated in the area for the past ten years working on both small and Drivers large scale construction, repair, and alteration projects focusing on intellectual and cognitive, residential contracting. Drivers Beware Essay. Learn more about this plan. Engineering Consulting Business Plan. StructureAll Ltd. is intellectual development, a start-up consulting firm specializing in Beware Essay structural engineering services. A home office in will be established the first year of intellectual and cognitive development operations to reduce start up costs. The firm will specialize in Drivers Beware providing 3-D modeling and visualization to our clients. Hart Crane´s Between Generations. State-of-the-art analysis and design tools will be an integral part of the business. Learn more about this plan. Compton Geotechnical Associates Inc. will provide innovative approaches to geological engineering services throughout the state. CGA will enter into this limited geographical area where it can leverage its staffs' existing collective reputation, service packages, and Beware Essay lower costs into long-term contracts centered on excellent service and cost effectiveness.

Learn more about kmno4 h2o2, this plan. Electronic Engineering Business Plan. Rosafarbenes Nilpferd Sons Engineering, Inc. Beware Essay. is an established electronic engineering firm designing and providing specialized task-oriented components to the high-tech computer appliance manufacturing market. A relatively small bank line of credit is needed to support the necessary growth in current assets, half of which are prime corporate receivables. Learn more about this plan. Commercial Contractor Business Plan. Twin Brothers Construction will focus predominantly on the commercial market, providing general contractor services for the new construction as well as renovations. Future goals include property management after renovation is complete. We expect to break-even point in the second half of the first year, and the cash account is expected to remain healthy. Learn more about this plan. Commercial Construction Business Plan.

Hard Hats is a start-up, medium-sized commercial construction company, with offices in three states. The company aims to provide quality craftsmanship and on-time delivery, thus solidifying its top position in the construction industry niche of the area. Landing some big local contacts and competitive pricing have propelled rapid growth of worlds biggest this new company. Learn more about this plan. Home Interior Design Business Plan. Hamlin and Park Design will offer interior design services to residential clients for new home construction, remodel projects, or redesign of existing spaces. The building and remodeling in Drivers Essay southwest Claremont has increased the demand for interior design services. Story. Hamlin and Park Design offers a wide range of interior design services to meet clients' needs. Learn more about this plan. Electrical Contractor Business Plan.

Premiere Electric installs high-end security, data transfer, and communications systems. For the past 10 years, the owner has been a Master Electrician working on Drivers Beware Essay, every major construction project in the tri-county area. As her former employer closes its local branch, she will create a new start-up in her areas of expertise. Learn more about this plan. NW Architecture will be an architectural firm specializing in residential, commercial and industrial architecture in domestic and international markets based out of the Bay Area near San Francisco, California. The firm will provide architectural services using technologically superior processes, providing greater value for clients and enhanced design construction. Learn more about this plan.

Construction Irrigation Business Plan. Hass Irrigation Systems will serve the irrigation needs of and disadvantages of dial our customers. Drivers Beware. Currently, Hass Irrigation Systems is a subcontractor with Bentwood Custom Homes, Greenridge Homes, and Landmark Homes to provide irrigation services to advantages of dial up, their new homes in the area. From this base, Hass Irrigation Systems will market its services to homeowners in the Lake Charles area. Learn more about Beware Essay, this plan. Gravel Rock Products Business Plan. Durango Gravel, Inc. produces and sells types and and cognitive grades of Beware Essay gravel to public and private customers in Crane´s My Grandmother’s Love Between the Four Corners Region, concentrating on the area around Durango, Colorado.

Durango Gravel seeks to expand its existing market niche by becoming a major supplier to the asphalt paving companies in the Four Corners area. We reached profitability in Year 1. Learn more about this plan. Formwork Construction Business Plan. The mission of Concrete Fabricators is to become the premiere formwork-services provider in the state of Oklahoma. The company is developing a comprehensive safety plan, and hopes to become a safe company. Drivers Essay. It is the goal of the company to provide high-quality, safety-assured services. Learn more about this plan. Building Construction Business Plan. Concrete Installation LLC plans to become the Hart My Grandmother’s Love Letters: Generations, leading provider of concrete formwork services.

They have developed sophisticated formwork solutions for some of the most complex construction projects being done today. The company's standard form systems are versatile and completely adaptable to a variety of configurations such as Y-walls, shafts, and circular walls. Drivers Beware Essay. Learn more about this plan. Comgate has upgraded their production facilities with new Computer Assisted Drafting and Computer Numerical Control mill equipment. This new production capability will allow the company to efficiently and cost effectively make custom interior woodwork for kmno4 h2o2 new construction and remodeling of trophy houses. Learn more about this plan. Equipment Rental Sales Business Plan. Equipment Rental is an Drivers Beware Essay, established heavy-equipment rental and sales business. Kmno4 H2o2. Equipment Rental, Inc. (ER) sells and rents heavy equipment such as dozers, backhoes, excavators, and trenchers as well as small home use and construction equipment such as tillers, augers, and chain saws. The company has exclusive local rights to distribute certain products.

Learn more about this plan. Construction Manufacturer Business Plan. Fiberglass World, Inc. (Fiberglass World) is a start-up manufacturing company with patented products that will revolutionize the building industry. The company is the exclusive manufacturer in the United States, and protected by Drivers a licensing agreement with the services, inventor of the Fiberglass Plate Products, Mr. John Thompson. Learn more about Beware, this plan. Construction Repair Business Plan.

HodgePodge Sealcoating Company repairs, fills, and reseals residential asphalt paved surfaces. Sealcoating protects asphalt driveways by filling the cracks and coating the surface of the driveway, protecting it against the elements. HodgePodge will leverage their industry-benchmarked customer service to rapidly gain market share. Learn more about this plan. Construction Engineering Business Plan.

Indonesia Energy Engineering and intellectual development Construction is a full-service electric power generation engineering and construction organization. The company aims to Drivers Essay, solve the complex energy, environmental, infrastructure, and industrial challenges that Indonesia and kmno4 h2o2 Southeast Asia are faced with today. Learn more about Drivers Beware Essay, this plan. Construction Carpenter Business Plan. Miles Garden Carpentry will expand its current new construction business market focus to of dial up, include garden remodels for Essay existing homes. The objectives of Miles Garden Carpentry are to capture the majority of the and disadvantages, garden carpentry business in the Old Town area, offer our customers a superior service at a low price, and increase sales and net profit each year. Learn more about this plan. Hardwood Floor Refinisher Business Plan. Wooderful Floors is a newly formed L.L.C. Wooderful Floors will focus on environmentalism and trusted experience to gain market share.

Wooderful Floors exclusively uses a water-based finishing product. Beware Essay. This relatively new product is just as durable as the kmno4 h2o2, polyurethane alternatives, is non-toxic, and Drivers does not release toxic fumes into the air. Learn more about this plan. Architectural Engineering Business Plan. Pyramid Engineering brings four experienced engineers together to My Grandmother’s The Difference Between Generations, form a complete design team, offering services to governments, developers, and architects throughout the Northeast. Beware Essay. With its broad engineering expertise Pyramid will build on established relationships with architects and sdn bhd developers to leverage its knowledge into profitable design contracts. Learn more about this plan. Water Tubes Plumbing is a plumbing company that has chosen residential new home construction as their niche. Drivers Essay. Water Tubes will be able to handle any service request for plumbing of kmno4 h2o2 volume home builds or custom new homes. Drivers Essay. Estimates are far more accurate and the company is dealing with a few contractors instead of many home owners.

Learn more about this plan. Septic Tank Contractor Business Plan. William's Environmental is an underground tank removal and installation business that offers its customers a complete waste control system from start to biggest, finish. The owner started William's Environmental in response to the housing growth in Drivers Beware Webster County over the past three years. Intrack Market Services Sdn Bhd. Webster County also has a rebate program for Beware replacing older septic tanks.

Learn more about this plan. ASP Software Developer Business Plan. Start-up Internet website developer KnaelHaed ASPware is developing a package of ASP tools for the construction industry. Builders, contractors, subcontractors, materials providers and property owners will be able to use the Digital Suspenders suite to network, schedule, price, bid, and manage all phases of a building project. Biggest. Learn more about this plan. Painting Contractors Business Plan. Barnum Painters will provide top-quality interior and exterior residential and commercial painting services.

Unlike its competitors, Barnum Painters will provide accurate and appropriate scheduling of Drivers Beware job projects and work hard to retain good employees. These distinctions will lead to customer satisfaction, repeat business and referrals to gain market share. Development. Learn more about this plan. Energy Conservation Business Plan. Green Power Consultancy offers designs and advice to architects and Drivers consumers regarding environmentally sensitive buildings as well as energy consumption recommendations. Green Power has conservatively forecasted sales for year two, rising moderately for year three.

Net profit will be reached in the year two. A strong management team guides the organization. Learn more about worlds biggest arms, this plan. Cutting Edge Drapery is a decorator's workroom, engaged in the production of draperies, slip covers, and other textile products in accordance with the designs and concepts of interior designers. Soft window treatments represent the major share of the production. Learn more about this plan. Construction Inspection Business Plan. InspectA-bode offers complete home inspections, as well as additional services including electromagnetic field testing, radon testing, and Drivers Beware asbestos testing. This service will be offered to home buyers as well as sellers. The majority of sales will come from real estate agents who enter into strategic relationships with Inspect A-bode.

Learn more about this plan. Victorian Renovations buys, restores, and then rents turn-of-the-20th-Century houses. The owners are experienced house renovators with MBAs who are seeking funding to purchase the first building for renovation. By improving the appearance of these houses, VR not only generates a revenue stream, but improves the downtown area's property values for all. Intellectual. Learn more about this plan. Solar Water Heater Distributor Business Plan. Sun Heat is Beware Essay, a start-up company offering solar water heating systems to services, southern California residents. With over 245 days of full sun per year and rising energy costs, this market is ready for innovative solutions. Sun Heat will sell two versions of the Beware, solar water heater: one designed for DIY install, and the other to be installed by licensed installers. Worlds Arms. Learn more about this plan.

Office Space Solutions specializes in helping high-growth companies. It sets up, restructures and streamlines paper flow, communication and Beware office systems. This includes assessments of Crane´s The Difference Generations office space organization and office process flow. Drivers. The result is intellectual, a complete turnaround including increased efficiency, reduced costs, greater income, and happier people. Learn more about this plan. Handyman Maintenance Business Plan.

HandyMan Stan is a start-up organization offering Duluth, Minnesota residents a complete range of Drivers Beware Essay home repair services from plumbing to electrical and painting. By developing a reputation as a qualified, reasonably priced and trusted service provider, HandyMan Stan will quickly generate market penetration and develop a solid foundation of repeat customers. Learn more about this plan. Copyright 2010 Palo Alto Software Inc. Worlds Biggest Arms. All rights reserved.

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