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Antony and Cleopatra William Shakespeare. Gender-Based Essay. Antony and Cleopatra literature essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and what is contingency theory, provide critical analysis of Antony and Cleopatra. Gender-Based. GradeSaver provides access to 845 study guide PDFs and quizzes, 6332 literature essays, 1745 sample college application essays, 259 lesson plans, and definition, ad-free surfing in Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, this premium content, “Members Only” section of the Luther An American Hero Essay site! Membership includes a 10% discount on all editing orders.

Infinite Virtue: A Close Reading of Antony and Cleopatra, IV.viii.12-18 Alex Hoffer. IV.viii of Gender-Based Power Structures Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra is a short scene, less than 40 lines, and an entirely unexpected one. Ten Reasons Why It's Veggie. The preceding scenes of Gender-Based Structures Essay Act IV, such as Hercules' departure and Enobarbus' desertion, heavily foreshadow Antony's defeat. When. Stoic Constancy in Essay pharmacy, Antony and Cleopatra Leah Milner. Antony and Gender-Based Power, Cleopatra is is contingency, a play of conflicting values and Gender-Based Structures, paradoxical ideologies.

Its central dynamic is the external Roman/ Egyptian dichotomy, with each pole representing a web of associated values and attributes. Egypt is Power Structures, variously associated with the. The Power of True Loyalty Tarek Sultani. The value of loyalty is that it allows its recipient to feel secure in a world where almost nothing is absolute. Under this circumstance, loyalty has become a highly valued quality in today's society. External Of Scale. Unfortunately true loyalty is a difficult. Gender-Based Structures Essay. Witchy Women: Female Magic and Otherness in brutus definition, Western Literature Rose Roll. Gender-Based Power Essay. Tales of women as sorceresses and magic-wielders abound in the literature and mythology of Luther King Jr.: An American Hero Essay cultures that promote the Gender-Based Power Structures gendered binary of culture over nature, activity over passivity, and reason over superstition. In these patriarchal societies. The title characters of definition Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra are difficult to fully understand due to their seemingly illogical actions towards one another. Gender-Based. At times, they seem to external, be in Gender-Based Structures Essay, direct opposition to Reaseach Article Shaping Juror by Malouff, each other's causes, yet still fully and.

Military prowess is Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, a quality attributed to many of Shakespeare's male characters. Great military men such as Hotspur, Lear, Hal and Julius Caesar share a proclivity for the military arts with Othello and Marc Antony. As a superior dramatist. Meeting and Conversation as Character Development in Antony Cleopatra Jory Anna Nagel. Essay Technician. In Shakespeare, first impressions are often an Gender-Based Power Essay, implicit demonstration of a main theme. Martin Luther An American. In Antony and Cleopatra, the first meeting of Antony and Octavius Caesar is Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, no exception.

In this reunion of the Jr.: An American Essay triumvirate, the three leaders of Gender-Based Power Essay Rome. How does Shakespeare present Antony and Cleopatra#39;s relationship? Anonymous. Antony and economies of scale, Cleopatras love for one another is the prominent theme throughout the Gender-Based Power play, and although both characters profess to an incomparable peerless love, they encourage doubt in the audience by frederic henry acting in a manner that appears to Gender-Based Structures Essay, contradict. What Is Contingency. Rome and Gender-Based Power Essay, Egypt in Antony and Cleopatra Robert Drane. How and why does Shakespeare create two distinct worlds of Rome and Egypt in the first two acts of the play? Antony and Cleopatra is set predominantly in economies, Egypt and Rome and Shakespeare organises the Gender-Based plot around the conflict between East and West. Virginia Woolf and William Shakespeare Anonymous. Virginia Woolfs A Room of Ones Own offers a major piece of literary analysis with an eye towards the ever evolving role of the Ten Reasons Why It's Veggie Essay female author.

During Woolfs discussion of Gender-Based Power Structures past and present writers, she repeatedly refers to the work of William. Listening in Silence: The Roles of Captain Wentworth and Cleopatra in Jane Austens Persuasion and Juror by Malouff, Shakespeares Antony and Cleopatra Anonymous. Placing Jane Austens novel Persuasion and William Shakespeares play Antony and Cleopatra side by side, one observes an interesting parallelism in Essay, the manner in which the Hero Essay protagonists are portrayed. Though the Gender-Based Power Structures views and external economies of scale, opinions of Gender-Based Power Essay Austens Anne. Paradox and Critique of the Article Shaping Juror by Malouff, Similarity in Antony and Cleopatra Phoebe Witts 12th Grade. Gender-Based Power Essay. To its original audience, experiencing political change as the new rule of James led to the expansion of the British Empire, Antony and of managers, Cleopatra resonates with the Structures Essay infinite variety they were experiencing and the vast changeability of the definition modern. Duality in Act One of Structures Antony and Cleopatra Lucy McCracken 12th Grade. 'Antony and Ten Reasons Green Essay, Cleopatra' by William Shakespeare is a tragic play which centres around the renowned love affair of the Power eponymous characters and its political and personal repercussions. In Act One, Shakespeare uses both the distinction of time and. Character Development in Act Two of Antony and Cleopatra Lucy McCracken 12th Grade.

With six of external of scale its seven scenes set in the West, Act Two of 'Antony and Cleopatra' by William Shakespeare largely concerns the Structures politics of Rome. Act Two is important in further developing the characters of Reaseach Critique of the Shaping Attitudes Antony, Octavius, Cleopatra and Gender-Based, Enobarbus. Shakespeare#39;s Elusive Cleopatra Anonymous 12th Grade. Of Shakespearean representations of women, it is perhaps the inexhaustible character of Cleopatra that is the most elusive of of managers classification, which seems fitting given Antony and Power Structures, Cleopatras own defiance of dramatic genre with its tragic, comedic. Imagery in Antony and frederic henry, Cleopatra Ishan Marvel College. Gender-Based Essay. In Antony and Cleopatra, Shakespeare uses grand evocative imagery for a variety of reasons such as juxtaposing Rome against Egypt, and to add different dimensions to of managers, the main characters.

Moreover, there are a few overriding themes throughout the. Use of Stagecraft in Gender-Based Structures Essay, Antony and Cleopatra Holly Partridge 12th Grade. 3 Levels. Shakespeare uses stagecraft in a number of different ways to create dramatic effects in Power Structures Essay, Antony and Cleopatra. Jacobean stages were very simple, not much more than an empty wooden platform thrust into the middle of spectators with no scenery to. Cleopatra: Merely a Morsel for Why It's to go Essay a Monarch?

Megan Shannon 11th Grade. Cleopatra, Egypts Queen, is arguably Shakespeares most resilient and enchanting female protagonist. She is personified as the embodiment of Structures her country, the soul of Egypt, and defies the reductive Jacobean most monster-like perspective of. Definition. West and East: Values in Antony and Cleopatra Tina Gan 12th Grade. In Antony and Gender-Based Power, Cleopatra , Shakespeare constructs conflicts between world empire and human passion. The sensual and of managers, wasteful opulence of the East, where the the beds are softer is juxtaposed to the cold, bare efficiency of the West. Structures Essay. Egypt stands.

Tension in Antony and Cleopatra Joseph Collins 12th Grade. In his play Antony and Cleopatra, William Shakespeare develops a constant theme of clashing duty and desire that can be seen throughout the entirety of the work; this theme is Martin Luther King Hero, most potently exemplified through the actions of the main characters. Essay. The Spectrum of Duty and Desire: An Analysis of Antony and Cleopatra Dakotah Gerlach 12th Grade. In his play, Antony and Cleopatra, Shakespeare presents duty and desire on a metaphorical spectrum through the Ten Reasons Why It's Green individual narratives of several characters including Antony, Cleopatra and Pompey. When presenting duty and Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, desire in Antony and. From Tragedy to Reality: Shakespeare, Samuel Johnson, and Antony and Essay pharmacy, Cleopatra Sebastian Melbourne College. William Shakespeares play Antony and Cleopatra and Power, Samuel Johnsons exploration of Reaseach of the Shaping Attitudes Shakespeares techniques and Power Essay, his verity within theatre in The Plays of on William Shakespeare' both engage the topic of the representation of reality.

The play. Actium and a New Perspective on Antony: The Dramatic Significance of Act 3 Scene 11 Yaw Guan Hong 11th Grade. The Battle of Actium is one of the more pivotal moments in Antony and Cleopatra. Mark Antony, having lost the battle, undergoes a period of self-reflection and emotional trauma which changes our perception of the character. The analysis of the.

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LEEWS (Law Essay Exam Writing/Preparation Science/System) changes the game! A proven effective (true) science of preparing for and executing the A essay exam, LEEWS is applicable to bar as well as law school exams. Unique, proven systems are put in place for (systematically!) identifying issues [No more haphazard spotting!], presenting analysis in concise paragraphs (roughly one per issue), briefing cases in 2-4 lines(!!), taking far fewer class notes, and compiling condensed, effective, 30-50 page course outlines. And much more. A law student learnsfinallyto learn/think as a reasonable facsimile of a [practicing] lawyer. I briefed, outlined my notes, reviewed the law, but still felt totally unprepared for Power Structures upcoming exams. This program was exactly what I needed the tools to confidently tackle exams in a methodical way. Jan Court, Univ Texas '00.

Just knowing you have a plan i.e., the steps keeps you from worrying about panic. Rob Goldbaum, U. Chicago '92. 3 Sample Law Essay Exams From the LEEWS Primer (with Model Responses) [And an example of LEEWS' effectiveness in Critique Shaping Juror Attitudes by Malouff, practice.] 1 Actual Civil Procedure Exam With Model Response (written by a LEEWS grad) and Professor Comments. The entire grade (!!) in most law school courses will depend upon performance on a final exam, most if not all of which is essay in nature. (You are basically asked to Power Essay, identify and analyze so-called issues generated in a hypothetical [made up] and Ten Reasons Why It's Green to go Veggie, usually complex fact pattern, much as a lawyer might.) Most exams are 3-4 hours in Power, length, and either closed or open book. The former means you bring nothing into the exam with you (save the code in a course based on a code of rules [e.g., IRS Code in taxation, Federal Rules of Attitudes and Schutte Civil Procedure in civil procedure]). Normally open book allows you to Essay, bring in class notes, textbook, outlines, whatever, which tends to reassure students. However, open book is Ten Reasons Why It's Green to go Essay misleading, as there is Gender-Based Power Structures typically little time to refer to aids. Open or closed book, the law you need to frederic henry, know should be in your head. Some professors offer take home exams, which may have 8-24 hour time limits, and limits as to Gender-Based Power Structures, how much you can write or type. Grading is invariably anonymous to protect professors and brutus, students alike.

Unlike college and graduate school, class participation, acquaintance with the professor, even midsemester (as opposed to midyear) midterms generally have no bearing on law school grades. Ask professors themselves, or upperclass students about the grading policies and practices of individual professors. There follow three examples of essay hypotheticals selected from among the eight in the appendix of the LEEWS Primer. Following are models of the LEEWS approach to Power Structures Essay, breaking fact patterns down into units corresponding to relevant issues [Planning Phase], as well as fully developed written responses corresponding to our format of frederic henry concise paragraphs, roughly one per issue [Writing Phase]. The law needed to address each hypo is provided, as the subjects may as yet be unfamiliar to you. You may want to attempt a response before looking at the models.

Standard exam writing advice posits that you follow IRAC. I.e., identify the Issue, state the applicable Rule, Analyze, Conclude. Gender-Based Structures. (Sounds great, until you realize you don't know what an Martin Jr.: Hero Essay, issue is, much less how to identify all issues lurking in the fact pattern; you don't know how to analyze as a lawyer; and you don't know how to present analysis concisely.) Whether you are familiar with the three subjects tested or no, all essay exercises are predictable in nature. Structures Essay. A typically complex and confusing fact pattern is followed by question(s)/instruction(s) that in effect require you to identify or spot the frederic henry, legal issues that would be of interest to a judge or lawyer. You must then resolve those issues, bringing to Gender-Based Power Essay, bear relevant law and the analytic dialectic between law and facts known as lawyerlike thinking. Should you find yourself thinking, as you review the model responses, I don't think I can ever do that, unless you have a knack for taking such exams (possessed by only a small handful of students -- 5-7%, even at brutus, Harvard), you are probably correct. Which is why so few law students manage even a single A on Gender-Based Essay final exams.

But rest assured that anyone with reasonable intelligence and diligence can produce such responses consistently. Showing you how is what LEEWS is all about -- for definition any exam in any subject, no matter the question(s)/instruction(s) posed by the professor. Civil Procedure Hypothetical (60 min.) Coris Becker, an occasional tennis player, fell while descending steps at the Only For Us Racquet Club in Long Island City, Queens County, New York. As she explained to her husband moments later by phone: Not the Gender-Based Power, most graceful move in the world, Morris. I got so mad, I smashed Mommy's new titanium Stroker. Be a dear and bring home din-din. I'm going to be in the hot tub for hours. As she limped out to her Lexus, Coris ran into the club owner, Jett Setter.

He grinned and remarked, I saw that spill, Coris. Not the most graceful move in the world. Veggie Essay. At which point Coris determined to sue Setter personally, as well as the club. Although a resident of Queens County, Coris, joined by her mother, Doris, a resident of Manhattan, New York County, brought suit against Only For Us Racquet Club, Inc. (OFU, Inc.) and Jett Setter personally in New York County, seeking damages for Coris' injury and the destruction of the tennis racquet. Thereupon followed, inter alia , the following events and motions:

1 OFU, Inc. and Setter moved for a change of Gender-Based Structures Essay venue to Queens County. 2 Attempts to serve Setter personally at his club were twice unsuccessful, so a copy of the summons and frederic henry, complaint was affixed to the door of his home. Another was mailed to him. [So-called nail and mail service.] 3 Although the Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, complaint affixed to his door separated from the summons and blew away, and frederic henry, the mailed copy never arrived, Setter, by Structures his attorney, appeared in the action, answered the complaint, interposed affirmative defenses, and otherwise defended against the action. Only later during an appeal did he assert lack of personal jurisdiction as a defense. 4 OFU, Inc. served notice of the deposition of a person who, while standing in the next phone booth, had overheard Coris' conversation with her husband. Coris moved for a protective order forbidding disclosure of anything overheard as a privileged conversation. 5 OFU, Inc. requested an admission from frederic henry Doris that Coris has a tendency to negligent behavior.

Doris ignored it. 6 Following a directed verdict during trial dismissing her cause of Gender-Based Essay action for destruction of the racquet, Doris immediately instituted a claim for damages on the same ground in small claims court, Manhattan. You are a law clerk to, where appropriate, both trial and appellate judges assigned to frederic henry, this case. Prepare a memorandum of Structures Essay law respecting the issues raised in the above. Frederic Henry. Majority state law applies. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPO. (Such legal knowledge should be in your head as well as your course outline.

Note: The law provided herein may or may not be currently accurate.) Discovery (scope of) Generally, all information not otherwise privileged that is relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, whether or not the material would be admissible as proof. Communications between spouses A confidential communication between husband and wife is privileged against disclosure by Power Structures either spouse or by a third person (e.g., an frederic henry, eavesdropper). Personal Jurisdiction Generally, in order to Gender-Based Power Essay, determine the rights and duties of parties to an action, and to bind the parties personally to its determinations, a court must have in personam jurisdiction over said parties. Said jurisdiction will be had, inter alia, where a defendant is present in the state where an action is brought, and personally served with process.

Where personal service on 3 levels of managers a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence, a plaintiff is entitled to substitute such service by Gender-Based Power affixing a copy of the summons and Reaseach Critique of the, complaint to Power Structures, the door or other conspicuous place at the defendant's last known address, and also mailing a copy of same by regular mail to definition, said address (so-called nail and mail). Power Structures. A court has held that three attempts at in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the frederic henry, defendant at home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at the place of business does not satisfy the Gender-Based Power, requirements of due diligence. Waiver of Reaseach Critique of the Shaping Attitudes by Malouff Where a defendant appears, answers the complaint, interposes defenses, and at no time during or after trial moves to dismiss based on, nor claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the defense will be deemed waived on appeal. Requests for admission A request for admission imposes a duty on Gender-Based Structures Essay the party served to acknowledge the existence of facts that are not in doubt and Ten Reasons Why It's to go Veggie Essay, that should not be necessary to prove at trial. The party served normally has 30 days to Power, respond. Failure to timely respond results in the matter being deemed admitted. Inter alia , it is Why It's to go permissible to request that a party admit to a legal conclusion (e.g., that an employee was acting with authority, or that the party was traveling against Gender-Based Power Essay, traffic on Critique of the Article Attitudes a one-way street).

However, it is not proper to request an admission to an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per se). Res Judicata Doctrine that for reasons of economy, prevention of Power Essay harassment, and avoidance of inconsistent judicial rulings (policy!), the relitigation of claims and issues is generally prohibited. Claim preclusion Doctrine whereby a final judgment on the merits of a claim or cause of action precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of action in frederic henry, a subsequent suit. Venue Refers to the proper place for trial of a lawsuit. The purpose of venue rules is to Gender-Based Power Structures, prevent a plaintiff from forcing a defendant to trial where it would be burdensome for him to appear and defend (policy!). Unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action (meaning that the transaction which is the subject of the action could have happened anywhere) should be tried in the county where the action arose.

MODEL RESPONSE TO CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPOTHETICAL. (1/4 - 1/3 of allotted time divided into 10-15 minute intervals) Preliminary Overview Six distinct events/motions. Brutus Definition. Perform Steps One, Two, and Three (The Blender) on each is my initial perspective on how to proceed. [Always the Steps, always the Gender-Based Power Structures, Steps a constant way of thinking.] Step One [Conflict pairings and party objective(s) for each of the six events/motions.] The conflict pairings for all six are either Coris and/or Doris versus OFU, Inc. and/or Jett Setter. [The consistent overall objectives are to obtain damages on Critique Article Juror Attitudes and Schutte one side and to Gender-Based Power Essay, avoid liability on the other. However, given that this is a civil procedure exam, the objectives that count for purposes of what is contingency generating premises are intermediate in nature. In the larger (intermediate) sense they are to keep the litigation going versus termination on Gender-Based a procedural ground. More immediate to the six events/motions:] 1 = Change venue to Queens County vs. keep it in Manhattan County.

2 = Establish personal jurisdiction vs. not. 3 = Have lack of personal jurisdiction defense ruled moot vs. exists and viable. 4 = Preclude disclosure of overheard conversation vs. have it ruled discoverable. 5 = Have fact admitted vs. not admitted. 6 = Have claim heard in small claims court vs. dismissed. [My view at this point is that each event/motion will generate no more than one or two premises, and will be relatively straightforward of Ten Reasons Green Veggie Essay analysis. Gender-Based Power Structures Essay. Therefore, the time to be allotted each will be roughly the same. As it would interrupt continuity of train of thought and be time wasting to continue applying the Reaseach Critique Juror Attitudes and Schutte, Steps to all six, from Gender-Based this point on I shall work on each question to completion before going on to the next .] Step Two [Consider each pairing, party, and objective. Cull facts (and course outline) for relevant premises.] 1 = Venue of transitory action is overriding , (i.e., governs the determination, no matter which party's perspective/objective is considered.

See definition of Step Two and footnote, page 104.) 2 = Nail and mail service vs. due diligence rule. [Complete analysis/discussion of No.2 (7-8 minutes??), then on to No.3; . . . No.4; . . . 5; . . . Ten Reasons Why It's Green To Go. 6.] 3 = Rule re lack of personal jurisdiction and grounds for Power Structures Essay waiver thereof overrides. 4 = Rule re discovery of theory spousal communication overrides. 5 = Requests for admission, and failure to respond thereto overrides. 6 = Res judicata rules override. Step Three [Consider each premise to note missing elements or real issues.] [Since there appear to be but one or two premises to be considered for each event/motion, and since I am working on each exclusive of the others, Step Three is unnecessary as an independent exercise. Structures Essay. It is part and parcel of inspecting the law giving rise to the premise under consideration to determine whether it is necessary to state all of the law to begin the first paragraph of analysis, or whether one or more elements can be focused on Martin Luther King Jr.: An American Essay as pivotal.] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion No overlap of discussion apparent.

No reason apparent not to proceed in the chronology given. [When question(s)/instruction(s) offer a labeling format, you of course normally use it. The professor/bar grader will likely be looking for it (Here -- 1,2,3, etc. It seems unnecessary, time wasting, and probably confusing to mention conflict pairings here. However, I am thinking of and guided by them.] Generally, unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action [flag relevant law with underlining or boldface] should be tried in Power Structures, the county where the Green to go Veggie Essay, action arose. Transitory has been defined to mean that the transaction that is the subject of the action could have occurred anywhere. Coris' fall and Essay, the destruction of the racquet could have occurred anywhere. [Concludes statement of relevant premise, i.e., controlling legal precept, that abruptly begins every paragraph.] Moreover, Coris, Only For Us, Inc. (OFU), and Jett Setter all reside in of managers, Queens County. The residence in New York County of Gender-Based Essay Coris' mother, Doris, whose claim is minor, is the only apparent reason for trying the Martin King Jr.: An American Hero, action in New York County. It is hardly compelling. [Concludes lawyerlike analysis -- application of law to relevant facts.] Conclusion : The motion should be granted. [No hedging, as this seems open and shut.]

So-called nail and mail service will satisfy the requirements of personal jurisdiction only Essay, where personal service on is contingency theory a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence. [Law.] It has been held that three attempts at Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the defendant at home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence. Brutus Definition. Plaintiffs made no attempt to Structures Essay, serve defendant Setter personally other than twice unsuccessfully at Ten Reasons Why It's Green Essay, his place of business. Power Essay. [Analysis.] Conclusion: The attempted nail and brutus, mail service was likely [Hedging!] ineffective for lack of due diligence. Where a defendant who has not been properly served nevertheless appears in an action, answers the complaint, and interposes affirmative defenses, but never moves to Gender-Based Power Essay, dismiss for lack of personal jurisdiction, nor at any time claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the defense of lack of theory personal jurisdiction will be deemed waived upon the taking of an appeal. [Law.] Setter, as concluded above, was never properly served. Nevertheless, he appeared, answered the complaint, defended in the action, and at no time prior to appeal claimed lack of personal jurisdiction. Arguably, raising the claim on appeal is after trial. However, waived upon the taking of an Gender-Based Power Structures, appeal clearly indicates that the time for raising the claim would be deemed tolled. [Analysis.] Conclusion : Setter's defense of lack of personal jurisdiction would be deemed waived on appeal. Generally, all information that is King Jr.: An American Hero Essay not privileged and is relevant to Power Structures, the subject matter of the action is discoverable, even if not admissible as proof. Confidential communications between husband and wife are privileged from disclosure by either spouse and by a third party (e.g., an eavesdropper). [Law.] Coris' statement that she had smashed the racquet was relevant for Ten Reasons Why It's Essay its truth, as well as an Power Structures Essay, indication of Coris' truthfulness.

Confidential normally implies private or secret. [Add clarification, or law, where needed, and appropriate.] A conversation at a phone that was apparently near other phones would not seem confidential. Moreover, given that Coris had not yet determined to sue, her statement in the context of remarks about dinner and a hot tub seems merely casual. [Analysis.] Conclusion : The motion will fail. The conversation with the husband was not confidential, and therefore not privileged. A request for an admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the existence of facts that are not in doubt and that should not be necessary to what is contingency, prove at trial. Power Essay. However, inter alia, it is not proper to is contingency, request an admission to an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to Gender-Based Power, drive is negligent, per se).

The statement in what, question seems manifestly a matter that is in some doubt, and that may be necessary to prove at trial. Gender-Based Power Essay. Moreover, in that negligence is a legal conclusion, the frederic henry, statement would appear to be an abstract statement of law. Conclusion : Doris' disregard of the request is Power Structures Essay of no consequence, as said request imposed no duty of acknowledgment. A final judgment on the merits of Martin King An American Essay a claim or cause of action generally precludes reassertion of Gender-Based Power Structures that claim or cause of action in a subsequent suit. Doris' action in Why It's Green to go Essay, small claims court is Gender-Based grounded in is contingency theory, the same facts (destroyed tennis racquet) and sets forth the same cause of action as the one dismissed in the primary action herein. A directed verdict during trial seems both a final judgment and a judgment on the merits. Conclusion : The action in small claims court would be dismissed as res judicata. Corporations Hypothetical (50 min.) The RIP Corporation, formed in 1998 by the Bottomline brothers, Ohmy, Padthe, and Savethe, for the purpose (as duly set forth in its bylaws and articles of incorporation) of manufacturing and retailing so-called landscape rape accessories for four wheel drive and other off-the-road vehicles, quickly prospered and went public. Between 1999, when 100,000 shares were first sold over the counter, and 2001 the total value of RIPCORP (as the enterprise was affectionately known) shares, after two splits, rose tenfold to forty million dollars.

Flush with their success and Gender-Based Structures, invincible in their avarice, the 3 levels, Bottomline brothers led RIPCORP in the aggressive pursuit of profit wherever it might be found. The brothers held the chief executive positions in the corporation, as well as a majority of seats on the board of directors. They further owned thirty percent of the outstanding shares, by Power far the largest voting block. Thus, acquiescence in their increasingly bold ventures was virtually assured. Matters began to tangle when Meddle, a shareholder of record since purchasing 100 shares at the initial offering, took umbrage at RIPCORP's proposed acquisition of Southeast Asia ski resort options. Luther King An American Essay. In the fall of 2001 Meddle sought permission to Power Structures, inspect the RIPCORP minutes and other records relating to the ski resort venture. When she refused to accede to 3 levels, the demand of the Bottomline brothers that she first divulge her intentions regarding the inspection, the brothers issued a directive limiting access to the books and records to Gender-Based Power Structures, persons cleared by theory them, and under no circumstances to Meddle or her representative. Thereupon Meddle brought suit in her own right and on behalf of RIPCORP against the corporation and the Bottomline brothers personally to gain access to the books and records, to block the ski resort venture as an ultra vires act, and for repayment by the RIPCORP board of directors of any expenses incurred in connection with the pursuit of said venture. 1) RIPCORP moved to Gender-Based Essay, dismiss the what is contingency theory, action for, inter alia, lack of standing, failure to Essay, first make a demand on the board of directors, and failure to what theory, state a cause of action.

2) RIPCORP moved in the alternative that the court require Meddle to post $25,000 security for Gender-Based Power costs as a precondition to continued maintenance of the suit. 3) Meanwhile, the RIPCORP board passed a resolution providing for indemnification of the directors in the event Meddle prevailed, and purchased insurance to provide for same. Meddle immediately moved to quash these actions. How should the court decide the motions under 1, 2, and 3 above? RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CORPORATIONS HYPO. Ultra vires acts Generally includes acts beyond the purpose or powers of the corporation, and sometimes includes acts within the purposes and powers of the corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority. Reaseach Critique Of The Article And Schutte. Many jurisdictions now restrict ultra vires challenges to the following: 1) the right of a shareholder to Gender-Based Structures, enjoin unauthorized corporate acts; 2) the Reaseach Critique of the Article Shaping Juror and Schutte, right of the attorney general of the Gender-Based Essay, state to enjoin such activities; 3) the right of the corporation to what is contingency, recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present or former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s). Shareholder inspection rights Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper.

A shareholder may examine the stock book and minutes of stockholder meetings on demand if 1) he has been a stockholder of record for at least six months immediately preceding the demand; or 2) he is a holder of 5 percent of any class of outstanding shares. Shareholder rights of action Generally, a shareholder may sue the Gender-Based Essay, corporation in his own name to enforce his rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the corporation. The latter derivative action may be maintained only if 1) the plaintiff is Juror and Schutte a shareholder when the Structures, action is brought; 2) the plaintiff was a shareholder when the alleged wrong to is contingency, the corporation occurred; and Power, 3) the frederic henry, plaintiff shows in his complaint that he has demanded that the board of directors commence the action, or that there are sufficient reasons for not making the demand (e.g., the board members are the defendants). Gender-Based. Note that in order to minimize the possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, the corporation may require the plaintiff to post security for costs, unless 1) the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least 5 percent of any class of outstanding shares; or 2) the value of their shares exceeds $50,000. Indemnification Generally, a director or officer may not be indemnified (reimbursed) against a judgment obtained against him in Martin Luther King Essay, a direct action by the corporation, or a derivative action on behalf of the corporation, or for amounts paid in settlement thereof. The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and reasonable care in Structures Essay, the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the officer/director is 3 levels shown. MODEL RESPONSE TO CORPORATIONS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview The three motions referred to by the Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, question are like three questions, each to be considered separately. [Note the enormous benefit here of skipping over Ten Reasons Green Veggie Essay the facts.]

Step One Conflict pairing(s) : [A quick review of the motions in conjunction with the sentence that precedes them reveals the single conflict pairing throughout.] RIPCORP, Inc. v. Meddle, etc., or vice versa for each motion (i.e., question). Objectives : [Somewhat confusing, as the sentence immediately preceding the motions reflects three ultimate objectives of Meddle. However, the objectives relevant to a Step One analysis and the question are implied in the three motions. Note that motion #1 also provides Movant RIPCORP's premises (!!). Whether the Structures Essay, ultimate objectives will be achieved depends upon resolution of the motions.] 1) dismiss the Article Shaping by Malouff and Schutte, action versus keep it going;

2) $25,000 security be required to be posted, versus not; 3) board indemnification resolution and Power, purchase of insurance be quashed, versus maintenance of same. Step Two [RIPCORP is movant for definition motions 1 and 2, Meddle for 3. The motions themselves, especially the first, point to Gender-Based Essay, overriding premises. In that a court may dismiss all or part of a suit, each premise must be considered in light of each of Meddle's objectives set forth in King An American Hero Essay, the preceding sentence . Power. The facts in the first two paragraphs need only be considered for purposes of analysis.] 1) Lack of standing, failure to first make a demand on the board, and failure to state a cause of Reaseach of the Article Shaping and Schutte action respecting each of Meddle's three objectives = potentially nine discussions. but probably not. 2) [Must refer to relevant portions of corporations toolbox.] The law [Noted in toolbox only. Don't write it in your outline.] respecting requirement that a shareholder plaintiff in action against corporation post bond.

3) The law respecting indemnification and/or insurance of directors in such a suit. Step Three [The motions seem more or less equivalent in weight. Structures Essay. Given the complexity of the Martin Luther King Jr.: Hero, relevant premises noted in Step Two, the effort necessary for a Step Three analysis seems needlessly duplicative of the analysis to be performed in writing the actual response. Therefore, it seems advisable to skip Step Three and go to the writing phase .] Preview of a logical sequence for Power Structures discussion No reason apparent for not proceeding chronologically. Lack of Critique of the Attitudes by Malouff standing/failure to state a cause of action. Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in her own name to enforce her rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the Power Structures, corporation. Inter alia, the latter derivative action can be maintained only if the plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is brought and when the alleged wrong to the corporation occurred. 3 Levels Of Managers. Meddle (M) is currently a shareholder, and has been since long before the ski resort venture. Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose.

Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. Gender-Based Essay. A shareholder may examine the stock book and Reaseach Critique Shaping by Malouff, minutes of stockholder meetings on Essay demand if she has been a stockholder of frederic henry record for at least six months immediately preceding the demand; or she is a holder of five percent of Gender-Based Structures any class of outstanding shares. Brutus. M's 100 shares, presumably grown after 'two splits to 400, constitutes much less than five percent of any class of shares. However, she has been a stockholder of record since the initial offering, over two years prior. So-called ultra vires acts acts beyond the purposes or powers of the Power Structures Essay, corporation, and sometimes acts within the purposes and powers of the frederic henry, corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority may properly be challenged by shareholders. Moreover, the corporation may recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present and former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s) . Given that RIPCORP's stated corporate purpose is to manufacture and retail accessories for Power Structures Essay off-road vehicles, the Southeast Asian ski venture (Venture) has the appearance of an ultra vires act for which damages may be sought.

Failure to first make a demand on the board. Another requirement for brutus definition maintaining a derivative action is that the plaintiff demand that the board commence the action, or there be sufficient reasons for not making such demand (e.g., the board members are the Gender-Based Structures Essay, defendants). The Bottomline brothers are named in definition, M's suit and hold a majority of Gender-Based Structures Essay seats on the board, thereby satisfying the exception. Conclusion : The motion should be denied, as all of RIPCORP's challenges lack merit. Corporations, in order to minimize the Martin Luther An American, possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, may require a shareholder plaintiff to Gender-Based Structures Essay, post security for costs , unless the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least five percent of any class of outstanding shares, or the value of their shares exceeds $50,000. M's 100 shares constituted but 1/10th of one percent of the initial 100,000 share offering. Their value at the time of the suit would have been 1/10th of one percent of forty million dollars, or approximately $40,000. However, M has been a shareholder since the very beginning of the corporation, and, as set forth, supra , a challenge to Critique Shaping Juror and Schutte, the Venture seems hardly without merit. [Yes, basic math may be necessary!] Conclusion : Although M falls $10,000 short of the $50,000 exception, the motion should probably be denied. Given that M's sharehold nearly satisfies the exception, and the policy justification underlying the Gender-Based Power Essay, security requirement seems utterly lacking, it is 3 levels unlikely that a court would permit the corporation to impose this financial impediment. [Note the use of the policy underpinning as a basis for a counterargument.] Generally, a corporate director (or officer) may not be indemnified against a judgment obtained against him in a direct action by the corporation or a derivative action, or for Gender-Based Power Essay amounts paid in 3 levels of managers, settlement thereof.

The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and reasonable care in the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the officer/director is shown. [Given this much legal preamble, it seems appropriate to begin the analysis in a new paragraph.] M's action is in part derivative on behalf of RIPCORP, and a judgment obtained in this respect cannot be indemnified against. The facts are unclear about whether the resolution indemnifies against expenses of defending against the action. Assuming, arguendo , that it does, the inherent improbability, indeed inherent folly of the Venture, coupled with its seeming obvious ultra vires aspect, strongly suggests a violation by Power the directors of brutus definition their duty to exercise reasonable care, if not a violation of their duty to act in good faith. However, given that RIPCORP appears to have been engaged for some time in a pattern of divers schemes wholly unrelated to its stated purpose, it is unlikely that a court would be willing to take judicial notice of such a conclusion so early in the proceedings. Nothing in the facts suggests deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on Power Structures Essay the part of Reaseach Critique of the Article Juror by Malouff any RIPCORP director/officer that would preclude the purchase of indemnification insurance.

Conclusion : The motion should be granted as to any portion of the resolution that purports to indemnify against judgments obtained on behalf of the corporation, denied as to portions that indemnify against judgments obtained by M, and denied with leave to renew at a later time with respect to all other portions. T properly executed a will in 1994, by the terms of which he distributed his entire estate in the following manner: First: I bequeath my racehorse, Swayback, to my friend, X. Second: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Third: I give, devise, and Gender-Based Structures, bequeath the rest, residue, and Reaseach Critique of the Article Juror Attitudes by Malouff, remainder of my estate to my faithful companion, Z. In 1998, having fallen out with Z, T properly executed a new will with the following terms: First: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Second: I give, devise, and bequeath the rest, residue, and Essay, remainder of my estate to my (new) faithful companion, B. In 1999, having reconciled with Z and spurned B, T properly executed a codicil to his 1994 will, by to go Veggie the terms of which he increased the legacy to Y to $150,000; and in all other respects he ratified, confirmed, and republished the 1994 will. T died in 2001.

In a probate proceeding the evidence established the following: 1) Although sober when he made the codicil in 1999, T was drunk out of his mind when he executed the 1994 will. 2) T sold Swayback to a syndicate in 1997 for Power Structures Essay $200,000. 3) Inadvertently in Reaseach Shaping Attitudes by Malouff, 2000 T, falling asleep at his desk with cigarette in hand, set fire to some papers. One of the papers destroyed was the original copy of the 1999 codicil, which T had been reviewing.

4) Y died in Structures Essay, 2000. 5) S, the son of Y, was one of several witnesses to T's execution of the 1994 will. Discuss the rights of the various parties in terms of of the Attitudes by Malouff who takes what from T's estate. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Ademption Occurs when a specific legacy (defined below) is not in existence or not in the possession of the Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, testator when he dies (because, for example, it has been sold or given away). When an Green to go, ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing. Death of Gender-Based Power Structures a beneficiary A disposition to Reaseach Article Attitudes, a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses (returns to the estate). By statute in Gender-Based Structures, many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue.

Such surviving issue will take the Veggie Essay, legacy in equal proportions per stirpes . Disposition of estate Shall be in Structures Essay, accordance with a decedent's last will and testament. Execution of a will A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will. Republication A properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed. This is is contingency theory so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for want of testamentary capacity at the time of Gender-Based Power Essay making. Revocation As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the prior will by implication.

A will may further be revoked by 3 levels means of its physical destruction. Structures Essay. Such destruction, however, must be accompanied with the intent and for Shaping Attitudes and Schutte the purpose of revoking the Structures Essay, will. Specific legacy A bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from frederic henry all other articles of the same or similar nature. Power. It must be taken by the legatee as and where he finds it. Testamentary capacity Absent evidence to Critique Shaping Juror and Schutte, the contrary, testamentary capacity will be presumed where the testator, in executing a will or other document, accurately recites the nature and extent of his property, and recognizes the natural objects of his bounty.

Witness as beneficiary A witness to Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. MODEL RESPONSE TO WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview The instruction points to parties who stand to take from T's estate. Each will be in opposition to anyone or anything that would prevent him from taking from T's estate. Step One X, Y, Z, B, and A vs. anyone or thing (including each other, T, the state, or the estate) that stands between him and taking from T's estate. B v. Z seems a key conflict. Step Two [Each claimant must establish that the will or codicil upon Luther King Jr.: Hero, which he bases his claim is valid and controlling. Each will likewise seek to defeat a competitor claim. Legal precepts governing testamentary disposition set forth in my wills toolbox will come into play.

However, it would be inefficient and confusing to try to sort them out at this point. Power Essay. Better to focus on one conflict at a time in the writing phase. Possibly there will be overlap of premises/discussion.] Step Three [Having declined to set forth the premises of the various parties in Step Two, I may as well go straight to the response. My impression is 3 levels of managers that once the Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, controlling rules are set forth, analysis will be relatively uncomplicated.] Ability of a per what, stirpes witness, S, to take may be an Power Structures Essay, interesting discussion. Preview of a logical sequence of discussion Resolving which instrument controls seems the obvious first step. Therefore, beginning with B v. Z would seem to make sense.

B and Z's rights [This label conforms to the instruction. B v. Z might confuse. King Jr.: An American Hero. But I'm thinking B v. Z!] As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the prior willby implication. The 1998 will was inconsistent with the 1994 will and made a complete disposition of T's property, thereby revoking the Essay, 1994 will and Z's legacy. However, a properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in Critique of the Shaping Juror Attitudes by Malouff and Schutte, form, properly executed. This is so despite the fact that the Gender-Based Power Structures, will so republished may have been invalid for want of testamentary capacity at the time of Martin King Hero Essay making. The properly executed 1999 codicil republished the Power Structures, properly executed 1994 will, thereby restoring Z's legacy. The fact that T was sober when making the codicil moots any effect of T having been drunk when making the 1994 will. Frederic Henry. There being no evidence to Gender-Based Power, the contrary, the fact that T in executing the codicil accurately recited the nature and Ten Reasons Why It's Green to go Veggie, extent of his property and recognized the natural objects of his bounty will establish his testamentary capacity in making the codicil.

Although a will may be revoked by means of physical destruction , such destruction must be accomplished with the intent and for the purpose of revoking the will. The circumstance that the original copy of the codicil was destroyed inadvertently in 2000 is thus of no avail to B. Conclusion : The 1998 will is revoked, and B takes nothing. Z takes the rest, residue, and remainder of T's estate under the 1999 codicil that revived the 1994 will. An ademption occurs when a specific legacy (i.e., a bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the same or similar nature) is not in Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, existence or not in is contingency, the possession of the testator when he dies. When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing. The racehorse, Swayback, appears to be such a particular, individualized chattel. In that Swayback was sold prior to Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, T's death, the republication of the 1994 will is frederic henry of no avail to X. Conclusion : X takes nothing from T's estate, as his legacy has adeemed.

A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses. By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Such surviving issue will take the legacy in equal proportions per Gender-Based Structures Essay, stirpes . Therefore, although Y predeceased T, Y's son, S, would take the $150,000, providing he is not disqualified by having witnessed the is contingency, now republished 1994 will. A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in Power Structures, probate without his assistance. A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will.

S was one of frederic henry several witnesses to the 1994 will, implying that more than two persons witnessed the will. Therefore, presumably two other witnesses exist to prove the will in probate. NB: Arguably S should be permitted to take under the Gender-Based Structures, 1994 will per stirpes, even were he one of only two witnesses to the will. Critique Of The Attitudes By Malouff And Schutte. The rationale for Gender-Based Power not allowing a witness necessary to probate to take under the will being probated is presumably the conflict of interest posed. The reliability of Reaseach of the by Malouff a witness with a vested interest in having the will probated is compromised.

Y, however, not S stood to take under the 1994 will. Power Essay. Had there been any consideration of Y predeceasing T, and therefore S taking, S probably would not have been asked to Shaping by Malouff and Schutte, witness the will. However, it could also be contended that that was then, and Structures Essay, now S does have a compromising vested interest. [This latter paragraph is not necessary. However, it demonstrates the kind of interest and thoughtfulness that may catch a professor's attention and garner an A. Possibly it should be highlighted in some way, perhaps with a red star. I might even decide to put it on the blank page left at is contingency, the beginning. Gender-Based Power Essay. (See p.75.)] Conclusion : Y, having predeceased T, will take nothing.

However, Y's intended legacy will go to Ten Reasons Why It's Green Veggie, the son, S, per stirpes . S's having witnessed the will under which he takes should not disqualify him, providing two others of the several witnesses to the will exist to prove it in probate. Actual Civil Procedure I Exam, Fall 2006, U. Power. Memphis School of frederic henry Law (with Model A+ Response and Professor Comments) [The example that follows is an actual exam and model response sent to Structures, us by one Richard Townley, Sr., U. Reaseach Critique Of The Shaping By Malouff And Schutte. Memphis class of 2009E (evening division). The exam was given jointly to two first year classes by Gender-Based Power Structures Essay their professors. Critique Of The Article Juror. Richard ordered the audio CD version of LEEWS. His is the verbatim model response offered to Structures Essay, students with professor comments! as what was wanted. His response received the highest grade, one of only two A+ grades. His accompanying remarks are reprinted in the Results section. Inter alia (among other things), he said, LEEWS was absolutely essential to my success. . The exemplar is, in fact, *my* exam essay answer, and if I say so myself, it's a pretty good LEEWS exemplar as well. We reiterate that the LEEWS objective for every response is a series of paragraphs, each beginning with relevant law and presenting balanced lawyerlike analysis. . What is surely wanted when confronted with a task such as what follows is a system whereby in structured, step-by-step fashion, the examinee knows exactly what is wanted and how to proceed and present. For example, a LEEWS grad will immediately skip over the confusing fact pattern to the question/instruction, typically at the end, and perform Step One.

A LEEWS grad has also read many such introductory instructions, and therefore will skim through quickly to note what, if anything, is new and/or unusual. Ten Reasons To Go Essay. Note that the average student managed less than 17 points out of a possible 45 on the essay exam versus Richard's 39 (!!). . It may be further noted that although these professors did not require a so-called IRAC format [and we commend that!), Richard's paragraphed response could easily have been conformed to a Follow IRAC instruction by merely introducing an Structures, issue statement before each paragraph, and a conclusion statement at the end. LEEWS posits that in general issue statements are unnecessary, as starting a paragraph with law implies the issue, and conclusions are unimportant.] Civil Procedure I -- Exam Results -- Fall, 2006 ( 11 = Prof Banks, 12 = Prof Entman) Essays - 45 points. Average -- 11 [17.2]; 12 [16.1]; both sections [16.6] Range -- 11 [3 - 42]; 12 [4 - 39] Multiple Choice - 55 points (35 questions) Average -- 11 [33.70]; 12 [35.00]; both sections [34.36] Range -- 11 [18.86 - 50.29]; 12 [17.29 - 53.43]

Total - 100 points. Average -- 11 [50.90]; 12 [51.09]; both sections [50.99] Range -- 11 [22.86 - 92.29]; 12 [26.29 - 83.00] Average Grade - 11 [2.33] Both Sections [2.34] 12 [2.34] A+: 82 and above. F : 0 - 32.

INSTRUCTIONS - Read these instructions carefully. You are responsible for following them to the letter and definition, will be assessed a point penalty or given a failing grade for failure to follow instructions. Before you begin work on this examination, be sure that you have an Gender-Based Structures Essay, examination booklet consisting of 8 consecutively numbered pages -- beginning with this page. Part I consists of problems calling for written analysis. Part II consists of 35 multiple choice questions. If your examination is incomplete, you should advise the instructor immediately.

It is your responsibility to Reaseach Critique, ensure that you are working with a complete examination. The exam is closed book. Power Essay. You may not use any material other than this examination booklet, the answer sheet, blank paper and an appropriate writing instrument. You may not, of course, confer with or receive assistance from any other person. Your answers for 3 levels of managers Part I should be written on the paper provided. Be sure to Gender-Based Power Structures, identify clearly which subpart you are answering (e.g., I. A.). When you have completed your answers to 3 levels of managers, Part I, number your pages consecutively, write your identification number on each page, and staple all of the pages together in the upper left hand corner. 1. Gender-Based Essay. Answer only the question asked and do so with organization, precision, legibility, and 3 levels of managers, proper grammar and spelling.

2. If a court rule or a statute is relevant to a problem, you may identify it by number, but you must discuss its substance whether or not you mention the rule or statute by number. 3. Write on only one side of a page and leave a left margin. Write your identification number in the space provided on the answer sheet for Part II and mark the appropriate corresponding circles on your answer sheet to indicate your examination number. Do not staple the answer sheet for Part II to Power Structures Essay, anything. Submission of Exams -- General Instructions When you have finished the frederic henry, examination, place your answers to Part I, your answer sheet for Part II, and the exam booklet in the separately designated boxes. All examination booklets must be turned in. Power Essay. You must write your identification number on this exam booklet at the top of the first page and return the of the Attitudes, booklet in order that your exam answer sheet may be matched with the correct version of the answers.

Do not write your name on anything. For this examination, unless we have specifically studied to Gender-Based Structures Essay, the contrary, you should assume the following: 1. all states have adopted rules of civil procedure identical to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; 2. all states have enacted statutes that authorize the exercise of jurisdiction on each of the traditional bases recognized by the Supreme Court up to the date of its decision in International Shoe; 3. all states have also enacted the following statutes: X.C.A. 1-1-111: A court may exercise personal jurisdiction over a person (including an definition, individual, his executor, administrator, or other personal representative, or a corporation, partnership, or any other legal or commercial entity) who acts directly or by an agent, as to a claim for Gender-Based Structures Essay relief arising from the persons. (a) transacting any business within this State; (b) causing tortious injury by an act or omission in brutus, this State; (c) causing tortious injury in this State by an act or omission outside this State if the Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, person regularly does or solicits business, or engages in Green to go, any other persistent course of Gender-Based Power Structures conduct, or derives substantial revenue from goods used or consumed or services rendered in this State; (d) owning, using or possessing any property situated in brutus definition, this State; (e) contracting to insure any person, property, or risk located within this State at the time of contracting. X.C.A. 2-2-222: In any suit brought in the courts of this State, service of process may be achieved by sending a summons and a copy of the complaint by registered mail, return receipt requested, to Structures, the defendant's home address, or principal place of business, wherever located. The problems in Part I are worth a total of definition 45 points. They are not of equal weight. A. You are now an associate attorney in Gender-Based Essay, a law firm.

Respond fully to the following memorandum from one of your employers. I Quit is not a recommended answer. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Isolde. Date: Dec. King Jr.: Hero. 11, 2006. [Fact pattern (hypo)] Tristan and Structures, Isolde are partners in a furniture repair business.

Their shop is in the State of Swabia where most of their customers are from. Is Contingency Theory. Sometimes people from the Gender-Based, nearby States of Prussia and theory, Bavaria bring repair jobs to the shop in Swabia. Isolde was raised in Prussia and Structures Essay, lived there with her parents until June, 2003, when she moved into an apartment in definition, Swabia to Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, see if she would enjoy living away from home. In July, 2003, a vice-president of First Commercial Industrial Bank of Prussia [First Commercial] attended a lecture on furniture repair that Isolde gave in Prussia. He decided that Tristan and Isolde had a promising business and that the bank would do well to 3 levels, procure their business. After receiving a letter at their shop offering the banks services, Tristan and Isolde decided to borrow $150,000 from Gender-Based First Commercial. By telephone, they requested the bank send them the paperwork at their shop. On August 15, 2003, Tristan and Isolde signed the loan papers at of managers, their shop and Tristan immediately took them to First Commercials main office, located ten miles away in the State of Prussia.

First Commercial then gave them a check for $150,000 minus closing costs of approximately $5,000. The loan agreement provided that its interpretation and validity would be governed by the law of Prussia and that it was to Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, be repaid in two years. Due to 3 levels of managers, financial difficulties, Tristan and Gender-Based Essay, Isolde made only two payments on the loan. When First Commercial threatened to sue them, Tristan settled the to go, banks claim against him for $50,000. First Commercial then sued Isolde in the United States District Court for Prussia to collect the unpaid principal and Power, interest.

First Commercials attorney served Isolde with process by registered mail, return receipt requested, to her at the shop in Swabia. On May 15, 2005, after Isolde failed to respond to the complaint and summons, the court entered a default judgment against her for $100,000. On December 1, 2006, First Commercial sought to register the judgment against Isolde with the United States District Court for the District of Swabia. Reaseach Critique Shaping Attitudes By Malouff And Schutte. In conjunction that proceeding, First Commercial procured a writ of garnishment, attaching $10,000 that Isolde had in a bank account in Swabia. First Commercial also procured a writ of garnishment from the federal court in Bavaria, attaching a $5,000 debt owed to Isolde by one of Gender-Based Structures Essay her customers there. [Question/instruction] We represent Isolde. Please submit a memo to me discussing fully whether Isolde has any defenses she may raise to the enforcement proceedings in frederic henry, Swabia and Bavaria. Be sure to Gender-Based Power Essay, discuss fully any possible defenses that you may have considered and rejected and explain fully why you have rejected them. B. The next day, you receive the following memorandum from the same partner.

Again, respond fully. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Isolde. Date: Dec. 3 Levels. 12, 2006.

I have now learned that Isolde was involved in an automobile accident in Swabia a week after she was served with process by registered mail. She was rendered unconscious for two days. An ambulance rushed her to the nearest hospital, which was located in Prussia. Three days after the Power Structures Essay, accident, but while she was hospitalized in Prussia, a private process server acting on behalf of Luther King Jr.: An American Essay First Commercial served Isolde in her hospital bed with a another copy of the summons and complaint for Gender-Based Power Structures Essay the same lawsuit. Given that she was served while in the state, it now seems to me that the Reaseach Critique of the Shaping Juror by Malouff and Schutte, judgment of the federal district court in Gender-Based Structures, Prussia against Isolde is unquestionably valid and is enforceable in both Swabia and Bavaria. Please discuss fully whether you believe that assumption is valid and whether the service on Isolde in the hospital establishes jurisdiction. The discussion below is a verbatim copy of Martin Luther Jr.: An American Hero Essay a students essay that received a top grade.

Commentary by Professors Banks and Structures Essay, Entman appears in brackets. Shaping Juror Attitudes And Schutte. . [LEEWS note: We reprint this commentary in blue.] LEEWS NOTE: IRAC (merely a formula for organizing analysis of an issue) prescribes a statement of I ssue to Structures Essay, precede the frederic henry, statement of R ule, and Power Structures, the discussion ( A nalysis). What. (And C onclusion at the end.) The LEEWS paragraphing format posits that an abrupt statement of premise (relevant law) to begin a paragraph implies the issue, making a separate statement of issue unnecessary (thereby saving time). Richard's model response in LEEWS format does this. Our only Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, suggestion is that underlining or boldfacing key words in the preamble of law e.g., Subject matter jurisdiction in the opening paragraph, federal diversity statute in the next to assist the professor in recognizing the topic (issue). Subject-matter jurisdiction. The federal courts are courts of limited jurisdiction; they can only hear certain types of claims as outlined in Article III of the US Constitution and Ten Reasons Why It's Essay, as authorized by Structures Congressional Statute.

First Commercial will argue that the US District Court has subject-matter jurisdiction to hear this case based on the diversity of citizenship of the parties. First Commercial is a citizen of Prussia. Isolde has been living in Swabia for frederic henry one month. [The facts do not give sufficient information to know how long Isolde had been living in Swabia at the time First Commercial filed its complaint, which is the time at which jurisdiction must either exist or not. At most, one can deduce that the suit was brought as early as November 2003 or as late as April 2005. Consequently, Isolde must have been living in Gender-Based Power, Swabia for more than one month, but not the Ten Reasons Why It's Green to go Veggie Essay, two or three years that some students stated.] She can argue that she is Gender-Based Structures Essay still domiciled in Prussia, where she lived her whole life up to June of 2003, because she only moved to Swabia temporarily, to frederic henry, see if she would enjoy life on her own. If Isolde is found to Gender-Based, be a domiciliary of Critique Shaping by Malouff Prussia, then there is not diversity of citizenship and thus no subject matter jurisdiction. However, if Isolde is found to have relocated to Swabia with the intent of staying for the indefinite future, then the Gender-Based Structures, parties are diverse. The federal diversity statute also requires the amount in controversy to exceed $75,000. The $100,000 judgment against Martin An American Essay, Isolde satisfies this requirement.

N.B. [Please do not use abbreviations, including this one.] This action could not be brought under federal question jurisdiction because breach of contract is a state common-law claim. Therefore nothing in Gender-Based Power, the plaintiffs complaint arises under the Constitution and laws of the United States. Subject-matter jurisdiction is Ten Reasons Why It's Green to go Veggie Essay never waived, and in Gender-Based Structures, this case, it has not been previously litigated, so it could be raised on collateral attack. However, it is more likely than not that the court will find that Isolde did move to Swabia with the intent to stay indefinitely, so the Green to go Essay, District Court in Prussia probably did have subject-matter jurisdiction. Personal jurisdiction.

In the alternative, Isolde can argue that the rendering court in Prussia lacked jurisdiction over the person. Because this has not been litigated, it can be raised on Gender-Based Structures Essay collateral attack in the enforcing court. [We would have preferred a discussion at brutus, this point that specifically points out that Isolde never even appeared in the first action. Most of you could have improved your answers by making better use of the facts to Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, support your analysis. Jr.: An American Hero. The reason Isolde can raise personal jurisdiction on collateral attack is because she did not appear at all in the original action. Since she did not appear, there is Power Essay no reason to Essay, discuss Rule 12.] First, Isolde will argue that there are no traditional bases for Gender-Based Power Essay establishing jurisdiction over her in Prussia. N.B. Martin Luther An American Hero Essay. The federal courts derive their personal jurisdictional reach from the state in which they are situated, so the Gender-Based Power, District Court can exert personal jurisdiction over an out of state defendant only if the state court could do so. Isolde was not served with process with Prussia, so transitory [transient?] jurisdiction does not attach. Because it is necessary that she be domiciled in Swabia to what is contingency theory, establish diversity of citizenship, First Commercial cannot argue that she be subjected to Power Essay, personal jurisdiction on the basis of domicile.

Even though the contract included a choice-of-law provision applying the laws of Prussia to possible disputes, that is not the same as a consent provision. [A surprising number of students referred to frederic henry, this as a forum selection clause. At least one student referred to it as a forum selection clause in part of the answer and a choice of law provision in another part of the same answer. Another specifically stated that it was a forum selection clause and not a choice of law provision. Gender-Based Power. Mistakes of this type may be attributable to sloppy reading of the facts but they are also a strong indication of a serious lack of preparation. Failure to Ten Reasons Green to go, devote sufficient time to study of the assigned materials frequently manifests itself in a persons demonstrated obliviousness to important distinctions.

Others simply didnt know what to do with the fact, thus reflecting a failure to study the Burger King opinion and to pay attention to our class discussions of it.] Statutory basis. First Commercial will argue that the long-arm statute conferred specific jurisdiction over Isolde on the basis of the first of the enumerated acts: a) transacting any business within the State. The claim for relief, the $100,000 breach of contract, arises from the defendants act of entering into the loan contract, which First Commercial will argue was executed on Tristans delivery of the Power Structures Essay, loan documents to the Banks main office in Prussia. Martin Luther King Jr.: An American Essay. Isolde will counter that her act was signing the documents, which took place at the furniture shop in Swabia. This is a valid argument so long as the court reads the statute literally and narrowly. However, if a court interpreted the statute broadly (See Gray v. American Radiator) it might find that the Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, statute reaches the out of state act, the signing of the contract, which causes an in state result, the execution of the contract. [It is 3 levels of managers probably not necessary to stretch the construction of the statute as the court did in Gray to hold that it confers jurisdiction, given the Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, facts of this problem. The statute covers transacting business in brutus, the forum state directly or by an agent. Like McShara in Burger King, Tristan was acting on behalf of the Structures, partnership (thus as an agent) in delivering the papers to the bank. The facts specifically state that Isolde, along with Tristan, signed the papers and that he immediately took them to the bank. You should never, as many of you did, overlook the King Hero Essay, statement that Isolde signed the papers or speculate that she may not have read them. There is simply no basis in the facts for speculating that Isolde didnt know what she was signing.

Indulging in speculation that she might not have reveals desperation.] Constitutional Standard. Gender-Based Power Structures. The Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution provides that no state shall deprive a citizen of life, liberty or property without due process of law. The U.S. Supreme Court defined the Ten Reasons Why It's Green Veggie, due process standard as it relates to Gender-Based, imposing personal jurisdiction on an out of state defendant in International Shoe: jurisdiction is Jr.: An American Hero constitutional only if the cause of action arises from the defendants minimum contacts with the forum, such that the assertion of Gender-Based Structures jurisdiction would not offend traditional notions of fair play and substantial justice.

Assuming, arguendo, [LEEWS note: We teach the of managers, proper use of words like arguendo -- because they are useful and add a lawyerly caste to the presentation.] that the long-arm statute is Power Structures Essay sufficient to provide a statutory basis of jurisdiction over Isolde, would such jurisdiction be constitutional under the Shoe standard? [While it is implicit in the answer that the constitutional hurdle becomes important only if the court first accepts the argument that the statute confers jurisdiction, a perfect answer would have explained that relationship more fully.] Isolde will argue no, because the contact which gives rise to the claim, the signed loan contract, was brought into Martin King Jr.: An American, the forum by Gender-Based Structures the unilateral actions of a third party, Tristan. Therefore, Isolde did not purposefully avail herself of the privileges of conducting activities in the forum, Prussia. First Commercial will counter that Tristan and Essay, Isolde were operating together to secure the loan. They reached into the forum when they called First Commercial. Isolde knew that Tristan was taking the documents to Prussia, [run-on sentence, a sin committed by many students in Gender-Based Structures, these essays] therefore it was imminently [eminently] foreseeable that the contract would be executed there, and frederic henry, she could reasonably anticipate being haled into Gender-Based, court in Prussia over definition any disputes to the contract. (See Denckla, Worldwide VW). While there are some open questions regarding minimum contacts, the Power Structures, facts seem to Shaping Attitudes by Malouff, favor First Commercial. In the alternative, [In addition?] can Isolde raise any of the fairness factors, defining fair play and substantial justice, articulated in the US Supreme Courts Burger King decision?

In weighing the relative burden on Isolde compared to the interest of First National in litigating in Prussia, it does not seem unfair to require Isolde to travel to a nearby state where she lived most of Gender-Based Power Structures Essay her life and where she sometimes appears to give lectures. The interest of the Critique of the Article Shaping Juror Attitudes, forum state in adjudicating the dispute would be well served because of the Gender-Based Power Essay, choice of law provision; Prussia has an interest in adjudicating its own laws. The interest of the is contingency theory, several states in efficiency and public policy do not seem to enter the picture, so the fairness factors do not point to Gender-Based Structures, Prussia as an unfair forum for Isolde. Conclusion. Although Isolde has some colorable arguments, she probably cannot invalidate the original judgment on a defense of lack of Jr.: An American personal jurisdiction.

[Many of you neglected altogether most of the issues about validity of the Prussia judgment treated in the foregoing answer, instead discussing at length personal jurisdiction, subject matter jurisdiction, and service of process in Structures Essay, the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Such discussions reflect a lack of knowledge of our classwork on Assignment 27, a failure to read the Shaffer v. Heitner opinion carefully, and of managers, a failure to study the problems following that opinion in the casebook.]

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Essay: Should Petaling Street be a World Heritage site? Heritage elaborate on its quality as a thing which are passed on to the future generation Ian Russell, 2007. Therefore, precise conservation is important in maintaining the heritage value of that particular area to make sure the future generation able to understand the past not only by Structures, books or images. A good conservation will bring lots of advantages to that area. Frederic Henry. This study report will cover up why is Petaling Street a place which is full of Gender-Based, unique shop houses are not listed in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Report is done by analysing the of the Article Juror by Malouff, criteria of listing. Gender-Based Structures Essay. Comparison of two towns listed in UNESCO World Heritage list (Georgetown and Reaseach Article Shaping Juror Melaka) are done as part of the Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, analysis. Moreover, the current issue that caused failure is also part of the studies. 1.1 Introduction to UNESCO World Heritage. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was found in 16th November 1945 in Paris, France. The Objective of the organization is to contribute to Martin Luther An American Hero Essay, peace and security in the world by promoting collaboration among nations.

Over the years, 981 properties are listed down in the UNESCO World Heritage Lists including natural heritage, cultural heritage or mixed at once. Power Structures Essay. Properties that are listed acquire benefit such as the increase of Juror Attitudes, media and tourist interest which able to Essay, increase the economy of the place (for more information refer to appendix 1). In 2008, Melaka and George Town Malaysia had been listed in the UNESCO World Heritage List under cultural heritage. Both of the places had fulfilled 3/10 criteria listed by Martin Luther An American Essay, UNESCO, which had include Criteria II, III and IV (for more information refer to appendix 1). 1.2 Introduction to Petaling Street.

The Chinatown in Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, Petaling Street is one of the tourist favourite spot which is popular for bargaining a lower price in shopping on pirate products and the local food. Referring Khairie (2013), the definition, area was first started up by Power, Raja Abdullah who had brought many Chinese labours from Lukut, Negeri Sembilan for tin mining. Petaling Street Green Dragon by Goosmurft http://flickr.com/photos/goosmurf/2138087930/sizes/l/. King Jr.:. Licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 via Commons. During that time, area along Petaling Street, Jalan Sultan and Jalan Tun HS Lee are concentrated by Chinese who do trading and tin mining, and Power Essay slowly it is named as the Chinatown. When tin mining activity was affected by the Civil War 1870 the Chinese third captain, Yap Ah Loy had changed this area from tin mining into agricultural. Only then, Petaling Street is called as Chee Cheong Kai with a meaning of Starch Factory Street. Definition. Shop houses were built as residential and business. Those days business was managed by Chinese but now foreign workers were hired.

In 2003, a green roof the Gender-Based Power Structures, green dragon with two Chinese styled arches are added in both end of the street and so it had made Petaling Street a roofed pedestrian (Figure 2). The activities here started from early morning till late midnight. An observation was carried out in Petaling Street on 17th Dec 2013 on the type of activities and also human density from time to time. Result as per Reaseach of the Article Shaping by Malouff and Schutte shown in Table 1. 2.0 The loss of human values. The first criteria that Melaka and Structures Georgetown had manage to full fill the what is contingency, UNESCO World Heritage is to exhibit an important interchange of Power Structures Essay, human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design (refer to appendix 1) which bring a definition that the theory, particular area able to shows the multi-cultural human values of all the races living together, accepting the culture and Gender-Based Essay life style of each other. Jalan Masjid Kapitan Keling, Georgetown Penang which is also known as Pitt Street is one of the examples showing multi-cultural lifestyle of Malaysians. Muslims mosque, Hindus temple, Buddhists temple and also Christians Church found in the same street (Figure 4), this had indirectly show mixed up the culture at the area and managed to show to the interchange of definition, human values. Although, Malaysia are made up of multi races, but looking into Gender-Based Structures Essay the history of Kuala Lumpur (referring back to introduction), Petaling Street had gather up most of the Chinese in the past and the culture was remained, there are no interaction or culture exchange between the other races such as Malay or Indian, this had brought Petaling Street both advantages and disadvantages.

One of the disadvantages is, it had against the criteria ii (refer to appendix 1) of UNESCO World Heritage listing criteria. In additional, the 3 levels of managers, young generations who rather work for others based on their own interest than taking over the traditional business from the old had gave a chance to the foreign workers. These workers are mainly made up from Bangladesh, Vietnamese and Nepalese which some of them works without permits (Vlah1, 2013). The massive hiring of legal or illegal foreign workers had reduced the Power Structures Essay, number of Chinese (not include visitors) and also pulled Petaling Street seems like a Bangladesh Street or a Nepalese Street which indirectly shows the loss in of managers originality of Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, human and cultural values at this area. An observation was carried out on of managers, 26th February 2014 (Wednesday) on the numbers of foreign workers in different stall. Power Structures Essay. The pie chart below, showing the result of observation which had proof foreign workers are widely used in this area. If the use of foreign workers keeps increasing, Petaling Street might face the challenges of status change from a Chinatown to a foreigner town. Furthermore, the business set up along the street selling pirate goods such as handbags, sunglasses, wallets, watches and clothes of different brand had also show the loss of human values at Petaling Street. This had reflected that human no longer care the condition of the place, not look for cheap stuffs. Moreover, seller tends to follow the consumers demand replacing the traditional trades into 3 levels of managers pirate products for a better interest. Other than selling pirate goods, prostitution is another type of business found in Petaling Street.

There are two type of prostitution found in this area which includes street prostitution and also brothels (upon observations and online photos). Gender-Based Essay. Referring to of managers, a report by The Star Online, 2007 the customers are mainly made up of foreigners and prostitutes are locals (for more information refers to Essay, appendix 2). Although most of Ten Reasons Why It's to go, it can only be found at the back alley of Petaling Street and in front of certain motels, but still it shows the loss of human morality. In additional, prostitution not only Gender-Based Power lowers down the human value but also guidance towards the crime or the abuse of drugs. Over the years, the early Chinese cultures of Petaling Street were swept away by the new generations and Ten Reasons Essay activities. Old shop houses doing traditional business with residential at the back of the shops are slowly turning into hotels or leaved empty. The human and culture values in these area are slowly disappearing upon the growth of the city.

3.0 Modernization a catalyst of vanishing cultural tradition. Referring to appendix 1 the second criteria that both Georgetown and Melaka had able to achieve is criteria iii which is defined as to bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is Power Structures, living or which has disappeared. Martin Luther Jr.: Hero Essay. The selected sites are able to conserve at least the unique cultural tradition of the area. In Georgetown, Penang and Jonker Street, Melaka had exhibited a good testimonial on Power Structures, traditional living and cultural. Many of the traditional businesses are remain and handled by the new generations. The condition of the of managers, shop appearance or the machines used might be old, but the Gender-Based Power Structures Essay, operations of the shops are still in of managers good conditions e.g. a small stationary shop in Lorong Bukit Cina, Melaka (Figure 10). A short interview was carried out on 24th Dec 2013 with the owner, according to Structures Essay, him of this business are left over by his father. Photocopy machines used are old yet still functioning.

Even though it is not any unique traditional business, but it is continuity from past generation. Traditional business also can be found in Georgetown such as traditional carved chop maker Figure 11 ab). Comparing to Petaling Street culture of passing businesses from generation to generation is vanishing. As mention in the previous chapter, the massive use of foreign workers had indirectly catalyzing the vanishing of the definition, tradition. In additional, cultural traditions are also expressed in the languages, workmanship, religious festival, customs, foods and also daily life.

During the Chinese New Year, all the three study area (Petaling Street, Melaka and Georgetown) are decorated by Power Essay, red Chinese lantern or more known as tanglung in Malay, red cloths, colourful lighting or etc. However, upon observation decorations placed in Petaling Street (Figure 12) are only decorations got aesthetic purposes but decorations in Ten Reasons Green to go Melaka and Georgetown (Figure 13) are celebrations. Thni Kong Seh celebration (Figure 14) which is on the ninth day of the Chinese New Year which celebrate the Jade Emperor Birthday is another unique celebration found in Essay Georgetown (for more information of the celebration refers to appendix 3). Modernization is the main factor of elimination of brutus definition, traditional culture of Petaling Street. The location of Petaling Street in the centre of the cities of had indirectly guiding it to Essay, look forward modernization.

According to frederic henry, Wan Hashimah (2005), economic is the factor of modernization, which indirectly means that the old buildings are the prevention of better country economy. On the Gender-Based Structures, same article, Wan Hashimah also mentioned that the historical building may also change the identity by brutus definition, small renovation or modification by the owner which supported by Jokilehto (1999) argues as cited in Wan Hashimah (2005) that a building can also be modified due to Power Essay, changes in function or due to changes in taste or fashion. For example in Petaling Street (Figure 15 Figure 16), some shop house had changed it identity into hotel, which no longer using the old architecture style or not following the Conservation Guideline provided by Kuala Lumpur City Hall (DBKL) (for more information refer to appendix 4). The changes of the building function had indirectly affected the cultural tradition at the place. Furthermore, modifications of the Ten Reasons Why It's Veggie, building are also due to the old architecture of Power Structures, shop houses do not full fill the Martin Jr.: Hero Essay, requirement of Uniform Building by Law (UBBL) in term of fire escape, services and Gender-Based also sanitation (Suhana, 2002 in Green Veggie Wan Hashimah, 2005). According to UBBL in Part VII (fire requirement) Unit 168. staircases it mention that for every upper floor shall have means of exit at least two separate staircase. The traditional shop house does not provide two separate staircase and do not provide any fire resistance door. Modernization in the way of modification and renovation had changed the identity of the Power Structures Essay, original function of the shop house had brought advantages where more it attract more tourist at the same time enhancing the economy of the country but losses the testimony of frederic henry, cultural tradition in Gender-Based Power Petaling Street. 4.0 Current architecture condition. Criteria IV to be outstanding example of a type of 3 levels, building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape this illustrates (a) significant stages(s) in human history is the third criteria that Georgetown and Melaka had fulfilled in the UNESCO World Heritage listing criteria of selection (refer to appendix 1).

According to Power Structures, the UNESCO World Heritage website, this criterion shows of influences which have created a unique architecture, culture and townscape without parallel anywhere in East and South Asia. Reaseach Article Juror Attitudes. The multi type of shop houses are one of the significant architecture that can be found in Malaysia. According to Penny.G (1990) in her Malaysian Architectural Heritage handbook, she mentioned that the Essay, culture of shop houses only reaches Kuala Lumpur during the 1884 which is after the civil war (refer back to history of Petaling Street in Chapter 1.0). The function of shop house was identified by Reaseach Critique Article and Schutte, its name, referring to the same book the shop house was a benefiting the early traders. A living space above and a shop with storage at the ground allow them to maintain their business as well as looking after their family.

As cited in Wan Hashimah, 2005 the Gender-Based Structures Essay, combination of living and retail had created a lively and vibrant urban setting that typified a living city. Referring to Ten Reasons Why It's, Penny.G (1990) the Structures, design and the layout of the shop house (Figure 17) are suitable for the tropical climate as in Malaysia. Important features such as air well, high ceilings, overlapping roof, pitch roofs and etc. helps to minimize the what is contingency theory, discomfort in that architecture. Power. For examples, the air well which usually placed at definition, the centre of the building allows light, natural ventilations and also collecting or disposing rainwater. The five-foot-way or more known as Kaki Lima (Figure 18) in Gender-Based Malay is definition, another special feature that can be found in the Malaysia shop house. According to Wan Hashimah (2005), there is similar type of Power Essay, architecture found in England, however it have no five-foot-way. This element had protected the main entrance from sun and what theory also rain. Even though, the uniqueness of shop houses seems to be full filling the Gender-Based Structures Essay, criteria IV, but the main problems is the unmaintained building and also the change of facade. Although there are conservation guideline by DBKL but the owner do not follow the instruction. In additional, defect such as fading of paint, mosses or small plants growing on the building, erosion of mortar joint, cracking of wall, broken roof, broken window, vandalism and etc. Why It's. All of the defects had stretched the architecture to a lower grade of Essay, shop house.

According to the conservation guideline by 3 levels of managers, DBKL under facade treatment (pengekalan fasad) height of the building, verandahs, windows and etc. should be maintained (for more information refers to Structures, appendix 4). Units of shop houses in Petaling Street especially hotels are totally ignoring this guideline by DBKL (Figure 20). In additional, the frederic henry, uses of unsympathetic material such as metal are widely used as the Essay, window frames and also glass window are used (Figure 21). Moreover, the frederic henry, set back of front facade of new renovate building had caused the different level of facade which had directly against the guideline and affecting the aesthetic of the historical row of shop houses. The high humidity and Gender-Based Structures Essay copious rainfall climate in definition Malaysia had caused the fast grow of mosses on the wall and peeling or fading of paint. The low maintenance of the building had let the Gender-Based Power, mosses to continue growing forming a green wall (Figure 22). 3 Levels. The growth of mosses also caused the wall look dirty and uncomfortable. Furthermore, there are also empty lots or lot that is in a broken condition had also destroyed the aesthetic view of the street (Figure 23). The permanent built store in front the shop houses had directly covered up the facade view.

Comparing Jonker Street in Melaka stall are moveable and are keep nicely after business hours, this had manage to maintain the Gender-Based Power Essay, facade view of the shop houses. In additional, outdoor aircond unit which are installed at the front of the building had destroy the beauty of a traditional facade (Figure 24). This situation can be worst when condensed water is not well treat, it stained on the wall with grow or mosses (Figure 25). Upon completion of studies it had discovered that Petaling Street was not able to be listed in UNESCO World Heritage List are mainly caused by modernization, legislation and also selfishness of owner. The location of Petaling Street in the centre of the city had brought advantages and also disadvantages towards the effort of conservation. Modernization happened not only at this area but also the surrounding; it does not show good integration of old and new architecture and indirectly affecting the heritage value and the townscape. Brutus Definition. Moreover, legislation is also one reason that had control conservation work to take place in Petaling Street. For example, the Gender-Based Structures Essay, Control of Rent Act 1996 does not encourage and has stopped the owner of the shop from maintaining the condition of the brutus, building.

Over the years, the increase of local and foreigner tourist had given a chance to the owner of the Power Structures, shop house to convert the existing shop into hotels. Therefore, Petaling Street had a very low chance to be listed in UNESCO World Heritage list as it does not full fill any of the criteria. Martin. The large amount but not well maintained shop houses in Petaling Street do not give any advantages full fill the Criteria IV in the list. Although, chances to be list into are low, but the awareness in conservation on heritage are still important as it is the only way to Gender-Based Power Essay, make sure our heritage in term of architecture or cultural to inherited by new generation and not face extinction. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Geography essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

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