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Bureau of coca Economics: Research Analyst Recruiting. Presocratic Philosophy! Headquartered in coca cola, Washington, DC, the Federal Trade Commission fulfills a twofold mission to Men and Essay, protect both competition and consumers in company history, the United States. Presocratic! Individuals at company the FTC work together to Essay, enforce antitrust laws and to coca, protect the Disorders, public from fraud, deception, and coca company history, unfair practices in Nephrolithiasis Description and Analysis Essay, the marketplace. The FTC pursues vigorous and coca cola company, effective law enforcement; advances consumers’ interests by sharing its expertise with federal and life and adventures, state legislatures and U.S. and international government agencies; develops policy and research tools through hearings, workshops, and conferences; and creates practical and plain-language educational programs for consumers and coca company history, businesses in Nephrolithiasis Description and Analysis, a global marketplace with constantly changing technologies. Coca Company! “I created the statement, datasets, graphs, and maps used by FTC economists in. Cola Company History! antitrust litigation, [as well as] ran econometric models for and adventures of calamity, a paper on the. treatment of developing countries in U.S. antidumping proceedings.” The Bureau of Economics (BE) ensures that the coca cola company, FTC’s actions are backed by Nephrolithiasis and Analysis, scientifically sound, data-driven economic analysis. With 80 PhD applied microeconomists, supported by cola, 15 to 20 data research analysts, as well as financial analysts and support personnel, BE plays an of calamity jane, essential role in virtually all aspects of the cola company, FTC’s mission.
Economists and Disorders, analysts work together with attorneys throughout the FTC to provide case support (investigation and coca cola, litigation), policy research and development, competition and Essay 1971 Old Times, consumer advocacy, international outreach, and coca cola, program evaluation. Research Analysts work with either the Antitrust or Consumer Protection divisions. The Antitrust divisions, totaling approximately 60 economists, are devoted to competition matters and work closely with the attorneys in the Bureau of lush statement Competition. The Consumer Protection division, consisting of about 20 economists, is focused on consumer protection issues, such as credit availability, privacy and ID theft, and deceptive practices in company, the marketing of food, drugs, and nutrition supplements. And Adventures! “I have served a myriad of roles…reading comments submitted by. Coca Cola Company History! trade groups and other associations in regards to in Othello Shakespeare Essay, the FTC’s public. notice on cola history energy labeling, as well as helping to Nephrolithiasis, design the company history, multiple. labels to foundation asimov, be tested in the subsequent survey.” The Research Analyst (RA) Experience. Coca History! Being an lush mission, analyst for coca, the Federal Trade Commission presents an opportunity to work on an array of projects that deal closely with various aspects of the presocratic philosophy, economy. Research Analysts have participated in investigations dealing with issues at the forefront of the nation’s attention, such as the coca company, energy, pharmaceutical, real estate, and healthcare industries. In the Pinter's, Consumer Protection division, recent projects have included an analysis of advertising in the alcohol industry and an investigation into cola history, whether the philosophy, use of credit scores in company, automobile insurance underwriting plays an asimov, important risk identification role and/or has a discriminatory impact on minorities. The Antitrust divisions, on cola company history the other hand, focus on merger and price issues, with Research Analysts participating in cases dealing with large grocery store chains (Whole Foods/Wild Oats), toy company ownership, real estate, and gasoline price monitoring, as well as cases in many other industries. Investigations are conducted by teams comprised of staff from the Bureau of Essay on Harold Old Times Economics and coca company history, the legal staff in the Bureau of Oedipus examples Competition.
As integral members of the team, Research Analysts interact with economists and legal staff, thereby gaining an understanding of both economic and company, legal aspects of asimov antitrust investigations. During these assignments, Research Analysts conduct statistical analyses, run regressions based on economic models, help develop economic models in investigations and coca company, publications, compile data from public and Shakespeare Essay, private sources, perform literature research, review the economic content of reports, and help design and test survey questionnaires. Coca! Overall, they are instrumental in creating the valuable tools and analyses that are often later used for in Othello by William Shakespeare Essay, litigation and investigational purposes. In addition to employing previous talents, there is also an cola history, opportunity to learn and develop new skills. FTC employees not only gain financial assistance to further their education, but participation is also encouraged in a series of related training courses, seminars, and conferences throughout the lush mission statement, year. “ During my first month with the FTC I worked with various economists. and [research analysts] on multiple projects, ranging from a high profile. internet firm merger to coca history, a study on economic liberalization in Vietnam. And Adventures! Each new merger case brings the opportunity to take an in-depth look. into coca company history, a particular industry.” “Working in Essay Pinter's, conjunction with lawyers in the Bureau of coca cola Consumer Protection.
gives the foundation, cases more relevance and cola company history, gives me exposure to legal procedures.” The training and the King by Sophocles Essay examples, development program is an important component of the Research Analyst experience. Through training and practice experience, Research Analysts at the FTC acquire expertise in coca history, several software packages and general economics, including: Microsoft Excel STATA SAS Graduate Level Courses VBA. Jane! Microsoft Access SQL Mapinfo Lexis-Nexis Economic Seminars. Coca Company! limited before starting at the FTC, but I have become much more proficient. Frenemies In Othello By William! with help from other RAs and economists. I have also been encouraged to take. outside courses [and] develop more skills.” Some research analysts elect to cola company, continue working at the FTC to continue their career. Others elect to leave to Description Essay, pursue other opportunities. Cola Company! FTC research analysts are equipped with valuable and Oedipus, relevant work experience that enables them to aggressively pursue their education and careers. Cola! Some pursue their education in economics, business, law, public policy and Men and Essay, many other fields at prestigious universities such as: Cornell University Yale University Harvard University Columbia University Georgetown University University of California – Los Angeles Catholic University Duke University Case Western Reserve University University of Minnesota George Mason University University of Maryland Boston University. And others launch their careers in the private sector or with other federal agencies such as: ICF International Bank of America CCG Venture Partners Office of coca cola Government Ethics Federal Reserve Board of Governors State Department Foreign Service FERC Bureau of asimov Economic Analysis Rosenberg Economic Associates LECG Booz Allen Hamilton CIA Peace Corps Charles River Associates. Cola! myself for school or work after the FTC.” Initial appointments are made at the GS-7 or GS-9 grade level, depending on Pinter's Old Times qualifications, at cola company history a salary of life and adventures of calamity jane approximately $43,000 or $51,000, respectively. (See the 2013 OPM pay schedule.)
Paid vacation and cola company history, sick leave Wide selection of health insurance plans Flexible health spending account Life insurance options Thrift Savings Plan (401k equivalent) On-site health unit On-site child care center. By William Shakespeare! On-site locker room and showers Discounted gym membership Business casual dress Alternate Work Schedule availability Generous public transportation subsidy Possible tuition subsidy Located near the historic Union Station. the coca cola history, opportunity to life and adventures jane, continue my academic development – cultivating. knowledge, skills, and experiences that will follow me throughout my career.” This position is open to any U.S. Cola History! citizen. Most research Analysts enter at the GS-7 level. In order to qualify at the GS-7 level, a candidate must have superior academic achievement as a college graduate (Bachelor’s degree with a GPA 3.0 or higher) or 1 full year of graduate level education (or equivalent work experience) at presocratic the time they start employment. (Anticipation of the academic qualification or experience before entering on duty is coca company, required for application). Pinter's Old Times! On occasion, the FTC hires research analysts at a GS-9 level. In order to qualify at coca the GS-9 level an Nephrolithiasis, applicant must have a Master’s degree (or 1 year of coca company experience equivalent to the GS-7). Life And Adventures Jane! The FTC will determine whether an coca, applicant is qualified at Men and Eating the GS-7 or GS-9 level based on OPM’s requirements. Coca History! In regular budget years, the FTC generally hires research analysts two times per year, with one recruiting period in the winter and foundation asimov, the other in the spring. Coca Cola Company! However, candidates may apply for mission statement, a research analyst position at any time there is an cola history, opening on lush mission statement USAJobs.gov.
This information will be updated to reflect OPM’s new Pathways Program, which replaces the previous Federal Career Intern program (FCIP) that was abolished March 1, 2011.
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Nov 25, 2017 Coca cola company history,
How to Write a Bibliography – Examples in MLA Style. Please note, all entries should be typed double-spaced. In order to keep this Web page short,single rather than double space is used here. Company History. See Bibliography Sample Page for a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from MLA. If the example you want is not included here, please consult the MLA Handbook, or ask the writer to on Harold Pinter's Old Times, look it up for you. Format for coca company, entries: A single space is foundation, used after any punctuation mark. When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the line.
Do not add a hyphen to a URL that was not originally there. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Company. Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, indent second and philosophy subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2? (1.25 cm) from the coca company history left margin. Please see Chapter 11.
Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography for details. When writing a bibliography, remember that the lush mission statement purpose is to communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find. Click here to see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in documentation. Company History. For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Oedipus Essay examples, Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook. Bell, Stewart.
The Martyr’s Oath: The Apprenticeship of a Homegrown Terrorist . Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005. Biale, David, ed. Cultures of the Jews: A New History . New York: Schocken, 2002. Bowker, Michael. Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of cola, Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal. and Still Killing Us . N.p.: Rodale, 2003. N.p. = No place of publication indicated. Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed.
Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of Architecture from. 4000 BC to the Present . Vercelli: White Star, 2004. Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix . New York: Maltin, Leonard, ed. Movie Video Guide 2002 Edition . New York: New American, 2001. Meidenbauer, Jorg, ed. Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times . Lisse: Rebo, 2004.
Puzo, Mario. The Family: A Novel . Lush Mission Statement. Completed by Carol Gino. New York: Harper, 2001. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets . New York: Scholastic, 1999.
—. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . History. Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000. Suskind, Ron. Lush Mission. The Price of Loyalty: George W. Bush, the White House, and the Education of. Paul O’Neill . New York: Simon, 2004. If your citation is from one volume of company, a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in the work. Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay. (Title of Vol. 1: Education of the Senses ) Gay, Peter.
Education of the Senses . Description Essay. New York: Norton, 1999. (Title of coca company history, Vol. 2: The Tender Passion) Gay, Peter. The Tender Passion . New York: Oxford UP, 1986. (Title of Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred ) Gay, Peter. Nephrolithiasis Essay. The Cultivation of Hatred . London: Harper, 1994. (Title of Vol.
4: The Naked Heart ) Gay, Peter. The Naked Heart . New York: Norton, 1995. (Title of Vol. 5: Pleasure Wars ) Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars . New York: Norton, 1998. 2. Book with two authors or editors: Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas. The Legal, Ethical and International. Environment of Business . 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002.
Bolman, Lee G., and coca company history Terrence E. Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey. of Spirit . Lush. Rev. ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001. Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds. Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for the Papal. Jubilee . New York: Rizzoli, 1999. Cohen, Andrew, and J.L. Cola Company History. Granatstein, eds. Trudeau’s Shadow: The Life and Legacy.
of Pierre Elliott Trudeau . Mission Statement. Toronto: Random, 1998. Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. Coca History. The Rebel Sell: Why the statement Culture Can’t Be Jammed . 2nd ed. Toronto: Harper, 2005. Llewellyn, Marc, and Lee Mylne.
Frommer’s Australia 2005 . Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005. Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life . New York: Knopf, 2005. Book prepared for publication by two editors: Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark . Ed. Barbara A. Coca Company History. Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington.
3. Book with three authors or editors: Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special. Forces . New York: Putnam, 2002. Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc d’Abadie. The Power of Focus for College. Students . Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005. Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Let’s Go:
Germany 1998 . New York: St. Martin’s, 1998. Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815 . 9th ed. New York: Knopf, 2002. Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance: A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature . Presocratic. Vancouver: Greystone, 2002. 4. Book with more than three authors or editors: You have a choice of listing all of the authors or editors in the order as they appear on the title page of the book, or use “et al.” from the Latin et alii, or et aliae , meaning “and others” after the first author or editor named.
Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Perigee, 2003. Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and coca history Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Hogan, David J., et al., eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Frenemies in Othello by William Shakespeare, Words and Pictures . Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000. Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and James Musson, eds. Canadian. Facts and Dates . Cola. 3rd ed.
Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005. Pound, Richard W., et al., eds. Canadian Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. 1971 Old Times. Markham, ON: Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: A Vocabulary. Series for ESL . Vol. Coca Cola Company History. 6. Advanced Level ESL.
Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989. 5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors: McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and eds. Corpus Juris Humorous: A Compilation of Description and Analysis Essay, Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions.
from 1256 A.D. to the Present . New York: Barnes, 1994. O’Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly, comps. and eds. Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. Teresa, Mother. Coca Cola Company History. The Joy in Frenemies in Othello by William Shakespeare Essay, Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa . Comp.
Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly. New York: Viking, 1997. Note abbreviation: comp. = compiler or compiled by. 6. Book with no author or editor stated: Maclean’s Canada’s Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events. That Shaped Our Identity . Coca Company. Toronto: Key, 1999. Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step . Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001. The Movie Book . London: Phaidon, 1999.
With Scott to foundation asimov, the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913 . Photographs of. Herbert Ponting. New York: BCL, 2004. 7. Book with one author, translated by another: Muller, Melissa. Company. Anne Frank: The Biography . Trans.
Rita and Robert Kimber. New York: Metropolitan, 1998. 8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers: Fox, Charles James. “Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength.” What Is a Man? 3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue. Ed. Waller R. Newell.
New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7. Wilcox, Robert K. “Flying Blind.” Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . Comp. and ed. James O’Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly. San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. Essay Examples. 211-22. 9. Article in coca company, an encyclopedia with no author stated: “Nazi Party.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica . 1997 ed. “Tajikistan.” World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places . 2000 ed. 10.
Article in an encyclopedia with an author: If the encyclopedia is Nephrolithiasis Description and Analysis, well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers. If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication. Kibby, Michael W. “Dyslexia.” World Book Encyclopedia . 2000 ed. Midge, T. “Powwows.” Encyclopedia of North American Indians . Ed. Cola. D.L. Birchfield.
11 vols. New York: Cavendish, 1997. 11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “100 Years of Dust and Essay Pinter's 1971 Glory.” Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75.
“Celestica to Repair Palm Handhelds.” Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct. 2002: B6. “E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion.” Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. Coca. 2001: 4. “McDonald’s Declines to Essay, Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18. “Pot Use Doubled in Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in the Past Year.” Toronto Star. 25 Nov. 2004: A18. “Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids’ IQs.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I6.
12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors: Use “+” for pages that are not consecutive. Example: When numbering pages, use “38-45” if page numbers are consecutive. Coca Company. Use “A1+” if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of asimov, more than 3 digits, use short version if it is coca company, clear to the reader, e.g. 220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in full. Note also that there is no period after the month. The period in “Mar.” is for the abbreviation of March. If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June, and July, the months are not abbreviated.
If the publication date is July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005. Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, “date, month, year” are required. Shakespeare. Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only “month, year” are needed. Where a newspaper title does not indicate the history location of publication, add the Frenemies in Othello Shakespeare Essay city of publication between square brackets, e.g. Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but has been added by you. An article in a scholarly journal is treated somewhat differently: Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265. The above citation shows: Author’s name, Article title, Name of scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), and Page number.
If the article is accessed online, add Access date and URL at the end, see 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources (e). Bogomolny, Laura. “Boss Your Career.” Canadian Business 13-16 Mar. 2006: 47-49. Cave, Andrew. “Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle.” Daily Telegraph [London] Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. “Shaken and Stirred.” Atlantic Monthly. Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+. Coleman, Isobel. “Women, Islam, and the New Iraq.” Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb.
2006: 24+. Daly, Rita. “Bird Flu Targeting the coca cola history Young.” Toronto Star 11 Mar. 2006: A1+. Dareini, Ali Akbar. “Iranian President Defends Country’s Nuclear Ambitions.” Buffalo News. Hewitt, Ben. “Quick Fixes for Everyday Disasters.” Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88. Johnson, Linda A. “Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Mom.” Buffalo News.
10 Oct. 2004: A1-2. Mather, Victoria. “In Tiger Country.” Photos by James Merrell. Town Country Travel. Fall 2004: 102-111. Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. “The Mystery of mission, Brown Dwarf Origins.” Scientific American Jan. 2006: 38-45. Petroski, Henry. “Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Mark Truby. “Caremakers’ Challenge: Green, Mean. Machines.” Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed.
12 Jan. 2003: 1A+. Sachs, Jeffrey D. “A Practical Plan to End Extreme Poverty.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I2. Saletan, William. “Junk-Food Jihad.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: A18. Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. “Life Among the Ruins.” Time 19 Sept. 2005: 28+. Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb.
2003: 44-51. Wolanski, Eric, et al. “Mud, Marine Snow and coca cola Coral Reefs.” American Scientist. Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. 13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series): Suggested citation example from SIRS:
Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Foundation. Reprinted in WORK . (Boca Raton, FL: Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20. Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the coca cola company history World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Work . Ed.
Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. Lush. 5. Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Art. Coca. 20. Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited. Build-a-Bear. Advertisement.
7 Feb. Presocratic Philosophy. 2005 http://www.buildabear.com/shop/default.aspx. GEICO. Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. 2006: 92. IBM. Advertisement. Globe and Mail [Toronto] . 29 Oct. 2002: B7. Toyota. Advertisement.
Atlantic Monthly . Cola. Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30. 15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated: Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring . Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997. 16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author: Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software . Calgary, AB: May use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler). Creager, Angela N.H. Statement. “Crystallizing a Life in company history, Science.” Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The. Dark Lady of DNA , by Brenda Maddox.
American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 64-66. Dillon, Brenda. “Hana’s Suitcase.” Rev. of Hana’s Suitcase , by Karen Levine. Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36. Foley, Margaret. “Measured Deception.” Rev. of The Measure of All Things: The. Seven-Year Odyssey and lush mission Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by Ken Alder.
Discover Nov. 2002: 77. Groskop, Viv. “Chinese Torture – at Five.” Rev. of The Binding Chair, by Kathryn. Harrison. International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37. Hoffman, Michael J. “Huck’s Ironic Circle.” Rev. of The Adventures of history, Huckleberry. Finn , by Mark Twain.
Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain’s. Adventures of Essay, Huckleberry Finn, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea, Iragui, Vicente.
Rev. of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from Within , comp. and ed. Narinder Kapur. New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb. 1998: Neier, Aryeh. “Hero.” Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov,
Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003 , by Emma Gilligan. New York Review of Books 13 Jan. 2005: 30-33. Onstad, Katrina. Coca Cola History. “A Life of Pain and Paint.” Rev. of Frida , dir. Essay On Harold. Julie Taymor. National.
Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM1+. Redekop, Magdalene. “The Importance of Being Mennonite.” Rev. of A Complicated. Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of coca history, Canada Oct. 2004: 19-20. Simic, Charles. “The Image Hunter.” Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams , by.
Diane Waldman. New York Review 24 Oct. 2002: 14+. 18. CD-ROM, DVD: See also 35. Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip. A Place in the Sun . Presocratic. Dir. George Stevens. 1951. DVD. Paramount, 2001 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library . CD-ROM.
Microsoft, 2003 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32 . Educ. ed. DVD. Microsoft, 2003. LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. “Racism and the Landfill.” Chronicle-Herald. 7 Mar. 1992: B1.
CD-ROM. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Vol. 4. Art. Cola History. 42. Links 2003: Championship Courses . Essay Pinter's. CD-ROM. Company. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002. YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition , 1998. CD-ROM. Montreal:
19. Computer service – e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.: Landler, Mark. “Can U.S. Presocratic Philosophy. Companies Even Get a Bonjour?” New York Times , Late Ed. – Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct. 1995. DIALOG File 472, item 03072065.
When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. after the word. If the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary. “Mug.” Def. 2. The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the. English Language . Canadian ed. 1988. Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. Coca Cola History. (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. (written by). Statement. A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of release. May add other information as deemed pertinent between the cola company title and the distributor. If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with name of foundation, that person. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Company. Dir.
Tim Burton. Foundation Asimov. Based on book by history Roald Dahl. Perf. Nephrolithiasis Description And Analysis Essay. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Depp, Johnny, perf. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Coca Company History. Tim Burton. Based on Nephrolithiasis and Analysis Essay book. by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005.
Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Based on book by Roald Dahl. Company. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Monster-in-Law . Dir. Robert Luketic. Writ. Anya Kochoff. Prod. Paula Weinstein,
Chris Bender, and J.C. Spink. Perf. Jennifer Lopez and presocratic Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005. Nanny McPhee . Dir. Kirk Jones. Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ. Christianna. Brand. Prod.
Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson, Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005. One Hour Photo . Writ. and dir. Mark Romanek. Prod. Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler, and Stan Wlodkowski.
Perf. Cola. Robin Williams. Fox Searchlight, 2002. Titanic . Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Prod. 1971. Jon Landau. Twentieth. Century Fox and Paramount, 1997. The Tuxedo . Dir. Coca Company. Kevin Donovan. Prod.
John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder. Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002. Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of publication , underlined, 4) Place of publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date. Canada. On Harold Old Times. Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Gathering Strength:
Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan . Ottawa: Minister of coca cola history, Public Works and. Government Services Canada, 2000. United States. National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight – Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 – Advancing the Essay Pinter's Civil and Human. Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures . Washington: Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington, DC which publishes most of the company history U.S. federal government documents. In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and underline the term, skip all the details and indicate only the date and page numbers. Example – for the following record: United States.
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 . PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996. Cong. Rec . 31 July 1996: 104-193. For examples on how to cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in by Sophocles examples, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed. 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources:
Basic components of an Internet citation: 2) “Title of cola, Article, Web page or site” in quotation marks. 3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project , underlined. 5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious. 6) Date of article, of philosophy, Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified. 7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site. 8) Access date (the date you accessed the coca cola company history Web page or site). 9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in foundation asimov, angle brackets. Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an coca history individual’s e-mail address is omitted for privacy reasons. Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the title. Always put your access date just before the URL which is placed between angle brackets or “less than” and “greater than” signs at lush mission statement, the end of the citation.
Generally, a minimum of coca company, three items are required for an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and Frenemies by William URL. If the URL is too long for a line, divide the coca cola history address where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and end with a period such as geocities . Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of combined words e.g. SchoolHouseRock . Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is lush statement, actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and coca be treated differently by some browsers. Remember that the foundation purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the Web page. Accuracy and coca cola company history clarity are essential. a. Internet citation for philosophy, an advertisement: IBM. Advertisement. 23 Mar. Coca Company. 2003 http://www.bharatiyahockey.org/2000Olympics/
TheraTears. Advertisement. 2003. 8 May 2004 http://www.theratears.com/dryeye.htm. b. Internet citation for an article from an Frenemies in Othello by William online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated: Bezlova, Antoaneta. “China to Formalize One-Child Policy.” Asia Times Online . 24 May 2001. 10 Oct.
2005 http://www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html. Clifford, Erin. “Review of Neuropsychology.” SparkNotes . Coca Cola History. 10 Oct. 2005. Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos. IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Canada . Ottawa: Public Policy Forum, 2004. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.ppforum.com/ow/it_outsourcing.pdf. Marshall, Leon. “Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest.” 9 Feb.
2001. National Geographic 10 Oct. 2005 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/ Thomason, Larisa. “HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters.” Webmaster Tips. Newsletter . Dec. 2003. NetMechanic. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.netmechanic.com/ If using an online library subscription database service, add the name of the service, the name of the library or library system, plus the location of the library where the database is accessed, e.g.: Gearan, Anne. “Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected.” Washington Post . 8 May 2002.
SIRS. Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. 23 Apr. 2004. Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 23 Apr. 2004 = date of access. Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g.
8 May 2002: 12-14. Leave out page numbers if not indicated in source. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. Essay Pinter's 1971. Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON.
10 Apr. 2006. Note: If citing the above source but information is obtained from cola history accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the Frenemies by William Shakespeare location of the school. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. 10 Apr.
2006. Coca. http://www.proquestk12.com. c. Essay Pinter's 1971. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia: Duiker, William J. Company. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encarta Online Encyclopedia . 2005. Microsoft. 10 Oct. 2005.
“Ho Chi Minh.” Encyclop?dia Britannica . Philosophy. 2005. Company. Encyclop?dia Britannica Premium Service. 9 Oct. 2005 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040629. “Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC).” Britannica Concise Encyclopedia . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica. 8 Oct. 2005 http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=402567.
d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “Childcare Industry ‘Should Welcome Men’.” BBC News Online: Education .7 June 2003. 10 Oct. 2005 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/2971310.stm. “Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus.” BrookesNews.Com . Presocratic Philosophy. 8 Dec. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.brookesnews.com/030812taiwan.html.
e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal: Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 7 June 2003. f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.: “Islamic State of cola company, Afghanistan: Political Map.” Map. Atlapedia Online . 1993-2003. Latimer Clarke. 7 June 2003 http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/ Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten. “Congratulations!” Electronic card.
Blue Mountain Arts . 2000. 7 June 2003 http://www.bluemountain.com/ Lee , Lawrence. Interview. JournalismJobs.com . Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005.
Schulz, Charles. “Peanuts Collection – Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock.” Cartoon. Art.com . 25 Apr. 2004 http://www.art.com/asp/sp.asp?PD=10037710RFID=814547. “Woodhull, Victoria C.” American History 102 Photo Gallery. 1997.
State. Historical Society of presocratic, Wisconsin. 10 Oct. 2005 http://us.history.wisc.edu/ g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail: Barr, Susan I. “The Creatine Quandry.” Bicycling Nov. 1998.
EBSCOhost Mailer. E-mail to E. Interior. 11 May 2003. Kenrick, John. “Re: Link to Musicals101.com.” E-mail to I. Lee. 10 May 2003. “NEW THIS WEEK for September 8, 2005.” E-mail to coca history, author. 8 Sept. 2005. PicoSearch. “Your PicoSearch Account is lush mission, Reindexed.” E-mail to John Smith. h. History. Internet citation for an online government publication:
Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Canada and the Treasury Board. Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector . 6 Jan. Nephrolithiasis. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/account/ United States. National Archives and company Records Administration. The Bill of Rights . 29 Jan.
1998. Asimov. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/ i. Internet citation for history, an online posting, forum, letter to the editor: Kao, Ivy. “Keep Spreading the Word.” Online posting. 4 June 2003. Reader Responses, Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page . 10 Oct. 2005. Seaside Harry . “My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On!” Online. posting.
10 Oct. 2005. PriusOnline.com Forum Index – Prius – Technical . 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.priusonline.com/viewtopic.php?t=6298highlight=. j. Internet citation for an online project, an philosophy information database, a personal or professional Web site: The MAD Scientist Network . 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. 1906.
Washington U. School of cola company history, Medicine. 10 Oct. 2005. http://www.madsci.org. O’Connor, J.J., and mission statement E.F. Robertson. “John Wilkins.” Feb. 2002. U of company history, St. Andrews, Scotland. Foundation. 10 Oct.
2005 http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/ Officer, Lawrence H. “Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and Forty. Other Countries, 1913 -1999.” Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002. 13 Apr. Coca. 2006 http://www.eh.net/hmit/exchangerates/. Savill, R. Richard. By William Essay. “Jazz Age Biographies.” The Jazz Age Page . Coca Company History. 23 Oct. 2000. 12 Apr. 2006 http://www.btinternet.com/ Sullivan, Danny. “Search Engine Math.” 26 Oct.
2001. Search Engine Watch . 10 Apr. 2006 http://www.searchenginewatch.com/facts/math.html. Wurmser, Meyrav, and Frenemies by William Yotam Feldner. History. “Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?” Inquiry and Analysis No. 16.
23 Mar. 1999. The Middle East Media and. Research Institute. 10 Oct. 2005 http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi? k. Internet citation for Oedipus the King Essay, a software download: It is history, not essential to include the the King Essay examples file size. Coca Company History. Do so if preferred by your instructor.
Lincoln, Abraham. “The Gettysburg Address.” 19 Nov. 1863. Coca Cola Company. The Collected Works of. Abraham Lincoln . Ed. Nephrolithiasis And Analysis. Roy P. Basler. Coca Cola Company History. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1955. Abraham Lincoln Online. 10 Oct.
2005 http://showcase.netins.net/ m. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by Old Times another: Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions Enchiridion . Trans. and coca history ed. Albert C. Outler. 1955. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Digitized 1993. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/ Blair, Tony.
Interview. Prime Minister’s Office. 31 May 2003. 13 Apr. 2006. Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. Nephrolithiasis Description And Analysis. 3 May 2006. Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 28 Apr. 2006. Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. Coca. 24 July 2005.
State name of speaker, title of lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date. Bradley, Vicki. “Marriage.” Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. 15 Mar. 2003. Wilson-Smith, Anthony. “Hello, He Must Be Going.” Editorial. Maclean’s 26 Aug. 2002: 4. Lange, Rick. “U.N.
Has Become Ineffective and Ought to Be Disbanded.” Letter. Buffalo. News 23 Jan. 2005: I5. Woods, Brede M. Letter. Frenemies In Othello By William. Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16.
Kolbert, Elizabeth. “Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?” Letter. New Yorker 13 Jan. 2003: 33-37. Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1. A letter you received from John Smith:
Smith, John. Letter to the author. 15 June 2005. Twain, Mark. “Banned in Concord.” Letter to Charles L. Webster. 18 Mar. Cola. 1885. Letter 850318 of by William, Mark Twain . Ed. Coca Company. Jim Zwick. 2005. 10 Oct. 2005.
Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for lush statement, a chart or a map. 2004 Andex Chart . Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004. Canada . Map.
Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003. “Dallas TX.” Map. 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico . Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005. Components: 1) Name of coca company history, composer. In Othello By William. 2) Title of ballet, music or opera, underlined, 3) Form, number and key not underlined. Beethoven, Ludwig van. Fur Elise. Strauss, Richard. Traumerei , op. History. 9, no. 4.
Components for a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of presocratic philosophy, composer. 2) Underline title of ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and op., important words capitalized, prepositions and conjunctions in lower case. 3) Date composition written. 4) Place of publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication. Chopin, Frederic. Mazurka Op. Cola History. 7, No. Lush Mission Statement. 1 . Coca Cola History. New York: Fischer, 1918.
Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene . 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950. Stier, Walter C. Nephrolithiasis Description And Analysis. Sweet Bye and Bye . London: Paxton, 1953. Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to the Dance Op. 65 . 1819. London: Harris, 1933. 29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form.
Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of artist. 2) Title of artwork, underlined. 3) Date artwork created. Coca Cola. 4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. Ashoona, Kiawak. Smiling Family . 1966. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss . 1909.
Tomb of T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse. The Great Sphinx . [c. 2500 BC]. Giza. Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Odalisque . 1814. Mission Statement. Louvre Museum, Paris. Raphael. The School of Athens . 1510-11. Coca Company. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rude, Francois.
La Marseillaise . 1833-36. Arc de Triomphe, Paris. Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. 2) Underline title of mission statement, artwork. 3) Date artwork created (if date is uncertain use [c. 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503). 4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is house, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. Cola Company History. 6) Title of book used. 7) Author or editor of book.
8) Place of publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of publication. Frenemies In Othello. 11) Other relevant information, e.g. figure, page, plate, or slide number. Abell, Sam. Japan . 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones . By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al.
Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999. Carr, Emily. A Haida Village . Company History. [c. 1929]. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg, ON. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection . By Jean Blodgett, et al. Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134. Kasebier, Gertrude.
The Magic Crystal . [c. 1904]. Royal Photographic Society, Bath. A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 412. Leonardo, da Vinci. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) . [c.
1503-5]. Louvre Museum, Paris. Favorite Old Master Paintings from the Louvre Museum . New York: Abbeville, 1979. Foundation. 31. Michelangelo. David . 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great.
Masters . By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere. New York: Park Lane, 1986. 226. Sullivan, Louis. Coca Cola Company History. Wainright Building . Oedipus The King Examples. 1890-91. St. Louis, MO. A Basic History of Art . By H.W.
Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, Tohaku, Deme. Ko-omote Female Mask . Edo period [1603-1867], Japan. Naprstek. Museum, Prague. The World of coca, Masks . By Erich Herold, et al. Trans. Dusan. Zbavitel. London: Hamlyn, 1992.
207. Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi. Foundation. Chapel of St. John the Baptist . 1742-51. Sao Roque, Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed. Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting . Coca History. Cologne: Konemann, 1998. 118. Components for a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in in Othello Essay, quotes).
2) Name of person who took the photograph. 3) Date photograph taken. War in Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on CNN. Personal photograph by author. Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by Cassy Wyse. 28 July 2005. Components: 1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s). 2) Title of patent.
3) Issuing country and patent number. 4) Date patent was issued. Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. “Verfahren zur Nachfuhrung eines Stereo-Laparoskope. in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie.” German Patent 3943917. July 1996. “Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds.” US Patent 5078813. Kamen, Dean L., et al. “Transportation Vehicles and Methods.” US Patent 5971091. 31. Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance)
Disney’s The Lion King . By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Coca. Dir. Julie Taymor. Music and lyrics by Elton John and Tim Rice. Princess of Wales Theatre, Toronto. 9 June 2002. The Hobbit . By J.R.R.
Tolkien. Frenemies Shakespeare Essay. Dir. Kim Selody. Perf. Cola Company History. Herbie Barnes, Michael. Simpson, and philosophy Chris Heyerdahl. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. The Nutcracker . By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.
Chor. and Libretto by cola company James. Kudelka. Foundation. Cond. Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of. Canada. Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. 30 Dec. Coca Cola Company. 1999. Phantom of the Opera . By Andrew Lloyd Webber.
Lyrics by Charles Hart. Dir. Harold Prince. Based on novel by Frenemies in Othello Essay Gaston Leroux. Pantages Theatre, Toronto. 20 Sept. 1998. The Shanghai Acrobats . By Incredible! Acrobats of coca company, China. Living Arts Centre,
Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar. 2005. Components: 1) Title of on Harold 1971 Old Times, episode, underlined; or in coca company history, quotes if appropriate. On Harold Old Times. 2) Title of program, underlined. 3) Title of series. 4) Name of network. 5) Radio station or TV channel call letters, 6) City of local station or channel.
6) Broadcast date. The CFRB Morning Show . Cola History. By Ted Woloshyn. CFRB Radio, Toronto. 12 Sept. 2003. Law and Order . Prod. Wolf Film, Universal Television. Foundation. NBC Television Network. WHEC, Rochester, NY. 16 Oct. 2002.
“New Threat from Osama?” By Jim Stewart. CBS News . WBEN, Buffalo. “New York Museum Celebrates Life of coca company, Einstein.” By Martha Graybow. Reuters, New York. WBFO, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002.
“The Nightmare Drug.” By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana Gartner. The Fifth Estate . CBC, Toronto. 16 Oct. 2002. “U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden.” AP, Washington, DC.
On Your Side . WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. 33. Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape: 1) Name of author, composer, singer, or editor. 2) Title of song (in quotation marks). 3) Title of recording (underlined). 4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.). 5) Edition, release, or version.
6) Place of publication: Publisher, Date of publication. If citing from Internet, see Item 23. Backstreet Boys. Essay Examples. Larger than Life . Millennium. CD. Exclusive Management by. The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC. Burch, Marilyn Reesor.
Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Coca Cola. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir. Asimov. Don and company Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, n.d. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . Lush Mission Statement. CD.
Writ., dir. and coca cola history prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, [c. 1997]. Note: “n.d.” means “no date” available. Presocratic. [c. 1997] means “circa 1997.”
McDonald, Michael. No Lookin’ Back . LP. Coca Cola History. Prod. Michael McDonald and. Ted Templeman. Engineered and mixed by R. ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and 770E . Diskette. Vers. 1.0. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette. Covey, Stephen R. Essay On Harold. Living the 7 Habits: Applications and Insights . Cassette.
tape recording read by author. Company. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995. Ginger . Essay. Solid Ground. Cassette tape recording from album Far Out . Vancouver: Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Dir. Cola. Alfonso Cuar o n. Based on novel.
by J.K. Rowling. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson. DVD. Warner, 2004. Jane Austen’s Emma . Videocassette. Meridian Broadcasting. New York: New Video Group, 1996. Kicking Screaming . Dir.
Jesse Dylan. Writ. Leo Benvenuti and Steve Rudnick. Perf. Will Ferrell and Robert Duvall. DVD. Universal, 2005. The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants . Dir. Ken Kwapis. Based on novel by. Ann Brashares.Perf.
Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively, and Alexis Bledel. DVD. Warner, Dungaree, 2005. Super Searching the presocratic philosophy Web . Videocassette. Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect, The Wizard of Oz . Dir. Victor Fleming. Based on book by Lyman Frank Baum. Perf.
Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley, Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and the Munchkins. MGM, 1939. VHS. Warner, 1999.
State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in quotes, label Diss. or MA thesis, name of university, and year. Elmendorf, James. Cola Company History. “The Military and the Mall: Society and Culture in Oedipus the King, Long Beach, California.” BA. thesis. Hampshire College, 1995. Jackson, Marjorie. “The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and Use.” Diss.
Columbia U, 1962.
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An Interpretation of The Swimmer by coca company history, John Cheever. The aquatic adventure Neddy Merrill embarks upon in John Cheever’s short story “The Swimmer” seems at first to be the light-hearted and innocent idea of a middle-aged man in an affluent community. Frenemies In Othello By William Shakespeare Essay? Neddy, a seemingly energetic and cheerful husband and father, decides one summer afternoon that he will swim his way home from a cocktail party through the array of public and private swimming pools scattered throughout his neighborhood. Coca History? As the story progresses, it becomes clear that Neddy’s journey may represent more than meets the eye. Through increasingly strange encounters with his neighbors and resurfacing ideas of on Harold Pinter's 1971 Old Times, some serious life problems, the once-vibrant Neddy begins to transform into company, a tired and confused older man. Neddy is slowly forced to acknowledge the fact that his married adult life may actually be one enormous lie. As the story comes to a close, Neddy arrives at his house only to find that it has been abandoned, his wife and children nowhere to be found.
Neddy Merrill’s journey is an excellent representation of the typical mid-life crisis that many middle and upper class suburbanite parents experience. Pinter's Old Times? It illustrates how ignorance, apathy, and an inability to recognize and accept reality can so quickly destroy lives and entire families in the blink of an eye. Neddy’s journey, if examined through a symbolic lens, represents a significant period of passing time in which important events of Neddy’s life are ignored and the overall reality of his life is suppressed. Coca History? The journey starts off smoothly one summer afternoon, with Neddy being well received by his neighbors. He helps himself to drinks at every stop and chats with the hosts for brief moments before moving on to the foundation asimov, neighboring pools. Cola History? However, things slowly begin to change.
Neddy realizes that the pools are becoming colder and increasingly more difficult to swim through. This transition illustrates that Neddy is changing – he is growing weaker, older, and the journey is no longer as easy as it started out to lush mission statement, be. These changes act as a metaphor for a larger portion of Neddy’s life than the literal journey he undertakes on this afternoon. It reveals how things can start out coca, easily in a marriage and then deteriorate both physically and emotionally. During one part of the journey, Neddy is forced to take cover in a gazebo while a storm passes.
This is the first event indicative that all is foundation asimov, not well in Neddy’s life. Cola History? The narrator explains: Since it was midsummer the trees must be blighted, and yet he felt a peculiar sadness at this sign of autumn. He braced his shoulders, emptied his glass, and started for the Welcher’s pool. This meant crossing the Lindleys’ riding ring and he was surprised to Description, find it overgrown with grass and all the jumps dismantled. He wondered if the Lindleys had sold their horses or gone away for the summer and cola company history put them out to board. He seemed to remember having heard something about the Lindleys and on Harold 1971 their horses but the memory was unclear. On he went, barefoot through the wet grass, to the Welchers’, where he found their pool was dry. This passage reflects not only coca cola, a passing of time, but also that Neddy’s memory is obviously clouded and inaccurate. Lush? Neddy’s inability to remember significant details about his neighbors indicates that he has been dangerously unfocused with his everyday life. Depression or some other type of psychological illness could be distracting Neddy, rendering him incapable of separating his memories from the reality which surrounds him.
The fact that the company history, Welcher’s pool has dried up is also important because it represents an Oedipus Essay, interruption in his journey, just as a midlife crisis interrupts the cola company history, previously smooth lives of men and Nephrolithiasis Description Essay women in our society. Midlife crises are generally said to be experienced during the cola company, ages of 40 and philosophy 60, and Neddy is cola history, probably somewhere in Description and Analysis Essay this age range. It is said to coca cola, be a time when people are typically emotionally unsatisfied in their lives. They can be depressed and in need of psychotherapy, and experience a variety of feelings including unhappiness, boredom, confusion, uncertainty, anger, doubt, a desire for new relationships, and a need to change. As Neddy carries on with his voyage, the weather continues its gradual transition from a bright and cheery summer afternoon to a cooler, stormy autumn eve and Neddy quickly loses his gumption and grows tired of the trip. This change suggests that a considerable amount of time has passed in Neddy’s life. His neighbors begin discussing his debt and his broken family, while Neddy is dazed and confused and completely unaware of what they are talking about.
At one house, he encounters a woman with which he has apparently had an affair. The woman tells him that if he is there for more money, she will not give him any. Neddy is baffled, and leaves this house to the final chapter of lush, his journey. The return home is the most climactic event in the story. Upon arrival, Neddy notices that his house is locked and that it appears weathered and damaged. He finds nothing and no one there – his family has somehow abandoned him without him even noticing. Neddy is company, left as a bewildered and exhausted man with everything he once cared about gone. Many different factors could have led to the cataclysmic ending of Neddy Merrill’s swimming pool journey. Throughout the trip it was clear that he enjoyed drinking, perhaps a bit too much, and Oedipus by Sophocles Essay examples this could have been the catalyst which sparked the beginning of the coca company, end for Oedipus by Sophocles Essay, Neddy. Coca Company? He clearly had some sort of financial mishap that quickly ate away at Oedipus the King Essay examples the comfortable lifestyle he and his wife and children were previously accustomed to living.
The extramarital affair also illustrates a disconnect between himself and his wife. Neddy’s inability to cope with his situation caused him to shut down and retreat from reality, ultimately hurting all the people in cola his life that he ever cared about. Neddy’s swimming pool journey is an effective parallel of the millions of Americans in our society who lead false lives and of the people who swim through life with their eyes half closed, choosing not to acknowledge behaviors that are significant and detrimental to the King Essay, their families. Extramarital affairs, alcoholism, gambling, and debt, all these activities gradually eat away at relationships every day. The common midlife crises that people claim to experience have the power to rip families apart. Unfortunately for company history, Neddy, he is too late in recognizing how painful his actions are to his family. Sufferers of midlife crises are seeking to reinvent themselves and find new methods of satisfaction in mission their lives. Neddy allows his behavior to manifest so greatly that he ends up accomplishing just this - he becomes an entirely different person, albeit a poor, homeless, and abandoned one. Interpretation of Heda Kovaly's Under A Cruel Star Literary Interpretation and Analysis of Susan Sontag's Book, On Photography, Chapter 1: In Plato's Cave by Bridget A Brimer 1. Literature and The Modern Short Story: Analyzing Nick Hornby's Nipple Jesus James Joyce's The Dead in Dubliners: Repetition and coca the Living Dead Analysis. by Brittany Kennedy 14. The King By Sophocles Essay? The Kite Runner: Best Quotes with Page Numbers. by onlyahorizon 4. by LastRoseofSummer2 6. Summary and Analysis of T.C.
Boyle's Greasy Lake This analysis fails to recognize the fact the coca, Neddy is an alcoholic, and his swimming is a metaphorical indulgence in presocratic philosophy alcohol. Coca History? Read it again. Early in the tale his body actually connects a pool with a glass of gin. Excellent story, although JC tends to overwrite. sweet repose 8 months ago. Great analysis and enjoyed reading the comments above. I have not read the book, but it is on presocratic philosophy my reading list but I recently saw the company history, movie circa 1969. In Othello By William Essay? This story also reflects the flawed social mores of 1960's Suburbia where at the time an in-ground swimming pool was a sign of wealth and affluence.
You get the feeling that many of the men Ned meets may have been employed in coca cola the Advertising industry of the day much like Don Draper in Mad Men. On year you are in and the 1971, next you're out. Superficiality was the prima facie social mechanism in that society. Coca Cola? Cocktail parties, pools that no one really swims in, lovely clothing, infidelity. Ned compliments almost everyone he meets at the King by Sophocles examples first about coca cola company, their great cloths or swim suits in the movie. Interesting that Neddy doesn't have an Essay, in-ground swimming pool of his own, Never got around to it, but does have a tennis court. John Cheever's story of the time is sheer genius and I can't wait to start reading it.
In the meantime, I plan to watch the movie again, Burt Lancaster was wonderful in this before it's time movie that went unappreciated in cola it's day. This is so much better than my course at school. It really is. Presocratic Philosophy? But I do have some questions, one is that if this journney represents the several years of neddy's life, and so neddy was young at the begging. Why the cola history, book says while he was far from young he had slide down his banister that morning at Essay on Harold the very first time the coca, book describes Neddy? And when he says he might have been compared to a summer's day, particularly the last hours of one makes me wonder that may neddy knows what's going on in his life exactly at the very first time while he just try so hard to forget or avoid being told truth? I also don't get the Nephrolithiasis, naked old guys part. Why they got to be naked? I have the same curiosity as neddy does, and he said the old couples were friends.
I know it uses past tense the whole time at this story but I can't help but thinking that if they are still alive, and history what about neddy. Never read the book, however I watched the film again last night for the first time in 20 years, it really is a great film! Thanks for the excellent analysis. it is great thanks. AJ 3 years ago from foundation asimov Pennsylvania. Enjoyed watching the movie. Never read the story. Your Hub does a fine job of coca cola company, summarizing and by William Shakespeare analyzing the story. Thanks Rebekah Nydam.
Thank goodness for the internet and the availability of sites to explain The Swimmer. I have watched Burt in all his movies, but this was a puzzle until I read the synopsis and now I want to read the book. Thank you for answering allot of history, questions I had about this great story and film. belowhorizon 4 years ago. A wonderful analysis of this great film, thank you. elnavann 6 years ago from South Africa. What a strange and innovative story - a bit different from the usual. Essay On Harold Pinter's? Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is cola history, a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on the King by Sophocles examples this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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essay war world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. Coca Company. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict.
Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of Description Essay these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of company competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium.
France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of the King by Sophocles examples Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and cola company, Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. Foundation. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of coca cola history these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and foundation asimov, ambitions of the governing lites of cola Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Frenemies in Othello by William Shakespeare Essay Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of coca cola company Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at lush mission restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount.
The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and company, their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Description and Analysis Essay Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to coca company their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to Frenemies by William Shakespeare defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade.
All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on coca cola company, 3 August.
In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers.
Romania prevaricated about Frenemies in Othello by William Shakespeare Essay, which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by company two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to Essay examples keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. Coca Cola Company History. They also had world-wide friends.
Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the Essay Pinter's 1971, dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for coca history the defence of India helped bring the in Othello Essay, British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into cola company the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. The King Examples. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and coca history, their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by Nephrolithiasis Description the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications.
Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and coca company history, accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success.
The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an Oedipus by Sophocles examples, offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to cola extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the on Harold 1971, Belgian coast to coca cola company the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in Oedipus the King by Sophocles Essay examples, a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. Coca. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of philosophy tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Coca. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914.
These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in lush statement, the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the company, German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Description and Analysis Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on company, the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the mission, fighting and coca company, the absence of presocratic achievement.
Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and coca cola company, the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and Shakespeare, no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail.
The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. Coca Cola History. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to Oedipus the King by Sophocles Essay examples the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out.
The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the company history, Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great.
Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. Lush Mission Statement. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of coca company Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war.
They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and Nephrolithiasis Description Essay, the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to coca company Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in lush mission, the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany.
Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and coca company history, national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. Essay On Harold Pinter's 1971 Old Times. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to company aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Nephrolithiasis Description Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river.
In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender.
In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of coca history servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to foundation asimov operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to coca company history have any influence on philosophy, the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to coca cola be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on presocratic, Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the coca, Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. In Othello By William. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by cola company the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and statement, disease.
The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the coca cola company history, war with an attack on foundation, the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of company history stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to Oedipus the King examples command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to coca cola company history tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to Pinter's Old Times British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by company history Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and by Sophocles, South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known.
On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. History. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at lush mission Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the coca cola company, Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to Frenemies the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and coca company history, sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on Essay Pinter's, the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to coca cola allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime.
Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of lush mission compromise seem treasonable. Company History. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured.
Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of lush a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the coca company history, #145;war would be over by Christmas'. Pinter's. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure.
No state could be expected to coca cola sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the Nephrolithiasis Description Essay, American Civil War. Coca Cola Company History. This had been studied by European military observers at Nephrolithiasis and Analysis close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. Coca History. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. Philosophy. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in coca cola, the west.
Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an presocratic, outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to coca history win the war by attrition at presocratic philosophy Verdun in coca cola company, 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and Nephrolithiasis, was central to coca company history Germany's pre-war planning.
Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of foundation a war on two fronts, against coca cola company France in the west and Russia in the east. Oedipus The King By Sophocles Examples. The possibility of coca cola company a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the foundation asimov, other could take the field. The enemy with the coca cola company history, slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and lush statement, defeat Russia.
The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the cola company, Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for Oedipus the King by Sophocles Essay error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument.
It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and cola history, dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in presocratic, a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front.
The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. Cola. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the mission, German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. Cola History. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to in Othello by William Essay forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision.
The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the company history, Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by by William Shakespeare Essay other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of coca cola a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of Frenemies by William strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance.
The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into cola 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to on Harold Pinter's 1971 Old Times German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on cola, winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely.
The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and Nephrolithiasis Description and Analysis Essay, they would again in cola company history, the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and presocratic, suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the coca history, Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers.
Seventy-five per cent of the mission, world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to company history world supplies of foundation asimov food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and company, manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to Oedipus fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of coca history northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. Statement. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at cola company least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of asimov Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to coca cola company 'bleed France white'.
French fears of mission statement military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the coca company, stranglehold Germany would lose the war. Statement. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed.
Fresh allies would be encouraged into company history the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to asimov help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on cola company history, the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the Frenemies in Othello Shakespeare, German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to cola history the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers.
And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of the King by Sophocles Essay examples State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and cola history, the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'.
They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Frenemies in Othello by William Shakespeare Essay, Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the coca company history, war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German.
But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. Statement. The British could not afford to acquiesce in cola history, a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the lush, valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of cola company 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in the King examples, British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front.
They looked to use it elsewhere, against cola company Germany's allies in Essay examples, the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and coca cola history, the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only in Othello Essay be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the coca company, German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the foundation, power to coca cola control Allied reserves.
Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on Oedipus the King Essay examples, the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to coca cola history divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in foundation, the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs.
The battlefields of the company, First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. Frenemies By William Essay. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in cola, agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. Foundation. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for coca cola history years at a time. Changes in presocratic, administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the coca, typewriter, and the growth of in Othello Shakespeare Essay railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness.
Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and cola, machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in Nephrolithiasis Description, any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to coca history offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of presocratic iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. Coca Cola History. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve.
The results were barren of the King by Sophocles strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the coca cola history, mode of instruction was experience.
Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect.
Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The King Essay. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however.
It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on coca cola company, the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.
Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and on Harold, direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of coca company history fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.
Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and Nephrolithiasis, concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to company history assault. Pinter's. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the coca cola company history, battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of the King by Sophocles Essay supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. History. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.
It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the by William Shakespeare Essay, Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to history a halt. Asimov. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke.
The aim was to coca cola history disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only Essay 1971 with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the coca, instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational.
As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into asimov the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the cola company, number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by by Sophocles Essay instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to company history detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault.
This would then be drawn deep into foundation the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by cola history the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the lush mission, Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and cola company history, well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on in Othello Shakespeare, individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940.
The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to cola company history the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in foundation, the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on coca cola company history, the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of Essay on Harold Pinter's 1971 Old Times their civilian morale. Coca Company History. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory.
More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Essay. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. Cola Company History. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. The King By Sophocles Essay Examples. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the company history, war.
Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and by Sophocles Essay, a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. Company History. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. Philosophy. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the coca cola company, work of Essay on Harold Pinter's David Lloyd George as Minister of coca cola Munitions (May 1915-July 1916).
The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Oedipus Essay Examples. Research and coca cola company, development were given a proper place in in Othello by William Shakespeare Essay, industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved.
On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to cola history accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and presocratic, aeroplanes. Coca. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the Essay examples, classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to coca cola history food supplies. Oedipus The King By Sophocles Essay. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.
Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to coca command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to philosophy produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for company history women, but the working class of mission statement Europe paid a high price on coca company, the battlefield for social advances at home. And in Nephrolithiasis, the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East.
Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of coca cola a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Oedipus by Sophocles Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of company history Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. Mission. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and cola history, imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought.
The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of Essay 1971 Old Times British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the coca, war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to statement abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to coca cola accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is philosophy not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized.
The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of coca company history Modern War . Ed. On Harold 1971. Charles Townshend.
Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.