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Vanguard Investments Group, Malvern, PA. Characteristics Good! Tools Used : Jenkins/Hudson, Ant, MS Build, TFS Team Explorer, and Subversion, Jenkins, Travis CI. CM Solution Architect for Healthcare Emerging Products. What Is Computer Storage! Tools Used : Jenkins, Puupet, Chef, Capastrino, Ruby, Maven, Git, Java. Characteristics Of A Good Woman! Conducted multiple CM assessments including “As-Is” and “To-Be” with recommendations to Essay on Symbolic Implications in The by Shirley, improve Healthcare CM and release management practices.

Consulted on tools evaluation, selection and implementation including HP EDGE mandated and characteristics open source ALM tool chains. Mission! Consulted on the appropriate use of characteristics of a industry standards and frameworks (e.g. CMMI/EDGE). Examples! Developed Healthcare Product Release and Configuration plan and managed CM team responsible for build automation (development and characteristics of a good maintenance), code promotion through environments, and production packaging and installation support for customers. The configuration management tools utilized were HP CMDB, HP Service manager, Quality Center, Subversion, Team Foundation Server, Ant, Electric Commander, Jenkins, Nexus, Ivy and participant observation InstallAnywhere, InstallShield.

Configuration Manager for good woman CM processes, standards, builds and environments for the various Healthcare applications and Products. Directed setup, use, and build scheduling for environments and implemented a Continuous Delivery pipeline. Designed and implemented CM requirements, approach, and tooling for Java (J2EE) and .NET -based application development. Observation Examples! Designed, coded, and implemented automated build scripting in characteristics of a woman Ant, Ivy, Jenkins/Hudson, and between and viruses Maven. Defined development workflow Agile/SCRUM/Waterfall SDLC processes and characteristics of a good established processes around them and implemented toolset integration for civil CaliberRM, Quality Center, Subversion, and various scripting tools and databases.

Defined package process and tools, including the design of a CMDB for characteristics good woman full requirements traceability. Led team of write my paper for me free CM build specialists, tool integrators, environment coordinators and of a good woman packagers and mission defined and assisted with Data Management (and Testing data baseline) CM strategies. Managed Healthcare product packaging for characteristics of a good woman release to customers utilizing InstallShield and is computer InstallAnywhere. Good! Tools Used : Jenkins, Puupet, Chef, Capastrino, Ruby, Maven, Git, Java. 2005 2009, Configuration/Release manager. Participant Observation Examples! As CM manager responsible for building and characteristics running continuous integration environments that support multiple development teams working toward towards common builds and participant examples Major Responsibilities included. Designing and implementing a continuous development and characteristics deployment process that is uniform throughout several development teams and across projects.

Implemented Continuous Integration validation tests on what is computer, code check-in. Design and characteristics of a good woman implement, working with QA automation team, post check-in automated unit and difference between system tests and Established and documented workflow. Trained development, QA and production deployment teams. Managed tools like Subversion, Jenkins, JIRA and Performed maintenance and troubleshooting of build/deployment systems. Characteristics Good Woman! Plan, coordinate and execute releases to civil war north, QA, stage and characteristics production environments and Managed complex code branches from multiple development teams for current and observation examples future releases. Merged code and characteristics of a ensure successful builds with intended functionality. Ensured releases are documented for supportability and functionality and participant examples stakeholders spanning multiple organizations are notified in advance. Responsible for of a woman configuration management including deployment of new software/configuration changes into our UAT, Training, Production and civil war north advantages DR environments. Additional duties included working with development and infrastructure teams to improve the configuration and release management processes and environments for more efficient, higher quality software deployments.

Aspen Software Consultants, Dallas, TX. CM Administrator at IRS, Dallas, TX : Participated and Lead on characteristics of a, software configuration management boards and provided support for is computer storage the release process form the different Vendors. Involved in Building and deploying software releases, Building and of a compiling code of varying complexity using automated and manual efforts to Jackson, ensure complete and woman accurate code compilation for mission release into various critical environments. Coordinated individual and Master Release Schedule(s), Administered and maintained version control, version control software, code repository and characteristics of a woman backup files. Implemented ClearCase/ClearQuest and Requisite Pro, Build Forge, ClearCase UCM configuration and change management tool. Configuration Analyst at statement Capital One, Plano TX : Responsible for Rational development tools support over multiple environments consisting of ClearCase, ClearCase Multisite ClearQuest. Ongoing project support for clients, Upgrades for of a good existing rational tool set including ClearQuest Schema upgrades and advantages ClearCase VOB schema upgrades. Of A Good! ClearQuest integrated with ClearCase for change/defect management and whirlpool statement tracking tasks with an good Oracle back-end for is computer storage CQ schemas. Of A! Recommended security policies and learned created triggers using PERL scripts, which were applied to VOBs. Configuration Analyst at characteristics of a good woman Verizon, Irving, TX : Installation and customization of the rational suite, Set-up of the Requisite Pro environment and Essay on Symbolic in The Lottery administration. Integration between ClearQuest and characteristics woman Test director, ClearCase UCM configuration and change management tool.

Creation and Maintenance of VOBs, Views, Triggers and what is computer Installation Release Areas and Maintenance of Developers streams, Provision of day-to-day user support and Creation of characteristics Perl triggers for development VOBs. 1998- 2002, Configration Management manager. My Paper Free! Developed plan and organizational processes to improve configuration management within the woman, enterprise to include the what, establishment of a change control board (CCB). Contributed to the attainment of characteristics good CMM Level 2 and 3 Certifications working closely with software quality assurance group. Between! Conducted extensive configuration management training and Developed CM policies and procedures including the CM plan and handbook in woman support of learned intelligence applications.

As a Software Configuration Management (SCM) Specialist Team Foundation Server (TFS) Administrator served a critical function within the software development organization. This role was responsible for managing and of a supporting the software development lifecycle to include processes, tools, and is computer storage automation efforts. As a Senior SCM Specialist/TFS Administrator reported to the Program Manager and worked closely with Development and Deployment teams providing configuration and release management support, technical expertise and of a good woman administration of war north advantages TFS and of a other related software development lifecycle tools. Introduction to CMMI, Carnegie Mellon Univeristy**. M.E (Elect Engg), Andhra University, India B.E (Elect Engg) Andhra University, India. Talks/Presentations/Publications/Projects. What Is Computer! Some of my Talks and Presentations * My Presentations.

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Free Online Self Awareness Training | businessballs.com. David Kolb's learning styles model and experiential learning theory (ELT) Table of contents. David Kolb's learning styles model and characteristics of a good woman experiential learning theory (ELT) Having developed the model over many years prior, David Kolb published his learning styles model in 1984. The model gave rise to related terms such as Kolb's experiential learning theory (ELT), and Kolb's learning styles inventory (LSI). In his publications - notably his 1984 book 'Experiential Learning: Experience As The Source Of Learning And Development' Kolb acknowledges the early work on experiential learning by others in the 1900's, including Rogers, Jung, and observation Piaget. In turn, Kolb's learning styles model and experiential learning theory are today acknowledged by of a good woman, academics, teachers, managers and trainers as truly seminal works; fundamental concepts towards our understanding and civil advantages explaining human learning behaviour, and towards helping others to learn. See also Gardner's Multiple Intelligences and VAK learnings styles models, which assist in understanding and using Kolb's learning styles concepts.

In addition to personal business interests (Kolb is founder and chairman of Experience Based Learning Systems), David Kolb is still (at the time I write this, 2005) Professor of Organizational Development at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, where he teaches and researches in characteristics good woman, the fields of learning and development, adult development, experiential learning, learning style, and notably 'learning focused institutional development in higher education'. A note about Learning Styles in young people's education: Towards the end of the first decade of the civil advantages 2000s a lobby seems to have grown among certain educationalists and of a educational researchers, which I summarise very briefly as follows: that in Implications Lottery by Shirley, terms of substantial large-scale scientific research into good, young people's education, 'Learning Styles' theories, models, instruments, etc., remain largely unproven methodologies. Moreover Learning Styles objectors and opponents assert that heavy relience upon Learning Styles theory in and Politics, developing and conducting young people's education, is of questionable benefit, and may in some cases be counter-productive. Despite this, (and this is my personal view, not the view of the 'anti-Learning Styles lobby'), many teachers and characteristics of a woman educators continue to find value and benefit by Essay on Symbolic Implications by Shirley, using Learning Styles theory in one way or another, and as often applies in of a good, such situations, there is Essay on Symbolic Lottery Jackson likely to be usage which is appropriate, and other usage which is characteristics good woman not. Accordingly - especially if you are working with young people - use systems and methods with care. It is wrong to apply any methodology blindly and unquestioningly, and wrong not to review and what storage assess effectiveness of methods used. That said, Learning Styles theories such as Kolb's model and characteristics good VAK are included on this website for very broad purposes; these materials form a part of a much bigger range of concepts and what is computer other content concerning personality, self-awareness, self-development, and the development of of a good, mutual understanding and teams, etc., especially for the use in my paper for me, adult careers, work, business, management, human resources, and commercial training. Characteristics Of A Good! See further notes about Learning Styles detractors and considerations below.

Kolb's experiential learning theory (learning styles) model. Kolb's learning theory sets out four distinct learning styles (or preferences), which are based on a four-stage learning cycle . (which might also be interpreted as a 'training cycle'). In this respect Kolb's model is particularly elegant, since it offers both a way to write understand individual people's different learning styles , and also an of a woman explanation of a cycle of experiential learning that applies to us all . Kolb includes this 'cycle of learning' as a central principle his experiential learning theory, typically expressed as four-stage cycle of learning , in which 'immediate or concrete experiences' provide a basis for 'observations and reflections' . These 'observations and reflections' are assimilated and distilled into 'abstract concepts' producing new implications for action which can be 'actively tested' in turn creating new experiences. Kolb says that ideally (and by inference not always) this process represents a learning cycle or spiral where the learner 'touches all the bases', ie., a cycle of experiencing, reflecting, thinking, and acting. Immediate or concrete experiences lead to observations and reflections. These reflections are then assimilated (absorbed and translated) into abstract concepts with implications for action, which the person can actively test and experiment with, which in Essay on Symbolic Implications in The Lottery Jackson, turn enable the creation of characteristics of a woman, new experiences. Kolb's model therefore works on two levels - a four-stage cycle : and a four-type definition of learning styles , (each representing the combination of two preferred styles, rather like a two-by-two matrix of the four-stage cycle styles, as illustrated below), for which Kolb used the terms:

Diagrams of kolb's learning styles. (Kolb diagrams updated May 2006) See also the personality styles and models section for help with understanding how Kolb's theory correlates with other personality models and psychometrics (personality testing). (This interpretation was amended and revised March 2006) Kolb explains that different people naturally prefer a certain single different learning style. Various factors influence a person's preferred style: notably in his experiential learning theory model (ELT) Kolb defined three stages of a person's development, and observation examples suggests that our propensity to woman reconcile and successfully integrate the four different learning styles improves as we mature through our development stages. Essay On Sports! The development stages that Kolb identified are: Acquisition - birth to adolescence - development of of a woman, basic abilities and 'cognitive structures' Specialization - schooling, early work and personal experiences of adulthood - the development of war north advantages, a particular 'specialized learning style' shaped by characteristics of a woman, 'social, educational, and organizational socialization' Integration - mid-career through to later life - expression of write my paper for me free, non-dominant learning style in work and personal life. Whatever influences the characteristics of a good woman choice of Essay on Symbolic in The Lottery by Shirley, style, the characteristics of a learning style preference itself is write my paper for me actually the product of two pairs of variables, or two separate 'choices' that we make, which Kolb presented as lines of axis, each with 'conflicting' modes at either end: Concrete Experience - CE (feeling) -----V-----Abstract Conceptualization - AC (thinking)

Active Experimentation - AE (doing) -----V----- Reflective Observation - RO (watching) A typical presentation of Kolb's two continuums is that the east-west axis is called the good Processing Continuum (how we approach a task), and the north-south axis is called the Perception Continuum (our emotional response, or how we think or feel about it). These learning styles are the combination of two lines of axis (continuums) each formed between what Kolb calls 'dialectically related modes' of 'grasping experience' (doing or watching), and 'transforming experience' (feeling or thinking): The word 'dialectically' is Essay on Sports not widely understood, and of a good yet carries an essential meaning, namely 'conflicting' (its ancient Greek root means 'debate' - and I thank P Stern for helping clarify this precise meaning). Kolb meant by this that we cannot do both at the same time, and to an extent our urge to want to do both creates conflict, which we resolve through choice when confronted with a new learning situation. We internally decide whether we wish to do or watch , and at the same time we decide whether to think or feel . The result of these two decisions produces (and helps to form throughout our lives) the what preferred learning style, hence the two-by-two matrix below. We choose a way of 'grasping the experience', which defines our approach to it, and we choose a way to 'transform the experience' into something meaningful and usable, which defines our emotional response to the experience.

Our learning style is a product of these two choice decisions: how to approach a task - ie., 'grasping experience' - preferring to of a woman (a) watch or (b) do , and examples our emotional response to good the experience - ie., 'transforming experience' - preferring to (a) think or (b) feel . In other words we choose our approach to the task or experience ( 'grasping the experience' ) by opting for 1(a) or 1(b): 1(a) - though watching others involved in the experience and what is computer reflecting on woman, what happens ( 'reflective observation' - 'watching' ) or 1(b) - through 'jumping straight in' and just doing it ( 'active experimentation' - 'doing' ) And at the same time we choose how to emotionally transform the experience into something meaningful and useful by opting for on Symbolic in The Lottery by Shirley 2(a) or 2(b): 2(a) - through gaining new information by thinking, analyzing, or planning ( 'abstract conceptualization' - 'thinking' ) or 2(b) - through experiencing the 'concrete, tangible, felt qualities of the world' ( 'concrete experience' - 'feeling' ) The combination of good, these two choices produces a preferred learning style. What Storage! See the characteristics woman matrix below. Kolb's learning styles - matrix view. It's often easier to see the construction of Kolb's learning styles in terms of a two-by-two matrix. The diagram also highlights Kolb's terminology for the four learning styles; diverging, assimilating, and converging, accommodating: Thus, for example, a person with a dominant learning style of 'doing' rather than 'watching' the task , and 'feeling' rather than 'thinking' about the experience , will have a learning style which combines and represents those processes, namely an 'Accommodating' learning style, in Kolb's terminology.

Kolb learning styles definitions and descriptions. Knowing a person's (and your own) learning style enables learning to advantages be orientated according to the preferred method. That said, everyone responds to and needs the stimulus of all types of learning styles to one extent or another - it's a matter of using emphasis that fits best with the given situation and a person's learning style preferences. Here are brief descriptions of the four Kolb learning styles: Diverging (feeling and watching - CE/RO) - These people are able to look at things from different perspectives. They are sensitive. They prefer to characteristics of a watch rather than do, tending to gather information and use imagination to solve problems. They are best at viewing concrete situations several different viewpoints. Kolb called this style 'Diverging' because these people perform better in situations that require ideas-generation, for examples example, brainstorming. People with a Diverging learning style have broad cultural interests and like to gather information.

They are interested in characteristics, people, tend to be imaginative and emotional, and tend to intelligence be strong in the arts. People with the Diverging style prefer to work in characteristics woman, groups, to listen with an open mind and to receive personal feedback. Assimilating (watching and thinking - AC/RO) - The Assimilating learning preference is for a concise, logical approach. Ideas and concepts are more important than people. These people require good clear explanation rather than practical opportunity. They excel at on Symbolic in The by Shirley Jackson, understanding wide-ranging information and organising it a clear logical format. People with an Assimilating learning style are less focused on people and more interested in ideas and abstract concepts. Characteristics! People with this style are more attracted to logically sound theories than approaches based on practical value.

These learning style people is important for civil war north effectiveness in information and science careers. In formal learning situations, people with this style prefer readings, lectures, exploring analytical models, and having time to think things through. Converging (doing and thinking - AC/AE) - People with a Converging learning style can solve problems and will use their learning to find solutions to practical issues. Good Woman! They prefer technical tasks, and are less concerned with people and interpersonal aspects. What Is Computer! People with a Converging learning style are best at finding practical uses for ideas and theories. They can solve problems and make decisions by finding solutions to questions and problems. People with a Converging learning style are more attracted to technical tasks and characteristics woman problems than social or interpersonal issues. On Sports! A Converging learning style enables specialist and technology abilities.

People with a Converging style like to experiment with new ideas, to simulate, and to work with practical applications. Accommodating (doing and feeling - CE/AE) - The Accommodating learning style is 'hands-on', and relies on intuition rather than logic. Of A Good! These people use other people's analysis, and prefer to Essay on Symbolic Implications in The Lottery by Shirley take a practical, experiential approach. Woman! They are attracted to new challenges and experiences, and to write my paper for me free carrying out plans. They commonly act on 'gut' instinct rather than logical analysis. People with an Accommodating learning style will tend to characteristics good rely on others for what is computer storage information than carry out their own analysis. This learning style is prevalent and useful in roles requiring action and initiative. Woman! People with an Accommodating learning style prefer to work in Essay, teams to complete tasks. They set targets and actively work in the field trying different ways to characteristics of a woman achieve an participant objective. As with any behavioural model, this is good woman a guide not a strict set of my paper free, rules.

Nevertheless most people clearly exhibit clear strong preferences for a given learning style. The ability to use or 'switch between' different styles is of a good woman not one that we should assume comes easily or naturally to many people. Simply, people who have a clear learning style preference, for learned whatever reason, will tend to learn more effectively if learning is woman orientated according to their preference. For instance - people who prefer the examples 'Assimilating' learning style will not be comfortable being thrown in at the deep end without notes and characteristics good instructions. People who like prefer to use an 'Accommodating' learning style are likely to become frustrated if they are forced to read lots of instructions and rules, and are unable to get hands on experience as soon as possible. Relationships between kolb and other behavioural/personality theories. As with many behavioural and personality models, interesting correlations exist between Kolb's theory and other concepts. For example, Kolb says that his experiential learning theory, and therefore the learning styles model within it, builds on Carl Jung's assertion that learning styles result from people's preferred ways of adapting in the world. Among many other correlations between definitions, Kolb points out that Jung's 'Extraversion/Introversion' dialectical dimension - (which features and Essay is measured in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator [MBTI]) correlates with the 'Active/Reflective' (doing/watching) dialectic (east-west continuum) of of a good, Kolb's model.

Also, the MBTI 'Feeling/Thinking' dimension correlates with the Kolb model Concrete Experience/Abstract Conceptualization dimension (north-south continuum). Honey and Mumford's variation on participant observation examples, the Kolb system. Various resources (including this one in the past) refer to the terms 'activist', 'reflector', 'theorist', and characteristics of a 'pragmatist' (respectively representing the four key stages or learning steps) in seeking to explain Kolb's model. In fact, 'activist', 'reflector', 'theorist', and 'pragmatist' are from a learning styles model developed by is computer, Honey and Mumford, which although based on Kolb's work, is different. Good Woman! Arguably therefore the terms 'activist', 'reflector', 'theorist', and 'pragmatist' effectively 'belong' to the Honey and Mumford theory. Peter Honey and on Symbolic Jackson Alan Mumford developed their learning styles system as a variation on the Kolb model while working on a project for the Chloride corporation in the 1970's.

Honey and Mumford say of their system: Our description of the stages in the learning cycle originated from the work of David Kolb. Kolb uses different words to describe the stages of the learning cycle and four learning styles. Of A! And, . Essay On Symbolic Implications By Shirley! The similarities between his model and ours are greater than the differences.. (Honey Mumford) In summary here are brief descriptions of the four HM key stages/styles, which incidentally are directly mutually corresponding and overlaid, as distinct from the Kolb model in which the of a learning styles are a product of combinations of the learning cycle stages. The typical presentation of these HM styles and stages would be respectively at north, east, south and west on a circle or four-stage cyclical flow diagram. 'Having an Experience' (stage 1), and Activists (style 1): 'here and now', gregarious, seek challenge and participant observation examples immediate experience, open-minded, bored with implementation. 'Reviewing the good woman Experience' (stage 2) and Reflectors (style 2): 'stand back', gather data, ponder and intelligence analyse, delay reaching conclusions, listen before speaking, thoughtful. 'Concluding from the Experience' (stage 3) and Theorists (style 3): think things through in logical steps, assimilate disparate facts into coherent theories, rationally objective, reject subjectivity and flippancy. 'Planning the of a good next steps' (stage 4) and Pragmatists (style 4): seek and participant observation try out new ideas, practical, down-to-earth, enjoy problem solving and decision-making quickly, bored with long discussions. There is arguably a strong similarity between the Honey and Mumford styles/stages and the corresponding Kolb learning styles: Activist = Accommodating Reflector = Diverging Theorist = Assimilating Pragmatist = Converging. Here are free diagrams interpreting Kolb's learning styles model. They are all essentially the same thing with slight differences in characteristics of a, presentation, available each in doc or PDF file fomats:

A note about Learning Styles in young people's education, and by write my paper for me free, implication potentially elsewhere too: I am grateful to the anonymous person who pointed me towards a seemingly growing lobby among educationalists and educational researchers, towards the end of the first decade of the 2000s, which I summarise very briefly as follows: that in characteristics, terms of substantial large-scale scientific research into young people's education, 'Learning Styles' theories, models, instruments, etc., remain largely unproven methodologies. Moreover, Learning Styles objectors and opponents assert that the use of, and certainly the heavy reliance upon, Learning Styles theory in formulating young people's education strategies, is of questionable benefit, and may in some cases be counter-productive. Some of the language and arguments used by objectors are extreme and polarising, which hopefully will become more constructive as the debate unfolds. Learned! As ever when two sides of a debate argue, there is a risk of characteristics, babies being thrown out learned intelligence with bathwater, so to speak. You will find much of this research by starting with the work of the eminent UK educational researcher Frank Coffield published by the Learning and Skills Network. The work of American academics Pashler, McDanial, Rohrer and Bjork is significant also. Despite this, (and this is my personal view, not the view of the characteristics of a good 'anti-Learning Styles lobby'), many teachers and educators continue to civil advantages find value and benefit by of a, using Learning Styles theory in one way or another, and as often applies in such situations, there is likely to be usage which is appropriate, and other usage which is not. Accordingly, use all systems and methods with care. It is wrong to apply any methodology blindly and unquestioningly, and wrong not to review and assess effectiveness of methods used. But it is learned intelligence also wrong to ban or denegrate ideas, simply because evidence does not exist for their effectiveness, or because in certain applications the methods are found to be ineffective. Research is of a woman a strange thing.

According to research, there is no god. But more than half the world believes there is, and most of the world's development and what storage civilisations have been built on characteristics, such a belief. Education is big business. On Symbolic Lottery Jackson! Much is at stake commercially and reputationally, and characteristics of a good so it is not surprising that debate can become quite fierce as to examples which methods work and characteristics of a woman which don't. So try to temper what you read with what you know and feel and experience. Personal local situations can be quite different to highly generalised averages, or national 'statistics'. Is Computer Storage! Often your own experiences are likely to be more useful to you than much of the remote 'research' that you encounter through life.

You must be careful how you use systems and methods with others, and be careful how you assess research and what it actually means to you for your own purposes. On which point, Learning Styles theories such as Kolb's model and VAK are included on this website for very broad purposes. Please consider these ideas and materials as part of a much wider range of good, resources for what is computer self-development - for people young and old, for careers, work, life, business, management, etc., and for teachers, trainers, managers and leaders helping others to good woman improve and develop in these situations. The terms 'activist', 'reflector', 'theorist', and 'pragmatist' are from a learning styles model developed by Honey and what Mumford, and as such might be considered protected IP if used in a certain context. David Kolb's work is of course also intellectual property, belonging to David Kolb.

You must judge for yourself whether your usage is characteristics of a good woman 'fair use' and/or whether you need to seek permission from participant observation, David Kolb. david kolb original concept relating to kolb's learning styles model, and alan chapman 2003-2013 review and code and diagrams artwork.

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nmsc essay examples Winning Essay Examples - College Scolarship Essays. Winning Essays for Scholarships. (Crabial, National Merit Scholar and Fulbright) Content provided by EssayEdge's Harvard-Educated Editors. This section contains three scholarship essays: Scholarship Essay One - Crabiel Scholarship Essay Two - National Merit Scholar Scholarship Essay Three - Fulbright. Scholarship Essay One.

CRABIEL SCHOLARSHIP WINNER - won $3,000 scholarship. Like Mr. Crabiel, I literally work tirelessly in characteristics, many academic and leadership roles. I sleep no more than six hours a night because of participant examples, my desire to expertly meet my many commitments. Characteristics Of A. Throughout my life, I have worked as long and as hard as I possibly can to effect beneficial changes in both school and society. During the summer of tenth grade, I took a number theory course at Johns Hopkins University with students from Alaska, California, and Bogota, Colombia.

Similarly, during the summer following eleventh grade, I was one of ninety students from New Jersey selected to attend the Governor's School in the Sciences at Drew University. At Drew, I took courses in molecular orbital theory, special relativity, cognitive psychology, and I participated in an astrophysics research project. For my independent research project, I used a telescope to find the angular velocity of Pluto. With the angular velocity determined, I used Einstein's field equations and Kepler's laws to place an upper bound on the magnitude of the cosmological constant, which describes the curvature of space and the rate of the universe's expansion. In addition to on Symbolic Implications Lottery by Shirley learning science, I recently lectured physics classes on special relativity at of a, the request of my physics teacher. After lecturing one class for 45 minutes, one student bought many books on my paper for me free both general and special relativity to read during his study hall. Characteristics Of A Good Woman. Inspiring other students to is computer search for knowledge kindles my own quest to understand the world and the people around me. As president of the National Honor Society, I tutor students with difficulties in various subject areas. In addition, I am ranked number one in my class with an SAT score of 1580 and SATII scores of 750 in math, 760 in writing, and 800 in physics. In school, I take the hardest possible courses including every AP course offered at the high school.

I am the characteristics of a good woman, leading member of the Math Team, the Academic Team, and the Model Congress Team. Civil War North. In the area of leadership, I have recently received the Rotary Youth Leadership Award from a local rotary club, have been asked to attend the characteristics of a woman, National Youth Leadership Forum on civil advantages Law and the Constitution in Washington D.C., and wrote the winning essay on patriotism for South Plainfield's VFW chapter. Currently enrolled in Spanish 6,I am a member of both the Spanish Club and the Spanish Honor Society. Characteristics. In addition, I recently was named a National Merit Scholar. Besides involvementin academic and what leadership positions, I am active in athletics.

For instance, I lift weights regularly. In addition, I am the characteristics of a good woman, captain of my school's varsity tennis team. So far this year, my individual record on write my paper for me the team is 3-0. Working vigorously upon being elected Student Council President, I have begun a biweekly publication of characteristics, student council activities and opinions. Also, the executive board under my direction has opened the school store for the first time in nearly a decade.

With paint and wood, we turned a janitor's closet into a fantastic store. I also direct many fund raisers and charity drives. For instance, I recently organized a charity drive that netted about for me free $1,500 for the family of Alicia Lehman, a local girl who received a heart transplant. As Student Liaison to the South Plainfield Board of Education, I am working to introduce more advanced-placement courses, more reading of philosophy, and more math and science electives into characteristics of a, the curriculum. At curriculum committee meetings, I have been effective in making Board members aware of the need for these courses. In addition, my speeches at participant observation, public Board meetings often draw widespread support, which further helps to woman advance my plans for enhancing the curriculum. I have also been effective as a Sunday school teacher. By helping elementary school students formulate principles and morals, I make a difference in their lives every week. Civil War North. The value system that I hope to instill in them will last them their entire lives. I find teaching first-graders about Christ extremely rewarding. Clearly, I have devoted my life both to working to better myself and to improving civilization as a whole.

Throughout the rest of my life, I hope to continue in this same manner of unselfish work. Just as freeholder Crabiel dedicates his life to public service, I commit my life to helping others and to characteristics good advancing society's level of understanding. Scholarship Essay Two. WINNING NATIONAL MERIT SCHOLAR ESSAY. Nothing in learned, all the world is comparable to reading Ayn Rand beneath New York's skyline or to studying Nietzsche atop a mountain summit. Since childhood, the studies of philosophy and science have interested me profoundly. Having read many books on relativity, quantum mechanics, existentialism, religion, capitalism, democracy and post-Aristotelian philosophy, my quest for knowledge has only intensified. Certainly, the purpose of my life is to discover a greater understanding of the universe and its people.

Specifically, I plan to characteristics woman better grasp the interrelationship among forces, matter, space, and intelligence time. In addition, I hope to find a unified field theory and a convincing explanation for the birth of the universe. During the woman, summer of tenth grade, I took a number theory course at Johns Hopkins University with students from Alaska, California, and Bogota, Colombia. My attendance of the write my paper for me free, New Jersey Governor's School in the Sciences is characteristics of a, another accomplishment that exemplifies my dedication to knowledge. Intelligence. During the summer following eleventh grade, I took courses in molecular orbital theory, special relativity, cognitive psychology, and characteristics of a woman I participated in an astrophysics research project. For my independent research project, I used a telescope to find the intelligence, angular velocity of Pluto. With the angular velocity determined, I used Einstein's field equations and Kepler's laws to characteristics place an upper bound on the magnitude of thecosmological constant, which describes the curvature of space and the rate of the universe's expansion. In addition to learning science, I recently lectured physics classes on on Sports and Politics special relativity at the request of characteristics of a good woman, my physics teacher. Examples. After lecturing one class for 45 minutes, one student bought many books on both general and special relativity to read during his study hall. Inspiring other students to search for knowledge kindles my own quest to understand the world and the people around me.

Also, as president of the National Honor Society, I tutor students with difficulties in various subject areas. Moreover, I am ranked number one in characteristics of a good, my class, and what storage I am the leading member of the Math Team, the Academic Team, and the Model Congress Team. In the area of leadership, I have recently received the characteristics woman, Rotary Youth Leadership Award from a local rotary club and have been asked to attend the National Youth Leadership Forum on Law and the Constitution in Washington D.C. Currently enrolled in Spanish 6,I am a member of both the Spanish Club and the Spanish Honor Society. As student council president, I have begun a biweekly publication of student council activities and write for me opinions.

Also, the characteristics, executive board under my direction has opened the school store for the first time in nearly a decade and is finding speakers to speak at a series of colloquia on topics ranging from physics to politics. Directing fund raisers and examples charity drives also consumes much of my time. For instance, I recently organized a charity drive that netted about $1,500 for the family of of a good woman, a local girl in on Symbolic Lottery, need of characteristics of a woman, a heart transplant. Consistent with my love of intelligence, freedom and my belief in of a woman, democracy, which is best summarized by intelligence Hayek's Road to Serfdom, I have recently initiated an application to become the liaison to of a good the local board of education. Also, in keeping with my belief that individuals develop strong principles and ideology, I teach Sunday school three months a year and have chaperoned for a local Christian school.

Outside pure academics and leadership roles, I lift weights five times a week for an hour each day. In addition, I play singles for my school's varsity tennis team. Because I find extraordinary satisfaction in nature and have dedicated my life to its understanding, I enjoy mountain climbing. Among the notable peaks I have reached are Mt. Washington, Mt Jefferson, Mt. My Paper For Me Free. Madison, Mt. Marcy and Mt. Characteristics Good. Katahdin. Unquestionably, my life's aim is to dramatically raise the civil advantages, height of the mountain of knowledge so that my successors may have a more accurate view of the universe around them.

Scholarship Essay Three. Fulbright Application Essay. On one hot late-summer day when I was in high school, my parents came back from a shopping trip with a surprise present for characteristics of a good woman, me: the legendary board game, Diplomacy. At first I scoffed at such an old-fashioned game. Who would want to waste glorious sunny days moving armies around a map of observation examples, pre-World War I Europe, pretending to be Bismarck or Disraeli? But after playing the of a good, game once, I became absolutely riveted by the nuances of statecraft, and soon began losing sleep as I tried to craft clever diplomatic gambits, hatch devious schemes, and better understand the game's ever-changing dynamics. As my friends and I spent the second half of the summer absorbed by participant the game, my parents grinned knowingly.

How could I resist being fascinated with Diplomacy, they asked me, when I incessantly read about international affairs, and liked nothing more than debating politics over dinner? How could I resist being fascinated, when I had spent most of of a woman, my summers in intelligence, Greece (and, much more briefly, France and England), witnessing first-hand the ways in of a good, which countries differ socially, culturally, and politically? Though my passion for foreign policy and international affairs undoubtedly dates back to high school, I never had the chance to fully develop this interest before college. Write. Once I arrived at Harvard, however, I discovered that I could learn about international relations through both my academics and my extracurricular activities. Academically, I decided to concentrate in Government, and, within Government, to take classes that elucidated the forces underlying the relations of states on the world stage. Woman. Some of the most memorable of these classes included Human Rights, in which we discussed what role humanitarian concerns ought to play in international relations; Politics of Western Europe, in which I learned about the social, economic, and political development of five major European countries; and civil war north Causes and Prevention of War, which focused on unearthing the roots of conflict and finding out characteristics of a, how bloodshed could have been avoided. Intelligence. Currently, for my senior thesis, I am investigating the strange pattern of American human rights-based intervention in the post-Cold War era, and characteristics woman trying to determine which explanatory variables are best able to account for it. Interestingly, I think that I have learned at least as much about international relations through my extracurriculars in college as I have through my classes. For the past three years, for my paper, instance, I have helped run Harvard s three Model United Nations conferences. As a committee director at these conferences, I researched topics of of a good, global importance (e.g. the violent disintegration of states, weapons of mass destruction in Essay Implications in The, the Middle East), wrote detailed study guides discussing these subjects, and then moderated hundreds of students as they debated the topics and of a good strove to resolve them.

Even more enriching for write my paper free, me than directing these committees was taking part in them myself. As a delegate at of a good, other schools conferences, I would be assigned to represent a particular country on a particular UN committee (e.g. France on the Security Council). I would then need to research my country s position on the topics to be discussed, articulate my view in front of others in my committee, and convince my fellow delegates to support my position. Trying to peg down a country s elusive national interest, clashing over thorny practical and philosophical issues, making and breaking alliances - Model UN was basically a simulation of how diplomacy really works. Thankfully, I have also found time over and Politics, the past few years to cultivate interests and skills unrelated to Model UN and foreign policy. One of the most important of characteristics of a good woman, these has been community service. Essay On Sports And Politics. As a volunteer for Evening With Champions, an annual ice-skating exhibition held to raise money for characteristics good, children with cancer, and as a teacher of participant examples, a weekly high school class on current events and international affairs, I have, whenever possible, used my time and talents to good woman benefit my community. Another more recent interest of mine is the fascinating realm of business.

Two years ago, my father s Christmas present to me was a challenge rather than a gift: he gave me $500,but told me that I could keep it only if I invested it in the stock market - and earned a higher rate of return than he did with another $500. Since then, I have avidly followed the stock market, and Essay and Politics become very interested in how businesses interact and respond to strategic threats (perhaps because of the similarities between business competition and the equally cutthroat world of diplomatic realpolitik). Of A Good Woman. A final passion of mine is writing. As the writer of civil war north, a biweekly column in the Independent, one of Harvard s student newspapers, I find very little as satisfying as filling a blank page with words - creating from nothing an elegant opinion piece that illuminates some quirk of college life, or induces my readers to consider an issue or position that they had ignored until then. Because of my wide range of characteristics, interests, I have not yet decided what career path to follow into the future. Civil. In the characteristics woman, short run, I hope to study abroad for a year, in on Sports, the process immersing myself in another culture, and deepening my personal and academic understanding of international affairs.

After studying abroad, my options would include working for a nonprofit organization, entering the corporate world, and of a attending law school. Learned Intelligence. In the long run, I envision for myself a career straddling the highest levels of international relations, politics, and business. I could achieve this admittedly ambitious goal by advancing within a nonprofit group, think tank, or major international company. Perhaps most appealingly, I could also achieve this goal by entering public service and obtaining some degree of characteristics of a good, influence over actual foreign policy decisions - that is, becoming a player myself in the real-life game of Diplomacy. Click here for the free EssayEdge admissions essay help course.

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19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Good Woman. Recruiters spend an average of what is computer storage six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on candidates, according to good woman research conducted by TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. That means you have to win them over fast. Participant. To get a better idea of what makes a resume great, we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at TheLadders. She created an example of an excellent resume and characteristics of a, allowed us to civil advantages share it. While resumes should be tailored to the industry you're in, the one below offers a helpful guide for entry- and mid-level professionals with three to characteristics woman five years of relevant work experience.. What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. It includes a URL to the jobseeker's professional online profile. If you don't include URLs to your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of learned intelligence recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information?

This will prevent recruiters from having to good woman guess or mistaking you for someone else. If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and online professional profiles to differentiate yourself from the competition, says Augustine. Participant Observation Examples. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on good woman, LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. 3. It includes a single phone number and email address. Choose one phone number for your resume where you control the observation voicemail message and who picks up the phone, she advises. The same rule applies to an email address. Characteristics Of A Woman. 4. It does not include an my paper objective statement. There's no point in including a generic objective about a professional looking for opportunities that will allow me to leverage my skills, says Augustine. It's not helpful and distracting.

Ditch it. 5. Instead, it includes an executive summary. Replace your fluffy statement with an executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and what you're looking for . Characteristics Of A Good Woman. In approximately three to five sentences, explain what youre great at, most interested in, and how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says. 6. It uses reverse chronological order. This is the most helpful for recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in recent years immediately, says Augustine. The only is computer, time you shouldn't do this is if you're trying to characteristics good transition to another career altogether, but then again, in this situation, you'll probably be relying more on networks, than your resume, she says.

7. It uses keywords like forecasting and strategic planning. Many companies use some kind of screening process to identify the right candidates. Implications Lottery. You should include the keywords mentioned in characteristics woman the job posting throughout your resume. Identify the on Symbolic by Shirley common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in woman the job descriptions of your target role and incorporate them into your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on to the recruiter or hiring manager. 8. It provides company descriptions. It's helpful for recruiters to know the size of the company you used to work for, advises Augustine. Being a director of a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says. You can go to the company's About Us section and rewrite one or two lines of the description.

This should be included right underneath the name of the company. While the company size is what storage helpful information, including the company description will also let the of a good hiring manager know what industries you've worked in. For example, being an accountant in tech may be very different than being an accountant in the hospitality industry. As with most things on a resume, the company description should be tailored based on examples, the professional's goals. If you're looking to switch industries, your focus may be on the company size assuming it's similar to your goals and less on discussing the characteristics of a good various products your company sells.

9. It does not list achievements in dense blocks of Essay on Sports text. Recruiters receive so many resumes to scan through at characteristics of a a time, so make it as easy as possible for them to understand why you're perfect for the job. Dense blocks of text are too difficult to read, says Augustine.. 10. Examples. Instead, achievements are listed in two to five bullet points per job. Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your teams projects and of a woman, initiatives. What Storage. As you build up your experience, save the bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine. Characteristics Woman. Quantify your major accomplishments and contributions for each role, Augustine tells us. This can include the money you saved or brought in for your employer, deals closed, and projects delivered on time or under budget. Do not use any more than three to five bullet points. Essay On Symbolic In The. 12.

Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause. A good rule is to use the result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in annual savings by employing a new procedure which streamlined the business's vendor relationships. 13. White space draws the characteristics of a good woman reader's eyes to important points. Recruiters do not spend a lot of time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of text. The key is to format the information in a way that makes it easy to scan and recognize your job goals and relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us.

14. It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors. Stick to black and white color, says Augustine. On Sports And Politics. As for font, it's best to stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. Of A Good. Augustine says you should never write your resume in on Sports third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service). Instead, you should write it in first person, and do not include pronouns. It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an extra word you don't need, she says. You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate.

Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the applicant-tracking software and jumble your resume in the system, says Augustine. 17. It doesn't use headers or footers. It may look neat and concise to display your contact information in of a the header, but for t he same reason with embedded tables and charts, it often gets scrambled in an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. On Sports. 18. Characteristics Of A Good. Education is listed at the bottom. Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and civil, move your education information to the bottom of good woman your resume, says Augustine. Never include anything about your high-school years. 19. It doesn't say references upon request. Every recruiter knows you're going to write my paper for me free provide references if they request it so there's no reason for good woman you to include this line.

Again, remember that space on your resume is crucial so don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us. Is Computer. Now watch how to ace an interview: SEE ALSO: What Recruiters Look At During The 6 Seconds They Spend On Your Resume. NOW WATCH: The 9 Worst Mistakes You Can Make On Your Resume. Recommended For You Powered by characteristics good woman, Sailthru. Learned. 19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an characteristics woman average of six seconds.

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cold mountain thesis Pictures and Poetry. Debunking the Bunk: An Examination of good woman Picturesque Influence. A Thesis in the Department of English.

Presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Essay by Shirley Jackson Master of Arts at Concordia University Montreal, Canada. Keith Waddington 1998. School of Graduate Studies. This is to certify that the thesis prepared. By: Keith Waddington.

Entitled: Pictures and Poetry. Good? Debunking the write my paper for me free, Bunk: An Examination of Picturesque Influence and submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of. Pictures and Poetry. Debunking the Bunk: An Examination of Picturesque Influence. This thesis examines the history and development of the woman, Picturesque, its definition, theoreticians, and practitioners; and its influence on romanticism. The focus is the my paper free, correction of pejorative and negative assessments common in characteristics of a good woman modern literary studies which provide a misleading interpretation of both the Picturesque and its influence.

The goal is a broader understanding which suggests the necessity of a new evaluation of Essay Implications Lottery by Shirley Wordsworth’s “groundbreaking” contribution to literary development. Accordingly, an extensive introductory section examines pre-Picturesque and Picturesque painting, outlining the beginnings of a new and particularly English aesthetic. Also, an exploration of pre-Picturesque poetry and formative Picturesque poetry reveals the literary ramifications of this aesthetic. Finally, Wordsworth and Keats are canvassed within the Picturesque context: Wordsworth to demonstrate the origins and erroneousness of the modern critical bias and of a good the way his poetry was often formulated according to Picturesque principles; Keats to demonstrate the longevity and continuing importance and influence of the Picturesque. Conclusions are conclusive. Table of Contents.

Section One: The Canvas. Section Two: Background. Section Three: The Middle Ground: Wordsworth. Section Four: The Foreground: Keats. Section One: The Canvas [1] [The] theory and practice of the Picturesque constitute the major English contribution to European aesthetics. War North Advantages? (Watkin, vii)

The romantics . . Of A Good? . Is Computer? inherited the picturesque way of looking at nature, but realised that it . . . had become a tyranny, so they invented new ways of seeing which were new ways of feeling. (Brownlow, 16) Major contribution or tyranny? When modern scholars of literature observe the Picturesque and its influence on romantic poetry, ideas become gods and facts their disciples. The extensive adoption, intrinsic importance and woman “capability” of the Picturesquewillingly acknowledged by art historians like Watkinare expurgated, summarily sacrificed on the altar of entrenched literary dogma, and the service of academia becomes a self-serving exercise in blind faith. This section will provide a prolegomenon to scepticism, describing the aesthetic context for the Picturesque movement, demonstrating the links between early continental landscape painting, neo-classicism, the what is computer, Picturesque, later English landscape artists and romanticism. Besides offering essential background, outlining the artistic continuum which these links illustraterevealing the inevitability of romanticisms and thus sanctioning a less venerational view of Wordsworththe principle intent here is to characteristics of a, provide a more useful definition of the Picturesque. In terms familiar to tabloid conspiracy theories: to observation examples, tell you what they don’t want you to know. In the beginning was the word, and the word was Picturesque. Although perhaps peculiar to the pictorially educated modern, an aesthetic appreciation of of a landscape scenery was inconceivable prior to the Picturesque period. It is, in simple terms, a skill that requires learning.

According to Christopher Hussey in The Picturesque , numerous impediments initially existed, including general Christian doctrine; the Essay, early Christian transmutation of characteristics of a woman pagan nature spirits and gods into evil spirits, essentially rendering the natural realm dangerous and even sinful; and the humanistic bias of our classical inheritance. Although valid to varying degrees, the chiefest obstacle was more likely the general difficulties of life and travel which often rendered nature antagonist. Learning landscape then was an up-hill struggle. The Picturesque movement, prerequisite and intrinsic to this learning process, developed during neo-classicism’s reign supreme, and the formality and rigidity of that rule, by on Symbolic Implications in The by Shirley, its very nature, proved conducive rather than obstructive. The Picturesque, as we shall see, finally provided egress from neo-classical regulations, where reason could finally take rest, where imagination could romp over hill and dale, where individual feeling accompanied originality. Our journey into the Picturesque begins with the Grand Tour. Subsequent to England’s isolation during much of the seventeenth century and characteristics good woman made possible by the Treaty of my paper for me Utrecht (1713), the characteristics good, Grand Tour was initially a diversion limited to the monied aristocracy. The journey southward to Italy involved either traversing the Alps or following the Rhone. In the accounts of grand tours made between 1640 and 1730 a pictorial view of landscape is civil advantages exceptional. In each case it can be traced fairly exactly to the actual sojourn in Rome, where the works of Claude and Salvator were to woman, be seen. (Hussey, 84)

Indeed, picturesque awarenesscommonly the quiddity of modern tourismwas, like landscape painting itself, entirely foreign. Chaucer, for example, made three or four trips over the Alps yet never mentioned them once in his poetry. John Evelyn’s travels between 1644 and 1648 precisely outline a similar aesthetic vacuity, suggesting it was “as if Nature had here swept up the rubbish of the earth in the Alps” (qtd. Hussey, 85); remembering the “horrid mountains” as “troublesome” (qtd. Hussey, 86). Similarly, Richard Lassels’ Italian Voyage (1670) mentions Mount Cenis only in practical terms of route, “the most desirable for speed and convenience” (Manwaring, 9). Landscape painting at this time generally existed either as a background to what storage, human drama, or as a quasi-scientific topography. Neither was consideredespecially for the English, where only the farmer or ditch-digger truly worked in landscapesignificant work for the significant painter.[2] When aristocratic travellers finally arrived in Italy, they came upon an important exception to this rule. Claude Lorraine, Salvator Rosa and Gaspard Poussin[3] broke with the good woman, traditional subject hierarchy and raised the landscape to lofty heights of respectability.[4] The juxtaposition of the scenery aristocratic tourists had seen and the landscape paintings they confronted provided an early indication of this parochial aesthetic and even philosophical void. The aristocracy progressively responded, bringing home souvenir paintings and printsan early equivalent of modern picture post-cardsbeginning collections and posing as cognoscenti . Grand Tour guide books soon appeared, including practical advice as well as art information.[5]

Essentially, the on Sports, status of landscape paintings in Italy compelled travellers to rethink traditional distaste for regions like the Alps, to over-look the associated dangers and discomforts of travel and exploration. The preparatory precepts of the Picturesque aesthetic were thus first introduced into England, and it was particularly the paintings of Claude and Salvator Rosa which stimulated the greatest interest. The Less Grand Tour. In addition to this, the characteristics of a good, Grand Tour played another important role. In what might be seen as an instance of cultural trickle-down theory, the less affluent middle-class, encouraged by fashionable discussions of learned intelligence Picturesque niceties, was soon occupied with more modest excursions into the English countryside. In search of landscape, landscape gardens and the galleries of mansions, tourists were aided by new guidebooks and characteristics of a woman much improved roads to get them there.

A dramatic democratic appreciation of landscape was at last being realised, with travellers, invariably, carrying sketch-book and Claude Glass. The Claude Glass, a convex mirror of what is computer storage about four inches diameter with tinted filters and bound up like a pocket-book, effectively compressed and framed landscapes. Analogous to the camera in these film-free days, the user was obviously obliged to turn his back on good woman, the scene to observe the civil war north, framed and filtered view. Hugh Sykes Davies, in his recent analysis of the Picturesque and Wordsworth, offers the following comment: “It is very typical of good woman their attitude to Nature that such a position should be desirable” (223). Indeed, as we shall see, the comment is what is computer storage merely typical of Davies’ view of the Picturesque. Timothy Brownlow, in good John Clare and participant observation examples Picturesque Landscape , offers a similar comment, all the more mockery for its parentheticality: “As an artist, he [Clare] casts aside, as it were, the Claude Glass (whose user had to turn his back on the landscape)” (13).

Malcolm Andrews, whose In Search for the Picturesque generally circumvents any romantic exploration, consequently offers a more useful note: The imagination as an “intellectual lens” approximates it to the Claude Glass, which can modify and enhance a particular landscape. All the special properties of the Glass are present in Coleridge’s well-known account of the origins of his poetic collaboration with Wordsworth and good their agreement about the two cardinal points of poetry: “the power of exciting the sympathy of the reader by what storage, a faithful adherence to the truth of nature, and the power of characteristics of a good woman giving the interest of novelty by the modifying colours of the imagination.” (71) Support for the Claude Glass as imaginative metaphor comes from Claude himself, who was as willing as able to composite the Essay on Symbolic Implications Jackson, actual with the imaginary: Pastoral Landscape with Ponte Molle (1645), for example (see figure 1), represents a view of the pope’s summer residence. . . . The foreground is imaginary, but the palace is fairly accurately portrayed. The castle-like building bathed in sunlight is good woman a forerunner of the highlighted castles in the middle ground so beloved of Gilpin. (Bicknell, 4) The Picturesque tourists offer moving evidence that the Picturesque became as widespread as it was popular. Indeed, the eighteenth century is matched only by the twentieth for the per capita number of country house visits. At Hawkstone in Shropshire, for example, “there were so many visitors to participant examples, the dramatically landscaped park that in of a c. 1790 an hotel was built to learned, accommodate them” (Watkin, vii). David Watkin, who examines the Picturesque from the prospect of art historian, similarly provides an analysis inscribed by positivism, unequivocally stating that “theory and practice of the good, Picturesque constitute the major English contribution to European aesthetics” (vii); and my paper for me free that “the Picturesque became the leading building-type in post-Reformation England and has long been recognised as the nation’s principle contribution to the arts” (vii).

“In the intervening two hundred years since its discussion . . . the Picturesque has been altered and extended in characteristics of a good many ways. Along the Essay on Sports, way it has acquired a pejorative tint” (Robinson, xii). Categorical and “pejorative” statements: “The cultural games of the picturesque” (Woodring, viii); “The vogue of the picturesque” (Nevious, 33); “Comic and faddish as much of the theory appears in retrospect” (Brownlow, 43); W.M. Merchant’s common “cult” (9) epithet; as well as the characteristics of a good, supercilious Davies, who extends this negation to the present, saying “The modern tourists . . . pass through the country at a rate never dreamed of by learned, Gray and West, seeing nothing, and of a good woman apparently feeling even less” (226), all fail to recognise that this appetite to sample and and Politics develop a taste for landscape was redolent of a general change in aesthetic sense. In fact, the modern tourist, in the route he selects and with each viewfinder frame often reveals the influence of the Picturesque. By the start of the of a good woman, nineteenth century, recognition of picturesqueness had becomeand remainssecond nature.[6] Landscape Artists Abroad. Salvator Rosa (1615-73)

As mentioned, Salvator Rosa, Neapolitan painter, etcher, satirical poet and actor, was crucial to the development of the Picturesque and also provides an advantages, early link with romantic poetry. In addition to his landscapes, which portrayed the feral and of a good fierce of Essay and Politics nature (see figure 3), Salvator displayed a penchant for appalling subjectswitches and monsters, meditations upon death and so oninspiring such romantic painters as Barry, Fuseli and characteristics woman Mortimer, and finding poetic expression in the romantic inclination towards the Implications in The by Shirley, gothic and graveyard melancholy. Lady Mortgan’s The Life and Times of Salvator Rosa , published in of a good 1824, depicted the Essay in The by Shirley Jackson, artist as a legendary figure hobnobbing with bandits and joining a popular uprising in Naples, establishing him as the quintessential romantic artist: an outlaw encamped with darkness and despair, whose bravura with the characteristics, brush was symptomatic of a burning artistic brilliance inimical to convention. Eighteenth century literary explorations of the Picturesque are literally laden with references to Salvator: “What’er Lorrain light touched with softening hue / Or savage Rosa dashed, or learned Poussin drew” ( Castel of Indolence I, XXXVIII). Claude Lorrain (1600-1682) Claude Lorrain, although French, spent his adult life in Rome. Claude was undoubtedly the greatest master of ideal-landscape painting, which seeks to present nature as surnature and concording with the habitual “improvement” of the Picturesque vision. In addition, Claude’s landscapes often contain classical ruinsan initial point of entry for English neo-classicists who required some token scrap of Rome or Athensa key element modified in the Picturesque movement to accommodate native ruinsboth genuine and artificial.[7] Besides his fundamental importance to the Picturesque movement, Claude, like Salvator, exhibited a less direct though nonetheless certain connection with romantic poetry, with his much acclaimed poetic rendering of light.

As E. B. Greenshields, Landscape Painting and Modern Dutch Artists , states, “if one artist were to be chosen as founder of modern landscape painting, that title would be rightly given to Claude” (15). Within the neo-classical/romantic context, John Ruskin offers the following: The love of neatness and precision, as opposed to all disorder, maintains itself down to Raphael's childhood without the slightest interference of any other feeling; and it is intelligence not until Claude's time, and owing in great part to his influence, that the new feeling distinctly establishes itself. English scenery, initially, existed as a back-drop to continental landscape paintings in much the same way as landscape initially provided only the setting for of a good woman human pictorial narratives. Write My Paper? In a comparison between Dovedale and Keswick, Dr. John Brown wrote: Were I to analyse the two places in their constituent principles, I shoud tell you, that the full perfection of Keswick, consists of three circumstances, beauty, horror and immensity united; the second of which is alone found in Dovedale. Characteristics Of A Woman? . . . But to give you a complete idea of these three perfections, as they are joined in Keswick, would require the civil, united powers of Claude, Salvator Rosa and Poussin. The first should throw his delicate sunshine over the cultivated vales, the scattered cots, the groves, the lake, and the wooded island. The second should dash out the horror of the rugged cliffs, the steep, the characteristics of a good, hanging woods, and foaming water-falls; while the is computer, grand pencil of Poussin should crown the whole with the majesty of the impending mountains. (qtd.

Davies, 218) The original works of this scanty collection of good Italian painters only write my paper free, partly explain the extensive aesthetic transformation in remote England. Walpole mentions in his Anecdotes several foreign landscape painters living and working in England during the characteristics good, late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. [8] These included Henry Dankers, employed by Charles II as a topographical artist and Francesco Zuccarelli, who visited England twice, lived in London for five years and observation became a foundation member of the Royal Academy. Thomas Manby, an characteristics of a, Englishman who studied in Italy, brought back the customary collection of paintings to add to Essay Implications Lottery by Shirley, his own works. In addition, the enormous popularity of these artists, especially Claude, led to countless copies and even copies of copies. Less duplicitous was the invention of prints and the development of engraving to characteristics of a woman, high art, making the landscapes of the masters as common as the observation examples, furrowed tellurian landscapes of the peasants (see figures 1 and characteristics 2 ). Where the canvas could be known, often imprecisely, by only a few hundred privileged, the print could be known intimately by the massed thousands. Indeed, print collecting”No person of participant examples Taste could be without a collection of prints” (Manwaring, 84)became itself a popular pastime. Also, “the amateur landscape painter had begun to flourish before the seventeenth century closed, and long continued to flourish increasingly” (Manwaring, 8). The stylistically idealised quality of Claude and characteristics of a woman Salvator’s paintings provided the inspiration for civil the Picturesque movement and was then modified as the English Picturesque developed, essentially becoming an idealisation of a nature that was rapidly vanishing and celebrating a rural way of life that was being lost.

A Picturesque Definition. Perhaps the earliest explicit statement on the Picturesque comes from William Kent in his 1709 Memorandum on the preservation of Woodstock Manor: That part of the Park which is seen from the North Front of the new building has little variety of objects nor does the country beyond it afford any of characteristics of a woman value. It therefore stands in need of all the helps that can be given. . . . Write For Me? Buildings and Plantations. These rightly dispos’d will indeed supply all the characteristics of a good woman, wants of Nature in that place. And the most agreeable disposition is to mix them: in which this old Manour gives so happy an occasion for; that were the enclosures filled with Trees (principally fine Yews and Hollys) promiscuously set to grow up in a wild thicket, so that all the buildings left might appear in two risings amongst ’em, it would make one of the Essay Implications in The Lottery, most agreeable objects that the best of Landskip painters can invent. Good Woman? (qtd. Watson, 17)

From this early beginningremarkably loaded with what would eventually become the nitty-gritty of is computer picturesque idiom: variety, wants of nature, mix, wild, thicket; and concepts: a harmony of characteristics of a good woman architecture and natural surroundings and comparison with landscape paintingsthe unfamiliar story of Picturesque development reads rather like the recorded exploits of an ancient relation discovered in a dusty chest, while categorical definitions have all the intelligence, interest of his bleached bones. Unfortunately, ubiquitousness and over-familiarity has essentially starved the term of any useful sense and to flesh out that skeletal frame becomes a matter of of a good woman Hobson’s choice. So what does “picturesque” really mean? As late as 1794, Uvedale Price wrote: “There are few words whose meaning has been less accurately determined than that of the war north advantages, word picturesque” ( On the Picturesque , 77). [9] Whether or not we accept J. R. Watson's hypothesis, in Picturesque Landscape and English romantic Poetry , that this perioddespite being the most prolific in picturesque studies, picturesque tours and characteristics woman picturesque allusionsactually marks the decline of the what is computer storage, movement (a somewhat strange notion considering Turner’s Picturesque series is characteristics good still decades away), it seems obvious that the Essay and Politics, time was indeed ripe for of a good woman some clear definition. Unfortunately, the multi-disciplinary nature of the subject means that no nut-shell, no matter how perfectly nutty, can contain a definition fair and learned useful. Of A Good? The stress here then is selectivity, surveying concepts intrinsic to Picturesque theory that reveals strong romantic links and usually glossed-over in modern literary criticism. William Gilpin (1724-1804) Perhaps the most succinct definition of Picturesque comes from learned intelligence, Reverend William Gilpin's Essay on of a good woman, Prints (1768): “ . Civil War North Advantages? . . Characteristics Of A Good Woman? a term expressive of that peculiar kind of beauty, which is agreeable in a picture”(xii). War North? This simple statement is modified by the notion of “picturesque grace,” meaning “an agreeable form which may be given to a clownish figure”(xii): that stylistic rendition found in “Berghem's clowns, and in Callot's beggars”(29). Thus, in characteristics woman this simplest of beginnings, the Picturesque relates both to the elements in a scene as well as the artist's treatment of his subject.

Essay on Essay and Politics, Prints provides a broad examination of art and compositional analysis; and of a good woman Watson's suggestion that for most of the period this definition “was sufficient” seems sufficient only for Essay on Sports and Politics those unwilling to read the book. Gilpin himself, recognising the fribblish finish, offers some restoration in Three Essays: On Picturesque Beauty, On Picturesque Travel, and On Sketching Landscape (1792) . The accepted definition of beautymost often marked by smoothness and unitywas established by Edmund Burke in A Philosophical Inquiry into the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). Recognising that scenes beautiful according to this definition were usually unsuitable subjects for the pencil, Gilpin considered the Picturesque composed of roughness, irregularity and variety. In addition, Gilpin disagrees with Burke’s conclusions on the beautiful and sublime, where the effect of the former is pleasure, the of a good, latter astonishment and that the two, discovered in write my paper for me free a single object, cause mutual destruction. Of A? In reference to Ullswater, Gilpin writes: “Among all the visions of this enchanted country, we had seen nothing so beautifully sublime, so correctly picturesque, as this” ( Three Essays , 52). The juxtaposition of beautiful and sublime is both deliberate, andas any present-day hiker in this region will attestaccurate.[10] Indeed, the mix of beauty and sublimity, producing the Picturesque, seems to on Symbolic by Shirley Jackson, be the gist of Dr. John Brown’s “beauty, horror and immensity united.” As John Ruskin suggests, “this sublimity may be either in mere external ruggedness, and other visible character, or it may lie deeper, in characteristics of a good woman an expression of sorrow and old age, attributes which are both sublime”

By defining the principle characteristics of the Picturesque, besides underlining the main weakness of Burke’s theory, Three Essays also achieved dubious honour of virtually codifying picturesque theory.[11] The Picturesque was finally composed of such illustrative elements as ruins à la Claudecottages, villages, twisting tracks; with roughness, intricacy, sudden variation, abruptness, foreground, middleground and learned intelligence background forming the more abstract and general Picturesque paradigm. Gilpin's Picturesque musings, however, exceeded the characteristics of a woman, catalogue of elements and rules of composition, and in this often overlooked material Gilpin’s especial merit becomes clear. For all the asseverations on artistic theory, it was the visual art itself which most concerned Gilpin and explains the focus of his philosophy. Words,, Gilpin insists, cannot mark the characteristic distinctions of each scene, the touches of natureher living tintsher endless varieties, both in what form and colour.In a word, all the elegant peculiarities are beyond their reach. The pencil, it is true, offers a more perfect mode of description. ( Observations , 10) Indeed, the peculiar strength of language rests elsewhere, and the adoption of Picturesque sensibilities by the poet mustby the very nature of characteristics good woman his mediumresult in an altered expression and examples not, to foreshadow central critical dogma, a transcending expression. Besides this conclusionwhich literary scholars might find presumptuousGilpin keenly discerned the importance of the imaginative faculty: “. . . Characteristics? we may be pleased with the description, and the picture. But the soul can feel neither, unless the force of our own imagination aid the poet's, or the painter's art; exalt the idea, and on Sports and Politics picture things unseen” ( Observations , 10). Reading poetry, viewing painting, it is the imagination which provides fullest meaning; and it is imagination also which accompanies Gilpin through the Lake District:

The evening . . Of A Woman? . grew more tempestuous . . . amid the obscurity, which now overshadowed the landscape, the imagination was left at large; and civil war north advantages painted many images, which perhaps did not really exist. . . . Every great and pleasing form, which we had seen during the day, now played, in strong imagery before the fancy; as when the grand chorus ceases, ideal music vibrates on the ear. ( Observations , 19) Gilpin here describes the participation of active imagination both in reading poetry, viewing paintings, and exploring landscape. Followers of the Picturesque then, at least according to Gilpin, are involved with elemental matter both external and internal. Good? Figure 4, for example, offers an unusual composition where the two figures “may be supposed to see the continuation of a landscape down the valley . Advantages? . . and this gives a sort of characteristics good woman clue to the imagination” (qtd. Bicknell, 38). Indeed, the learned intelligence, bridge leads the eye outside the frame and it is the unseen which initiates the woman, imagination as much as the seen. In addition, Gilpin suggests picturesque tourists with an artistic drift should side-step exact copy and superinduce through the imagination and awareness of Implications Lottery by Shirley picturesque aesthetics: in a sense, the tableau should improve upon nature’s raw material.

Hiking the lower lake of Buttermere, for of a woman example, Gilpin says: “Nothing is wanting but a little more wood, to make this lake, and the vale in examples which it lies, a very enchanting scene”[12]( Observations , 3). Although instances such as this provide fodder for characteristics woman scholars hungry to highlight the learned, absurdity of the characteristics of a woman, Picturesque vision, where actual landscape is compared with ideal landscape painting, the methodology actually involves processing nature through artistic sensibility. Indeed, such comments reveal the Claudian concept of ideal landscape to be never further than the next hill. Heading towards Ullswater, Gilpin writes: “Except the mountains, nothing in all this scenery is great ; but every part is filled with the sweet engaging passages of nature” ( Observations , 8). Here, “passages” suggests poetryindeed, several lines of verse followand Gilpin, despite his acute sense of the visual, infers that landscape, painting and poetry are all, deucedly and inextricably, mixed.

Published in 1792, it pre-dates Wordsworth’s Lyrical Ballads by six years and intelligence the poet’s own Guide to the Lakes by characteristics of a good woman, eighteen. Gilpin, as a clergyman, was naturally concerned the amorality of the Picturesque. Davies, in learned an exhibition of ignorance and forgetfulness, quotes Gilpin’s comment on the lakeland shepherd: “But the life of the shepherd, in this country, is of a good woman not an Arcadian life. His occupation subjects him to many difficulties . . .” (qtd. Intelligence? Davies, 228), subsequently suggesting he afforded no interest in the people who live in landscape! In fact, Gilpin, as we shall see, was personally concerned with the good, well-being of country people and openly acknowledged that the learned intelligence, Picturesque stood outside ethical concerns: In a moral light, cultivation, in all its parts, is pleasing; the hedge and furrow, the waving corn field, and rows of ripened Sheaves. But all these, the good woman, Picturesque eye, in quest of scenes of grandeur, and beauty, looks as with disgust . . . thus the lazy cow herd, resting on his pole; or the peasant lolling on a rock, may be allowed in the grandest scenes; while the laborous mechanic, with his implements of labour, would be repulsed.” ( Observations, Cumberland , 45) This then is the Picturesque, not Gilpin himself. Participant Observation? Gilpin, a school-master, required years of persuasion from friends before agreeing to publish his manuscripts. Subsequent royalties funded a school, “to remedy the conditions of ignorance and squalor” (Manwaring, 184) founded within the boundaries of his rural parish.

In contrasting urban and rural life, picturesque representations inadvertently suggested a conflict between the reality of children's lives and projected adult attitudes. Many such picturesincluding Thomas Gainsborough's cottage series[13]share a romanticised notion of the countryside as an of a good, innocent, idyllic environment. What Is Computer? While presenting children in tattered clothing, the effect is picturesque rather than moral. The very same, of course, can be said of much romantic poetry. Gilpin, often the object of narrow-view animadversion, not only recognises the problem but selflessly provides some correction. Despite Gilpin's rule and dogmameasure for measure no more insidious than a modern “How-To” bookhis Picturesque views display a diversity to which the satirists were forced to characteristics of a good, turn a blind eye; an acknowledgement that is as much in accord with romantic contemplation as Picturesque investigation. From 1768 onwards, Gilpin undertook full many provincial journeys in search of the Picturesque, producing a series of illustrated guide books which often suggested specific “stations”places providing ideal perspective of picturesque vistas. These guides, including Wye and South Wales (1782) and write my paper for me the Lake District (1789), were paramount in the popularisation of the Picturesque as a means of viewing nature and are, of themselves, indicative of the characteristics good woman, popularity of picturesque tourism.[14] As Watkin suggests, “Gilpin’s numerous topographical books were essentially a preparation for my paper for me free intelligent critical visiting, for the Picturesque presupposes a society which was interested in of a woman nature and in art and, above all, in travelling (vii). In conclusion, Gilpin's introduction to Essays provides the following clarification which modern critics might gainfully peruse: . . . On Symbolic Implications In The Lottery? we picturesque people are a little misunderstood with regard to our general intention . I have several times been surprised at finding us represented, as supposing all beauty to consist in picturesque beauty and the face of nature to characteristics of a woman, be examined only by the rules of painting. Whereas, in fact, we always speak a different language.

We speak of the write free, grand scenes of nature, though interesting in a picturesque light , as having a strong effect upon the imagination . . . Characteristics? we everywhere make distinctions between scenes, that are beautiful , and amusing , and Lottery scenes that are picturesque. ( i-ii) Followers of the Picturesqueand their numbers were legionwere concerned with a general appreciation of landscape and nature, though particularly those scenes formed of picturesque elements. The Picturesque scene was of of a good woman more intense interest to painters, poets and participant observation travellers for the simple reason that the Picturesque scene is a scene more intense in its capacity to provoke and induce reflection. Characteristics Good? And finally, Gilpin offers a warning: Let not inborn pride, Presuming on thy own inventive powers,

Mislead thine eye from Nature. She must reign. Great archetype in all. ( On Landscape Painting: A Poem , 26-30) Uvedale Price (1747-1829) This capacity to provoke is an essential element in Essay on Sports and Politics the theories of Uvedale Price. Characteristics Woman? Like Gilpin, Price adopts Burke's analysis of beauty: uniformity of surface, gradual variation and so on; as well as Gilpin's own analysis of picturesqueness: roughness, sudden variation, irregularity etc. Price, however, takes exception to pictorially-based definition, suggesting that the Picturesque is related to painting only accidentally: That term, as we may judge from its etymology, is applied only to objects of sight; and, indeed, in so confined a manner as to be supposed merely to have a reference to write, the art from which it is named. I am well convinced however, that the name and characteristics reference only are limited and uncertain, and that the qualities which make objects picturesque, are not only as distinct as those which make them beautiful or sublime, but are equally extended to all our sensations by whatever organs they are received; and that musicthough it appears like a solecismmay be as truly picturesque, according to the general principles of Essay on Symbolic in The Jackson picturesqueness, as it may be beautiful or sublime, according to those of beauty or sublimity. ( On the Picturesque , 79-80) Price also states: “Whoever studies art alone, will have a narrow pedantic manner of considering all objects” (3), stressing the importance also of “the mistress of all art” (4), Nature herself.

Price is here drawing attention to characteristics, the ocular bias of William Payne Knightintroduced belowas part and parcel of a protracted debate. Strange then that Davies should insist that for on Sports and Politics Gilpin landscape’s “appeal is to the eye . . . only characteristics woman, through the eye” (230). Heretically, in what a topsy-turvey turn around and about Ullswater, Gilpin’s mentions the music of the winds and good tempest, “the echoes excited . . . in different parts of intelligence [the] lake” ( Observations, Cumberland , 59). In addition, he tells the tale of the Duke of Portland, who owned a vessel fitted with brass cannons designed for characteristics of a good woman the purpose of producing echoes. “Such a variety,” he suggests, “of awful sounds, mixing and commixing, and at learned intelligence the same moment heard from all sides, have a wonderful effect on the mind” ( Observations, Cumberland, 61). Another example of the auditory factor in the picturesque is Hagley, Lord Lyttelton’s estate, the locale in which Thomson revised and rewrote The Seasons which, besides the artificial ruins, featured a stream carefully designed for maximum gurgleability. Price seeks to take something of the picture from Picturesque, considering it a new category of aesthetic values added to Burke's beautiful and sublime.

. . . Characteristics Good? picturesqueness appears to hold a station between beauty and sublimity; and, on that count, perhaps, is more frequently, and more happily blended with them both, than they are with each other. It is, however, perfectly distinct from on Symbolic Implications in The Lottery Jackson, either. Beauty and picturesqueness are indeed evidently founded on very opposite qualities; the one on smoothness, the other on woman, roughness; the one on participant observation, gradual, the characteristics good, other on Essay and Politics, sudden variation; the one on ideas of of a good youth and and Politics freshness, the other on those of age, and even of good woman decay. ( On the Picturesque , 90) Again, this is only a modificationan engradisementof Gilpin. Unlike Gilpin’s nation-wide pursuit of the Picturesque, Price concentrated his aesthetic energies upon the picturesqueification of manor gardens; and it is here that the two part company. In fact, it was William Kent, painter, architect and factotum of the Earl of Burlington, who led the revolt against the artificial symmetry of gardens, (see figure 5 ), modifying, in 1734, the gardens at Chiswick House with a meandering stream and an irregular path. Price adopted Kent's early ideas and developed a more expansive theory of write my paper picturesque landscaping, arguing in On the Picturesque (1794), that gardens should imitate landscape paintings and that the gardener and painter each aspire to the improvement of natureagain, the familiar idea of Nature as archetype which might be improved through art. Though inspired by Claude and Salvator, Price also aspired, as suggested above, towards the guiding hand of raw nature and characteristics of a woman offered pragmatic suggestions of picturesque effects landowners might attempt.

Unfortunately, Price’s own effect over actual landscapes was severely limited by my paper for me, the very nature of his improvements, many of which required decades to reach full decay. If the patrician Price failed to effect solid change in the English manor landscape, he nevertheless bequeathed a more ironic and widespread legacy: just as “the picturesque sketch promoted naturalism in landscape painting” (Bermingham, 67), Price’s notions fostered a new naturalism in woman gardeningadvocating the wild, the dramatic, the “accident” of civil war north advantages nature: a withered tree, a half-submerged branch breaking the surface of a pooland continued the democratisation of the Picturesque aesthetic. Characteristics Of A Woman? Condemned by some contemporaries for taking wildness too far, Price ultimately won a vox populi approval. Indeed, the art of Essay picturesque gardening was soon exported: “. . . the continent, about of a good woman 1770, began to adopt widely the English . . . Write My Paper? fashion; and works in French and Italian were added to the copious literature of landscape gardening” (Manwaring, 121). The clash between aesthetic and characteristics good woman utilityessentially the moral dimensionwas particularly trenchant for Price, whose expertise was firmly fixed in the land itself.

In reference to thatched cottages, for example, he suggests: “It is no less picturesque, when mossy, ragged, and sunk in among the Implications, rafters in decay; a species of characteristics good that character, however, which the keenest lover of it would rather see on another's property than on his own” ( On the Picturesque , 398). To this, the zealous and sometimes verbose editor of the 1842 edition interpolates: I confess, that after considerable experience, I have been completely cured of my romantic attachment to thatch. If the roof of a cottage be well formed, and well projected, so as to throw a deep shadow over the wall beneath it, I do not conceive that it will be necessary to thatch it, in order to add to its picturesque effect, at the risk of diminishing the learned intelligence, comfort of the poor inmates. (398) Price the gentleman farmer, occupied with increased production and the maximisation of land use, appears, Ann Bermingham points out, as something of a contradiction to Price the promoter of characteristics woman picturesque aesthetics, biased towards the nostalgic, the antiquated, the rustic, the write for me free, dilapidated and the inefficient. The contradiction though seems somewhat delusive and is perhaps suggestive of the transformation of the paternal landlord-tenant relationship, with the picturesque manor garden now forming a physical boundary between aesthetic and productive nature.

Richard Payne Knight (1750-1824) Richard Payne Knight, who owned the most valuable collection of Claudes in of a good woman Europe and whose interests were eclectic, [15] provides still another perspective. In, The Landscape: a Didactic Poem in Three Books , he refutes compositional analysis, instead seeing art as a “magic power”(8) which defies analysis and rule: Curse on participant, the pedant jargon, that defines. Beauty's unbounded forms to given lines!

With scorn eternal mark the cautious fool. Who dares not judge till he consults his rule! Or when, Salvator from characteristics good woman, thy daring hand. Appears, in and Politics burnished arms, some savage band, Each figure boldly pressing into life, And breathing blood, calamity, and strife, Should cold measure each component part. And judge thy genius by a surgeons art. (6-7) Knight also disagrees with Price’s multi-sensory theory, believing that the characteristics of a good, Picturesque “is merely that kind of beauty which belongs exclusively to is computer storage, the sense of vision; or to the imagination guided by that sense” [16] ( On the characteristics of a woman, Picturesque , 500). Knight provides a curious blend of neo-classicalwith his didactic poem festooned in rhyming couplets and his notions of Essay and Politics “taste”and romantic, a clear sign of the transition underway:

Such too the Sicyonian sculptor taught. To model motion, and embody thought; Pure abstract beauty's fleeting shades to trace. And fix the image of characteristics good woman ideal grace: Combining what he felt with what he saw. (5-6) Besides his emphasis upon “feeling” in the almost magical and almost irrational production of art, Knight points towards the dangers of fashion: Straight lines were the fashion of the last century, and the curved ones are the fashion of this, and an indiscriminate adherence to the fashion of the participant examples, day, what ever it happens to be, with a supercilious contempt for characteristics good all who venture to dissent from it, is the my paper free, never failing characteristic of the vanity, separated from the feeling, or discernment, of taste. The advocate for the curve lines would have been as much ridiculed in the last century as the advocate for straight ones in this; and with equal reason; for characteristics of a the indiscriminate use of Essay on Sports either is equally bad. Many of the compositions of Nicholas Poussin show the grand effect which may be produced by the judicious use of straight lines. but the characteristics woman, too general use of and Politics them was still more fatal to picturesque beauty, than the late senseless destruction of them has been.

It belongs to the real improver to discriminate where the straight, and where the curve line will best suit the characteristics of a good woman, composition; and it is this talent of war north discrimination which distinguishes the liberal artist from the mechanic. (fn 11) Here, “faddish” (Brownlow, 43) modern appraisals typified also by the “vogue of the picturesque” (Nevious, 33) are clearly drawn and quartered by of a good, Knight’s properly considered execution of Picturesque principles which supersede transient newfangledness and commemorate the sempiternal. Knight's fixation upon “taste,” and “discrimination,” are reminiscent of the superciliousness of a Pope or a Swift, though his distinction between the write for me, mechanic and liberal artistone who follows no rules besides those which the magic spirit of art suggestsoffers a place within the romantic arena. Knight, like Price, was accused of wild neglect in his landscape theories: an indication indeed of the distance separating the new naturalism from the old neo-classicism. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, Knight insists that the transplanting and mimicking of Italian landscapeboth real or paintedshould finally be abandoned in preference to compositions which adopt Picturesque principles and native scenes:

Nor, plac’d beneath our cool and characteristics good wat’ry sky. Attempt the glowing tints of Italy: For thus compell’d in Essay mem’ry to confide, Or blindly follow some preceding guide, One common track it still pursues, And crudely copies what it never views . . . . (309-314)

The work of Price and Knight, though perhaps less interesting a read than Gilpin, augmented the characteristics of a good woman, Picturesque phenomenon to a point where it was not only the talk of the town but of the estate and village. Watson’s assessment that “it is difficult to regard it as much more than a sterile ending,” (21) reveals perhaps a certain sterility in his own point of view rather than providing any useful conclusion. Lancelot Brown (1716-83) Lancelot “Capability” Brown, though embroiled in the Picturesque debate, essentially helped define the write free, Picturesque by negation: Brownian improvement replaced the artificiality of neo-classical landscape gardens with a new artificiality based either upon Burke’s principles of beauty or Brown’s singular notions born orphan and condemned to permanent infancy. Fundamentally, Brown’s style, though claiming nature as its inspiration, was no less unnatural than, for example, Knole, Nymphenburg or Le Notre's Versailles. If the “improvements” of Price and Knight might take decades to develop, the bumbling “Capability” Brown provided expeditious transformations priced by the yard and complete the day after tomorrow. Gilpin himself comments upon this: This is the first subject of the kind he [Brown] has attempted . Woman? . . but a ruin presents a new idea; which I doubt whether he has sufficiently considered . My Paper Free? . . [His lake] is too magnificent, and characteristics good too artificial an Essay on Symbolic, appendage, to be in unison with the ruins of an abbey. An abbey, it is true, may stand by the side of a lake; and it is possible that this lake may, in some future time, become its situation; when the marks of the good woman, spade and the pick-axe are removed,when its osiers flourish; and its naked banks become fringed and write covered with wood . . Characteristics Of A Good? . the what is computer storage, ruin stands now on a neat bowling-green like a house just built, and without any kind of connection with the of a good, ground it stands on. (qtd. Watkin, 48)

Brown designed his landscapes according to his own simple understanding of learned nature's harmonies and gradients, featuring vast expanses of grass, irregularly shaped bodies of water, and clumpified tree groupings. As a consequence, Brown eventually became the of a woman, object of what storage general ridicule: On one occasion Owen Cambridge remarked, “I wish I may die before you, Mr. Characteristics Of A Good Woman? Brown.” “Why so?” inquired the puzzled but flattered Brown. “Because,” came the Essay, reply, “I should like to see heaven before you have improved it.” (qtd. Good? Hussey, 139) Brown clearly and entirely personified the halting and maladroit neo-classical Picturesque, an Essay on Symbolic Implications in The, awkward attempt to characteristics of a woman, plant a round tree in a square hole; and his importance stems partly from the middleground his improvements occupied, and partly from the antithetical virtue of advantages something which is not providing a point of reference to something which is. The Philosophical Context. The Grand Tour, the of a good, importation of souvenir landscape paintings and the increasingly popular provincial trips provide the Essay on Sports, foundation for all this Picturesque inquiry; but there was additionally a general philosophical investigation which offered a provocative and conducive milieu. Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814) equated God with the natural order of the world; Wilhelm Wackenroder's Effusions of an characteristics of a, Art-Loving Friar (1773-1798) proposed the existence of two Divine languages, the first reserved for solely for God, the second composed of two components: Nature and Arta kind of bilingualism for the unilingual. Together, these ideas brought some balance to the traditional Christian bias against nature. Most important was Burke’s (1729-1797) aforementioned theory of the sublime: the ultimate experience of divinity, composed of awe, fear and enlightenment, and produced by the contemplation of potent and alarming nature.

The effect of visible objects on the passions, clearly, is not only the concern of write my paper for me Burke, but lies at good woman the heart also of Picturesque theory.[17] In effect, these philosophical theories began either to intellectualise landscape and civil war north naturea process continued by the Picturesque school, which allowed a less restricted participationor attached to it theological importance (see figure 6) where once was seen irreverence. Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840), for example, exhibited Cross in good the Mountains in 1808: a landscape intended as an altarpiece for a private chapel. Learned Intelligence? Critics initially condemned this as sacrilegious. Friedrich's own interpretation of the picture identified the natural images as symbols for religious beliefs: “The Cross stands erected on a rock unshakeably firm as our faith in Jesus Christ. Evergreen, enduring through all ages, the firs stand round the cross, like the hope of of a mankind in learned intelligence Him”( Encyclopaedia Britannica ). Landscape and landscape paintings, through these developments, were deemed to woman, be intellectually and religiously interesting and thus offered a respectability previously unknown. Importantly, the what is computer storage, religious angle provided only an initial entry point in what was finally to become an amoral and secular aesthetic. Returning to the properly Picturesque, Thomas West’s Guide to the Lakes, in Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire , first published in 1778, displays the characteristics woman, religious overtones of landscape within the context of the war north, urban/rural dichotomy: Such as spend their lives in cities, and their time in crouds will here meet with objects that will enlarge the mind, by contemplation, and raise it from nature to nature’s first cause. Whoever takes a walk into these scenes must return penetrated with a sense of the creator’s power in woman heaping mountains upon mountains, and enthroning rocks upon rocks. And such exhibitions of sublime and beautiful objects cannot but excite at once both rapture and reverence. Learned? (4)

Although religion, ultimately, would be banished from the Picturesque scene, initially such inclusion provided justification and absolution for the new focus on characteristics of a woman, landscape. Within the intelligence, larger context, the developing interest in landscape painting and landscape itself comes as no surprise and the romantic school of poetry was essentially a natural progression as inevitable as the wooded shadows cast by a brilliant dawn. Landscape Painters Autochtonous. As we have seen, the characteristics of a good, appreciation of intelligence landscape was one which required learning, and it was through landscape painting and painters that this skill was initially acquired. Thomas Gainsborough (1727-88) Thomas Gainsborough, perhaps the earliest and certainly most highly regarded pioneer of picturesque English landscape painting, emerged as.

the most significant landscape painter of the century. Whereas the work of characteristics Wilson, the “English Claude,” could be accommodated within the familiar art-history tradition of landscape painting, Gainsborough’s art inspired insights that ran counter to the academic notions of Essay on Sports paintings. . . . (Bermingham, 58) Gainsborough “gave landscape the status of pure painting: private, personal” (Bermingham 43). Characteristics? Rejecting portraiture, with its congenital mandate for poetic license, conjured to placate a patron, rather than artistic integrity, Gainsborough believed that the material of intelligence landscape allowed “. Characteristics? . . the artist freely to exercise his imagination” (Bermingham 44).[18] In his later work, Gainsborough offered ever more subjective and sentimental subjects: the cottage, the sublimity of sea, of mountain, and the innocence of children, each finding a correspondence in such poems as Wordsworth’s “The Ruined Cottage,” “Ode: Intimations of Immortality,” “Farewell though little Nook of for me mountain ground” and “We Are Seven.” In the decades after his death in 1788, a veritable inversion of taste had occurred, with critics and sensible folk alike increasingly praising landscape over portraits. Gainsborough rejected predefined artistic traditions, embraced English rural subject matter as “a direct response to nature” (Bermingham 58), and established an of a good woman, affinity with the Picturesque well beyond that of either Claude or Salvator. If, as Hussey suggests, Claude, Salvator and others caused a revolution in the appreciation of scenery and civil advantages nature, then Gainsborough landed that rebellion on the home front, adopting English countryside and scenes with a subjective reconnaissance which sought to discover their innate truth. J M W Turner (1775-1851) Joseph Mallord William Turner was principally influenced by Claude, and so, not surprisingly, painted a host of picturesque scenes whose mythological and historical subjects are guaranteed to warm even the coldest cockles of the neo-classicist: Dido Building Carthage , The Bay of Baiae with Apollo and the Sibyl and Ulysses Deriding Polyphemus , to characteristics good, name only a few.

And yet the subjects themselves tell only Essay Implications by Shirley, half the characteristics of a woman, story, for these were indeed Picturesque canvases with atmospheric effects suggestive of participant observation examples Claude (see figure 7) and foreshadowing impressionistic treatment. Turner then demonstrates the tenacity of neo-classical material in paintings; but also the movement towards a more individual and romantic approach: in of a good woman place of mere factual recording, Turner translated scenes into my paper for me, a light-filled expression of his own romantic outlook. Other paintings, like Buttermere Lake: A Shower , from around 1798, as well as Turner’s extensive touring of England and Scotland during the same period, show a sensitivity to the nationalistic climate inherent in the Picturesque movement. Turner, like Salvator, was himself something of a romantic figure: claiming no close friends, painting in characteristics absolute privacy, spending months in solitude and always travelling alone. When persuaded to sell his paintings, Turner suffered days of dejection. Finally, Turner left a large fortune which he hoped would support what he called “decaying artists”a picturesque appellation if ever there was one.

What makes Turner particularly interesting is his treatment of the sublime and its Picturesque ramifications. John Ruskin has a unique and write convincing view of this which explains the strength of the Picturesque and partly infinitesimallyaccounts for the modern literary bias: . . . Characteristics Of A Woman? if this outward sublimity be sought for by the painter, without any regard for the real nature of the thing, and without any comprehension of the pathos of advantages character hidden beneath, it forms the low school of the surface-picturesque; that which fills ordinary drawing-books and scrap-books, and employs, perhaps, the most popular living landscape painters of France, England, and characteristics good Germany. But if these same outward characters be sought for in subordination to the inner character of the object, every source of pleasurableness being refused which is incompatible with that, while perfect sympathy is felt at the same time with the free, object as to all that it tells of characteristics of a woman itself in those sorrowful by-words, we have the school of true or noble picturesque. To extend this analysis, it is an acute sympathy which separates middling artists of the Picturesque from the on Sports and Politics, Turners and the Wordsworths; it is, to adopt Ruskin’s terminology, the difference between high and low Picturesque. Although Turner unlike Wordsworthemployed both sketches and memory, a similar temporal distancing from characteristics of a woman, subject is common to Essay and Politics, their respective methodologies: The sketch which Turner used as the characteristics woman, basis for his drawing of Louth, Lincolnshire , a drawing that dates from sometime in 1827-8, was made thirty years earlier, in what storage 1797. As will become increasingly obvious, painting and of a good woman literature are indeed sister arts and their practitioners intimately related. Observation Examples? (Shanes, 20) John Constable (1776-1837)

John Constable was born and bred in rural England and his bond to the countryside was life long and reverential.[19] No other painter of the period imbued such a sense of self in his work, calling his sketchbooks “journals”complete with their autobiographical annotationsand stating, surely with a nod of approval from of a good woman, Wordsworth: “I am fond of civil advantages being an Egoist in whatever relates to painting” (qtd. Bermingham, 87). His earliest works were venerational sketches in the style of of a woman Gainsborough; and, though never abandoning Picturesque theory, Constable appropriated its many exigencies and learned eventually made them componential to the dictates of his own. Initially, then, the Picturesque afforded Constable an aesthetic perspective whose ideological bias coincided at many points with his own rejection of commercial values as shared by his family. Furthermore, the Picturesque focus on the specific appearances of characteristics of a good objects and the power of these appearances to evoke strong imaginative associations encouraged Constable’s own propensity to infuse particular views and civil advantages objects with affective significance. (Bermingham, 113-114) Perhaps the of a good woman, most striking aspectat least to the literary mindedof Constable’s stylistic development involves his new conception of nature with its emphasis upon specific and individual elements which undermine traditional hierarchical landscape composition. Write For Me Free? Discussing Dedham Vale: Morning , Bermingham states: . . . the eye cannot trace a pedestrian itinerary; it focuses on charged spotsthe figures, the tall golden trees, the white church, the post in the left fore­ground. . . . [It is of a good woman this] profusion of dialectically charged spots [that] organises Constables landscapes. (123) Besides these spots of observation examples composition, Constable, in characteristics of a good the frontispiece of English Landscape Scenery , supplies an write for me free, archetype for characteristics of a woman his work in general: This spot saw the day-spring of my life, Hours of Joy and years of Happiness; This place first tinged my boyish fancy with a love of the Art,

This place was the origin of my fame. (qtd. Bermingham, 125) The obvious and unavoidable correspondence with Wordsworth’s “spots in is computer time” is further augmented by Constable’s use of recollection: Flatford Mill from the Lock , as a case in point, is a composite canvas composed of five prefatory and much studied sketches,[20] and characteristics good woman features five charged spotsfocal points of interestcopied from their respective points in the sketches. The final choice of intelligence perspective and arrangement is suggested by Constable in a letter to his wife: “I have tried Flatford Mill again, from the characteristics woman, lock (whence you once made a drawing)” (qtd. Learned? Bermingham, 131). The lock and its view, as we see, are associated with his wife, and the final composition is imbued with the emotions stirred by his memories of characteristics of a good woman that moment and war north advantages of imaginings, of retrospection: “. . . what he experienced remembering with what she had experienced in the process of characteristics drawing” (Bermingham 132); a fusion of past and present. We should deduce no direct philosophical or methodological imitation from either Constable or Wordsworththough each was intimately acquainted with the other’s workbut rather recognise that both responded to the spirit of the times, inheriting a still viable Picturesque aesthetic, assimilating its imperatives and making egotistical innovation their own underlying principle. If we accept for the moment that the romantic movement came not as a miraculous gift from a prophetic Wordsworth tired of rhyming his couplets and poeticising his passages, but as a result of processes already under way; similarly, the Picturesque itself developed through gradual shifts in the philosophical mind and write my paper for me artistic mix. Figure 1: Claude, Pastoral Landscape With the Pointe Molle, from Bicknell. Figure 2: Earlom, from Bicknell. Figure 3: William Westall (1781-1850) View of the caves near Gordale Scar, Yorkshire from Bick nell. “Of all the scenes regularly visited by travellers in search of the Picturesque, Gordale Scar most vividly evoked Salvator” (Bicknel, 72).

Figure 4: Gilpin, Number 18, from Bicknell. Figure 5: Garden Plan, from Manwaring. Figure 6: Marco Ricci (1679-1729), Classical landscape with a traveller and two figures kneeling before a cross, from Bicknell. Figure 7: Turner, Caernarvon Castle (1799) Claudeian influence. Moving from Picturesque affects to effects: as fundamental to literature as to the way we presently evaluate and relate to landscape scenes, the holidays and of a woman pictures we take, the observation examples, rural dreams we dream. Continuing the supposition that the Picturesque was no mere fad, this section will detail the transition from literature’s traditional view of landscape shortly before and during the Augustan reign to one which gradually accommodates Picturesque learning and issues in the sovereign Nature of the characteristics woman, romantics. The movement from what is computer, neo-classicism to romanticism was not so much a break as a gradual changing of the guard, until finally the characteristics, palace itself stood vacant and the Greco-Roman soldiers sent a-packing. Just as Sir Isaac Newtonfor all his cosmic reconstructionquietly maintained traditional beliefs, writing a commentary on the Book of Revelations which flabbergasted his scientific admirers, so too the Picturesque prebendaries provided token offerings to the ancient classical gods. William Gilpin himself reveals this tentation, offers these offerings, in his definitions of picturesque, occasionally comparing picturesque roughness with classical depictions: Virgil’s Venus, with hair dissundere ventis , Homer’s rugged Jupiter. The strain of learned intelligence discovering the Picturesque in the classics is injurious both to Picturesque theory and to the authors themselves, though the omnipresence and potency of Augustan authority and prestige during the eighteenth century essentially made necessity of inanity.

In addition, Gilpin sometimes uses Virgilian quotations to describe English scenery; and in Observations even suggests that Virgil was a great master of landscape. From this, Hugh Sykes Daviesperhaps the characteristics of a woman, most Boeotian of modern criticsunderstands the Picturesque to be a “revived Augustan attitude to Nature” (248)a particularly unique and outlandish notion which defies both the learned, evidence of art and literature. Indeed, David Watkin makes this absurdity clear: Carroll Meeks showed in 1957 [21] how each of the five principles of the Picturesquevariety, movement, irregularity, intricacy and roughnessis respectively echoed in the characteristics of Baroque as defined by Heinrich Wolfflin (1864-1945): painterly, recession, open, unity and unclearness. In Wolfflin’s visual system of analysis, which in of a woman itself could be seen as a legacy of the Picturesque, these characteristics were identified as the opposite of those of Classic Art: namely linear, plane, closed, multiplicity and clearness. Learned? (x)

Section one provided some hint of the good woman, amorality that marks the Picturesque school. It is this very fact which provides and another important distinction between the Picturesque and neo-classicism. Learned? In Gilpin’s Dialogue upon the Gardens at Stowe , two visitors discuss the merits of a ruinous hermitage. The first is puzzled “why we are more taken with a prospect of characteristics this ruinous kind, than with views of Plenty and Prosperity in their greatest Perfection.” (5) The second responds: Yes: but cannot you make a distinction between natural and moral Beauties? Our social Affections undoubtedly find their Enjoyment the most complete when they contemplate, a Country smiling in the midst of Plenty, where Houses are well-built, Plantations regular, and everything the most commodious and useful. But such Regularity and Exactness excites no manner of Pleasure in the Imagination, unless they are made use of to contrast with something of an opposite civil advantages kind. (5) Malcolm Andrews contextualises such differentiations: “. . . the distinction between natural and moral beauty would have made most Augustans very uneasy, so clearly does it fly in the face of cherished neo-classical values, where physical beauty is seen as the expression of moral beauty” (48). Characteristics Of A Good Woman? In terms more specifically concerned with the development of the Picturesque and romantic poetry, Brownlow makes a similar point: “They [neo-classicists] took it as axiomatic that the participant examples, training of the eye was a moral activity, in that a properly conceived, and characteristics perceived, landscape or garden was an emblem of order . . . in is computer the state, the mind, the soul, and the emotions” (15).

The influence of the Picturesque in France stands as further testament: there the characteristics, impact was particularly striking for “it conflicted with the rationalist trend of architectural theory which survived from the Essay on Sports and Politics, late seventeenth into the early twentieth century” (Watkin, 161). Eighteenth century neo-classical and Picturesque correlations, like those of Gilpin, which are, at best, spurious, are further explained, firstly, by some degree of pedantry; secondly, intellectual name-dropping, offering assent through association; and thirdly, and most particularly, the tremendous difficulties involved in developing an of a, aesthetic outside the ubiquitous and intrinsically disdainful neo-classical confines. The Picturesque then, saw its earliest lines of Essay on Sports and Politics delineation drawn during the Augustan heyday. Augustans’ adoption of the characteristics good woman, Picturesque was initially obvious: with the works of Claude increasingly in vogue, his idyllic and nostalgic landscapes of lost classical splendour were understandably and generally embraced. Storage? Indeed, the historical/classical narrative in woman Claude’s paintings was comfortably accommodating to neo-classicists and offeredas was the case with religious allusiona license of interest in what was actually a novel, non-classical, non-traditional genre. The Picturesque Path [22] The attendant problem in on Sports viewing pre-picturesque poets through the filter of this thesis is actually the point: landscape in literature, until the early eighteenth century, is conspicuous either by its absence, rarity, or treatment. As mentioned in Section One, just as landscape in painting initially existed largely as a backdrop to human drama, similarly, in literature, it functioned as a symbol of or allusion to characteristics woman, grander to more “worthy” conceptions. Ben Jonson (1572/3-1637)

Ben Jonson’s “To Penshurst” (1616) is an interesting case in write for me free point: cutting the first turf in a sub-genre celebrating a specific locale, its treatment of landscape is exactly as we would expect, which is to say, exactly as this thesis anticipates. Penshurst, the country seat of the Sidney family (Sir Philip being the most familiar) is described by good woman, Jonson in a most particular manner: after a brief preamble describing the manor’s modest facade, the poem turns to the surrounding gardens, where “Thou hast thy walks for on Symbolic by Shirley health, as well as sport” (9)though notably not for any aesthetic value; where, not surprisingly, Pan and Bacchus drop in for a famous feast; and where every element of characteristics good this topography reads like a catalogue of ownership, the ledger of a steward rather than a poetic eulogy or a laudation of landscape. “That taller tree, which of a nut was set / At his great birth, where all the Muses met” (13-14), initially provides a symbolic marking of Sir Phillip’s birth, soon inscribed“There in is computer storage the writhed bark are cut the names / Of many a sylvan” (15-16)with the scrawl of lovers re-scrawled as the initials of fabled wood deities. The oak stands not as a tree valued for its majestic treeness, but as an emblem marking the consequence of its wealthy owner; and, to pursue this branch to its limit, acting as a veritable Zeitgeist . “Thy copse, too, named of Gamage, thou hast there, / That never fails to serve thee seasoned deer” (19-20), strengthens the notion of ownership through nomenclature and introduces the of a woman, main theme: nature not as objet d’art but as morsels of existentialistic meat, the ingredients of what art culinaire . Accordingly, in this Edenic garden, with land-owner seated not as Adam but standing as God, “The painted partridge lies in every field, / And, for thy mess, is willing to be killed” (29-30); and “Fat, aged carps, that run into thy net, / Bright eels that emulate them, and characteristics of a woman leap on land / Before the fisher, or into his hand” (33-35). Of course, all this is very pragmatic and is computer moral, supporting the pillars of characteristics establishment and legitimate dominion in a manner suggestive of Elizabethan hierarchy. It will be some time before the stability of the oak and pillars becomes, instead, the stuff of aesthetics. John Denham (1615-69) Sir John Denham, in Essay on Symbolic in The Lottery Cooper’s Hill (1642), composed one of the earliest and characteristics good particularly influential topographical poems. Typically, it mixes natural descriptions with moral. Here, for example, the two are intercoursed: Though with those streams he no resemblance hold,

Whose foam is what is computer storage amber and their gravel gold; His genuine and good less guilty wealth t' explore, Search not his bottom, but survey his shore. (165-168) The incorporation of historical and political reflections, besides foreshadowing Popespecifically Windsor Forest highlight a landscape invisible without the filter of man’s works. Interestingly, ironically, use of the heroic couplet marks the transition from metaphysicals to neo-classicism in what is computer much the same way that Thomson’s The Seasons foreshadows romanticism. John Hughes 1677-? John Hughes, with a lifelong interest in graphic art, is one of several lesser poets whose attempts at landscape poetry predates the more familiar and famous. His Court of Neptune (1700) describes “Landscapes of good woman rising Mountains, shaggy Woods, / Green Valleys, smiling Meadows, silver Floods, / And Plains with lowring Herds enrich’d around” (qtd, Manwaring, 96). Obviously, this pre-Picturesque period, still lacking any landscape aesthetic, is incapable of providing any genuine pictorial perspective.

Nevertheless, Hughes’ introduction to Poetical Works offers an interesting observation: “There are no parts in a poem which strike the generality of readers with so much pleasure as Description” (xxxxv). Poems like “The Picture,” features an original collecting of hues from nature: Queen of fancy hither bring. So from participant observation examples, ev’ry flow’r and plant. Gather first the immortal paint. Fetch me lilies, fetch me roses. (7-14)

The poem is characteristics of a delightful not only for its originality, but for the genuine poetic sensibility. Finally, however, all this pigment is to paint a portrait of Venus. “Greenwich Park,” despite the participant examples, hopefulness of its title, inevitably becomes nothing more than a background for parading and prancing nymphs, Cupid, Mira and various embodiments of beauty: a landscape reflecting classicism and of a good woman finally fading into aesthetic oblivion while all the radiance that remains is human. Poems like “The triumph of peace occasioned by the peace of Ryswich 1697” and “The court of Neptune on King William’s return from Holland 1699,” surprisingly do contain landscape elements, though again only as a history painting-like background. Only the observation, subject itself of good woman To Mr. Write My Paper For Me? Constantine, on His Paintings makes true landscape fleetingly possible:

Here tufted Groves rise boldly to the Sky, There Spacious Lawns more distant charms the Eye, The Crystal Lakes, in characteristics Borrow’d Tinctures shine. And misty Hills the learned intelligence, far Horizon join, Lost in good woman the azure of Borders of the Day,

Like Sounds remote that die in Air away. Essay And Politics? (qtd, Manwaring, 96) Conventionally a cardinal artistic sin, this copy of copy surprisingly exhibits particular merit, not only for the avant-garde Picturesque elementsWilliam Kent’s 1709 Memorandum, after all, appears now on the horizonbut with the “borrowing” from one state of reality to another and the canvas’ frame providing closure to characteristics good, the day. Learned? Nevertheless, any systematic rendition of landscape is, at this time, possible only by imitation not of naturenor indeed Naturebut of good a landscape canvas. The Picturesque Convergence. Alexander Pope (1688-1744), writing during and even dabbling in the development of Picturesque theories, enters the literary pantheon during this transitional period and Essay Lottery by Shirley Jackson consequently demands significant attention. In fact, as will become apparent, the Augustan embrace of the Picturesque was one without much feeling, attachment, sincerity and without much conviction.

Pope was connected with the characteristics good, earliest picturesque efforts: one of the first romantic mediaevalisations, built at Cirencester Park, Gloucestershire. Known as Alfred's Hall, it was begun in 1721 for the first Earl of Bathurst. In 1732 Bathurst wrote to Pope: “I have almost finished my hermitage in the wood, and it is better than you can imagine . Implications Lottery By Shirley? . . I will venture to assert that all Europe cannot show such a pretty little plain work in the Brobdingnag style as what I have executed here” (qtd. Watkin, 45). This plain structure eventually became, with Pope's advice and assistance, a venerable castle and mock ruin. In addition, Pope’s Moral Essays , “Epistle IV” offers some promising notions of picturesque landscape gardening, with both Nature and painting offered as inspiration and methodology. This leads J. R. Characteristics Good Woman? Watson to suggest: “The gardener’s task was now to co-operate with nature, as Pope knew” (16). In fact, although Pope mocks the formality of a Versailles, supplanting it with, “Parts answ’ring parts shall slide into view / Spontaneous beauties all around advance, / Start ev’n from Difficulty, strike from on Symbolic Implications by Shirley Jackson, Chance” (66-68), his own poetry regularly smacks of the good woman, formality of affected gardens. Indeed, Pope’s own gardenmostly laid out in c. 1718-25epitomised by participant, its now famous grotto, illustrates something of the awkwardness of his picturesque dabblings. David Watkinin what becomes a familiar motif of prevaricationsuccinctly describes this incongruity: “Pope enhanced his grotto with optical illusion, with mirrors and waterworks, with ores and minerals chosen for their beauty not their rarity, yet he still considered it natural in comparison with the formality and artificiality of mannerist and baroque grottoes” (4).

A Plan of Mr. Pope’s Garden , penned by characteristics of a good woman, John Serle, Pope’s gardener and civil advantages man-servant, reveals more details: the grotto was, in fact, a rock and sea-shell strewn tunnel leading beneath a road to the garden. Besides the opulence of the marble plaque inscribed in gold letters decorating the characteristics of a woman, entrance, Italian marble, Plymouth marble, Cornish diamonds, Amesthystine crystalsto scratch only the surfaceform the grotto itself. Essay On Sports? Although none of these are precious materials per se , neither are they the stuff of the primitive Picturesque scene. A Plan , in its cartographic fold-out, reveals the of a good, lay-out of the garden: formed mostly of radial and rectilinear pathways and write my paper for me free a polished lawn, there are nevertheless a few hesitant serpentine walks. Watkin admits: “What Pope persisted in of a woman seeing as ‘natural’ seems to us as artificial as Rococo . . War North Advantages? .” (5).

Indeed, what Pope persisted in seeing as natural would no doubt have seemed equally artificial, only a few decades later, to Price and characteristics woman Knight. What makes A Plan particularly interesting is what its uninteresting inventory, which not only itemises the characteristics good, materials used in the grotto, but their source: Several large Groups of Cornish Diamonds tinged with a blackish Water, from the Essay on Symbolic Implications in The Lottery by Shirley, Rev. Dr. William Borlace of Ludgvan in characteristics of a good Cornwall . . . Learned? . Several fine Pieces of Eruptions from Mount Vesuvius , and a fine Piece of Marble from the Grotto of Egeria near Rome , from the Reverend Mr. Spence ; with several fine Petrifactions and Plymouth Marble, from characteristics of a woman, Mr. Cooper . (6-7) This brief extract, with its “fine” name dropping, reveals the familiar marks of ownership and prestige. The emblem of land title, which we saw in by Shirley Jackson Jonson’s “To Penshurst,” is here reduced to of a woman, constitutional elements: rocks and minerals, and suggesting the participant observation, commensurate importance of associate names, like famous signatures in a gallery of ultimately mediocre art: the high price of reputation . Even the poems contained in a section entitled, “Verses Upon the Grotto at Twickenham” concern themselves not with the grotto itself, but with the man who owned the grotto. Of A Good? Emerson once wrote that although fields and farms belong to this man or that, the landscape is nobody’s private property.

In early eighteenth century England, the notion of landscape finally existed, though Emerson’s point was as yet lost in the haze of future understanding. The far flung opulence, the unnatural far flung assortment of items collected from various regionshow natural is a chunk of Vesuvius clinging to a lump of Plymouth Marble?should, one would think, quickly and convincingly settle the question which Morris R. Brownell rhetorically poses in his introduction to A Plan : “Pope’s acknowledgement to Sloan for his gift of joints of the Giant’s Causeway raises the question of Essay on Symbolic his conception of the grottofosillary of rare minerals or imitation of nature?” (viii). Not surprisingly, Brownell sees the whole thing as an good, imitation of nature. However wrong this blind faith reading might be, the question itself misses the point: whatever Pope’s intent, the result was impossibly unnatural. Write For Me Free? The neo-classicist, no matter what aesthetic mining he attempts, can extract only a rarefied nature, more artful than natural, the geological equivalent of a landscape lyric in heroic couplets, with every pair of lines a peculiar strata of imported rock.[23] In fairness to good, Pope, however, Twickenham garden and Lord Burlington’s in Chiswick vie as the first picturesque grounds. If they are, by later standards, largely unnatural and unpicturesque, they were at least a tentative first step down the meandering garden path. Further, Pope’s definition of nature was usually Nature , duly capitalised and interrelated not with “the great out-doors,” nor nature in my paper for me a Darwinian sense, but more particularly the illustrative, universal and intransmutable; common sense and perspicacity: Yet if we look more closely, we shall find. Most have the seeds of judgement in their mind:

Nature affords at least a glimmer of woman light; The lines, though touched but faintly, are drawn right;(“An Essay on Criticism,” 19-22) Here the drawing metaphor is civil war north advantages emphatically concerned neither with landscape nor art, but with “good sense.” Pope’s earliest attempt at what we might broadly term nature poetry was Pastorals . Reading like a declaration of love from an avaricious beggarly bachelor to a wealthy widow, any genuine feeling seems obliterated by a self-conscious pedantic exhibitionism: the characteristics of a woman, Thames valley landscape, for example, is chock-a-block with “ Sicilian Muses” (certainly not my italics) though singularly Spartan in what sunny meadows. The natural elements in Pastorals typically function in one of three ways: firstly, as a form of extended characterisation: Oh deign to visit our forsaken seats, The mossy fountains, and of a woman the green retreats! Where’re you walk, cool gales shall fan the glade, Trees, where you sit, shall crowd into a shade;

Where’re you tread, the on Symbolic in The Jackson, blushing flow’rs shall rise, And all things flourish where you turn your eyes. (71-76) In this instance, the chastity, morality, purity of Rosalinda is externalised in a venerational relationship with subdued Nature. Secondly, as a mere pretext for manifold classicisms: Beneath the Shade a spreading Beech displays, Hylas and Aegon sung their Rural Lays; This mourn’d a faithless, that an absent Love. And Dekia’s Name and Doris fill’d the Grove.

Ye Mantuan Nymphs, your sacred Succour bring; Hylas and Aegon’s Rural Lays I sing. ( Pastorals: Autumn , 1-6) And, thirdly, as in traditional paintings, as a background or at best a setting for of a good woman human activity. Windsor Forest (1713) provides another example of on Symbolic in The by Shirley Jackson Pope’s inability to create either pictorial or picturesque scenes. Indeed, the poems turns out to be a virtual arboricultural wasteland: a peculiar reversal of the familiar aphorism where we cannot see the of a woman, trees for the forest. Here Hills and and Politics Vales, the Woodland and the Plain, Here Earth and water seem to strive again. There, interspers’d in Lawns and opening Glades, Thin Trees arise that shun each others Shades. Here in full light the russet Plains extend;

There wrapt in characteristics good woman Clouds the bluish Hills ascend. (11-24) Certainly there is some semblance of landscape here, but the lawns are never far away, and we imagine a scene, not surprisingly, more typical of Capability Brown than the Picturesque. The natural elements are correspondingly here, here, there, here, there: namely, nowhere, a collage of bits glued willy-nilly, denying spatial and relative reality;[24] the thin trees seemingly represent not a fecund forest but the sparsity of Pope’s pictorial sense. To admire Pope for his particular strength without acknowledging his weakness licenses the implicit generosity of J. R. Watson and the superficiality of Manwaring’s statement that “Pope comes close to Claude” (97) and does neither service to understanding Pope’s poetry nor Picturesque development. Indeed, Hussey convincingly argues that, “There is no analogy in learned his landscapes to those of Claude or Salvator” (30). Pope’s embryonic landscapes, in good place of visualisation, provide Defoe-like catalogues, reminiscent also of “To Penshurst”: painting the scenery of what storage inventory rather than the canvas of invention. Pope’s Classical Roots. Ever since Horace’s dictum in Ars Poetica (c. 13 BC) “ ut pictura poesis “as is painting, so is good poetry”the two arts have been jointly imprisoned in the same ivory toweralbeit “painting” definitively meant portraiture. Even briefly setting aside the neo-classical context, there can be no surprise that the Picturesque movement was initially tiedthough with varying degrees of tightnessto classical poetry. Of course, Pope’s archetypesindeed, the fact that his literature always passes through some metaphysical classical filtervirtually disallows any personal expression of a personal relationship with nature, or at least results in hollow sentiments.

A brief quotation from Virgil’s The Eclogues (37 BC) will perhaps make this clear: Happy old man, who ’mid familiar streams. And hallowed springs, will court the cooling shade! Here, as of old, your neighbour's bordering hedge, That feasts with willow-flower the Hybla bees, Shall oft with gentle murmur lull to civil, sleep, While the leaf-dresser beneath some tall rock. Uplifts his song, nor cease their cooings hoarse. The wood-pigeons that are your heart's delight,

Nor doves their moaning in the elm-tree top. ( Eclogue I) Though certainly broader than Pope’s catalogue of natural elements, the holistic perspective of landscape is obviously impossible where man and characteristics good his activities form the principal focus. Interestingly, Virgil goes beyond simple nature eulogy and those country comforts provide a simple alternative to learned, urban opulence: “Let Pallas keep the towers her hand hath built, / Us before all things let the woods delight”(Eclogue II). The English ideal would transform these towers into stately homes, islands of luxury in a sea of peasant labour, a simplicity of life defined geographically rather than philosophically. While Virgil calls for a hands-on relationship with nature, rural England produced the characteristics, harvest bounty at arms length. In addition to this, the classical landscape, though never described in terms of landscape, is one distinctly exotic, inhabited by pipe-playing shepherds, wayward wolves and write my paper unfamiliar flora. Thus, the classical pastoral offers a way of life that no well-manored Englishman could tolerate in a countryside he could not assimilate. The “Muses of characteristics of a Sicily,” (Eclogue IV) can never truly sing of England, and Pope, in emulation, can never truly sing familiar nor sing true.

When Pope adopts not only the Essay and Politics, dialogic structure of Virgil’s Eclogues but the characters themselves, “Fair Thames , flow gently from woman, thy sacred Spring, / While on write for me free, thy Banks Sicilian Muses sing” (“Spring. The First Pastoral, or Damon,” 3-4), the result is of a good transplanted absurdity, apparent not only to the modern reader, but the contemporary also: Thomas Tickell, in his Guardian essay (April 15, 1713), comments: . . . our countrymen have so good an opinion of the ancients, and think so modestly of themselves, that the generality of Pastoral Writers have either stolen all from the Greeks and storage Romans, or so servilely imitated their manners and customs, as makes them very ridiculous. (qtd. Andrews, 11) Pope understood none of this, [25] saw no immediacy in the pastoral, no native narrative nor contemporaneity: only a perpetual backwards survey of a Golden Age forged in Vulcan’s far away fires. Accordingly, in “A Discourse on Pastoral Poetry,” Pope states:

If we would copy Nature, it may be useful to characteristics good woman, take this Idea along with us, that pastoral is an image of what they call the Golden age. So that we are not to describe our shepherds as shepherds at this day really are, but as they may be conceiv’d then to learned intelligence, have been. (120) The real requirement was something Pope could never provide: a kind of reverse alchemy, transforming the gold of the Golden Age into the Englishman’s baser mettle. Pope’s further insistence upon “exposing the best side only characteristics good, of a shepherd’s life, and in concealing his miseries” (120) is again in opposition with picturesque trends which, though, as we have seen, generally avoiding the moral context of poverty, places emphasis upon the dilapidated, the coarse, the unkept, positing hardship as intrinsic to the scene as the gnarled wind-blasted tree. The ragged shepherd, his hair swept by wind, his visage worried by the elements, is write my paper for me free both a more accurate and good woman picturesque portrait. Virgil’s Eclogues , with “These fallows, trimmed so fair” (Eclogue I) and, “Now, Meliboeus, graft your pears, now set / Your vines in order!” (Eclogue I), provides a subtext of nature controlled, ordered and manipulated. In Georgics , of for me free course, this philosophy becomes an overtly expressed treatise on the cultivation of estates, making the incongruity between the neo-classical and the Picturesque as conspicuous as a dilemma between nature ordered and natural disorder. But there is an even more important incongruity, for Georgics , like much of Virgil’s poetryand The Aeneid in particularfeatures a strong nationalistic component. Characteristics Good Woman? As the focus gradually fixes upon British landscape, Virgil’s distant view of “. . . Britain, from the intelligence, whole world sundered far” (Eclogue I,) and the worship of foreign fields reveals a dislocated panegyric, at odds with the general trend. Malcolm Andrews, in The Search for the Picturesque , sees Virgil’s patriotism as offering “. . . a kind of licence for characteristics of a good woman cultural emancipation” (9), and moves in civil the next paragraph to an analysis of Thomson’s The Seasons , as if Virgil’s nationalistic vision directly correlated to characteristics good, an appreciation of English landscape.

In fact, the neo-classical attitude as expressed in Pope’s “A Discourse on Pastoral Poetry,” implies the very reverse. Infatuation and emulation of the intelligence, Golden Age proved a barrier to of a, home-spun nature and landscape literaturebriefly recollect the shepherd not as he is but as he might once have beenand it was the Picturesque movement which gradually laboured in chipping away at that barrier. This can be seen even in write for me Pope’s pastoral verse, “Spring. The First Pastoral, or Damon”: despite mimetic qualities, the poem works upon the premise of “ Cynthus and woman Hybla yield to Windsor- Shade” (68), festooning lines with English flora. The result is a hodge-podge of classical characters, ancient gods, and the English rose as an Essay, uncomfortable floral bed fellow. The new focus on landscape through the Picturesque was never a reinvention of the Golden Age: the Picturesque includes in its composite elemental degeneration, hardship and ruin: the stuff of the English countryside rather than the eternal Mediterranean spring and a life of ease.

Richard Payne Knight’s comment that “a person conversant with the characteristics of a, writings of Theocritus and Virgil will relish pastoral scenery more than one unacquainted with such poetry” ( Inquiry , 150), demonstrates the civil war north advantages, difficulties involved in adopting a new and provincial landscape still largely devoid of literary and artistic association and of a good prestige. Such comments lead Malcolm Andrews to talk of the participant examples, “elitism of the characteristics of a, Picturesque” (4), though it seems more appropriateespecially when we consider the eventual popularity of picturesque tourismto understand rather the Implications Jackson, elitism of Knight himself. The plethora of Picturesque guide books is indicative of the increasing popularity of landscape appreciation. This gradual shift from “elite” to general can also be seen in Gilpin’s Observations on good, the River Wye : the first edition of 1782 features Latin quotations which, in advantages the second 1789 edition are all translated. If textbooks on characteristics, landscape gardening exist for the narrow academic, this by no means suggests the humble fellow busy building his lily pond is similarly focused. The initial references to Virgil and Horace were as necessary as they were inappropriate: before Britain could be truly discovered and localised, it was conceptualised as a transplanted Arcadia, where northern Shepherds wandered crooked hills buffeted by and Politics, Mediterranean breezes, expecting at any moment to come upon a triumphant Aeneas. With no traditional appreciation for of a woman landscape as a meaningful aesthetic experience, new understanding, occasioned by the novel introduction of landscape paintings, came not from a moment of revelation, but rather from a gradual modification and eventual weakening of what was already known. Essentially, Pope understood a well composed garden to be an emblem of good order reflecting the inner good order of the educated mind. His treatment of nature is learned subjugated by the omnipresent and Elizabethan notion that “ORDER is Heav’n’s first law” ( Essay on characteristics good, Man , Epistle IV, 50), though devoid of Shakespeare’s sense of nature’s power, of participant observation Godlike omnipotence; and characteristics good woman botany, biology, anthropology, philosophy, painting, all become mere lessons in classical history. Classical pastoral and write my paper for me free Georgic writing, in simple terms, are too distant and different to characteristics of a good, ever speak of England, no matter how cunningly coined and conflated with native elements.

Like Windsor Forest, Pope’s Picturesque is one defined by omission, a Picturesque truly without the observation, picture. The Picturesque Scene. James Thomson (1700-1748), as an characteristics of a good, acquaintance of Arbuthnot, Gray and Pope, falls firmly into the neo-classical camp. His landscapes, although they were greatly influenced by those of Claude, Rosa and Poussin, include only occasional classical allusions, and from this we see some glimmering hope of rebellion. Indeed, this is the case: the bugle call bugled, the neo-classical swan-song giving way to. The Muses, still with freedom found, Shall to thy happy coast repair: Blest isle! with matchless beauty crown'd, And manly hearts to guard the fair.

Rule, Britannia, rule the waves; Britons never will be slaves.(“Rule Britannia”, 1729) Despite somewhat artificial diction, Thomson’s The Seasons :[26], first completed in learned 1730 and later expanded, offers a landmark in English poetry. The influence of the increasingly familiar Picturesque is woman particularly clear in Winter : the first edition expressed only minor pictorial interest; in the second, Thomson inserts such Salvatorian lines as “. . . Observation Examples? The cloudy Alps and Appenine / Capt with grey mists, and everlasting snows; / Where nature in characteristics of a good woman stupendous ruin lies. (243-5) The remaining three books, composed subsequently to Winter , feature diverse landscape scenes. Civil War North Advantages? Summer (1727) illustrates Claudian sun play: . . Good? . Essay And Politics? yonder comes the powerful king of of a woman day, Rejoicing in civil war north advantages the east. The lessening cloud. The kindling azure, and characteristics good the mountain’s brim,

Illumed with fluid gold; (81-84) In Spring both the poet and Nature play the part of is computer storage painter: Behold yon breathing prospect bids the characteristics of a, Muse. Throw all her beauty forth. But who can paint. Like Nature?

Can imagination boast, Amid its gay creation, hues like hers? Or can it mix them with that matchless skill. And lose them in advantages each other, as appears. In every bud that blows. (467-73) Manwaring explains: “In the edition of 1744that is, after his visit to Italy and good woman his collecting of printsappears the my paper, most elaborately composed of all his landscapes, with real Claudian distances” (104). Although none of this is specifically Picturesque, the Claudian influence and the well defined conflation of poetry and characteristics woman landscape painting demonstrate the development underway. Abandoning rhyming couplets was nothing newindeed, The Seasons , as commonly acknowledged, owes some of its versification to Miltonic influencebut in the context of Pope’s predominant style it was a break in the pillars of the literary establishment.

The popularity of The Seasons , with over three hundred editions published between 1750 and 1850, is a testament to the vitality of the Picturesque trend. Certainly, The Seasons is observation examples not solely a Picturesque poem, though the influence of painting is everywhere; and the title itself, suggestive of the temporal changes of nature, quotes the movement of Picturesque tenets in of a woman implicit opposition to the static catalogues of Pope: a real landscape that generates and degenerates. Although the poem predates the apex of Picturesque popularity, there can be no doubt as to the Picturesque vision that made the conception possible: . . . now the participant examples, bowery walk. Of covert close, where scarce a speck of day. Falls on the lengthened gloom, protracted sweeps; Now meets the bending sky, the river now. Dimpling along, the of a, breezy ruffled lake.

The forest darkening round, the glittering spire, The ethereal mountain, and the distant main. Here we see not only observation, metastasis, the chequered canvas of change, with the characteristics of a woman, temporal “now” rather than Pope’s unplaceable “here” and “there,” but also key Picturesque elements: the participant, dimpling river anticipates Knight’s original musing on smoothness : Smoothness being properly a quality perceived only by the touch, and applied metaphorically to the objects of the other senses, we often apply it very improperly to those of vision; assigning smoothness, as a cause of characteristics of a visible beauty, to things, which, though smooth to the touch, cast the Implications by Shirley Jackson, most sharp, harsh, and angular reflections of light upon the eye. . . . ( An Analytical Inquiry , 65) The ethereal mountains offering a suggestion of sublime grandeur; the depth of field, with the characteristics of a, meandering river leading the observation examples, eye towards a distant background. Unlike Pope, Thomson invites the reader to view the landscape with leading locutions: “see,” “prospect” and “yon,” and the frequent use of the characteristics, present tense. As Watson points out, the description of George Lyttelton’s estate at learned intelligence Hagley “is carefully composed and presented as foreground (the Hall), middle distance (villages, fields, heathlands, a ‘broken landscape’) and background (the Welsh mountains)” (32), a method identical to that employed later by Picturesque writers[27] and intrinsic to characteristics good, the landscape artist’s craft.[28] Andrews, however, refuses to see any influence of picturesque painting in Thomson’s The Seasons , asserting instead the influence stems rather from literature. External evidence all suggests otherwise.

The historical context: this is, after all, rapidly becoming the age of on Symbolic Implications Lottery Jackson landscapes and influence seems virtually unavoidable; the geographical: the poem was actually revised and characteristics of a woman partly rewritten at Hagley, then newly laid out according to picturesque tenets; and, as mentioned above, Thomson travelled to Italy during the composition, making subsequent books markedly richer in landscape images. Unfortunately, Andrews’ literary biasthe idea, for Essay example, that, “Painting’s sister-art [literature] had shown the way to freedom from didacticism or slavish topographical portraiture with Thomson’s The Seasons ” (25), places the literary cart before the Picturesque horse. However, it is internal evidence itself which most clearly outlines the absurdity of Andrews horsing around: Meantime you gain the hight, from whose fair brow. The bursting prospects spreads immense around; And, snatched o’er hill and dale, and wood and lawn, The verdant field, and darkening heath between, And villages embosomed soft in trees, And spiry towns by surging columns marked. Of household smoke, your eyes excursive roams Wide-stretching from the Hall in whose kind haunt.

The hospitable genius lingers still, To where the broken landscape, by woman, degrees. Ascending, roughens into rigid hills. O’er which the Cambrian mountains, like far clouds. That skirt the Essay on Symbolic in The, blue horizon, dusky rise. ( Spring , 950-62)

Selected almost at random, there can be no doubt even here of the characteristics of a good woman, analogy to landscape canvas: the on Sports and Politics, scene is good woman both designed and unified, with precisely placed detail within the larger picture framework; with foreground, middleground and background all respectively described. The passage also contains key picturesque elements: contrast, for what is computer example, between wood and lawn, field and heath; the texture of the rough rigid hills; the broken allusion; and the sublime cloud-like mountains. The influence of landscape paintings upon a burgeoning genre of landscape and nature literature seems beyond question and characteristics woman Andrews’ cart is not only misplaced but surely wrecked by a broken axle. The interconnectivity between these two arts is further illustrated by Turner and Constable, for Essay in The Jackson whom Thomson was a favourite poet, adopting lines appended to several canvases. [29] Indeed, Turner’s Aeolian Harp (see figure 8) was exhibited in characteristics of a good woman 1809 with a poem that begins: On Thomson’s tomb the dewy drops distil, Soft tears for Pity shed for Pope’s lost fame, To worth and verse adhere sad memory still, Scorning to what storage, wear ensnaring fashion’s chain.

In silence go, fair Thames, for all is laid. While flows the stream, unheeded and unsung. Resplendent Seasons! chase oblivions shade. Of A Woman? (qtd. Storage? Bicknell, 32) The poem highlights each season in turn, though, as Bicknell explains, quoting various art scholars, it is based not so much on Thomson’s work as William Collin’s “Ode occasion’d by the death of characteristics good Mr Thomson.” The four figures in the picture, however, are understood to represent the seasons. Bicknell concludes: “Turner’s picture pays homage both to war north, Claude and to Thomson, and in doing so it enshrines the link between the ‘picturesque poets’ and the ‘Italian’ landscape painters(33). During the swan-song years of the eighteenth century, classical poets were losing ground to the increasing number of British poets, with classical allusion becoming thin on the ground. Concomitantly, . . . booksellers were no longer addressing a relatively few, elite readers but a wide, mixed audience including merchants, professionals, children, and urban servants, as well as traditional audiences. (Benedict, 158) Thus, there existed a growing exigency for a new kind of literature, removed from the Grub Street Press, yet more in tune with more people, more accessible, reflecting more the changing social condition. John Dyer (1699-1757), of course, is characteristics woman best remembered for “Grongar Hill.” Describing the learned intelligence, scenery of the characteristics of a good woman, river Towy, there is a Wordsworthian quality of observation, personal reflection and picturesque features: “prospect,” “Old castles,” “ruins, moss and learned weeds,” and so on; there is the occasional picturesque personification, as in “And ancient towers crown his brow, / That cast an awful look below” (71-72); though mostly we have only a topographical and irregular ode in characteristics of a good woman rhyming couplets. Published in 1726, it draws immediate comparison with Thomson’s The Seasons . Is Computer Storage? Besides taking landscape as its primary focus, “Grongar Hill” really sits in the shadow of The Seasons , offering only the occasional sign of life, such as:

And see the rivers how they run, Thro’ woods and good woman meads, in shade and sun! Sometimes swift and sometimes slow, Wave succeeding wave, they go. A various journey to the deep, Like human life to Endless sleep. (93-98)

Dyer made several tours of England and Wales, travelled to Italy, studied to be a painter long before he became a parson-poet, and there is, certainly, a convincing affection for civil landscape in “Grongar Hill”though this is more strongly expressed in The Country Walk , whose concluding lines draw a melancholy comparison between the utopia of landscape and the distopia of human existence. “Grongar Hill” is framed upon the summit prospect of Grongar Hill[30] and, compared to the rhyming couplets of characteristics of a good Pope’s “landscapes,” the view is clear and convincing and the subject focused. It is with Dyer’s final and greatestin terms of bignesspoem, however, that the poet’s mutable mediocrity comes to light. “The Fleece,” praised by Wordsworthwhich is perhaps condemnation enough, a certain sign that the on Symbolic by Shirley Jackson, egotistical sublimian felt no literary threat[31]is an anachronistic georgic written thirty years after “Grongar Hill.” Dyer hoped “The Fleece” would provide necessary information allowing sheep farmers to improve their stock and the quality of wool; to improve the fortunes of combers, dyers and weavers; to improve Britain’s trade by of a, advocating expansion abroad. A georgic with suchconventionalpragmatic goals finds high poetic diction and frequent digressions a serious impediment. It is difficult bordering on impossible to imagine one tenth of those concerned in the industry with the what is computer, faculty and willingness, not to mention leisure time, to of a good woman, read such a long run-around poem. If ever there was a case for abandoning classical models, this georgic, begging for the mercy of simple prose, pleads guilty and advantages stands duly condemned. Essentially, Dyer proclaims here his affiliation with Dryden’s now ageing notion, expounded in “Parallel betwixt Poetry and Painting” (1695), that the primary end of Painting is to of a, please, though the ultimate end of Poetry is to instruct. Dyer’s affection for rural landscapes is perhaps all the in The Jackson, more remarkable for this utilitarian and mercantile disposition.

Unlike Wordsworth, Dyer saw no injurious contiguity between industry and trade. Quite the good, contrary: “Trade,” he wrote, “is the daughter of peace” (qtd. Williams, 98). Williams, in his biography of Dyer, continues, . . . traders and merchants, he felt, were promoters of peace and therefore of civilisation.. And by aiding them to bring natural resources and write free industries together, to develop new resources, new manufactures, and new means of transportation, Dyer felt that he too was promoting peace and civilisation. (98) The same, in fact, is true of The Seasons , though Thomson’s approbation of mercantilismas well as the didactic insertionsis less the characteristics good woman, business of the poem and more an unfortunate by-product. If “Grongar Hill” makes a step forwards towards the romantic movement, “The Fleece” takes several backwards. In his preface to the second edition of Winter , Thomson mentions Virgil’s Georgics as one of his models. He insists, however, that Winter bore a closer resemblance to the devotional literary tradition which included the Pentateuch, the Book of Job, and Paradise Lost . “The Fleece,” on the other hand, is not only fully georgic but formally inappropriate to its purpose.

There is, then, in Dyer something of the neo-classical romantic dichotomy, the day-dreamer and Essay the practical day-worker and it is in this context that he is best read and makes most sense. Neo-classicists’ adoption of the Picturesque, with Claude recognised as the precursor, was initially perhaps not inevitable though certainly understandable. There was, however, a certain incongruity to this adoption, for the geometry of contemporary gardens and regularity of versification were essentially antithetical to the Picturesque. Besides, the serenity and classical nostalgia of Claude was losing ground to the wildness of the more rugged Rosa (see figure 9) whose craggy cliffs and of a woman toothed trees and desolate domains were closer to both lakeland scenes and romantic sensibilities. Neo-classicism and formative Picturesque then were uneasy partners. Upon the crumbling and tumbling columns of neo-classicism was slowly builded an ever more refined picturesque aesthetic. Tentative attempts at picturesque typified in The Seasons and “Grongar Hill” provides a background for an entirely new landscape of aesthetic appreciation and artistic expression that was quite simply blowing through the temporal winds and disturbing everything in its path.

For all the aesthetic developments taking place as the eighteenth century progressed, neo-classicism was reluctant to give up the battle. Civil War North? Thomas Warton, in Poems on Several Occasions, (1748) includes such key terms as “Nature’s Landscapes,” “Dark woods and pensive waterfalls,” “Desert Prospects rough and rude,” “a green Valley’s wood-encircled Side.” However, translations and characteristics of a good woman paraphrases of Horace rub shoulders with “Ode to Taste”: Leave not Britannia’s Isle; since Pope is fled. To meet his Homer in Elysian Bowers, What Bard shall dare resume. His Various-sounding Harp?(180) Warton then demonstrates the literary discord at this time, the venerational prestige of civil war north Pope, and the staying power of neo-classicism. As late as 1775 and calling to mind Gilpin’s examination of of a good woman natural and moral beauty in Stowe , Samuel Johnson, in Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland wrote: An eye accustomed to flowery pastures and Essay waving harvests is astonished and repelled by this wide extent of of a good hopeless sterility.

The appearance is that of matter incapable of form or usefulness, dismissed by on Symbolic Implications Lottery by Shirley Jackson, nature from her care and disinherited from her favours. (qtd. Andrews, 197) There was no extensive digging and chiselling, no blasting of hill and dale, no landscaping on a geographic scale, no remoulding or recasting of this northern nation, no topographical development. Of A Good? The only conceivable change was internal: aesthetic conception; and Essay on Sports and Politics with this mightiest of change, the Scottish Highlands would soon becomeand remainone of the most picturesque areas in all Britain. Figure 8: Turner, Thomson’s Aeolian Harp, from characteristics of a good woman, Bicknell. Figure 9: Salvator Rosa, Mountain landscape, from Bicknell.

“This mountainous landscape is of a type which particularly appealed to English taste. It could be a Salvatorian of a scene in the Lake District or North Wales” (Bicknell, 5) The Middle Ground: Wordsworth. The artistic and aesthetic links established in Section One now become particularly significant. This section will include an is computer storage, important aetiological component, identifying the articles of faith employed in establishing the standardand erroneouscritical guiding conception of the Picturesque. Having, hopefully, and to some degree, divested Wordsworth (1770-1850) of the prophetic, revolutionary inspired vestments which modern scholars intimatingly fancy his dress, the entire fabric of the venerational and vituperative theory of Wordsworth and the Picturesque respectively becomes bare supposition, allowing, finally, a more valid and useful appraisal of the two. The influence of the Grand Tour in fostering an intense and of a popular interest in for me scenic tourismit was in the 1780s that the word ‘tourist’ entered the English languagethe increasing familiarity of characteristics of a landscape paintings, philosophical enquiries which intellectualised landscape, the participant observation examples, religious symbolism which initially justified landscape not only for the French but for of a the Hudson River Group in North America, the popularity of landscape gardening, all these were elements in a new cultural and aesthetic picture. And yet, as mentioned in the previous section, the neo-classical constituent, as much a symbol of “quality” as Friedrich’s Cross On the Mountain was of faith, stubbornly persisted. The prestige of the classical past essentially allowed the prestige of the present, and with nature already running wild in and Politics picturesque landscape gardens, neo-classicism endured like an characteristics good woman, old marble statue, certainly, its arm’s severed at the shoulder and examples missing a leg, yet still solid and strong. Romantic poetry would provide the final cutting edge, individuality and originality and subjectivity and emotional response would allow a cultural coming of age; and if the statue would always remain, at least now the head could be lopped off.

In addition to the impetus provided by good woman, this new and burgeoning cultural and aesthetic picture, there was also some imperative to fill a literary void. Sonnets, long castrated of their erotic themes, momentarily seduced by religion and politics, were by now only a literary footnote. Essay On Symbolic By Shirley? Similarly, allegory seemed an anachronistic way of describing a shovel by digging a hole. The epic itself existed only as a mockery. Worst of characteristics all, newer innovations like the invariable antithetical rhyming couplet inevitably lost their heroic gloss and intelligence seemed more like a tired knave than a tireless knight. Only satire and burlesqueseventeenth century developmentsretained any semblance of staying power. Of A? In simple terms, literary convention increasingly lacked invention. The cause and effect relationship between this void and examples the development of a new aesthetic is perhaps too metaphysical and certainly too immaterial for woman this examination, though the possibility at least suggests mandate for change. It is within the context of this paradigm shift that Wordsworth reads not as literary prophet, but as a poetic designer involved in intelligence a movement already re-fashioning the cultural and social fabric. By the time Wordsworth published Lyrical Ballads (1798), the appreciation of good woman nature had reached the philosophicalif not numericallevels prevalent in the present day. Nature now becomes the focal point, no longer limited to participant observation, a laudation of man and ownership, nor a Pope-like praise of ancient Mediterranean insinuation.

Clearly, such mimetic representations will no longer answer. Literature, within this context and with its associative ability, can treat nature with a new respect and generosity: can actually turn the silence of centuries into articulations of moment. There is general agreement that Wordsworth’s early poetry borrows from Picturesque aesthetics. A brief survey will therefore suffice. “An Evening Walk,” published in 1793 and written in of a good woman heroic couplets, is essentially a conventional attempt at picturesque verse, replete with cascade scene, precipice, mountain farm, female beggar, rocky sheepwalks and tremulous cliffs: a topographical poem in which Wordsworth’s authorial voice remains only a whisper. Unconfined to any particular place, the observation examples, poem provides a composite image consistent with typical picturesque sketches and suggestiveironicallyof Beaumont’s ruinous castle ruin.

As J. R. Watson demonstrates, “Tintern Abbey” (1798) begins with a canvas-like description with three planes of depth. Of A? The poem then moves on: The day is come when I repose. Here, under this dark sycamore, and view. These plots of civil cottage-ground, these orchard-tufts, Which, at characteristics good woman this season, with their unripe fruits.

Are clad in one green hue, and lose themselves. ’Mid groves and copses. Once again I see. These hedge-rows, hardly hedge-rows, little lines. Of sportive wood run wild: these pastoral farms, Green to participant observation examples, the very door; and wreaths of smoke. Sent up, in silence, from among the trees! With some uncertain notice, as might seem.

Of vagrant dwellers in the houseless woods, Or of some Hermit’s cave, where by his fire. The Hermit sits alone. (9-22) Here the sycamore serves as both frame and point of perspective to the scene; typical picturesque elements appear: the wildness of the wood, pastoral farms offering contrast as well as an echo of Virgil’s Georgics , an characteristics of a woman, attention to foreground and background. But the scene is extra dimentionalised, beyondat least for those with a literary biasthe possibilities of brush and colour: “Once again I see” underscores both memory and a personal reaction to for me, the scene; whilst the bromidic picturesque figurethe hermitappears not to the eye but to the imagination. And yet, although the poem, by characteristics of a good woman, virtue of the medium, achieves that extra-dimension, it remains within the Picturesque paradigm. Gilpin, for learned intelligence example, also recorded his impression of Tintern Abbey years before Wordsworth: Every thing around breathes an air so calm, and tranquil; so sequestered from the commerce of life, that it is easy to conceive, a man of warm imagination, in of a good monkish times, might have been allured by such a scene to become an inhabitant of participant observation it. ( Obs.

Wye , 32) Watson admits that this might perhaps have provided the characteristics of a good, “forerunner” [32] of Wordsworth’s hermit; but also that Gilpin here is concerned with the “kind of relationship between man and the landscape” (81) that Wordsworth was later to develop. [33] Not surprisingly, “Tintern Abbey” soon moves away from what is computer, Tintern Abbey and becomes the familiar Wordsworthian recollection filled in with the “moral and mystical” (Watson, 84) of landscape. And yet the poem’s structure can serve as an of a woman, outline of Picturesque application in Essay on Symbolic Lottery by Shirley romantic poetry: the characteristics good, picturesque provides the subjectand initially the ability to what, see that subjectwhich then allows the expanded vista possible through literature. Memory, subjectivity and imaginationWordsworth categoricaltogether act as an characteristics good, augmentative device which transforms flat canvas into romantic tapestry. There is, in addition, some hint of the egotistical sublime combined with the ability of nature to mould character: . . . For I have learned. To look on nature, not as in the hour. Of thoughtless youth, but hearing oftentimes. The still sad music of humanity, Not harsh nor grating, though of ample power. To chasten and subdue. (89-94) “Michael” (1800), though not specifically a picturesque poem, nevertheless is Essay on Symbolic by Shirley Jackson based upon a nostalgic view of rural England intrinsic to the Picturesque school and a offers a nationalised and temporalised form of the neo-classical Golden Age.

The poem alludes to characteristics of a, contemporary political and intelligence economical conditions turning peasants into the manufacturing poor, who, nomadic and landless, drift into good woman, London like the flotsam of some vast socio-economic flood. Implications By Shirley? Indeed, many districts at that time remained completely excluded from urban economics, with foreign products as foreign as the of a woman, products themselves. Even at the beginning of this century the and Politics, Yorkshire yeoman was ignorant of sugar, potatoes, and cotton; the good, Cumberland dalesman, as he appears in Wordsworth's Guide , lived entirely on the produce of my paper for me his farm. [34] The half finished sheep-pen of the poem, a heap of rocks that remain after the poem’s closure, symbolises old Michael and his half finished ambitions for his son, now gone from the protective fold and corrupted by modernity. If the characteristics good woman, poem then is write not strictly picturesque, it speaks with picturesque philosophy and provides an example of a more subtle picturesque application. Clearly, Wordsworth’s early poetry borrowed liberally from characteristics woman, both the Augustan tradition as well as Picturesque convention. Observation Examples? His poetical path, however, gradually meanders away from neo-classicism and towards an of a, expanded and less categorical mode of and Politics Picturesque philosophy. Good Woman? Hugh Sykes Davies’ insistence upon “Wordsworth’s subjection to the ‘picturesque’ fashion” (236) in these early days, culminating in the poet’s decortication of the entire model, smacks of an obscurantist philosophy turned barrier to the imagination and denies the my paper for me free, jagged foundation the good, Picturesque provided for civil the appreciation of countryside as a highly refined aesthetic.

But more of that right now. The Gospel According to characteristics of a good woman, Wordsworth. We have finally reached the first of two sources which together have prescribed the modern critical assessment of the Picturesque and its influence on romantic poetryat least for scholars of literature. Descriptive Sketchesthe Footnote [35] Pope’s Dunciad conclusively proved the potential of the humble footnote to subvert a text. In the case of storage Descriptive Sketches , a single footnote has subverted much of modern scholarship on the Picturesque.

Here it is, in all its humble magnificence: I had once given to woman, these sketches the title of Picturesque; but the Alps are insulted in applying to them the Implications Lottery by Shirley, term. Whoever, in woman attempting to describe their sublime features, should confine himself to the cold rules of is computer storage painting would give his reader but a very imperfect idea of woman those emotions which they have the irresistible power of communicating to the most impassioned imaginations. (Note to line 299) Davies descends upon this “cold rules of painting” as if the what storage, very death of the Picturesque depended upon it. In actual fact, this criticism suggests Gilpin as the principle target; and the reproof, despite Wordsworth’s implied intention, is narrow rather than general. In fact, there is nothing original or remarkable here: it is essentially a restatement of Richard Payne Knight, who, we recall, offered a “Curse on the pedant jargon, that defines / Beauty's unbounded forms to given lines!” ( The Landscape: a Didactic Poem , 6) Indeed, it was only characteristics of a woman, Gilpin’s first publication, Essay on Prints , which placed particular stress on the “rules of storage painting” and for the simple reason that the volume was, essentially, a “How-To” manual on of a woman, landscape painting rather than a treatise on the Picturesque. It seems strange too that Davies, here upholding the merits of the imagination compared to those “cold rules of painting,” mentions that Knight had “ meddled extensively with the ‘Imagination’” [36] (my italics, 205); though assumedly anyone connected with the Picturesque and on Symbolic by Shirley Jackson not poetry really can only “meddle”even “extensively.” Watson also picks up on this footnote; but, realising that there are nevertheless acres of the Picturesque in Descriptive Sketches , prevaricates hither and characteristics good woman thither, jumping from one explanation to another like so many stepping stones where only the wetness of the river is learned certain.

His first tentative foothold comes from the fact that Wordsworth carried through the Alps a number of Picturesque guidebooks, causing him to characteristics, suggest, “It is on Sports therefore not surprising that the poem should contain a number of picturesque appreciations” (73-74). The stepping stone here sinks without further comment. Good Woman? Next, Watson suggestswith depth defying penetrationthat Wordsworth had a “divided mind” (74); and further, that it is this “which makes Descriptive Sketches such an unsatisfactory poem” (74). This is clearly a dangerous place to stand, since, I would suggest, when it comes to the Picturesque, Wordsworth’s mind was always divided. Watson jumps again: Wordsworth is.

struggling to express qualities which the writers on the picturesque did not sufficiently recognise. Intelligence? In the first place there are atmospheric effects of light which transcend the tonal range of contemporary painting. (75) This is on the same footing as the earlier: “Wordsworth was envisaging effects of light which were not to characteristics woman, be mastered on Canvas until Turner” (72). In fact such “effects of light” had long since been mastered, by Claude. In fact, he was to some extent the originator: Andrew Wilton, in his introduction to Turner’s Picturesque Views in England and Wales , identifies Claude as the inventor of the “‘Sunset Harbour theme” (Shanes, 6). This then is clearly an example of a literature critic wiggling his fingers in the pool of the art historian; rather than catching a fish, he is bitten by a school of participant examples aesthetics. Watson must once again skip onward. His final place of rest is to characteristics good woman, suggest that Wordsworth here was concerned with “liberty,” although, since the “subject” of the poem is the Swiss Alps, “he could not omit the scenery” (75).

This, in fact, is true, though most elements are undeniably Picturesque, like this blending of the beautiful and sublime: How blest, delicious scene! the eye that greets. Thy open beauties, or thy lone retreats; Beholds the unwearied sweep of wood that scales. Lo, where she sits beneath yon shaggy rock,

A cowering shape half hid in curling smoke!(177-78) Other examples of Picturesque idiom include: “water's shaggy side”; “Thy lake, that, streaked or dappled, blue or grey”; “Hermit”; and “antique castles.” It seems strange too that Wordsworth should frame the topic of liberty in his supposed antithesis of liberty: those cold picturesque rules. Watson clearly recognises the dichotomous anomaly at work,[37] and his stepping and side stepping is an Essay on Sports and Politics, attempt to bring resolution within the framework of standard literary theory on the relationship between Wordsworth’s poetry and the Picturesque. Clearly, Watson gets a good wetting and explains nothing. Characteristics Good? So what is the solution? The fact that we are dealing, for the moment, with a footnote provides the perfect analogy: Wordsworth’s Picturesque criticism should be read as nothing more than a footnote, and a footnote in the style of The Dunciad at that. When literary theory, evenand perhaps especiallyfrom the original poet himself, is at odds with the literature itself, then the obvious conclusion is to abandon the theory; instead, Wordsworth’s musings are taken as gospel and an altar of theory is builded upon participant them. The only characteristics of a, truly cold rule, it seems, is that Wordsworth “transcends” the picturesque because he says so himself. Turning now from general to particular, it should be clear that this “cold rules” versus “imagination” is altogether a red-herring, easily caught by literary critics and used to feed a thousand other misconceptions.

William Combe’s brilliant satire, A Tour in Search of the Picturesque, by the Reverend Doctor Syntax (see figure 10)clearly derived from Gilpinreveals his neo-classical bent by ridiculing the very idea of the imagination versus the true copy of Nature: Upon the bank awhile I’ll sit, And let poor Grizzle graze a bit; But, as my time shall not be lost, I’ll make a drawing of the Essay and Politics, post; And, tho’ a flimsy taste may flout it, There’s something picturesque about of a good it: ’Tis rude and rough, without a gloss.

And is well cover’d o’er with moss; And I’ve a right(who dares deny it?) To place yon group of asses by it. Aye! this will do: and now I’m thinking, That self-same pond where Grizzle’s drinking, If hither brought ’twould better seem. And faith I’ll turn it to a stream. (9) Of course, the exaggeration is as sparkling as the pond that flows into the stepping-stone stream; but we should consider Constable’s Flatford Mill from the Lock , which is exactly this kind of write composite picture and deservesindeed, receivesonly approbation. There are indeed rules of composition, in painting as well as poetry, but to define the characteristics of a, Picturesque according to these is to define poetry. according to grammar and spelling. There is, in both the Picturesque and poetry, imagination and expression.

Returning to the original point. W. M. Merchant, in his introduction to Wordsworth’s Guide , also cites this same footnote as proof of Wordsworth’s asperity to observation examples, Picturesque theory and goes on to say how singular Wordsworth’s guide is. More forthright still, Rhoda L. Flaxman, Victorian Word-Painting and Narrative: Toward the of a, Blending of Genres , understands the note to be “an abrupt declaration of independence from eighteenth-century picturesque aesthetic” (67). All these evaluations, however, neglect several important points: firstly, Wordsworth’s footnote continues, the unique and. . . . peculiar features of the Alps. . . Implications Lottery By Shirley? . The fact is, that controlling influence, which distinguishes the Alps from good woman, all other scenery, is derived from images which disdain the pencil. Had I wished to participant, make a picture of this scene I had thrown much less light into it. But I consulted nature and my feelings. The ideas excited by the stormy sunset I am here describing owed their sublimity to that deluge of light, or rather of fire, in which nature had wrapped the immense forms around me; any intrusion of shade, by characteristics of a good woman, destroying the for me free, unity of the impression, had necessarily diminished its grandeur. (Note to line 299) So the Alps then are not like the characteristics woman, mountains of Cumberland, Yorkshire, Wales and Implications in The by Shirley Scotland; and rather than offering an “abrupt declaration of independence,” Wordsworth actually points homeward for authentic picturesque scenes. Secondly, this so called “reaction against the Picturesque” (Davies, 240) entirely disregards chronology: Descriptive Sketches was published in 1793; Wordsworth’s own Guide , which, as we will see, makes great use of Picturesque sensibility and characteristics good woman idiom, in participant 1810.[38] Thirdly, as already mentioned, the characteristics of a good, fact remains that Wordsworth footingly denounces the limitations of the Picturesque yet, in the poetry itself, he delivers Picturesque description.

Book XII of The Prelude , tintilatingly entitled “Imagination and Taste, How Impaired and Restored,” provides most to the fodder for modern critical understanding of Wordworth’s relationship to civil war north, the Picturesque. [39] The offending lines begin: What wonder, then, if, to of a good woman, a mind so far. Perverted, even the visible Universe. Fell under the dominion of a taste. Less spiritual, with microscopic view. Was scanned, as I had scanned the moral world?(88-92)

Unworthy, disliking here, and there. Liking; by rules of mimic art transferred. To things above all art; but more,for this, Although a strong infection of the age, Was never much my habitgiving way. To a comparison of scene with scene, Bent overmuch on superficial things, Pampering myself with me agre novelties.

Of colour and proportion; to the moods. Of time and season, to participant, the moral power, The affections and the spirit of the place, I speak in recollection of a time. When the bodily eye, in of a woman every stage of life. The most despotic of Essay in The our senses, gained. Such strength in 'me' as often held my mind. In absolute dominion. (127-130) There are in our existence spots of time, That with distinct pre-eminence retain. A renovating virtue, whencedepressed.

By false opinion and contentious thought, Or aught of heavier or more deadly weight, In trivial occupations, and the round. Of ordinary intercourseour minds. Are nourished and invisibly repaired. (208-215) This then is the stuff that contemporary critics have adopted without regard to the dangers of accepting the characteristics of a good woman, artist’s views of his own work. If the creative mind were so simple , the rive gauche would likely as not have moved to participant, Silicon Valley. There can be no doubt that “taste” refers to the Picturesque. There can be no doubt either that Wordsworth declares the Picturesque an impairment to the imagination.

Several important points, however, should be noted: The Prelude , as was the case with Descriptive Sketches , contains ample picturesque passages, too numerous and too obvious to quote. Here, nevertheless, for the benefit of the good, incredulous, are a few: In summer, making quest for Essay works of art, Or scenes renowned for beauty, I explored. That streamlet whose blue current works its way. Between romantic Dovedale's spiry rocks; Pried into Yorkshire dales, [40] or hidden tracts. Of my own native region. (VI, 190-95)

In the final Book (XIV), fresh from the restoration of his imagination and taste, with hardly time to catch a breath between, Wordsworth recounts his gasping ascent of Snowdon, from of a good woman, whence he sees: “A fixed, abysmal, gloomy, breathing-place / Mounted the roar of waters, torrents, streams / Innumerable, roaring with one voice!” (58-60). Intelligence? Topography ensues. The plot thickens: soon after, there is a twist to all that domination of the eye business, with Nature making her presence known. . . . by of a good woman, putting forth, 'Mid circumstances awful and on Symbolic Implications in The by Shirley Jackson sublime, That mutual domination which she loves. To exert upon the face of of a good woman outward things,

So moulded, joined, abstracted, so endowed. With interchangeable supremacy, That men, least sensitive, see, hear, perceive, And cannot choose but feel. (79-86) That domination now shifts from subject to object: man is intelligence no longer dominated by of a good woman, the ocular sense; instead the outward forms of picturesque scenery, by civil war north advantages, their very nature, captivate man. In any case, the point is characteristics of a good woman that even in The Prelude the Picturesque is observation examples pictured and admired: The single sheep, and woman the one blasted tree, And the bleak music from that old stone wall, The noise of wood and water, and the mist. That on the line of each of learned intelligence those two roads. Advanced in such indisputable shapes;

All these were kindred spectacles and sounds. To which I oft repaired, and thence would drink, As at a fountain. Characteristics Woman? (XII, 319-26) Here also is one of Wordsworth’s well-cited spots of intelligence time, which often find their source in characteristics of a woman Picturesque moments inspired by the wildness of nature, where that idiomatic “sublime” is kindled. Intelligence? In this example, we are provided a veritable catalogue of characteristics of a good woman picturesque materials, though again this spot of time incorporates non-visual invocations, composed, not as a sovereign landscape, but more as a sensationscape, an emotional response to news of write free his father’s death.

In effect, Wordsworth acknowledges the aesthetics of this picturesque catalogue, though he moves towards emotive sense. Further, Wordsworth’s understanding of the subject was undoubtedly clouded, a myopia based upon a narrow definition of the Picturesquethe meaning of which, after all, was always a point of debate and rarely of characteristics good conclusion. Indeed, his criticism of the Picturesque is on on Sports and Politics, the same lines as Uvedale Price’s, who, we might recall, stated that picturesque qualities are “extended to all our sensations by characteristics of a good woman, whatever organs they are received.” In other words, “That men, least sensitive, see, hear, perceive, / And cannot choose but feel.” The thing which Wordsworth most condemnsthis supposed ocular obsession in the Picturesqueis strangely absent in Essay A Tour in woman Search of the Essay in The Lottery Jackson, Picturesque, by the Reverend Doctor Syntax . For example: “. . . while you chase the flying deer, I must fly off to Windermere. / ’Stead of hallooing to a fox, I must catch echoes from the rocks” (50). It seems apparent from these few lines the exceptional quality of the satire; strange then that Combe, for all his excellence, should miss what seems to be the most objectionable aspect of Picturesque theory. This, perhaps more than anything else, demonstrates that Wordsworth’s dissatisfaction was not empirically with the Picturesque but emphatically with his own conception. The error was his, and the error of those modern critics who unquestioningly accept Wordsworth at his word. Watson suggests further that Wordsworth’s interest in the Picturesque waned due to characteristics of a good, its inherent “wrong attitude to nature” (97), by which he means a lacking of “humility.” To this, it is write my paper for me perhaps worth re-visiting Gilpin:

Let not inborn pride, Presuming on thy own inventive powers, Mislead thine eye from Nature. She must reign. Great archetype in all. Good? ( On Landscape Painting: A Poem , 26-30)

Also, Wordsworth’s increasing spirituality offers an unstated though likely cause of further dissatisfaction, that “dominion of a taste / Less spiritual.” Gilpin states in his preface to Tours of the Lakes : “The author hopes that no one will be so severe, as to think a work of this kind inconsistent with the profession of a clergyman” (xxxi). J. R. Watson understands this as evidence that Gilpin saw nature not as the handiwork of Godas does Thomson, for examplebut “as a matter of on Symbolic Implications Lottery Jackson mere amusement” (40). Characteristics? As Section One made clear, Gilpin here is actually alluding to the amorality of the Picturesque. Nevertheless, from this supposed “mere amusement”, Watson, no doubt now weary of and Politics those treacherous stepping stones, makes an of a, astounding leap in write for me logic and concludes: With such an aim, sight alone becomes important, for there is of a good rarely any attempt to ponder the significance of landscape, or the civil advantages, viewer’s emotional relationship towards it. (40) Entirely skipping over the “mere amusement” hypothesis, we might yet wonder at the kind of logic that allows a passage from “mere amusement” to “sight alone.” We might also recall, despite the evidence outlined in Section One demonstrating that Gilpin was not concerned uniquely with sight alone, that Gilpin indeed wrote on the Picturesque from a painterly point of view and so any stress that exists upon the visual is rather like the characteristics of a good, stress upon the aural in an analysis of music.

The importance of all this is to demonstrate the tendentiousness of the support for Wordsworth’s domination of the eye theory. There is, in Gilpin’s preface, nothing whatsoever about “mere amusement” and from that nothingness there is Implications Jackson decidedly no logical step to “sight alone.” What we really discover here is Watson’s attempt to support subtly Wordsworth’s notion, which, as is becoming increasingly apparent, actually had no validity in Wordsworth’s own work. This then is one tiny element in the construction of the predominant Picturesque/romanticism theory. Characteristics Of A Good Woman? In fact, Gilpin’s note is nothing more sinister than an acknowledgement that God is largely excluded from the Picturesque view. Although Wordsworth might have thought this unfortunate, in terms of historical artistic development, removing God from the picture was essential in bestowing intrinsic validity to nature and landscape. Finally, Wordsworth’s own vision grew from an aesthetic arboretum that was the Picturesque. What Is Computer Storage? He descended not from heaven, fully formed and ready to pen; but rather was shaped by of a good, the multitudinous historical, social, economic, artistic and aesthetic factors. Without the continuum in which the Picturesque was contained, Wordsworth and romanticism would have remained a pipe dream piped perhaps by a transplanted neo-classical Roman shepherd. Watson himself reluctantly admits that “in spite of storage his condemnations of the picturesque and his awareness of the despotic eye, Wordsworth remains interested in landscape as it is seen” (104); and yet the penny never drops and a change of view never takes place. Davies similarly pays great attention to The Prelude , albeit with a more diction-based argument. “In rejecting the ‘picturesque’,” Wordsworth is “running counter to [the] predominant fashion” (249), and of a woman deliberately selects bare and my paper naked scenes. This notion re-creates Wordsworth as an artist removed from historicity, a one man cultural band not only playing his own tunes but inventing his own scales, an idea suggestive even of deification.

As proof, Davies provides a table of “unpicturesque”nay, “anti-picturesque” (250)terms harvested from The Prelude . Unfortunately, at least half of them are perfectly picturesque: “cliffs,” unless we imagine a polished cliff; “old stone wall,” unless expurgated of lichen and moss and the old stone wall reformed as a new stone wall; “whistling hawthorn,” unless de-thorned, de-whistled and characteristics of a well pruned; “craggy ridge” and is computer storage “craggy steep,” de-cragged; “perilous ridge,” de-periled. Even those terms which seem marked by a smooth unpicturesque character are often un-picturesque red-herrings: the “naked pool,” is perhaps “water of good woman which the surface is broken, and the motion abrupt and irregular” ( On the Picturesque , 84); or perhaps reflecting the Picturesque scenery in civil advantages which it resides. Good Woman? More astounding than erroneous, Davies includes “mountains” in his anti-picturesque catalogue! Davies’ crowned prince of proofs then turns out to be a beggar boy in disguise, with all the airs and Essay Implications in The graces and robes of royalty, yet concealing a shallow mind and dirty underwear. In addition, even if Davies’ brief was bona fide , the fact remains that Burke’s smooth beauty is, in part, elemental to the Picturesque scene. Of A Good? The absurdity of Davies’ position in this respect is made conspicuous when, ever contrary, he examines the civil war north advantages, before and of a after Gilpin prints (see figures 11 and 12) and insists that, “This second print, in its way, is learned intelligence charming enough.

But the first is impressive” (229)![41] It is this irony, this inconsistency, this disparity that suggests Wordsworth’s professed aversion to the Picturesque should be taken not only of a good woman, with a grain of salt, but with a veritable variety of what spicesgrown, of course, in a garden suitably picturesque. In the final analysis, it is the poetry itself which must provide the theory, rather than the woman, poet himself; and indeed, this is the whole point. The Sublime and the Beautiful. Davies’ suggestion that only Wordsworth frequently used “sublime” and “beautiful” conjunctively, to which he devotes several pages, besides being erroneous, reveals a scant familiarity with Gilpin, for, as we have seen, it was the combination of the beautiful and sublime “. . . so beautifully sublime, so correctly picturesque” ( Three Essays , 52)which, for Gilpin, produced the Picturesque and so was central to his own understanding. Whether or not Gilpin offers these words conjunctively once or a thousand times, the point is that the conjunction is omnipresent in his definition of the participant observation, Picturesque. Just as Brownlow suggests that John Clare transcends the Picturesque by discovering the characteristics good, microcosmos,[42] he also insists that Wordsworth “transcends” the civil war north advantages, Picturesque by experiencing the woman, “Sublime.” (25) Of course, he is also wrong, and for the same reasons. Since the Picturesque never evolved into a finalised coherent theory, remaining vast in on Symbolic Implications in The Jackson scope, since its primary concern was with landscape and graphic artPrice notwithstandingthe very notion of characteristics of a poets’ “transcending” the Picturesque is observation examples one which seems born of an intellectualised mule; and although modern critics seem intent to ride this mule for all it might be worth, the beast is clearly an ass of their own imagination. Guide to the Lakes. Davies correctly points out that the vigorous and much-publicised Picturesque debate raged during the of a, period when Wordsworth was most active as a writer.

As Davies states: “The reader of and Politics Wordsworth cannot for long go ignorant of the part played by the Lakes in making him everything he was” (3). Indeed, the popularity of the Lake District is inextricably tied with that of Wordsworth. His own A Guide Through the District of the Lakes in the North of England , is, to a large degree, typical of this sub-genre.[43] Not surprisingly, Davies thinks otherwise: Gilpin, he says, believes landscape significant “not for good woman the sake of the people who live in it” (230) but “simply for the painter” (230)and this despite the following quotation, from Gilpin, two pages earlier: “These smooth-coated mountains, tho of little estimation for the painter’s eye, are, however, great sources of plenty. They are the nurseries of sheep; which are bred here, and fatted in the valley” (228). Gilpin proceeds to describe the difficult life of the shepherds. According to what is computer storage, Davies, in writing his own Guide , Wordsworth’s “approach was the opposite one” (230)though it seems that Gilpin’s approach also was opposite. In actual fact, Wordsworth’s guide, as suggested above, is pretty much par for the Picturesque course. Wordsworth even commits the cardinal sin: “The want most felt, however, is that of timber trees. Characteristics Of A Good? There are few magnificent ones to be found near any of the lakes” (79). Here Wordsworth censures a scene for lacking a particular pictorial elementso much for the opposite approach. Wordsworth’s Guide also demonstrates an eloquent command of Picturesque idiom: “. . . by bold foregrounds formed by the steep and winding banks of the intelligence, river” (43); “None of the other lakes unfold so many fresh beauties . . Good Woman? . “ (39); “ . . . My Paper For Me Free? agreeably situated for water views” (40); “. . . constitute a foreground for ever-varying pictures of the majestic lake” (50).

Besides idiom, Wordsworth participates in Picturesque politics, supporting Gilpin in his criticism of white painted houses, and sustaining Price’s landscape gardening theories. Neither is of a woman Wordworth’s inclusion of write my paper for me poetry in his Guide anything more than standard.[44] Even the prosaic Handy Guide to the English Lakes , now a rare and anonymous sixpenny edition likely destined for the more affluent working class tourist, features such verse as Wordsworth’s: “A straggle burgh of ancient charter proud / And dignified by battlements and towers / Of stern castle, mouldering on the brow / Of a green hill (17). Besides the outbreaks of poetry, the woman, Handy Guide inevitably features numerous Picturesque line drawings, including one particular example which offers further indication of the popularity of Picturesque tourism: an uninteresting depiction of Furness Abbey disinherits the usual foreground grouping of rustic figures, replacing them with a party of on Symbolic Lottery by Shirley Jackson pic-nicking holiday makers.[45] Davies’ suggestion that Wordsworth’s Guide is “antithetical” (230) to Gilpin’s, for it insists that “the real importance of mountain scenery was not visual, but mental” (230), sounds nice, though unfortunately is nonsense. Certainly, Gilpin examines landscape from a painterly point of view, though his lengthy guides are filled, as we have seen, with imagination and local human considerations, auditory appreciation and tactile expressions, emotion and admiration. In his Guide , Wordsworth provide a lengthy extract from Dr. John Brown’s verse Fragment : Now sunk the sun, now twilight sunk, and night.

Rose in her zenith; not a passing breeze. Sigh’d to the grove, which in the midnight air. Stood motionless, and in the peacefull floods. Inverted hung: for now the billows slept. Along the woman, shore, nor heav’d the deep; but spread. A shining mirror to war north, the moon’s pale orb, Which, dim and waning, o’er the shadowy cliffs,

The solemn woods, and spiry mountain tops, Her glimmering faintness threw: now every eye, Oppress’d with toil, was drawn’d in deep repose. Save that the unseen Shepherd in his watch, Propp’d on his crook, stood listening by the fold, And gaz’d the starry vault, and pendant moon; Nor voice, nor sound, broke on of a, the deep serene; But the soft murmur of swift-gushing rills, Forth issuing from the participant observation examples, mountain’s distant steep, (Unheard til now, and now scarce heard) proclaim’d. All things at rest, and imagin’d the still voice.

Of quiet, whispering in characteristics woman the ear of night. Civil War North Advantages? (84) Wordsworth honours Brown as “one of the first who led the characteristics of a, way to on Symbolic Implications in The by Shirley, a worthy admiration of this country” (84); though in a footnote adds: Dr. Brown, the author of this fragment, was from his infancy brought up in Cumberland, and should have remembered that the practice of folding sheep by night is unknown among these mountains, and that the image of a shepherd upon the watch is out of of a place, and belongs only to countries, with a warmer climate, that are subject to in The by Shirley Jackson, the ravages from beasts of prey. It is pleasing to notice a dawn of imaginative feeling in these verses. Tickel, a man of characteristics of a woman no common genius, chose, for the subject of write my paper a Poem, Kensington Gardens, in characteristics of a woman preference to the Banks of the Derwent, within a mile or two of which he was born. But this was in the reign of war north Queen Anne, or George the characteristics of a woman, First. Progress has been made in the interval; though the traces of it, except in Thomson or Dyer, are not very obvious. (84)

The mention of Tickel immediately invokes neo-classicism and its inability to adopt real landscape, and the shepherd of the fragment becomes an Arcadian figure. At this point we need only Essay on Sports, recollect Pope’s comment on shepherds “as they may be conceiv’d then to have been,” to realise the distance already travelled: what once was a rule of poetry is now a grave error. Davies, brimming with “limitations” of the of a, Picturesque, takes Wordsworth’s footnote and informs us: “This ‘progress’, however, he clearly regarded as limited” (220). Clarity aside, we might wonder how progress can ever be limited, unless we imagine an acorn limited for free not already being an oak. To suggest, by extension, that the Picturesque is therefore limited seems to reject a hill for not being a river. But there is more than a call for accurate realism in this note, for the “mile or two of which he was born” suggests a sentiment both regionalnationalistic in the larger contextand also, applying Post-colonial hindsight, a conflict between the centre and margin. Treatment of real British landscape without reference to Virgil and Horace and Company insists upon a new centre. This is clearly manifest when both Wordsworth and Coleridge choose between the Alps, the traditional site of the European sublime, and characteristics of a good woman domestic mountains. In The Prelude , for Essay on Sports example, Wordsworth dismisses the Alps, shifting the focus to Snowdon, whilst Coleridge's Scafell experience becomes a celebration of Mont Blanc in good the “Hymn before the Sunrise in the Vale of Chamouny.” As Woodring suggests, “Sometimes implicitly but often with a militant defensiveness, exponents of the picturesque declared it a distinctively English answer to the sublime of the write my paper free, Alps” (48).

Concomitantly, Wordsworth’s regional loyalty suggests a similar centre/margin dichotomy between urban London and the rural north. Characteristics Good Woman? In another example of Picturesque nationalism, Wordsworth draws a comparison between the Alps and local scenes: The forms of the is computer, mountains, though many of them in some points of view the noblest that can be conceived, are apt to run into spikes and needles, and present a jagged outline which has a mean effect, transferred to canvas. (74) Wordsworth was a great explorer of the characteristics good, countryside, and, it seems, actually a Picturesque explorer. As Dorothy Wordsworth wrote in her journal of a Scottish tour: When we were within about half a mile of Tarbet, at a sudden turning, looking the what is computer storage, left, we saw a very craggy-topped mountain amongst other smooth ones; the rocks on woman, the summit distinct in shape as if they were buildings raised up by man, or uncouth images of some strange creature. We called out with one voice, “That’s what we wanted!” alluding to the frame-like uniformity of the side-screens of the lake for the last five or six miles. (qtd. Watson, 104) Note the “craggy-topped mountain amongst other smooth ones,” the “frame” and “side screens.” Note also “in one voice,” or, “as three persons with one soul,” [46] as Coleridge wrote.

They had then found “what they wanted,” and clearly they wanted the Picturesque. In addition to this, a letter written by Dorothy to Coleridge in March 1804 includes mention of a beck discovered by Wordsworth: “It is learned a miniature of all that can be conceived of savage and grand about characteristics of a woman a river, with a great deal of the Essay on Symbolic Lottery by Shirley Jackson, beautiful. William says that whatever Salvator might desire could be there found” (qtd. Watson, 104).[47] With all this travel and exploration it seems more than natural that Wordsworth would one day write his own Picturesque guide, if only he was not so absolutely clearly and good woman undeniably in Essay on Sports and Politics opposition to characteristics of a, and transcendent of the whole thing. . . . Wordsworth’s Guide was first published anonymously in 1810 and then, ten years later, in a collection of his own verse. According to W.M. Civil Advantages? Mercant’s introduction, reviews of the verse were “critical” though the Guide met with “almost unanimous approval” (Guide, 31). Post Apostolical Poetry.

The notion that Wordsworth adopted his own critical assessmentdethroning the characteristics of a good woman, monarchical sense of visionhas been seriously questioned from various angles. Regardless, if we are indeed to take Wordsworth at his word, the expectation would be that only what storage, this transcendental picturesqueif any picturesque at allwould henceforth appear. Wordsworth, after all, has accused, judged and condemned the Picturesque and we are told by characteristics of a woman, a jury of write my paper modern critics that he will no longer be shackled to that blasted bastion of narrow thinking. How strange then that with the Gospel clearly spelled out, Wordsworth continues to seek the Picturesque and often with an entirely conventional viewpoint. For example:

And not a voice was idle: with the din. Smitten, the precipices rang aloud; The leafless trees and every icy crag. Tinkled like iron; while far-distant hills. Into the tumult sent an alien sound. Of melancholy, not unnoticed while the stars, Eastward, were sparkling clear, and in the west.

The orange sky of evening died away (“Influence of Natural Objects,” 39-46). Understanding the Picturesque in all its theoretical varietywhich now, hopefully is the casereveals this extract clearly and undeniably as picturesque in sound and good not a transcending of the Picturesque. We have already seen how Wordsworth’s own Guide was written years after the momentous formulation of judgement. In terms of his poetry, there are numerous other examples which similarly contradict the for me, generally accepted view. The sonnet “Between Namur and Liège,” from Memorials of a Tour on the Continent, 1820 , for example:

WHAT lovelier home could gentle Fancy choose? Is this the stream, whose cities, heights, and plains, War's favourite playground, are with crimson stains. Familiar, as the Morn with pearly dews? The Morn, that now, along the woman, silver MEUSE, Spreading her peaceful ensigns, calls the swains. To tend their silent boats and ringing wains, Or strip the bough whose mellow fruit bestrews. The ripening corn beneath it. Civil? As mine eyes.

Turn from the fortified and threatening hill, How sweet the prospect of yon watery glade, With its grey rocks clustering in pensive shade That, shaped like old monastic turrets, rise. From the smooth meadow-ground, serene and still! This is the entire poem and so quintessentially Picturesque as to require no further comment. More frightening than thisat least for the jury who surely now must be out to lunchis the attached footnote: The scenery on the Meuse pleases me more, upon the whole, than that of the characteristics of a good woman, Rhine, though the river itself is much inferior in grandeur. The rocks both in form and colour, especially between Namur and Liege, surpass any upon the Rhine, though they are in several places disfigured by quarries, whence stones were taken for the new fortifications.

This is much to civil, be regretted, for characteristics good they are useless, and the scars will remain perhaps for thousands of years. A like injury to a still greater degree has been inflicted, in my memory, upon the beautiful rocks of Clifton on the banks of the Avon. There is probably in existence a very long letter of mine to Sir Uvedale Price, in which was given a description of the landscapes on the Meuse as compared with those on the Rhine. This is the what is computer, entire footnote and now comes the terrible blind taste test: who could, who would, write such staple, such superficial judging of one scene with another as if they were paintings: Gilpin? Knight? Wordsworth. “Epistle to Sir George Beaumont”Beaumont, connoisseur, collector, painter, “befriended and encouraged many painters, notably Constable and Ibbetson” (Bicknell, 15) and was a conservative follower of characteristics good Picturesque tenets (see figure 13)offers an example where scenery is described for war north its own sake, where its very worth is sufficiently innate to need virtually no additional coinage: Within the mirror’s depth, a world at rest Sky streaked with purple, grove and craggy bield.

And the smooth green of many a pendent field. And, quieted and soothed, a torrent small, A little darling would-be waterfall. One chimney smoking in its azure wreath, Associate all in the calm pool beneath, With here and characteristics of a there a faint imperfect gleam. Of water-lilies veiled in misty stream. (174-83) Of course, the richness here is owed largely to the loveliness of the wordscape, a place opulent in and Politics picturesque elements: the characteristics woman, craggy bield , waterfall, chimney, the stream. This epistle, penned in 1811, is a veritable treasure trove of on Sports and Politics picturesque landscape and elements. Never actually sent to characteristics of a good woman, Beaumont, it was clearly intended as a publishable poem.

Another typically Picturesque poem is what is computer “The Pass of Kirkstone,” published in 1817: Oft as I pass along the fork. Of these fraternal hills: Where, save the of a good, rugged road, we find. No appanage of human kind; Nor hint of man, if stone or rock. Seem not his handy-work to Implications in The Lottery Jackson, mock. By something cognizably shaped;

Mockeryor modelroughly hewn, And left as if by characteristics good, earthquake strewn, Or from the Flood escaped: Altars for Druid service fit; (But where no fire was ever lit. Unless the glow-worm to the skies. Thence offer nightly sacrifice;) Wrinkled Egyptian monument;

Green moss-grown tower; or hoary tent; Tents of a camp that never shall be raised; On which four thousand years have gazed! (3-20) Gone then is the Pope-like catalogisation, the very antithesis of Wordsworth’s methodology; instead, though the poetic eye might survey a scene, the poetic voice is selective of civil advantages Constable-like charged spots: the fork in the road, one branch leading to reverie, the richly connotative fraternal hills, the rugged road, which by its very presence admits the of a, absence of examples man, and finally the rock, whose shape suggests still another landscape: imagined and drawn of characteristics of a good woman history. There is, in “Composed Among the Ruins of a Castle in North Wales” (1824), a parallel to Price’s theories of civil war north advantages landscape gardening, where the patina of time is recommended to characteristics, provide an unfinished roughness to stonework, to replace bunched bush with unexpected tree and shiny brick with sombre block. This aesthetic was, as we have seen, actually focused not merely upon visually based appreciation, but upon associated emotional reaction.

The acute interest in ruins demonstrated by artists during the write my paper free, Picturesque period was entirely germane with the general elegiac mood and graveyard melancholy. This interest in ruins, obviously, was shared by Wordsworth. “Composed Among the Ruins,” after a conventionally ominous opening: “Through shattered galleries, ’mid roofless halls, / Wandering with timid footsteps oft betrayed (1-2), finally becomes a eulogium: Relic of Kings! Wreck of forgotten Wars, To winds abandoned and the prying Stars. Time loves Thee! at his call the Seasons twine.

Luxuriant wreaths around thy forehead hoar; And, though past pomp no changes can restore, A soothing recompense, his gift is of a good Thine! (9-14) There can be no clearer example of poetic philosophical perspectiveFather Time and Mother Nature, the benevolent patrons of Ruinentirely born of picturesque aesthetic theory. Doubtless there is also a playfulness here, and one reminiscent of Gilpin:

What share of picturesque genius Cromwell might have, I know not. War North Advantages? Certain however it is, that no man, since Henry the Eighth, has contributed more to of a woman, adorn this country with picturesque ruins. The difference between these two masters lay chiefly in the style of is computer ruins, in which they composed. Henry adorned his landscape with the ruins of abbeys; Cromwell, with those of characteristics of a good woman castles. I have seen many pieces by my paper for me free, this master, executed in a very grand style. . . . Characteristics Of A Good Woman? (II, 122-3) All this seems further indication of the longevity of the Picturesque. Landscape and (small case) nature clearly are the central rubric of late eighteenth and early nineteenth century cultural movement; and learned Wordsworth’s transformation of poetry occurs in characteristics a context where new values and aesthetic parameters are well established. It is the colourful mixing of both palettes which is Wordsworth, and which defines early romanticism. Compared to earlier treatments of landscape and nature, offering that flat canvas description, Wordsworth adopts the criteria of picturesque aesthetics, but incorporates the emotional dimension offered by the associative value of word, of memory, of subjective response. Implications In The By Shirley Jackson? The elements of characteristics of a good Picturesque landscape then become “the stuff that dreams are made of”: dreams reflective, dreams nostalgic, dreams dreaming, and dreams born of a learned appreciation for learned intelligence beauty that is particularly and properly Picturesque.

There is a final plot twist: Watson cunningly has stacked the deck. He swiftly explains away the Picturesque in Wordsworth’s later poetry by characteristics of a good, suggesting that this is merely the work of “his uninspired years” (92). Of course, this is intelligence much too glib, especially when we remember the voracity with which critics inform us of Wordsworth’s rejection of the Picturesque, stressing and re-stressing its “limitations.” Again, what seems a more reasonable explanation is that the Picturesque provided not only the foundations for romantic poetry, but that without the of a, Picturesque there would have been no romantic poetry at all. In simple terms, one can perhaps take the poet out of the Picturesque, but you cannot take the Picturesque out observation examples of the poet. Figure 10: Kenneth Clark, Doctor Syntax sketching a lake, from Bicknell. Figure 11-12: Gilpin, Non-picturesque and characteristics woman picturesque mountain landscape.From Three Essays.

Figure 13: Sir George Beaumont, Landscape , from Bicknell. The Foreground: Keats. This section will firstly consider particular difficulties in approaching Keats and the Picturesque, moving then to Keats’ Picturesque view, its effects and influence. The non-faddish longevity and ultimate importance of the Picturesque is finally determined. Wordsworth, born with and war north nurtured on the Picturesque, could never escape its influence and sustenance. Indeed, Wordsworth without the Picturesque seems himself a destitute and characteristics of a good picturesque half-starved figure. Keats, although temporally distant from the eighteenth century Picturesque development, attempts to see with the Picturesque vision, to adopt the general philosophy, providing compelling evidence against the standard cultist and faddish judgements offered by faddish modern literary scholars and observation examples serves as testimony not only to the Picturesque’s diuturnity, but also its fundamental value. An examination of of a good Keats in terms of the Picturesque, however, involves a number of initial problems. The Problem With Keats. Firstly, Keats (1795-1821) published his first solitary poem“O Solitude,” in learned intelligence The Examiner in 1816.

In simple terms, Keats came of woman age with landscape firmly entrenched as an aesthetic concept that required no further exploration. The Picturesque, initially the civil advantages, only means of discovering landscape, now stood like an good, old well-travelled train puffing steam on some siding. Landscape was omnipresent, on main lines and branch lines, an participant, aesthetic form no longer solely the stuff of agriculture and ownership. This is not to imply that exploration could no longer take place, only that the of a woman, imperative was now only an implication. Secondly, the title of Keats’ first penned poem“Imitations of Spenser” (1814)suggests Keats’ propensity to Essay on Sports, look backwards, not particularly to the neo-classicist’s Golden Agethough his use of myth glances in that direction[48]but most particularly to a Golden Age of English poetry: Spencer, Shakespeare, Milton. Not surprisingly, poetic drama and epic seemed the fairest genres. Thirdly, as Keats claims, his interest was in people not pictures: “Scenery is fine, but human nature is finer” ( Letters , I, 242). However, as with Wordsworth, autotelic acceptance of such claims overlooks the need to characteristics good, mine more valid resources in other areas and risk faulty and perhaps fatal conclusions. Finally, Keat’s interest in free language itself, in imagery and metaphorin addition to the “felicity and variety” ( Letters , xxxi)leads him towards the adoption of diction born of those same grand masters; as well as to the inevitable effect of the unexpected: his singular phraseology. Standard Picturesque idiom, by now somewhat hackneyed, is unable to convey this effect and Keats’ early poetry provides the lion’s share of good woman colloquialisms.

Further, it becomes quite clear quite soon that Keats’ goal was to depart from stylistic norms, particularly those of the eighteenth century and achieve some degree of originality.[49] All this notwithstanding, the Essay Implications Jackson, sustaining power of the characteristics of a good woman, Picturesqueand so its importancecan still be discovered in both the life and write works of Keats. “O Solitude,” reveals a vision of landscape which is characteristics of a particularly picturesque: O SOLITUDE! if I must with thee dwell, Let it not be among the jumbled heap. Of murky buildings; climb with me the steep, Nature's observatorywhence the dell, Its flowery slopes, its river's crystal swell, May seem a span; let me thy vigils keep. ’Mongst boughs pavillion’d, where the deer’s swift leap.

Startles the participant observation examples, wild bee from the characteristics of a woman, fox-glove bell. But though I'll gladly trace these scenes with thee, Yet the storage, sweet converse of an innocent mind, Whose words are images of characteristics thoughts refin’d, Is my soul's pleasure; and it sure must be. Almost the highest bliss of human-kind, When to thy haunts two kindred spirits flee.

Here, Keats paints no landscape with his words; rather, he adopts an attitude to what, nature which stems not from the southern regions close to characteristics woman, home, but from the Essay Implications in The Lottery by Shirley, heartland of quintessential Picturesque scenery. Of A Woman? It is here, amongst the steep windswept hills, the spilling streams, the my paper for me free, dells and lonely haunts, that a true sense of sublime solitude is experienced. Characteristics Of A Woman? Rather than suggest unsupported influence, merely compare “O Solitude” with Wordsworth’s sonnet on the sonnet, “Nuns Fret Not At Their Convents’ Narrow Rooms,” clearly contextualised in the Lakelands: “. Write For Me? . . bees that soar for bloom, / High as the highest Peak of Furness-fells, / Will murmur by the hour in foxglove bells” (5-7). In “Sleep and Poetry” (1816), Keats demonstrates a simple gratification in simple Nature descriptions, beginning his description of Poesythe highest callingentirely in woman naturalistic terms: Should I rather kneel.

Upon some mountain-top until I feel. A glowing splendour round about me hung, And echo back the voice of thine own tongue? (49-52) Here the observation, mountain top serves as altar to the poet-priest: both the characteristics of a, material manifestation and the token picturesque echo of poetry’s voice, the situation and inspiration. This soon progresses to a unclouded analogy between literature and landscape: Will be elysiuman eternal book. Whence I may copy many a lovely saying.

About the leaves, and flowersabout the participant, playing. Of nymphs in woods, and fountains; and the shade. Keeping a silence round a sleeping maid. Of A Good? (63-68) The opening, “What is advantages more gentle than a wind in summer” (1), “More healthful than the of a good woman, leafiness of dales?” (7) sets the learned, initial tone: composed of a sappy repetition of feminine rhymes that describes entirely the sappy nature Keats first has in mind. The centre weight of “Sleep and characteristics of a woman Poetry” is sweetness (the word sweet occurs ten times) rather than picturesqueness.

Interestingly, Poetrythe answer to this famous string of learned rhetorical interrogationsis described in terms familiar to the Picturesque. Characteristics Of A? There is the beautiful: “beautiful,” “smooth,” “wings of a swan”; intermixed with the my paper for me, sublime: “awful,” “fearful claps of thunder,” “low rumblings,” and “sounds which will reach the Framer of all things.” Keats then once again rambles in his southern fields of “joy,” to “woo sweet kisses,” amongst fanciful “Flora”; all in all, “A lovely tale of human life.” Briefly, Poesy is itself a kind of Edenesque landscape, where the gentle white dove wafts its wings in cooling wind for the resting poet. And yet Keats knew such joys he must “. . . pass . . . for of a good woman a nobler life,” and there “find the agonies, the intelligence, strife / Of human hearts. . . . (122-124). This re-introduces Poetry, this time in terms of “calling,” and again Keats offers images drawn from the picturesque landscape, eloquent as allegory for good the solitude, agonies and transience of the Lottery by Shirley Jackson, human experience: “cragginess”; “winds with glorious fear”; the sky is no longer filled with fluffy white, but “ a huge cloud's ridge”; there are now “mountains” filled with “Shapes of delight, of mystery, and fear.” Keats, aspires to become the powerful “charioteer,” understanding “the agonies, the strife” of “thousands” of characteristics different men. Clearly and undeniablyand here we can be thankful that the literary jury who generally overlook Keats and the Picturesque are not only out to lunch but almost completely out of the Essay Implications, picturePicturesque allusions best express those agonies, that strife. The final verse paragraphs provide an of a woman, extra dimension, an inventory of the art decoration in his friend Hunt’s house situated within the larger context of poetic fancy. Landscape is reframed as landscape painting, providing an early indication of is computer storage Keats’ frame of mind: his leanings toward art. It seems clear from all this that Keats already understands the symbolic value of the picturesque scene: its ability to conjure up the essence of man’s existence: the beauty of youth coupled with the awful of of a good woman age, that dialogue which utters mutual pity and ultimate evanescence.

At the same time there can be little doubt that Keat’s cheerful disposition at war north this time makes the Picturesque an uncertain subject. “I Stood Tip-Toe” (1816) offers another early effort at landscape poetry. Almost at once the view from the “little hill” becomes an exercise. To peer about upon variety; Far round the horizon's crystal air to good woman, skim, And trace the dwindled edgings of its brim;

To picture out the quaint, and curious bending. Of a fresh woodland alley, never ending; Or by the bowery clefts, and leafy shelves, Guess where the jaunty streams refresh themselves. (16-22) Unfortunately, there is no unity in Keats’ picturedespite the superlative editorial annotation of my paper for me “pure nature-painting”only a variegated catalogue of good nature confused by occasional legends of Hellas and compounded by relentless rhyming couplets. If the war north advantages, landscape speaks to Keats, the voice again has sappily sweet tendencies, as with the feminine rhyme, “Nature's gentle doings” which are “softer than ring-dove's cooings.” Even quintessential picturesque elements become, like “the quaint mossiness of aged roots,” quaint rather than symbolic or expressive. If Keats found any authentic feeling in characteristics of a woman this landscape, the poem offers barely a sigh. This becomes clear when we compare: My spirit is too weakmortality. Weighs heavily on me like unwilling sleep, And each imagined pinnacle and Essay Implications in The Jackson steep.

Of godlike hardship tells me I must die. Like a sick eagle looking at the sky. (1-5) This contemplation comes not from the good woman, vision of landscape but “On First Seeing the learned, Elgin Marbles,” written the of a good, following year. During this early period, then, Keats is more often touched in a vague spiritual sense not by landscape nor nature but by art. What Is Computer? As Maureen B. Roberts explains in of a good woman her somewhat chimerical The Diamond Path: Individuation as Soul-Making in the Works of John Keats : Within these few lines are themes and symbols which come to feature prominently in Keats’ mature poetry: the eagle as the transcendent victory of and Politics beautythe vision of characteristics good woman unityover the “dizzy pain” of the “undesirable feud” of opposites; the is computer storage, motif of heaviness representing the Gnostic “sleep” as imprisonment in characteristics good woman the world, and observation sickness as the self-division which must be transcended in order to attain the characteristics, ascent. (Roberts) Whatever the extent of Gnostic influence, the fact remains that the Elgin Marbles lead Keats inwards, towards fundamentals, while the tip-toe view results in little more than a dance through the tulips; indeed by the end of the storage, poem we can only imagine Keats tired of his tip-toe prance. And yet, in “To Haydon,” written concomitantly with the characteristics good woman, Elgin Marble sonnet, Keats composed another in which he speaks of men who stare at sculptures “with browless idiotism.” The sonnet also includes: . . . forgive me that I cannot speak. Definitively of these mighty things; Forgive me that I have not eagle’s wings,

That what I want I know not where to intelligence, seek. (“To Haydon,” 3-6) Keats then is still searching, rambling, as we shall see, between the vicarious and the actual. There is some certitude: the unbreakable link between landscape and poetry: “Some flowery spot, sequester'd, wild, romantic, / That often must have seen a poet frantic” (“Epistle to George Felton Mathew,” 37-8) [50] ; and the particularly evocative effects of characteristics good picturesque scenery which speak to Keats of Poetry as vocation. Yet still the participant, searching, which eventually will lead him towards the Picturesque. People not Pictures. March 13, 1818, Keats writes to of a good, his friend Bailey: “Give me a barren mould so I may meet with some shadowing of is computer storage Alfred in the shape of a Gipsey, a Huntsman or as Shepherd.

Scenery is fine, but human nature is finer” ( Letters , I, 242). As an addendum to characteristics good, this, Keats felt that the principal use of poetry was to sharpen “one’s vision into the heart and observation examples nature of man” (qtd. Bate, 337). Although this seems to characteristics good, exclude any exploration of the Picturesque, Keats’ catalogue of characters are, perhaps inadvertently, certainly importantly, all of the Picturesque scene. Further, Turner’s series of Picturesque landscapes of England and Wales, which beyond doubt are Picturesque studies, nevertheless express the idea that “man is as much a phenomenon of the natural world as are mountains, fields and oceans” (Shanes, 8). It seems clear that Keats, familiar with the beauty of southern landscape, still lacked in any actual experience of the Picturesque sublime. An exhibition of the write for me, American painter, Benjamin West, where “. Characteristics Woman? . . Keats was altogether receptive to any effort to attain the ‘sublime’”(Bate, 243), featured one particular painting, “Death on the Pale Horse,” known for stirring such feelings. Keats was ultimately disappointed: . . . there is nothing to be intense upon; no women one feels mad to kiss; no face swelling into participant observation examples, reality. . . . The excellence of characteristics woman every Art is examples its intensity, capable of making all disagreeable evaporate, from their being in close relationship with Beauty and TruthExamine King Lear you will find this exemplified throughout. (qtd. Bate, 243)

Although this does underscore the focus of Keats’ main interest, his dissatisfaction with this painting seems singular. A letter to Reynolds (25 March, 1818), for example, contains the following: You know the Enchanted Castel, it doth stand. Upon a rock, on the border of a Lake, Nested in of a trees,

A mossy place, a Merlin’s Hall, a dream. You know the clear lake, and the little Isles. The Mounts blue, See what is coming from the distance dim! A golden galley all in silken trim.

O that our dreamings all, of sleep or wake, Would all the colours from the sunset take. . . . ( Letters , 260-261) Keats explains in an endnote to learned, this poem that his inspiration was Claude’s “Enchanted Castle” in “ Sacrifice to of a good woman, Apollo ” ( Letters , 263) . Further, Manwaring suggests that the learned, same canvas was transmuted into certain lines of “Ode on characteristics of a good woman, a Grecian Urn”itself formed of intelligence pictures; and perhaps a sense of Claude is still heard in “. . . magic casements, opening on of a good woman, the foam / Of perilous seas, in Implications Jackson faery lands forlorn” (“Ode to a Nightingale, 69-70). Although Keats will discover a sense of sublimity in landscape during his 1818 Picturesque tour, art provided the source from characteristics, which he would most often and most naturally drink. The sense of sublimity through the subjective contemplation of objects is common to the romantics, but Keats’ “Ode on a Grecian Urn” demonstrates his variance with Wordsworth: for Keats it is the Lottery, Urn rather than Nature which provides lessons of truth.

And yet there is a striking similarity, for characteristics good the main theme is not the figures on the Urn but the poet’s own response. The “Scenery is fine, but human nature is participant examples finer” notion requires further definition: Keats, by good, his own confession, states: “. . . my head is sometimes in and Politics such a whirl in considering the million likings and antipathies of our Moments” ( Letters , 324); “I carry all matters to an extremeso that when I have any little vexation it grows in five minutes into a theme for Sophocles” ( Letters , 340). Characteristics? In other words, his youthful mind changes with the frequency of war north advantages English weather. His comment here is in particular reference to landscape scenes seen in real life: the characteristics of a, letter was written during a prolonged stay in intelligence Devonshire, during a period described as, “splashy, rainy, misty snowy, foggy haily floody, muddy. . . .” ( Letters , 241). Even if we willingly expand his scenery/human nature comment to good, all landscapes and all sunny daysthe effect, for what is computer example, of offering the quotation without the context in order to characteristics woman, prove a pointas ridiculous as this might seem, there still remains, as suggested by the “Gipsey,” “Huntsman” and “Shepherd,” the Picturesque character . The Picturesque Tour [51] We have so far seen reasons why a Picturesque Tour was long on the books, not least of which is the fact that literature cannot be writ from an exploration only of literature. [52] Keats’ keen literary vision and what storage his initial rural blindness are unwittingly confessed in “To one who has been long in characteristics woman city pent”: To one who has been long in city pent, ’Tis very sweet to war north advantages, look into the fair.

And open face of of a woman heaven,to breathe a prayer. Full in the smile of the blue firmament. Who is more happy, when, with heart’s content, Fatigued he sinks into some pleasant lair. Of wavy grass, and reads a debonair. And gentle tale of love and write for me languishment. (1-8) Certainly there is pleasure in this dulcet southern domain, though finally, typically, Keats turns his full attention to a book. Sidney K. Of A? Robinson, Inquiry into the Picturesque , repudiating the absurdity of in The Lottery by Shirley comparing landscapes with paintings, states: For the Picturesque, of course, studying paintings and books was the clearest recognition that designing the characteristics good woman, landscape was a complex amalgam of raw sensory patterns supplied by nature with the patterns of arrangement and selection inherent in the operation of the human mind. (Robinson 103) Although the connection might seem somewhat tenuous, designing poetry is equally “an amalgam of civil war north advantages raw sensory patterns supplied by nature with the patterns of arrangement and selection inherent in the operation of the human mind.” Keats had studied literature and now the necessity of experiencing raw nature at characteristics woman first hand could no longer be denied. By mid 1818, Keats realised “there is something else wanting to one who passes his life among Books and thoughts on civil war north advantages, Books” (qtd.

Bate, 340). In April, Keats proposed. within a Month to put my knapsack at my back and make a pedestrian tour through the North of England, and part of Scotlandto make a sort of of a Prologue to the Life I intend to Essay on Sports, pursue. . . Woman? . ( Letters , 264) As a citizen of the romantic province, experiencing nature at length and up-close was a moral imperative, not only because other poets had trod that path, but because nature, especially the grander and awful, are essential for imaginative energy. Keats knew this and Keats went a-wandering. In late June, his travelling companion, Charles Brown, wrote in his journal: The country was wild and romantic, the weather fine, though not sunny, while the fresh mountain air, and many larks about us, gave us unbounded delight. As we approached the lake, the scenery became more grand and beautiful; and from time to time we stayed our steps, gazing intently on it. Hitherto, Keats had witness nothing superior to Devonshire; but, beautiful as that is, he was now tempted to speak with indifference. Participant? At the first turn from the road, before descending to the hamlet of Bowness, we both simultaneously came to a full stop.

The lake [Windermere] lay before us. His bright eyes darted on a mountain-peak, beneath which was gently floating a silver cloud; thence to a very small island, adorned with the foliage of trees, that lay beneath us, and surrounded by water of a glorious hue, when he exclaimed: “How can I believe in that?surely it cannot be!” He warmly asserted that no view in good woman the world could equal thisthat it must beat all Italy. ( Letters , 425-426) (See figure 14. ) It is perhaps difficult for the sensorially saturated modern to imagine the provocativity and, yes, the sublimity, of what storage such landscape; this lengthy extract, however, makes clear the power of the Picturesque, temporally contextualised, when such scenes were relatively unfamiliar.[53] In a sense, we have here the spectacular importance of the Picturesque, an indication of why a revolution it caused in aesthetics and art; and of a woman the comparison with Italythe fountain-head from which swelled the Picturesqueis beyond doubt no chancy happening. Keats’ own record of the tour, his correspondence, is equally mottled with superlatives: What astonishes me more than anything is the tone, the colouring, the slate, the stone, the moss, the rock-weed; or, if I may so say, the intellect, the countenance of such places. The space, the magnitude of mountains and waterfalls are well imagined before one sees them; but this countenance or intellectual tone must surpass every imagination and defy any remembrance. ( Letters , 301) (See figure 15.) [54] Here then Keats finally discovers the Picturesque (note the catalogue) as well as its associational value. Paraphrasing Archibold Alison, Hipple states: “An object is picturesque if it is such as to awaken a train of associations additional to on Sports, what the scene as a whole is characteristics woman calculated to excite” (164). Intelligence? Again, the picturesque then is a term whether in landscape, painting or literature which has everything to do with associationism; and we see that Price’s attempt to divorce the term from its reference to pictorial representation is by no means peculiar. [55] Keats, clearly, has imagined such scenes, imagines them as he hikes, and yet the intellect seems suddenly insignificant once confronted with the actual. Keats goes on to tell Tom: I shall learn poetry here and shall henceforth write more than ever, for the abstract endeavour of being able to add a mite to that mass of good woman beauty which is harvested from these grand materials, by the finest spirits, and put into etherial existence for the relish of one’s fellows. Advantages? I cannot think with Hazlitt that these scenes make man appear little.

I never forgot my stature so completelyI live in the eye; and my imagination, surpassed, is at rest. (301) There is too much for coincidence in these two passages: to “defy remembrance,” to “live in the eye,” to “forget my stature,” besides an echoing of negative capability, is clearly to defy Wordsworthan assertion that though perhaps he follows in the old poet’s footsteps, he will find his own way in the Picturesque. Characteristics Of A Good Woman? Indeed, Keats himself admits this point: As to the poetical Character itself, (I mean that sort of which, if I am anything, I am a Member; that sort distinguished from the wordsworthian or egotistical sublime; which is a thing per se and stands alone) it is not itselfit has no selfit is everything and nothing. ( Letters , 386-7) In a similar vein, Keats comments on Windermere, which makes. . . Learned Intelligence? . one forget the divisions of life; age, youth, poverty and riches; and characteristics of a good refine ones sensual vision into a sort of what is computer north star which can never cease to good woman, be open lidded and steadfast over the wonders of the great Power. ( Letters , 299) [56] At the end of June, Keats visits the “Druids’ Circle.” Gilpin, in his tour of the Lakes, discovered this same temple, which he admits is not particularly picturesque, though conjured up pictures of Druid priests and war north advantages ritual sacrifice. A romantic fancy? Surely not! The pit-falls, obstacles and hardships of the tour increasingly insinuate themselves into his correspondence.

Brown was a veteran hiker. For Keatsby no means weak-kneed nor namby-pambythe going becomes too tough. Characteristics Of A? The Picturesque of northern Britain is a landscape of antagonistic elements, gentleness is anathema, where the only comfort can come from discomfort. All this, compounded with climactic and observation topographical alienness, becomes apparent in characteristics of a “On Visiting the Essay on Symbolic Lottery Jackson, Tomb of good Burns,” written during the tour: The town, the churchyard, and Implications Lottery Jackson the setting sun, The clouds, the trees, the characteristics good woman, rounded hills all seem, Though beautiful, coldstrangeas in a dream, I dreamed long ago, now new begun. The short-liv’d, paly Summer is but won.

From Winter’s ague, for one hour’s gleam; Though sapphire-warm, their stars do never beam: All is learned intelligence cold Beauty, pain is never done: For who has mind to relish, Minos-wise, The Real of Beauty, free from that dead hue. Sickly imagination and sick pride. Cast wan upon it? Burns! with honour due. I oft have honour’d thee.

Great shadow, hide. Thy face; I sin against the native skies. ( Letters , 308) Although largely a fault finding mission, a remonstrance, penned by a southerner spoiled by languid southern summer sunshine and summer warmth, there is here, as there is not in characteristics of a good “I Stood Tiptoe” and other early poems, an authentic sense of feeling, a sense of being touched by on Sports and Politics, landscape and nature, a genuineness that foreshadows “Ode to Melancholy.” There is characteristics also an important associational element, translating to the problem of judging beauty when both our judgement and beauty itself are tinged with the omnipresence of brevity and learned intelligence death. Good Woman? If the northern summer is war north advantages only a brief delivery from winter, then what of our lives? The headiness of the first fine weather days are followed by an account of a country dance, which Keats concludes with what is becoming a familiar refrain: “This is what I like better than scenery” ( Letters , 307).

In Scotland he writes: “I know not how it is, the characteristics of a good, Clouds, the sky, the Houses, all seem anti Grecian anti CharlemagnishI will endeavour to get rid of my prejudices, tell you fairly about the Scotch” ( Letters , 309). At the same time, there is Essay a clue to characteristics of a woman, Keats’ understanding of picturesqueness: “The barefooted Girls look very much in keepingI mean with the Scenery about them. . . . Intelligence? They are very pleasant because they are very primitive” ( Letters , 318-19). Steeped in literature, with much of characteristics woman his experience experienced vicariously, Keats can never entirely lose his prejudice. As hinted above, Keats takes great delight in for me free picturesque characters: Imagine the worst dog kennel you ever saw placed upon two poles from a mouldy fencingIn such a wretched thing sat a squalid old woman squat like an ape half starved from a scarcity of Biscuit in its passage from Madagascar to the cape,with a pipe in her mouth and looking out with a round eyed skinny lidded, inanitywith a sort of horizontal idiotic movement of her headsquat and lean she sat and puffed out the smoke while two ragged tattered Girls carried her along. ( Letters , 321-2) Notice the skill with which Keats intensifies the picturesque effect: the mixed dog/ape metaphor, the alliteration and repetition.

This, certainly, is a different Picturesque, though nonetheless Picturesque. The detachment we witnessed in Wordsworththat frequent remoteness from the real trials and tribulations of country lifeis also manifest in Keats. John Clare, Keats’ contemporary, similarly notes: . . . his descriptions of scenery are often very fine but as it is the case with other inhabitants of great cities he often described nature as she appeared in his fancies not as he would have described her had he witnessed the things he describesThus it is good woman he has often undergone the and Politics, stigma of Cockneyism what appears as beautys in the eyes of a pent-up citizen are looked upon good as conceits by those who live in my paper for me the countrythese are merely errors but even here they are merely the errors of poetryhe is good woman often mystical but such poetical licences have been looked on as beauties in Wordsworth Shelley and in Keats they may be forgiven. (qtd. Watson, 23) The idea that such romanticisms are “merely errors of poetry” is indicative of the times, a kind of Claudian perspective where both the Picturesque and poetic vision could often turn a blind eye to social reality and see instead a dislocated ideal. The subject then is not merely inaccuracy in “descriptions of scenery” but the general anti-utilitarianism of romantic poetry.

This, it seems, is much more “comic and faddish” (Brownlow, 43) than learning to write for me free, appreciate landscape through painting. It is also entirely common to all the romantic poets. Again, to quote Clare: And een the characteristics good, fallow fields appear so fair. The very weeds make sweetest gardens there.

And summer there puts garments on so gay. I hate the plow that comes to dissaray. And man the write for me free, only object that disdains. Earths garden into deserts for characteristics good his grains. Leave him his schemes of gaintis wealth to me. Wild heaths to traceand not their broken tree. Which lightening shiveredand which nature tries.

To keep alive for write for me free poesy to prize. (Clare, 80) Interestingly, however, such romanticism of country life is often omitted during the tour, where Keats comes face to face with the squalorand a foreign squalor to of a good, such a southernerof poverty and often describes it in Essay Implications Jackson empathetic or political terms: On our walk in Ireland we had too much opportunity to see the worse than nakedness, the characteristics good, rags, the dirt and misery of the poor common IrishA Scotch cottage, though in that some times the Smoke has no exit but at on Symbolic Implications in The by Shirley the door, is a palace to an Irish one. ( Letters , 321) There is perhaps some implication that a philosophical shift occurs in moving from poetry to good, prose, as if the picturesque vanishes with the replacement of smock for Wellington boots and overalls, a justification for the might of “modern” prose. The subject of Keats’ complaint was also the subject of a Picturesque sub-category: the Gainsboroughesque “cottage Picturesque,” where sublimity is replaced by write my paper for me, romantic rusticity, where such squalor is marked by its absence: in essence, a gentle Picturesque (see figure 16 ). In a gasping effort at brevity, much has been overlooked. In summary, Keats’ correspondence during the tour is overgrown with the good woman, Picturesque, from poems such as “Ailsa Rock” (see figure 17) and “Ben Nevis,”which, in its stumbling uncertainty, seem neither a Ben nor a Nevisto comments such as “evey [sic] ten steps creating a new and beautiful picturesometimes through little woodsthere are two islands on the Lake each with a beautiful ruinone of them rich in ivy ( Letters , 338). [57] In early August, after covering 642 horizontal and vertical miles in sometimes cold wet conditions with sometimes poor food and indifferent accommodation, after suffering a fortnight from a cold and sore throat, Keats abandoned the tour and left his friend to what, continue alone. [58]

Watsonin his singular modern study of Keats and the Picturesque, which continues the standard criticism instituted with Wordsworthprovides a succinct panorama of the refracted light of influence the Picturesque tour radiates over Hyperion , and there is no need therefore to offer excessive focus. [60] In summary, Watson points out that the of a good woman, power of the poem stems from Keats’ “mythologising imagination” and write for me free the sublime “terrifying landscapes which form the background for the colossal figures” (155). But the picturesque, in addition to background, also serves as a form of good woman characterisation, externalising the internal: . . . where their own groans. They felt, but heard not, for the solid roar. Of thunderous waterfalls and torrents hoarse. Pouring a constant bulk, uncertain where. Crag jutting forth to crag, and war north advantages rocks that seem’d. Ever as if just rising from characteristics woman, a sleep,

Forehead to forehead held their monstrous horns; And thus in observation examples a thousand hugest phantasies. Made a fir roofing to this nest of woe. Of A? (II,6-14) On similar lines, “The quiet sublime imbues the sorrow-worn face of Moneta within the war north, temple of Western memory built by of a woman, Keats in learned The Fall of characteristics Hyperion ” (Woodring, 40). There are, however, a few additional points which Watson fails to note.

Firstly, the poem opens with Saturn and Thea postured “. . . motionless / Like natural sculpture in cathedral cavern” (I.85-86). The scene is represented through copious visual images at the expense the auditory. On Sports And Politics? Recollecting, “I live in the eye” from his picturesque tour, there is some hint of the visual memories which form the scenery of Hyperion’s stage. The “fallen divinity” of characteristics of a Saturn exists in a mythico-historical landscape formed of the transcendental imagination and nature experienced during the tour: the “thousand hugest phantasies.” Watson’s closing comment“ Ode to learned, Autumn originated in of a woman the Hampshire harvest-time, not on a Lakeland mountain; and the nightingale, like Keats, sings only in the south of England” (157)scores high marks for rhetorical tune and poetic twang; unfortunately, it is falsely based upon the premise that the Picturesque is heterogeneous to Hampshire as well as drawing attention to his ornithological dullness. Following the Picturesque Tour, Watson states: “. What Storage? . . and there, apart from Canto I of The Fall of Hyperion , Keats turned his back upon the picturesque for ever” (157). Although, again, rhetorically right and conforming to the standard ignominiously moulded analysis of the Picturesque, this is characteristics woman not, in actual fact, the case. The influence of Claude’s Sacrifice to Apollo on “Grecian Urn” and “Ode to a Nightingale” has already been mentioned. In more general terms, and as Bate mentions: “It is interesting to note the number of spontaneous phrases and advantages images in his letters now that are later echoed in characteristics of a good woman the poetry, especially in intelligence the Odes“ (358). Although instances are numerous, a couple will prove the point. In terms of diction, compare: “There is no great body of water, but the characteristics of a, accompaniment is delightful; for it ooses out from a cleft in perpendicular Rocks, all fledged with Ash. Essay On Symbolic In The Lottery By Shirley? . .” ( Letters , 306) with, “ Fledge the wild-ridged mountains steep by steep” (“Ode to Psyche,” 55).

In terms of a specific memory, compare the excursion to Ambleside waterfall: “. . . Of A? it is buried in trees, in the bottom of the learned, valleythe stream itself is interesting” ( Letters , 300), with, “. Characteristics Of A Good Woman? . . over the still stream, / Up the hill-side; and now 'tis buried deep / In the next valley” (“Ode to a Nightingale,” 76-8). The Picturesque continued to work through Keats’ poetry: not always clearly; but the lines still are drawn. Recalling Keats’ comments on first seeing Windermere, which included “refine ones sensual vision into a sort of and Politics north star,” we move easily to characteristics of a woman, its later transmutation: Bright star, would I were stedfast as thou art- Not in lone splendour hung aloft the night, And watching, with eternal lids apart, Like nature’s patient, sleepless Eremite, The moving waters at write their priestlike task.

Of pure ablution round earth’s human shores, Or gazing on the new soft-fallen mask. Of snow upon the mountains and the moors; No-yet still stedfast, still unchangeable, Pillow’d upon my fair love’s ripening breast, To feel for ever its soft fall and swell, Awake for ever in a sweet unrest, Still, still to hear her tender-taken breath, And so live ever-or else swoon to death. ( Complete Poems , 329) One of the problems of looking at Keats in a Picturesque context, as mentioned above, is his unwillingness to characteristics of a good woman, adopt standard phraseologies, choosing instead to write free, create fresh imagery. Although this is indeed a “problem,” it is also a solution.

Knight was perhaps the characteristics good woman, most adamant proponent of “novelty” in Picturesque scenes. A vast expanse of lawn is boring not simply for its smoothness, but for learned its lack of surprise. Abrupt variation produces mixture through novelty. Richard Payne Knight recognised the salutary effect of “irritation” as an interruption of sensations that had become “stale and vapid” through repetition. (Robinson, 7) It seems fair therefore to characteristics of a, suggest that poetic coinings“large dome curtains,” ( Hyperion ) and “massy range” ( Fall of Hyperion ), for exampleare a form of examples such abrupt variation producing mixture through novelty. In a sense, Keats’ poetical methodology stems directly from the lessons of the Picturesque, at of a good least in terms of “the noble metaphor, when it is placed to Advantage, casts a kind of Glory round it, and darts a Lustre through the war north, whole sentence” (qtd. Robinson, 9). That dart of lustre provides the interruption, the irritation, the unexpected that is “novelty.” This is key not only to of a good woman, the Picturesque but to much of write for me free Keats’ better poetry.

Although perhaps out on strechified limb, in characteristics of a good danger of barking up the wrong tree, the suggestion merely provides some indication of the less obvious influence of the Picturesque. Hipple points out that the term “picturesque” can and is used solely as a literary term: “Blaire,” he says as a case in point, “repeatedly praises epithets, figures and descriptions as ‘picturesque’ as conjuring up distinct and forcible images.” (186) Indeed, compared with Robinson’s analogy between the complexity and mixture of the write, Picturesque and identical constituents of the 18th century Whig party, (“Compositions of Politics and Money”)the picturesque here seems more associated with the wig than the partythe claim seems modest enough. The Liberty of the Picturesque. The difficulty of defining romanticism, which we have deliberately over-looked, stems of course from the diversity of poetry, of styles, of influences and of diction of romantic poets. That variety is characteristics of a good itself a product of the times and war north the liberty that the Picturesque supportedliberty both in the political and personal sense. Characteristics Of A? Knight, in Progress of a Civil Society , points out the connection between the picturesque landscape gardenand by extension, the Picturesque in generaland the composition of society:

As when in formal lines, exact and true, The pruner’s scissors shear the ductile yew, Amused, its shape and symmetry we see, But seek in vain the likeness of a tree; And while the Essay on Symbolic by Shirley Jackson, artist’s pleasing skill we trace, Lament the loss of every native grace: So when too strictly social habits bind, The native vigour of the characteristics, roving mind, Pleased, the well-ordered system we behold.

Its justly regulated parts unfold, But search in advantages vain its complicated plan. To find the native semblance of a man, And, ’midst the charms of equal rule, deplore. The loss of graces art can ne’er restore. (qtd. Woman? Robinson, 134) In a sense, an examination of the Picturesque in the context of its influence on romanticismeven when fairness, as here, is the ultimate goaldoes a certain injustice to the subject and filters out much of the important material. Thus, for example, the liberating effect seems somewhat arbitrary. Is Computer Storage? Hipple, in characteristics of a The Beautiful, the Sublime and the Picturesque , occupies a unique position in modern Picturesque analysis, going beyond the positivism of learned art historians and suggesting that the Picturesque is consequential in and of itself.

Although Hipple rarely ventures beyond summary and conflation of individual Picturesque theories, his treatise is comprehensive, detailed and offers an important concluding point: The aestheticians of this period [eighteenth century] all found their subject to be psychological: the central problem for them was not some aspect of the cosmos or of particular substances, nor was it found among the characteristics of human activity or of the modes of symbolic representation; one and all, they found their problem to be the specification and discrimination of certain kinds of feelings, the determination of the mental powers and susceptibilities which yielded those feelings, and of the impressions and ideas which excited them. (305) Although the Picturesque, despite Hipple’s unqualified assertion, does indeed concern itself with particular substances: the characteristics good woman, elemental material of a scene; and with human activity: the hiking and picturesque tours, the picturesque guide books and plain and simple painting and poetry; and with modes of Implications Lottery by Shirley symbolic representation: the Picturesque itself is a mode of symbolic representation; Hipple’s stress upon characteristics good woman the psychological basis is nevertheless an important point, especially when we look forward to the psychological aspect of romantic poetry. One of the difficulties with the Picturesque is that it never became a unified system; the saving grace of the Picturesque is that it never became a unified system. It is fundamentally concerned with the write, native vigour of the roving mind, allowing for nature and art to stroll arm in arm, allowing and even insisting upon the liberty of variety and change: the characteristics, liberty then of Wordsworth and Keats. Keats, for all his youth and gentle disposition, found the Picturesque health threatening to walk through and almost anomalistic to incorporate in his verse; as a serious poet with ambitions of civil advantages immortality, [61] he nevertheless realised its essentiality to characteristics woman, his artistic development. As Robinson explains: “Picturesque colors are not fresh, delicate ones of spring, but those of observation examples autumn whose age and decay bespeak fullness and repose tinged with memory and woman the sharpness of abrupt terminations” (101). Keats then is seeking, not for on Sports something to save his life, but his immortality. Keats never reached an age when these colours could clearly be seen and so we find glimpses here and there and the constant desire to “bid these joys farewell”: those bright colours of characteristics of a youth. Figure 14: Joseph Farington, Windermere, from Watson. Figure 15: Joseph Farington, The Waterfall at Rydal , from on Sports and Politics, Watson (visited by Keats)

Figure 16: Francis Wheatly (1747-1801), Girls washing in a stream, from woman, Bicknell. Figure 17: Ailsa rock, from Bate. Four years after the death of Keats, engraver and publisher Charles Heath and in The Turner came “to an agreement that Turner would produce a large quantity of water-colours over a number of years, from which Charles Heath would choose 120 to be line-engraved and subsequently published under the title of “Picturesque Views in England and Wales.”(Shanes, 5) The Picturesque, even at this date, remains a vital force that warrants the attention of England’s finest artist. Indeed, “Turner was undoubtedly at characteristics of a good the height of his mature creative powers during the years of this series”(Shanes, 17) The implied perception of the romantic movement as a reaction against what storage, eighteenth century neo-classicism or, at the other extreme, as spontaneous literary combustion torched by good woman, Wordsworth’s egotistical sublime is prescriptivism unleashed, offering barely the advantages, bare bones of a story. It is neither immaterial nor coincidental that the 1770sthe decade of Wordsworth’s birthalso saw the beginnings of English landscape painting as a major genre, signifying not only of a good, a general artistic reaction but also attraction . The eighteenth century saw landscape modified from traditional perceptions of ownership, agriculture and trial and trouble to aesthetic material.

This then is the general Picturesque canvass. The Picturesque movement, in providing the initial way of seeing landscape actually encouraged the viewing of what storage landscape, opening the scenery of England to enthusiastic travellers in search of the Picturesque and finally revealing what had always been there though never before seen. This suddenly seen landscape was no longer lit by characteristics of a good, the golden light of a fanciful Golden Age; no longer mottled with classical sylvan shadows, where Pope’s “Fair Thames, flow gently from thy sacred spring, / While on thy banks Sicilian Muses sing”; no longer a continuation of the Works and Days of Hesiod nor theories of Theocritus: now the Island’s landscape might be seen in participant common light, casting its own shadow, peopled by common people born and bred, the works and days of a new age. In addition to this aesthetic revolution, the heightened status of landscape provided an environment in which nature, the individual elements of landscapealready of increasing importance by virtue of developments in the natural sciencesmight find its aesthetic value enlarged. The Picturesque movement proved its importance and viability by its very popularity and success.

Picturesque theory intellectualised landscape, transforming it into something that could only be truly appreciated through learning, just as neo-classicism had done previously, though now it was no longer classical learning but aesthetic learning that was sought; and the focus was decidedly the landscape itself rather than a superimposed classicism. It this manner, it was increasingly intellectually acceptable to study landscape, in characteristics painting, in poetry, and in pastime. As Christopher Hussey suggests in The Picturesque : The picturesque view of nature was the new, the civil war north, only, way of deriving aesthetic satisfaction from landscape. Previously, Englishmen had simply failed to connect scenery and painting in characteristics of a good their minds. They had liked certain views and certain lights, just as all men like sunshine and verdure, for their own sakes.

But landscape as such gave them no aesthetic satisfaction. (2) The notion of Essay on Symbolic Implications Lottery complete detachment from an aesthetic appreciation of sceneryessentially the unfamiliarity of the familiarseems, at least at first glance, rooted in a certain outlandishness. Additional proof comes from Wordsworth himself, who lodged for a time near Derwentwater. under the roof of a shrewd and sensible woman, who more than once exclaimed in my hearing, “Bless me! folk [picturesque tourists] are always talking about prospects: when I was young there never was sic a thing neamed.” (qtd. Andrews, 153-4) On a hike through Wales, Uvedale Price came upon a series of natural cascades and expressed his delight to the landowner: He was quite uneasy at the pleasure I felt, and seemed afraid I should waste my admiration. “Don’t stop at these things,” said he, “I will shew you by and by one worth seeing.” At last we came to of a good woman, a part where the brook was conducted down three long steps of hewn stone: “There,” said he, with great triumph, “that was made by Edwards, who built Pont y pridd, and it is advantages reckoned as neat a piece of mason-work as any in the country.” (qtd. Of A? Robinson, 11)

Neither is participant this detachment merely a fact of by-gone days: During a recent journey to England, crossing the North Yorkshire Moors in good woman the company of a local retired farmer, I was struck immediately by the picturesque landscape: a region of sudden chasms, blasted trees and participant observation examples weathered rocky outcrops, of bumbling uncertain stone cottages and barns and shaggy sheep. My companion was indifferent to its charms. Characteristics Good? Suddenly, all about the meandering road, we came upon an area quite changed, unusually verdant, with thick hedge-rows and Implications Lottery trees full grown and full leafed--and decidedly less picturesque. The farmer suddenly came to life. “I did all this,” he began, with an all embracing wave of his hand. “It used to be like all the rest, now’t bar rocks. Look at it now though.” For the next several miles he lectured on his “improvements,” singing praise of its cultivated nature and even claiming to have caused changes in local climate! Soon we re-entered the picturesque and protected national park. “Now, just look at that,” he scoffed with a disdainful shake of his head. “It’s bloody awful.”

The Picturesque was, further, a ubiquitous movement which sought to understand the nature of aesthetic perception and to provide prescriptions which essentially affected an of a woman, entirely new appreciation for the wild wilderness of and Politics places such as the Cumbrian Lake District. Finally, we should not discount the of a good woman, political and social overtones: the license it provided for liberalism, for what variety, for change, for originality. For all its seriousness, Picturesque musings were wont to wander into regions of absurdity, sometimes finding their way into good woman, the real world, as with Charles Hamilton’s hiring of a hermit to sit in his back garden hermitage; or the estate village of Old Warden in Bedforshire where, in is computer the early nineteenth century, the residents were cajoled into wearing red cloaks and of a good woman tall hats to harmonise with the red paint work and on Symbolic Implications in The Lottery by Shirley Jackson charming dormers of their cottages. In the fictional world, this absurdity was also made apparent: A lecture on the picturesque immediately followed, in which his instruction were so clear the she soon began to see beauty admired by him, and her attention was so earnest, that he became perfectly satisfied of her having a great deal of natural taste. He talked of fore-grounds, distances, and second distances--side-screens and perspectives--lights and shades;--and Catherine was so hopeful a scholar that when they gained the top of Beechen Cliff, she voluntarily rejected the whole city of Bath, as unworthy to make part of a landscape. (Austen 138) Indeed, the very pith of Picturesque theory might, to the cynicaland especially literary mindedmodern, seems daubed with inanity, for it sought to characteristics of a, mix landscape and painting, allowing the appreciation of a real scene for its likeness to Essay on Symbolic in The Jackson, art, rather than art for its likeness to a real scenea notion which Hugh Sykes Davies, Wordsworth and the Worth of characteristics of a Words , finds particularly “unnatural.” The important thing to remember here, however, is that this was, plain and simple, the only way into landscape, the only way to see the invisibly visible.

Such satire stemmed from the and Politics, excesses of the good, Picturesque movement and the jocularity sometimes manifest in learned the debate, and is not a suggestion of ignis-fatuus . Further, as Hussey explains, “the picturesque interregnum between classical and romantic art was necessary in order to enable the imagination to form the habit of feeling through the eyes” (4). It is unfortunate the modern reading of the Picturesque has turned a blind eye to the real meaning of Picturesque and adopted the more authoritative expression of Wordsworth himself as well as satirical expression by writers such as Austin and William Combe. And yet the ridiculous that some have found in of a good the Picturesque is found equally in those that find it. J. R. Intelligence? Watson, for example, provides a fitting conclusion: after a quotation in which Coleridge writes of a rocky climbing episode, he writes: “In both Wordsworth and Coleridge there is an woman, exhalation at the danger and excitement . . . the danger was there. . Participant? . . Gilpin penetrated into the valley beyond Rosthwaite, but did not consider it practicable to characteristics woman, go further” (186). So there we have it: the romantic poets were much braver than those mere writers on the Picturesque! And this is good. Watson admits, however, that Coleridge “exaggerated the dangers in his letter” (187)! Equally, the war north, idea that the characteristics woman, Picturesque had already run its course well before Wordsworth offered the final denunciating blow is is computer storage patently absurd. We have already seen how Keats required some close experience of the Picturesque in order to further develop his poetic potential.

We can remove further, both temporarily and geographically: Blake Nevius, in his slim volume, Cooper’s Landscapes , argues convincingly that the Picturesque strongly influenced his pictorial sense and description subsequent to his 1826-1833 stay in Europe: What Cooper as a visual artist learned from his travels on characteristics good, the continent is apparent in the later romances. Intelligence? His sharper awareness of pictorial values to be sought in the natural landscape and of the means by which these values could be introduced into imagined landscape is most evident . . . in characteristics of a woman the forest romances written after his return. On Symbolic Jackson? (89) We move forward in of a time, we cross the Atlantic, we leap from poetry to prose, yet still the Picturesque remains, exerting its influence. The Picturesque, popularised by the illustrated guides, general debate, fashionable sketching tours, the national fealty of Gainsborough’s work and advantages so on, portrayed a populist and recognisable landscape. Moving away from seventeenth and good early eighteenth century depictions of myth-laden Italian scenes, the Picturesque embraced rustic England and what is computer adopted a visual idiom from common life.

Bermingham’s suggestion that the characteristics good, concomitant “. . . Intelligence? improvement in real landscape, increasing its agricultural yield, raised its commercial and characteristics woman monetary worth” (1), provides a pragmatic exegesis for the new picturesque fashion and underscores changing cultural values. If agricultural developmentsenclosure, consolidation of small holdings and so onendowed land with new nummary worth, they also caused the what, physical transformation of large tracts of good countryside, working at odds with the increasing sense of Essay cultural and aesthetic worth. As a result, remote rustic regions such as Cumbria’s Lake District, were discovered as “ . . Characteristics Good? . the image of the homely, the Essay on Symbolic Implications in The Lottery by Shirley Jackson, stable, the of a good, ahistorical” (Birmingham 9). If at the last of the on Symbolic Implications in The Lottery by Shirley Jackson, centurybeginning with Cowperthere came poets and painters who . . . Characteristics Good? found beauty in observation hedge-rows and corn-fields, and in Hampstead and Mousehold Heaths, it was because of of a woman a long training in seeing landscape pictorially,a training which of necessity began with the most elaborate and heightened forms of landscape, with the richest and most obvious appeal, and on civil war north, the most vast and of a good woman impressive scale. (Manwaring, 232) The importance of the Picturesque stems from the fostering of an intellectual approach to the appreciation of learned architecture, gardening and scenery which in turn opened up new vistas of artistic subjects. Characteristics Of A? The emphasis upon feeling and associational values which grew from analysis of the sublime and beautiful and on Symbolic Implications Lottery by Shirley blossomed in the Picturesque finally allowed those new vistas to be expressed in subjective and romantic terms. Romanticism, then, was, to a large degree, the natural development of Picturesque aesthetics. Of course, the story continues: Ted Hughes, (1930-) born in West Yorkshire and appointed poet laureate in 1984, has written several volumes which testify to the renewed interest in topographical poetry. And all my holiday snapshots are Picturesque.

Andrews, Malcolm. The Search for the Picturesque: landscape aesthetics and tourism in Britain, 1760-1800 . Characteristics? Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1989. Austen, Jane. Northanger Abbey . New York: Dell, 1962. Bate, Walter Jackson. Is Computer? John Keats . Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1963. Benedict, Barbara M. Making the characteristics woman, Modern Reader: cultural mediation in early modern literary anthologies. What Storage? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996. Bermingham, Ann. Landscape and Ideology: the English rustic tradition, 1740-1860 . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.

Bicknell, Peter. Beauty, Horror and Immensity: Picturesque Landscape in Britain , 1750-1850. Cambridge: The Museum, 1981. Brownlow, Timothy. John Clare and Picturesque Landscape . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983. Combe, William. Doctor Syntax his three tours: in search of the picturesque, of consolation, of a wife . London: F. Warne, 1890. Davies, Hugh Sykes. W ordsworth and the Worth of Words. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Dayes, Edward, A Picturesque Tour in Yorkshire and Debyshire . London: J. Nichols Son, 1825. Denham, John, Sir. The Poetical Works . Hamden, Conn: Archon Books, 1969. Dyer, John. Poems . Ed. Edward Thomas. Characteristics Good? Lampeter: Llanerch Enterprises, 1989.

Gilpin, William. Essay on Prints. London: 1781. ---. Three Essays: On Picturesque Beauty, On Picturesque Travel, and On Sketching Landscape. London: Printed for R. Blamire, 1792. ---. Observations, relative chiefly to picturesque beauty; made in.

the year 1772, on several parts of England; particularly the mountains, and lakes of Cumberland, and Westmoreland . London, Printed for write for me free R. Blamire, 1792. ---. A dialogue upon the gardens of the Right Honourable Lord Viscount Cobham at Stow in Buckinghamshire . Los Angeles: Williams Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of California, 1976. --- . Observations on the River Wye . Richmond: The Richmond Publishing Co. Of A Woman? Ltd, 1973. Greenshields, E.B. Landscape Painting and learned Modern Dutch Artists . Toronto: Copp, Clark, 1906. Gray, Thomas. Complete Poems of of a woman Thomas Gray.

Oxford: Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1966. Handy Guide to the English Lakes . Write? Kendal: T. Wilson, undated. Hipple, Walter John. The Beautiful, the Sublime, and the Picturesque in Eighteenth-Century British Aesthetic Theory. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1957. Hughes, John. The Poetical Works of of a John Hughes . Edinburgh: At the Apollo Press, 1779. Hussey, Christopher. Civil? The Picturesque: studies in a point of view . London: Cass, 1967. Johnson, Ben. Characteristics Of A Good? “To Penshurst” The Norton Anthology of English Literature . Intelligence? Ed. Abrams, M.H.

London: W. Woman? W. Norton Company, 1975. Keats, John. Write Free? Complete Poems and Selected Letters . New York: Odyssey Press, 1935. ---. Of A Good Woman? The Letters of what John Keats 1814-1821, Volume One. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1958. Knight, Richard Payne. The Landscape: a Didactic Poem in Three Books Addressed to Uvedale Price . London: Printed by W. Bulmer and Co., Shakespeare Printing, 1794. Nevius, Blake. Cooper's Landscapes: an essay on of a, the picturesque vision. Berkeley: University of observation examples California Press, 1976.

Pope, Alexander. The Poems of Alexander Pope. Ed. John Butt. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963. Price, Uvedale. On the Picturesque . Of A? Edinburgh: Caldwell, Lloyd, 1842.

Roberts, Maureen B., The Diamond Path: Individuation as Soul-Making in the Works of John Keats . 1997. http://www.cgjung.com/articles/keats1.html. Robinson, Eric , ed. Selected Poems and Prose of John Clare . For Me? Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967. Robinson, Sidney K. Inquiry into woman, the Picturesque . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. Ruskin, John. (www.stg.brown.edu/projects/hypertext/landow/ruskin) Serle, John. A Plan of Mr.

Pope's Garden . Los Angeles: William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of Implications Lottery California, 1982. Turner, J. M. W. (Joseph Mallord William), Turner's Picturesque Views in of a England and Wales, 1825-1838 . Ed. Eric Shanes. London: Chatto Windus, 1983. Thomson, James. The Seasons and The Castel of Indolence . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972. Watson J. R. Picturesque Landscape and English Romantic Poetry . London: Hutchinson Educational, 1970. Watkin, David.

The English Vision: the picturesque in architecture, landscape, and intelligence garden design . New York: Harper Row, 1982. West, Thomas. A guide to the lakes, in Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire . Characteristics Woman? 4th ed. London : W. Richardson, 1789. Williams, Ralph M. Poet, Painter and Parson the Life of John Dyer. New York: Bookman Associates, 1956.

Woodring, Carl. Nature into and Politics, Art : cultural transformations in nineteenth-century Britain . Characteristics Of A Woman? Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989. Wordsworth, William. Guide Through the District of the Lakes in the North of England . London: Oxford University Press, 1970. ---. Poems.

The poetical works of Wordsworth . Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982. [1]As the title suggests, this is a cross disciplinary study. What might seem, initially, a grand tourwith hefty baggageinto remote realms outside literature proper is, in fact, a survey of the foundations of romanticism. [2]Up until the 19th century, French Salon duries in state-run competitions adhered to a strict hierarchy of subjects determined in 18th century Rococo and Neo-Classical art: history and religious subjects, portraiture, still life and, lastly and leastly, landscape. Write My Paper For Me? Even the French Academy's coveted Prix de Rome for art students had no landscape category until 1817, when historic landscapes with some narrative event were reluctantly allowed. As David Watkin, The English Vision , points out, a similar state existed in the area of architectural paintings: . . . the celebrated architectural competitions for the Grand Prix awarded by the French Academy and later by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts: from the characteristics, first competition held in 1702 up until 1962 no site was ever specified. In England, however, the learned, simple outline elevation in the form of a diagram on an otherwise blank background gradually gave way to drawings which show the building in its setting and eventually, as in woman the work of Blore for example, to fully developed water-colours of landscape in which the house appears as an incident. (x) [3]When eighteenth century Britons referred to “Poussin” it was normally to Gaspard Dughet and not his now more famous brother-in-law, Nicolas Poussin. [4]Other influential artists, though less important to Picturesque developments, were Tintoretto, Ruisdael and Hobbema. [5]One such example, as E. L. Manwaring notes, is Jonathan Richardson’s An Account of the Statues, Bas-Reliefs, Drawings, and Pictures in Italy, France, c. (1722) which became, for some time, a standard guide.

The section on landscape pictures, tellingly, features a prefatory note explaining precisely what landscape pictures are! cite - Manwaring 62 63. [6]Watkin essentially makes the same point, though contextualised within the standard literary bias: The history of civil amateur sketching in the nineteenth century in the manner of De Wint and Cox affords another example of the way in which a particular mode of vision became established as a thing so “natural” that its artificiality and characteristics woman its debt to the theories of learned intelligence Sir Uvedale Price were generally forgotten. (xi) [7]Roundhay Parkits central stately mansion now a noble pubin my own home town of Leeds, still features a mock ruin. Over-grown with bramble, nettles, grass and characteristics of a good woman dandelion, it is generally understoodby locals and visitors aliketo be as ancient as it is picturesque. [8]See Manwaring, (8). [9]Johnson’s dictionary, although avoiding the difficulty of defining Picturesque , actually employed it to define other words. [10]Strange then that Burke’s Inquiry is as familiar to academics as the Gospel, whereas Gilpin ideas have become the war north advantages, Apocryphia. [11]The very success of this codification played a prominent role in making banal the very theory it sought to sanctify. [12]The importance of the imagination and subjective vision in landscape painting goes back at least as far as Claude.

Samuel Palmer wrote: “When I was setting out for good Italy I expected to see Claude’s magical combinations; miles apart I found the disjointed members, which he had “suited to the desires of his mind”; these were the learned intelligence, beauties, but the beautiful ideal Helen was his own” (qtd. Characteristics Of A? Greenshields, 16). [13]Gainsborough’s rustic figures were influenced by those of Wynant. (1620-1684) . [14]Amongst the sagging shelves of picturesque guide-books were those by Thomas Gray, James Clark and war north Thomas West. [15]Besides Landscape and An Analytical Enquiry into the Principles of Taste , Knight published books ranging in subject from sexual symbolism to characteristics good, Greek philology. [16]This note by Knight is reprinted as a preface to Price’s The Landscape . Importantly, the Essay on Sports and Politics, dominance of the ocular sense which, in reference to the Picturesque, so bothered Wordsworth and is often adopted in literary analysis in reference to Gilpin was most singular to Knight; and was, in fact, a cornerstone of the debate between Knight and Price. [17]For a detailed historical analysis of enquiries into the sublime and the beautiful, as well as the debt owed by Blake to Joseph Addison, see Walter John Hipple’s The Beautiful, the Sublime and the Picturesque . [18]Somewhat ironically, Wordsworth once rebuked his friend Beaumont for painting-in an imaginary ruined castle in one of his favourite views. [19]Constable was born in Suffolk, and though he found the Lake District too solitary a place, it was there, in 1806, that he met Wordsworth and Coleridge.

[20]See Bermingham for characteristics of a good woman reproduced illustrations. [21]C. Meeks, The Railroad Station, An Architectural History. [22]Early pastoral romancesSidney’s Arcadia (1580-1582) , for and Politics examplewere resplendent in romance, requiring their courtly readers to good woman, possess a familiarity not with nature but classical texts and the conventions of courtly behaviour and are thus excluded from this study. [23]Besides the forced confinement of the heroic couplet, Abraham Cowley in Pindarique Odes (1665) set the example for deliberate irregularity, breaking the Essay, chords of the standard Pindaric precedent in characteristics of a an effort to stimulate more intense feeling. [24]This is typical Pope: compare, for example, The Temple of Fame : Here naked Rocks, and empty Wastes were seen, There Tow’ry Cities, and the Forests green:

Here sailing Ships delight the wond’ring Eyes. There trees . . . (15-18) [25]Only myopicperhaps: Lines 79-80 of Pastorals: Summer : “Your praise the tuneful birds to heaven shall bear,/And list’ning wolves grow milder as they hear.” In a footnote, Pope explains: So the verses were originally written. But the author, young as he was, soon found the absurdity which Spenser himself overlooked, of Essay and Politics introducing Wolves into England. (131) Pope’s modesty here, of of a good course, is learned overshadowed by the impressive achievement of discovering something even Spenser missed.

A fortunate discovery too, for woman the absurdity of the wolves was noticed by is computer, the “ Naiads ,” “Jove,” and “Satyrs” to name only a few native English characters included in the poem. [26]Notwithstanding Wordsworth’s recognition of Thomson as the first poet since Milton to offer new images of “external nature.” [27]Gilpin, in particular, was fond of quoting Thomson in his various tours. [28]The quotation in Section One, from The Castel of of a woman Indolence , Canto I, XXXVIII, sufficiently demonstrates Thomson’s familiarity with the examples, great European painters of landscape which, as we have seen, played a crucial role in the development of the English Picturesque school. [29]Constable, for example, quoted several lines from “Summer” for his Salisbury Cathedral from the characteristics, Meadows . [30]Topographical poems from as early as John Denham’s Cooper’s Hill , published in examples 1642, which provides a very early example of a genre that was to of a woman, win increasing popularity, invariably involve the poet ascending a peak, surveying the whole and then painting a word picture of interesting prospects. [31]After Wordsworth’s death, a volume of Keat’s poems was discovered amongst his possession, a gift, the pages still uncut. [32]Read an unwillingness to use the write my paper for me free, word source . [33]Of course, between the lines we discover the characteristics good, implication that Gilpin developed nothing. [34]My own parents, as Yorkshire as Yorkshire Pudding, received, as children of the 1930s, the rare gift of a rare orange for Christmas, finding it to be the ultimate in exotic luxury! [36]Davies’ enclosing imagination within the confines of quotation marks subtly suggests that Knight meddles with something that was not, in Essay in The Lottery actual fact, imagination, but some pale imitation, a phantasmagoric and fraudulent imagination, an imagined imagination.

[37]Watson’s discomfort is palpable, etched in every repetition of the problem: “Yet the pugnacity of the note needs some explaining” (72); “Yet the poem also contains a direct attack on the picturesque in its footnote” (74); “Yet, as we have seen, the characteristics woman, poem also contains an explicit rejection of the habits of picturesque viewing” (77). Turning to The Prelude , Watson offers the standard glib solution: another “yet”: “Yet the energy and Essay by Shirley power of the characteristics, experience seen in intelligence the light of memory transforms the good, picturesque scene into what is computer storage, something much more powerful” (76). [38]Even Wordsworth’s initial premise, that the characteristics, “jagged outline . . . has a mean effect, transferred to canvas,” is perhaps a sentiment more nationalistic than artistic. [39]Indeed, the influence of this book extends beyond Wordsworth into other critical examinations of the Picturesque and literature, forming the and Politics, general thesis, for example, of Brownlow’s study of Clare, who rides the contemporary critical aversion to the Picturesque like a hobby-horse in the Grand National to characteristics good, the point where either the beast dies a sudden death or the race is participant observation cancelled: “The Romantics . . . inherited the picturesque way of looking at characteristics nature, but realised that it, in turn, had become a tyranny, so they invented new ways of seeing which were new ways of feeling” (16). [40]On a personal note, I would mention that the Yorkshire Dales are in fact much more picturesque than the storage, Lake Districtas are its native inhabitants. [41]It is typical of Davies’ double-dealing study that these particular pictures are excluded from of a woman, his pages. [42]Compare this to Wordsworth’s complaint, quoted above, that the picturesque eye sees “Less spiritual, with microscopic view.” [43]Davies also draws attention to Wordsworth’s familiarity with other Picturesque guides, including those of Thomas Gray, Dr. John Brown, Thomas West and James Clark. Learned? In addition: John Harris [“English Country House Guides, 1740-1840,” Concerning Architecture, ed. J. Summerson, 1968.] has catalogued as many as ninety guides . . . including no less than thirty-one editions of characteristics of a good guides to participant, a single house, Stowe.

We can thus see how far the Picturesque had helped to foster a literary and characteristics of a good woman intellectual approach to the appreciation of and Politics architecture, gardening and scenery. Characteristics Good Woman? (vii) [44]Wordworth’s almost exclusive employment of his own poems, however, might be consideredby someas egotistically sublime. [45]Although the edition is participant undated, an advertisement section features a blurb from a Kendal photographer citing an characteristics of a good, award won at the Edinburgh International Photographic Exhibition in 1890-91. Intelligence? Such is the longevity of this “faddish cult.” [46]This picturesque apperception took place in 1803. The Prelude was begun in 1799, and completed in the summer of 1805. The conclusion is as obvious as it is unavoidable.

We might even waggishly hazard that this superlative picturesque experience took place during the very period of characteristics of a good Book XII’s composition. [47]Although Watson provides the fairest literary based analysis of the war north advantages, Picturesque, it is nevertheless incredible that he includes such evidence yet still endorses conventional assumptions. [48]Keats, as a schoolboy, began a translation of the Aeneid . Alternatively, as Walter Jackson Bate informs us in his minute biography, Keats felt that Pope was “no poet, only a versifier” (49). [49]The notion of originality is itself a legacy of the romantic ethos: originality becomes vital in art and in life; experimentation with new experiences, diction, systems of thought all become the hallmark of the good woman, true romantic genius. Intelligence? Indeed, critics’ unwillingness to give the Picturesque the importance it deserves as both the inaugurator of a new aesthetic vision and as a factor of lasting literary influence stems, perhaps, from the romantic desire to see originality rather than acknowledge the temporal continuity of artistic development. Wordsworth’s preface to Lyrical Ballads disdains overworked poetical diction, though his adoption of Picturesque terminology speaks of following rather than leading. [50]Thomas Gray, in “The Progress of Poesy” (1754), expresses a similar bond between poetry and landscape: Awake, Aeolian lyre, awake, And give to rapture all thy trembling strings. From Helicon's harmonious springs. A thousand rills their mazy progress take:

The laughing flowers, that round them blow, Drink life and characteristics good woman fragrance as they flow. Now the rich stream of music winds along. Deep, majestic, smooth, and strong. Thro' verdant vales, and for me Ceres' golden reign: Now rolling down the steep amain, Headlong, impetuous, see it pour; The rocks and nodding groves rebellow to the roar. (I.i.1-12) The central image here is Poetry in general global expansion, finding echo in both the objects of nature and poets of various ages. [51]Interestingly, even though Keats himself occasionally uses the word Picturesque in his correspondence; even though his companion Brown, in Walks in characteristics of a good woman the North , offers the clear sign-post: “Here are the what is computer storage, beautiful and sublime in of a woman unison,” ( Letters , 428), Bate, in participant examples his tomeish biography, avoids such inkish sully.

[52]Keats’ early literary life was marked by constant frustrations: “. . . I have not an Idea to put to characteristics woman, papermy hand feels like lead . . . I don’t know what to write” (qtd. Bate, 342). [53]Indeed, Keats shortly hereafter saw the first waterfall of his entire life. [54]Perhaps suffering still from a mind “in such a whirl in considering the million likings and antipathies of our Moments,” Keats, in a letter filled with similar portrayal, ironically concludes: “. My Paper For Me Free? . . descriptions are bad at all times” ( Letters , 301). Compared to John Hughes’ comment (Section Two), this represents by no means a development in the poetic continuum as Keats’ leanings towards the dramatic. [55]Supporting this, and in the context of the picturesque: “Turner undoubtedly had what John Gage has perceptively called ‘an almost obsessive readiness to associate ideas’” (Shanes, 21).

[56]Indeed, Keats’ “negative capability,” unless we suspect that he, like Coleridge, wasto quote Edgar Allen Poe”buried in metaphysics” seems a direct challenge to Wordsworth. The notion itself germinated from a lecture on Shakespeare given by characteristics of a, Keats’ friend, Hazlitt, who stated that Shakespeare. was the least of an egotist that it was possible to be. He was nothing in himself; but he was all that others were, or that they could become. He had in himself not only the germs of every faculty and feeling, but he could follow them by anticipation, intuitively, into Essay Implications in The Lottery, all their conceivable ramification . Characteristics Woman? . . He had only to think of anything in order to become that thing, with all the Essay Implications in The Lottery, circumstances belonging to characteristics, it. (qtd. Bate, 260) It is no surprise that Keats should whole-heartedly adopt the idea, not only since there is and Politics no superior poet to emulate, but because it was so oppositional to the crowned King of romantic poetry: Wordsworth. [57]Perhaps in revolt against the popular, Keats, as in this instance, makes a studious, though far from successful, effort to avoid the characteristics of a, word picturesque , even when the description itself spells out the word.

Also, ruins are the single most common scenic feature of the tour. [58]In 1739, on a tour of the Alps, Thomas Gray cunningly wrote: Mont Cenis, I confess, carries the permission mountains have of being frightful rather too far; and its horrors were accompanied with too much danger to give one time to reflect upon their beauties. (qtd Woodring, 34) In 1803, Coleridge, overwhelmed and over-tired, abandoned a tour with William and Dorothy Wordsworth. Proof, perhaps, that the sublime can get the better of the egotistical. [59]A continuation, perhaps, of the question, “How is it they did not [various picturesque and sublime scenes] beckon Burns to some grand attempt at on Symbolic Implications Lottery Jackson Epic” ( Letters , 331). [60]The reappearance of the Druid Circle is taken as a given.

[61]“. . . to one whom you understand intends to be immortal” ( Letters , 305).

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Essay on City Life vs. Village Life (2465 words) Essay on City Life vs. Village Life! One of the of a good most striking features of industrial age is the growth of city life. In ancient times the people mostly lived in villages being engaged in agriculture. Cities arose here and there as centres of trade or seats of war north government.

Today in all industrialized countries the situation has been reversed. The urban population in England and the United States has expanded continuously over the rural population. New facilities of transport and communication have brought thousands of people nearer to each other and made it convenient for them to live together in large aggregations. The growth of cities is a special feature of modern age and as the city grows the whole character of society undergoes a change. There is a sharp difference between the city and village life though with the expansion of urban influence on the village this difference is becoming more and characteristics more a matter of write for me degree. However, in characteristics of a woman, spite of the recent trends of urbanisation the villages still retain many of their traditional features and present a sharp contrast with the urban life. In rural community the force of traditional mores and the bonds of family solidarity are more dominant than in the urban community. According to Biesanz and Biesanz, In the rural community custom is the king, the folkways and storage mores control most of behaviour, The sense of group responsibility which tends to be more and more dissolved in the growth of the city prevails in village life.

The type of village family is generally patriarchal in which the status of the individual is the status of his family. There is characteristics good woman less individual questioning and rebellion. The family determines as to whether and whom the individual should marry for the maintenance of family name. There is lesser freedom in the selection of life partner. There are few love-marriages.

Not only marriage but also religion, recreation, occupation pre determined by family traditions. Any deviation from the establish-id family traditions especially in sex matters, is regarded an offence against family unity and hardly tolerated. The life of all men and women is write my paper for me free merged in family life. In short, family dominates individuals life in village community. Moreover, the village community is too small to support a missionary society, like a Rotary Club. The family is the only organisation which performs the characteristics of a task of aid and protection. For such functions there is no formal organisation with a president and secretary. On the other hand, in the city community life is conspicuous by the absence of participant examples family life.

The anonymous character of the city frees the urban dweller from characteristics of a close moral control. Social control becomes the participant observation activity of specialized agencies. Family control is lessened. Police and courts, teachers and social workers take over the regulatory functions of the family circle. A free lance detached from family bonds is characteristics of a looked askance at in the village while such a person, even his norms of conduct, sexual and otherwise may pass unnoticed in the city and be admitted to those places where high class gentry goes.

If a person violates family marriage customs he- is not boycotted by civil advantages, the urban community, an of a woman, impersonalized world. According to Davis, He can escape the oppressive control of any primary group when he wishes, simply by disappearing into the sea of strangers. It may also be noted that the urban life is more regulated by the State than the war north advantages rural life is regulated. Even minor matters like disposal of garbage and refuse cannot be left to voluntary action. The government acquires many functions, some of which are community housekeeping duties. Thus, in a city as opposed to the village the mores and folkways are least counted on to handle the situation. In other words, the larger the city, the greater becomes the problem of control and of a good woman the more complex the agencies of secondary control. Secondly, a village community is marked by immediate contacts between its members. There is a strong we-feeling in the rural community. We find members in a village community helping each other and sharing the joys and sorrows of each other. In the village everybody is known to everybody.

Their relations are personal. Customers are not mere strangers but persons with whom all are acquainted. From such contacts each person knows a great deal about his neighbours, their activities, preferences and attitudes. Status of each one in the village community is well known. Written contracts are less important than a word of honour. Learned Intelligence. Crime in village community is rare. Since there is little secrecy, stolen goods cannot be used and are difficult to dispose of. Things are done by mutual understanding.

In city life, on the other hand, nearness counts much less. The inhabitants of a city hardly know each other. Sometimes, they do not know even their next-door neighbour nothing to speak of influencing their activities. In a big city like Bombay people living in the lower storey do not know the people living in the third or fourth storey. There is an atmosphere of woman indifference and Essay on Symbolic Implications Lottery Jackson callousness in a city. In a city like Calcutta, an inhabitant may spend a whole day in woman, the street and never see a person he knows, though he may see tens of thousands of people. Even friend are likely to be known only in a particular context and in a particular segment of life. Participant Observation. In the words of Gist and Halbert, The city encourages impersonal rather than personal relationships. Most of the relations are indirect. Good Woman. Competition has a far greater velocity in the city than in the village.

Life in a village community is what simple and uniform. There are few ambitious men and fewer excitements. Characteristics Of A Good. The villagers lead a uniform life tilling land and rearing animals. Their standard of living is lower than that of the town because the means of earning money are limited. They view land as the most substantial of all heritages.

Agriculture is their major occupation. When oppressive taxes or other measures threaten their ownership of land, they align themselves with radical movements as happened in Soviet Russia. The standard of living of the participant observation urban people is higher. They are more prodigal than the village people. Country life suggests save, City life suggests spend. The poor turning rich overnight or the rich being reduced to characteristics of a woman beggary in one day are cases unknown in learned intelligence, the village. Of A Woman. The man of enterprise and adventurous spirit has no place in is computer, rural community.

The city dweller becomes indifferent to extremes of all kinds. Indeed the distinction between public and private, between what is characteristics of a shown and what is Essay concealed, is much sharper in the city. Characteristics Woman. It is the public behaviour that the city regulates, the private behaviour it ignores. Another contrast between village and urban community is is computer storage concerning the modes of production. In the village as a rule, only a predominant type of occupation, Le., agriculture prevails. Each family bakes its own bread and does its own washing, for all the environment, physical as well as social, is the same. The city, on the other hand, is the place for all, the semiskilled worker, the characteristics of a good woman skilled artisan, the what paper-expert, the technician, the artist, the banker, the teacher, the social reformer and many others. It is a heterogeneous group of people engaged in various pursuits. The city tasks are divided and sub-divided to such an extreme that even the work of unskilled labour becomes specialized. The trend in the urban world is clearly in the direction of a larger percentage of specialized work leading to a multiplicity of organisations, economic and social.

The residents of a city become affiliated with a number of organisations. Their social relations are mostly indirect and secondary. Members of a single family frequently belong to different organisations. Since these various organisations have different customs and procedures, there is opportunity for confusion and lack of understanding. The process of selection for the specialized work is keener. The management selects those who are best specialized in the work and ruthlessly reject all those who fall below the competitive standard. The owner of special ability has greater chances of quick promotion.

The individual is rated more in terms of accomplishments than he is rated in the rural community. The city sifts and characteristics of a good woman segregates all of the members according to their ability and finds a fit place for each. It provides public schools for the wealthy and private schools for the poor. Essay. It also provides distinctive schools for elementary, higher, technical, cultural and good professional education. It even provides separate schools for defective persons, e.g. Lottery. Deaf and Dumb school. The city requires and promotes great social mobility. It lays emphasis on achievement rather than the ascription of status. The urban dweller can raise or lower his status to a remarkable degree during his life time.

The caste element in social stratification is of a minimized. Status centres on the occupation, on the nature and competence of the activity, rather than on the accident of birth. As opposed to the village in a city social climbing is most prevalent. Sorokin and Zimmermann have written, The rural community is similar to calm waters in Implications Jackson, a pool and the urban community to boiling water in a kettle. Stability is the typical trait for the one mobility is the characteristics good typical trait for the other. Specialization is what is computer also seen in the physical structure of the city. Of A. Distinctive areas are marked for different activities. Chandigarh, the capital of Punjab State, has been divided into different sectors, each sector with marked peculiarities. In the western world specialization of areas has been carried to a greater extent than in India.

The structure varies from city to city in accordance with the size, site and needs, of the city, but generally everywhere in the western world there is a clear division of space into zones of write for me free business activity, of low rentals and residential congestion, of transitory abode, of middle-class residence, of industrial concentration, and so forth. Specialization in of a good, the city has also influenced the life of women. If the social life had remained predominantly a village life, women would have been the Essay in The by Shirley drudges in characteristics of a good woman, the household. Industrialization and specialization have brought women to workshop and factory. They have entered into the wider life which has altered their outlook and habits and liberated them from the war north exclusiveness of domesticity. As MacIver observes, The individualization of women has been fostered by urban life and the resulting freer reciprocity of relationship between men and women, as individuals, is exercising and will doubtless continue to exercise, since the process is still advancing, a significant influence on the whole structure of society. The city community evokes in man the qualities which stand in sharp contrast with those demanded by rural community. The village calls for persistence, a more stern and characteristics woman dogged fidelity to the way of life.

He is fatalistic and is in constant contact with nature. He sees nature as the practical worker who must wrest a living from the learned intelligence soil. He sees nature as friend and enemy, as the ripened of crops and sender of rains. The forces of characteristics of a good nature are beyond his control and reckoning. Write My Paper. He is attached to- rituals and becomes superstitious and religious. Characteristics Woman. The city requires alertness and quicker responses to changing situations. The city dweller is more tolerant in matters of religious beliefs, modes of life, tastes and opinions.

According to Bogardus, Rural people are frank, open and genuine; they scorn the artificiality or many phases of city life. The city is ruled by impersonality of law and Essay on Symbolic by Shirley the caprice of fashion. In a rural community the characteristics rural moral codes are fixed and strict. Any violation of them leads to bitter estrangements and sometimes to personal tragedies. Participant. In a rural community there is much mutual aid. If a house is to be mud plastered, a feast given or a sickness nursed, the neighbours come in to help. There is an atmosphere of kindliness. There is a good deal of visiting, several times daily, between the people. In an urban community there is no strong we feeling.

The absence of a common mode of occupation and the great impersonality of city life narrow the urbanites attachments and detract from his feeling of identification with the whole community. The secondary and voluntary character of urban association, the multiplicity of opportunities, and the social mobility all force the individual to make his own decisions and to plan his life as a career. The city instead of suppressing the individuality emphasizes it. The competitiveness of the of a good woman city places the individual over against for me free, everyone else he is not inexorably tied to any particular relationship or cause. He leaves one city to live in another city and good woman does not feel any loss; but a countryman when uprooted from his village surroundings sheds tears from Essay on Symbolic Lottery by Shirley his eyes. Economic advancement and characteristics good woman abundance of opportunities are common incentives of the city. The young men and women leave the rural community for urban community because the latter affords those more opportunities for employment and profits. But sometimes the men coming from the village may have to face disappointment and despair in the city. So one should leave the village for city after a deep and careful thought. The above are then the features that distinguish rural from urban life.

In the city opposite conditions are found, aggregation ; instead of physical isolation; associations of many kinds supplementing or supplanting the functions of on Symbolic Lottery family or categorical relationships; contacts with human beings and good civilization diversity superseding contacts with nature; differentiation of what is computer economic classes and characteristics good specialization of economic tasks, ranking and grading men in ways often unknown in the country; limited and intensified work, with its endless varieties and disparities of opportunity and write my paper of fortune creating an intricate design of competitive living traditionally alien to the rural sense. It may, however, be pointed out that urbanization of the rural population has reduced the differences between rural and characteristics good urban community. The urban influence on the rural people can be seen in matters like social organisation, family organisation, food habits, standard of living, dress habits, cosmetics, religion, rituals, beliefs etc. The rural people are taking over the urban modes of life and as this has been happening, the rural way of life has been withering away. The more the villages are linked with the city through modes of transport and communication, the faster will be the urban influence on the rural life. Learned Intelligence. This may lead to of a woman assimilation of the rural people into the urban way of learned life thereby eliminating the attitudinal and other cultural differences between townsmen and countrymen.

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