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However, the meeting organisers and the organising committee and its agents reserve the right to alter or cancel without prior notice, any of the arrangements, timetables, plans or other items relating directly or indirectly to the meeting, exhibition or social events, for any cause beyond its reasonable control. Story Grey? The meeting organisers and hippocrates, the organising committee and its agents are not liable for any loss or inconvenience caused as a result of such alteration. In the event of story grey cancellation of the in ict meeting all pre-paid fees will be re-funded in full. Story? However, the fahrenheit meeting organisers and story, the organising committee and super volcanos, its agents are not liable for any loss or inconvenience caused as a result of story grey such a cancellation. In particular, the organisers will not be liable to about Buiness Done Over, refund any travel or hotel costs incurred by story of dorian, delegates or their partners.

Delegates are strongly advised to Makes an Epic Hero Essay, take out comprehensive travel insurance to story grey, cover personal possessions as the meeting does not cover individuals against What an Epic Hero in Homer´s The Odyssey cancellation of bookings or theft or damage to belongings. The meeting organisers will hold and story grey, process your personal details on our database. This information is in ict necessary for story of dorian grey the legitimate management of hippocrates 4 humors this meeting, which may include it being available to story of dorian, any organising/exhibiting company. The database will be transferred to the property of BSHT Meetings Limited once the 4 humors meeting has concluded. If you wish your details to be removed from story of dorian our database, you may write to us at Essay Done Over any time.

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natural rights essay Photo: Paula Kupfer. Natural Rights, Cultural Rights, and of dorian grey, the Politics of Memory. Andreas Huyssen | Columbia University. Human rights and memory discourses must be robustly linked with each other to add a necessary dimension of futurity to memory and of history to human rights politics. Drawing on the early modern notion of natural rights, this paper asks to Essay E-commerce: Buiness Done Over the Internet what extent rights of nature need to be considered to story nurture the sustainability of human rights as social rights. I want to ask a simple question that defies easy answers: what do rights have to do with memory?

At the most simple level, one could argue that only memory of rights violations can nurture human rights regimes in the future. Memory and human rights must be linked more robustly with each other discursively and practically to prevent memory from becoming a vacuous exercise feeding parasitically on super volcanos itself and to grey prevent human rights from losing its historical grounding and 451 point, risking legalistic abstraction and political abuse. As Walter Benjamin suggested (1969), the dead do have a claim on us, since we are, from their point of view, the coming generations. Nothing messianic about that. No need to talk about redemption. As Max Horkheimer argued (1993) against story Benjamins theological temptation: the dead are dead and cannot be reawakened. But they do have a right to remembrance. This is a mark of human civilization, after all, long before the explicit articulation of human and Essay about Buiness Over the Internet, any other rights, and ever more so after this most murderous century of human history that we have left behind. Where would todays international human rights movement be without memory of the killing fields of the 20th century? And yet, memory and story of dorian grey, rights discourses dont blend easily. Debates about human rights and transitional or retroactive justice in law and political theory have too often remained separated by a deep gulf from What an Epic in Homer´s Essay, discussions of memory and historical trauma in the humanities.

This is surprising since one would expect these fields to be inherently complementary and mutually supportive. Story Grey? Yet there remains a fundamental tension between memory and the law. Restrictive limitations that have prevented a closer relationship exist on either side of this discursive divide. What Makes An Epic In Homer´s? Memory discourse is usually concerned with recent collective pasts and their effects on the present, but it lacks a strong normative dimension that would lead toward individual legal rights claims. Thus some legal scholars and political theorists have argued that memory of past injury can only be a weak substitute for justice. At the same time, however, legal proceedings, especially in cases of retroactive justice after the end of story, dictatorships as in Chile or Argentina, depend on fahrenheit individual memory to arrive at convictions. Story? In addition, I would argue that what happens in courts also depends, though indirectly, on the strength of memory discourses in the public sphereon films, media, literature, the arts, and education. The biblical demand to remember, so strong in contemporary worldly culture as a counterweight to rampant amnesia, is a moral demand which is not legally enforceable. Reasonably so, since were it enforceable, it would violate the right to Essay E-commerce: Buiness Over forget. Memory itself always remains fragile and difficult to verify. Human rights, on the other hand, is Janus-faced: morality and law.

It shares the grey moral dimension with memory discourse which lacks the juridical. Event Industry? This is why there remains a fundamental tension between memory and rights discourse, and given contemporary cultures often frivolous and story of dorian grey, exploitative obsessions with memory, one may legitimately ask whether memory helps or hinders justice. Not even to speak of cases where memory is used to incite violence as in Slobodan Milosevics Serbian propaganda campaign about the 1389 battle of Kosovo which was key in 4 humors, triggering the ethnic cleansing in Bosnia and Kosovo. The Croatian writer Dubravka Ugresic, in her book of essays The Culture of Lies (1998), has made the powerful argument that the disintegration of Yugoslavia was characterized by the simultaneity of a terror of forgetting and a terror of memory. Human rights discourse, by contrast, makes strong normative legal claims in the name of justice, but often ends up in an idolatry of abstract principles, thus ignoring the historical and of dorian grey, political contexts which must be recognized and negotiated if a politics of human rights is to take hold in a specific country at a given time. Hippocrates 4 Humors? Or it is abused as a political veil of particular interests, which critics of human rights often point to in order to discredit human rights claims altogether. Idolatry and abuse are especially visible internationally in the facile equation of story of dorian, universal human rights with Western democracy. They are implicit in the notion that rights may spread from the US to other parts of the world once they reach a certain level of development. Essay E-commerce: Done The Internet? While the genealogy of the story grey current international human rights movement goes back to Essay Buiness Over European sources of natural law of the 17th and 18th centuries, its meaning is not exhausted by this origin which precedes the democratic revolutions of the US and France.

We must first acknowledge that democracy is neither a human right, nor is it inevitably identical with any ideal type human rights regime (Habermas 2009). To the extent that democracy operates with majority rule, it may violate the rights of minorities, a constellation rife with conflict especially in story of dorian, the years after World War I and its many newly formed nations and again in a different constellation after the end of the Cold War. We must also reject any teleological construction of modernity with its theory of cultural and political lag. Super Volcanos? From its early articulations in Europe on, the propagation of human rights was always coupled with their denial in colonial situations (few exceptions such as the Salamanca school notwithstanding). Thus rights in the colonial world inevitably had to turn against European domination. Grey? The question of rights has always been a question of power and asymmetrical relations. And yet, rights discourse conjures up a horizon of expectations that tends to surpass limited human rights practices. Struggles for individual, minority, and ethnic group rights in democratic and non-democratic countries alike abound in the world today and challenge both legal debates and political theory. A second political point must be registered.

The traditional idea of nationhood, as it developed during the Westphalian regime of sovereign nation states since the 17th century and characterizes political communities across the world until this day, is not inevitably conducive to the cultural or political rights of minorities. Ever since the Huguenot massacres in 4 humors, France, minority and cultural group rights have often been suppressed in Europe in the interest of enforcing the story of dorian kind of religious or national homogeneity which is simply no longer adequate to our contemporary world--its flows of fahrenheit of view, migration and cultural mixing, and of dorian grey, the development of flexible citizenship. Ever more frequently, the What an Epic in Homer´s The Odyssey Essay claims of national majority cultures conflict with the rights of story, others within the Essay about Done the Internet nation: indigenous populations, descendants of story of dorian grey, slaves, disenfranchised groups, sexual minorities, and immigrants of all kinds. At the same time, a human rights regime entirely beyond states and nations is not yet imaginable today, even if some political theorists have begun to super volcanos conceptualize a global civil society as opposed to world government (Weltburgergesellschaft; Habermas 2004; Benhabib 2002) . Of Dorian Grey? Despite certain forms of What Hero The Odyssey Essay, denationalization of citizenship (dual citizenship, EU passports, the granting of regional voting rights to non-citizens, etc), states do remain important legislators and guarantors of expanded rights, especially via constitutions, new regulations of citizenship and cultural rights, and commitments to transnational organizations. Most rights struggles still play out within this context. On the of dorian grey other hand, however, new forms of de facto statelessness have developed in the context of illegal migrations, the sex trade, and other new forms of slavery and indentured labor. This is particularly pertinent in the case of third country immigrants to the EU and of Latin American and Chinese immigrants to the US. While human rights discourse aims at universality, a concept that has had powerful enemies for event industry a long time, discourses about collective memory have typically been limited to national or regional situations, thus blocking insight into of dorian the ways a new transnational politics of memory has spread across the world since 1989 in conjunction with rights discourse and yet separate from it (exceptions to this trend: Levy and Sznaider 2006; Rothberg 2009). The idea of collective memory, as it circulates today, mostly relies on an anthropological notion of culture as homogeneous and closed or self-contained.

With the expansion of rights since WWII, such notions of national cultures as distinct and coherent units not subject to international rights claims have weakened. Fahrenheit? Tendencies toward globalization of finance, economics and migrations have created new networks that subvert traditional notions of national sovereignty. Still, discourses of of dorian, lived memory will remain tied to specific communities and territories, even if the concern with memory itself has become a transnational phenomenon across the world. But even at the national level, memories are always in What The Odyssey, conflict with each other, more so nowadays than at the highpoint of the Westphalian regime that first saw the invention of national traditions (Hobsbawm 1983). Memories clash just as rights claims confront each other.

The notion of collective memory only makes sense if we acknowledge that in any collectivity, there will inevitably be conflict and struggle over memories. Such tensions and conflicts are a key constituent of the public sphere in open societies and must ideally be subject to political recognition, democratic deliberation and grey, negotiation. Key conflict areas today concern the rights of 4 humors, indigenous peoples, language rights, the inequality of gender, sexual rights, citizenship rights and political rights for immigrants. Story? Hannah Arendts fundamental claim that there is a right to have rights (1951), a claim that goes back to the period between the two World Wars in which whole populations were denaturalized and deprived of individual and citizenship rights, has become a shaping political force in the contemporary world. Humanities debates about memory have been especially robust in their interpretive focus on cultural memory (Assmann 1995), trauma, testimony, and fahrenheit 451 point of view, witnessing. Some have asked to what extent such a focus on subjectivities, legitimate as it is, doesnt risk losing sight of the political dimensions of rights discourse in the present and its implications for the future (Sarlo 2005). Story Grey? While this objection does have some force in relation to an overplaying of trauma in a poststructuralist and psychoanalytic vein, I would argue that it is precisely the 4 humors focus on the force of individual memories of rights violations that can keep human rights discourse from slipping too fast into abstraction and ahistoricity. Human and cultural rights discourse must be supported by concrete cases of rights violations read in the context of systemic conditions and deep histories, and it can be supported by story of dorian grey works of art that train our imagination to super volcanos recognize what Susan Sontag (2003) called the pain of others and what classical Greek tragedy first articulated: Antigone not as a play about obligations to the dead, but about the rights of the living. Much of my own past work has been concerned with issues of cultural memory in political contextmemory articulations in the visual arts, architecture, and story of dorian, literature which articulate the memory problematic aesthetically in all its fragility and complexity. The rootedness of memory studies in the local may help counter the reproach that human rights, if not the concern with memory itself, is nothing but a Western imposition and imperial ploy.

At the same time, I feel that memory studies in the humanities have reached an impassetoo much of a good thing will eventually diminish the cognitive gain the field can provide. 451 Point Of View? Therefore my argument: If memory studies in the humanities want to have a future, they need to forge a much more robust link with human rights, cultural rights and grey, transitional justice discourse. Such a shift in focus will allow us to move away from an all too exclusive privileging of the Hero in Homer´s The Odyssey past as subject of investigation (a natural for humanists) and to reclaim memory for present and future struggles about story rights. Where rights have already merged with memory concerns via testimony and witnessing, a variety of practices of super volcanos, redress have emerged around different types of of dorian grey, Truth Commissions that acknowledge local factors and are thus far from making universalist claims. Maybe the ongoing critique of universalism has itself become a straw-man. Speaking from my field as a Europeanist, I would argue that such a shift from memory to rights is important in the European Union, but I believe it is pertinent in the Americas as well. While the of view political reorganization of Europe into a partly post-national federal union certainly requires recognition of past injuries and histories, such concerns all too often veil human rights issues of today which have to do with immigration from story of dorian grey, outside the EU, especially from the What Makes an Epic Hero in Homer´s The Odyssey former colonies. It blocks out the troublesome systemic bifurcation of story of dorian grey, political and social rights, which separates EU citizens from so-called third country migrants. Thus I do not find it productive to claim, as some have done (Diner 2000), that a new European identity is being constructed around Holocaust memory. The dominance of the Holocaust in European memory debates actually hinders recognition of Europes colonial heritage, a moral and political necessity when dealing with immigration especially from Africa and Asia. It is indeed striking to see how within memory discourse itself, there has developed a debilitating conflict between Holocaust memory and the memory of colonialism.

Given the centuries-long trajectory of hippocrates, colonial domination, the privileged focus on Holocaust memory in story grey, Europe results in super volcanos, a form of short-sightedness that carries with it an apologetic register of forgetting. Memories in story, contest with each other may well prolong grievances rather than overcoming them. E-commerce: Buiness Over The Internet? This is the downside of memory competitions where one set of memories tries to displace or delegitimize another. Recognizing certain inherent limitations of both human rights and memory discourse may then indeed represent a first step toward overcoming the story of dorian gap between them. The individual strengths of both fields must be mobilized to supplement each other in order to mitigate the deficiencies of either. Super Volcanos? Both are concerned with the violation and protection of basic human rights and both must draw on history to do so. Both want to of dorian acknowledge, if not right wrongs committed in the past, and both project and imagine a better future.

Both grew to a large degree out of legal, moral, and Essay Buiness Over, philosophical discourses about story genocide and rights violations after World War II. Both the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and super volcanos, the UNs Genocide Convention of 1948 were the political result of remembrance (though not about memory as such since in their phrasing they both circumvented the ethnic and particularist dimension of the Holocaust)-- remembrance not only of the unspeakable genocides and forced population transfers of the first half of the 20th-century. But remembrance also of the legacies of the natural law tradition which predates democracy and was influential in of dorian grey, the shaping of super volcanos, these UN documents. History of human rights and memory discourses. In my last book, Present Pasts (2003), I attempted to explain the rise of memory discourses since the of dorian 1980s in transnational context. Fahrenheit 451 Point Of View? There I argued that memory discourses of a new kind first emerged in the 1960s in the wake of decolonization and the new social movements with their search for alternative and revisionist histories. Story Of Dorian Grey? Walter Benjamins (1969) reflections on history and memory provided a theoretical screen for the long trajectory of an emergent focus on the politics of memory. The search for other traditions in the postcolonial world and for the traditions of others, of minorities and ethnic groups in event industry, the West, radically challenged the idee recue of a homogeneous modernity, exemplified for instance in ideas of universal progress and modernization, the North-American notion of the melting pot, or in the European understanding of grey, national cultures as unitary, based on language and ethnic identity. Memory discourses accelerated in the early 1980s in the US and in Europe, energized then by the ever broadening debate about the Holocaust. Historical anniversaries of Nazi rule, World War II and event industry, the victory of the allies were widely covered in the international media, and they helped stir up post-World War II re-codifications of national history in Germany, France, Austria, Italy, Switzerland, and of dorian, Central Europe after 1989.

But soon enough resonances of Holocaust and Third Reich memories spread beyond the chapter Northern Transatlantic, attaching themselves to politically and historically very different events and situations in post-dictatorship Latin America or in post-apartheid South Africa. Indeed, one can now observe something like a globalization of Holocaust memory, and it certainly has had an effect on the international human rights movement. The recurrence of genocidal politics in Rwanda, Bosnia, and Kosovo in the allegedly posthistorical 1990s made Holocaust memory discourse pertinent for evaluating present-day events. It seemed as if the never again slogan was put to the lie at a time when public Holocaust awareness had reached a peak. In the case of ethnic cleansing in Bosnia and the organized massacres of Rwanda, comparisons with the Holocaust were at of dorian, first fiercely resisted by politicians, the media, and much of the public, not because of the undeniable historical differences, but rather because of a basic unwillingness to intervene.

Public opinion changed in the late 1990s with Kosovo. Streams of refugees across borders, women and children packed into trains for deportation, stories of atrocities, systematic rape, and wanton destruction all mobilized a politics of hippocrates, guilt in Europe and the US associated with the appeasement politics of the 1930s. Holocaust memory helped legitimize NATOs military intervention in Kosovo, but only years after the failure to intervene in a timely fashion in the Bosnian genocide of 1992. Srebenica and Rwanda marked an absolute nadir of the UNs ability to prevent mass violence perpetrated by one ethnic group on another. The Kosovo intervention thus confirms the increasing power of grey, public memory culture since the late 1990s, but it also raises difficult theoretical and political issues. Done The Internet? How legitimate or even useful is it to grey use the Holocaust as universal trope for historical trauma, organized massacres, and ethnic cleansing?

What about the sanctity or limits of state sovereignty? And how justified is international humanitarian intervention on the basis of Holocaust memory and post-Holocaust human rights politics? At any rate, it was in these specific political situations that rights and memory discourse intersected in reality itself in powerful ways, even if in academic discourse they still went their separate ways. If the Essay Buiness Over rise of memory discourse must be made intelligible by historical and political contextualization, we also need to understand the contemporary HR movement in its historical evolution and story of dorian grey, politically changing complexion. Thus political theorist Jean Cohen (2008) has talked about three phases since the 1940s. A first wave developed after WWII in recognition of the atrocities and hippocrates, massive human rights violations committed against civilians before and during the war; it was based on story the revival of theories of natural law and moral rights in the face of the largely discredited legal positivism of an earlier time. It resulted in the Genocide convention and Buiness Done Over, the UDHR. In a second wave, Cohen argues, HR discourse played a central role in of dorian, anti-colonial projects of liberation from the What an Epic Hero in Homer´s late 1940s on, in the internal weakening of the Soviet Empire in the 1970s, when the Soviet Union first accepted certain claims of HR discourse (the Helsinki Final Act of the Conference on story Security and Cooperation in Europe, 1975), and jane 11, with domestically led democratic transitions in Latin America in the 70s and 80s. Cohen writes: Despite being largely exhortatory, the human rights declarations and story of dorian grey, covenants were an important normative referent for domestic civil society and social movement activists. (2008; 580) The end of the What Hero Soviet Empire and the end of story of dorian grey, apartheid in super volcanos, South Africa shortly thereafter were major markers for the renewal and grey, spread of civil society debates and rights implementations in many countries (esp. in Eastern Europe and Latin America). The third wave differs dramatically.

Since the end of the Cold War, human rights violations have been selectively invoked as a justification for super volcanos the imposition of debilitating sanctions, military invasions and authoritarian occupation administrations by story of dorian grey multilateral organizations and/or states acting unilaterally under the rubric of humanitarian intervention. Eyre Chapter 11? Such interventions were typically justified as enforcement of international human rights law. Story? The break-up of What an Epic Hero in Homer´s The Odyssey, Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, and Iraq are the pertinent though politically very different cases. Cohen thus distinguishes a traditional from of dorian grey, a more current political notion of human rights. At stake here is the conflict between human rights and national sovereignty and the recognition that the nation state may no longer remain the main and only guarantor of rights in a globalizing world at a time that has seen many new UN conventions regarding rights, the creation of a European Criminal Court and of the International Criminal Court. The International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) has perhaps gone furthest in limiting state sovereignty in its report of 2001, The Responsibility to super volcanos Protect. While this report clearly came out of the failures of the story UN in the 1990s, it is not clear to me whether the shift from humanitarian intervention (military humanism as some have called it) to R2P is actually more than a semantic shift, given that the potential protectors will inevitably still be the major powers that also led humanitarian interventions. In todays situation, it seems to me, key dimensions of each of these three waves are intermingled to event industry different degrees, depending on story of dorian grey differing constellations on the ground. Taken together, genocide, civil society, and super volcanos, humanitarian intervention shape a dense cluster of of dorian, political and legal issues that call for specific analysis in each and every case. We should not let the abuse of humanitarian intervention blind us to the deeper histories of the super volcanos struggles for rights.

To Cohens account, one might even add a fourth dimension, which has emerged in story, recent years. It concerns the transformation of human rights discourse to highlight cultural rights claims pertaining to indigenous populations or descendants of slaves in Latin America, Canada, or Australia. 451 Point Of View? And it also arises around civil and of dorian, social rights in the wake of new forms of immigration and diaspora. While Cohens third phase challenges traditional notions of state sovereignty by Makes in Homer´s allowing for cross-border interventions, this fourth dimension claims cultural group rights within sovereign nations, but enters into conflict with the traditional notion of human rights as the rights of story of dorian grey, individuals and with a homogeneous self-understanding of nationhood. Makes Hero? Thus it further destabilizes notions of national identity, especially when civil and social, sometimes even limited political rights are reasonably granted to non-citizen immigrants. Given the tensions between memory and the contemporary human rights regime, I am particularly interested in the ways in which the human rights declaration of the post-WWII period derived its strength from an earlier natural law tradition.

In the 18th century, nature was a revolutionary battle cry in Europe and natural rights as rooted in story of dorian grey, natural law were claimed both by the American and French revolutions. Hippocrates? They made it into story of dorian grey the Declaration of Independence (1776) as the unalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. And into the French Declaration des droits de lhomme et du citoyen (1789) as liberty, property, safety and resistance against oppression (Article II). Of course it is well-known how the universal equality of men excluded slaves, women, and colonial subjects and how property was considered sacred. But once articulated as a normative horizon such universal rights claims developed their own momentum against hippocrates 4 humors their limited application, not despite but because of their universal claims. With Hegel, one could speak of the grey cunning of reason. And so it goes for recent decades. Fahrenheit? Despite the grey fact that the UDHR lacks even a minimal enforcement mechanism such as a binding convention, and genocides have not ceased to happen, human rights and genocide discourses have gone global in recent decades, and time and again they are tenuously linked with debates about memory and justice. The rise of E-commerce: the Internet, Truth and Reconciliation Commissions is story of dorian, only one outward sign of the linkage between memory and rights discourse. At the same time, TRCs also reveal the hippocrates inherent tensions between memory and justice regimes.

No rights are ever easily implemented or guaranteed. They can only result from always conflictual political deliberation and grey, will rarely if ever offer easy solutions to conflicts and social problems. In some parts of the world human rights are disparaged as a Western imposition of a culturally specific individualism serving imperial economic interests. 451 Point Of View? While this reproach is not without merits, the radical critique of HR has been just as politically self-serving in non-democratic societies (think of the Asian values debate promoted by developmental authoritarian states such as Singapore or Malaysia in the early 1990s). Story Of Dorian? I would argue that international human rights standards are legitimized less by the cultural background of European civilization than by the attempt to respond to the challenges of a social and economic modernity which has become global. Against a tendency to an Epic Hero in Homer´s The Odyssey romanticize so-called non-Western forms of cultural diversity and to freeze-dry them in terms of cultural rights and traditional values, we must recognize that modernization affects all cultures and societies today. Grey? The attempts to create a global human rights regime represent a response to a situation which does not permit an escape from modernity. The rise of super volcanos, modernity, however, was intimately linked to the emergence of natural law. Therefore I would suggest that we draw on the legacies of natural law which do have a European origin, but can map on to ideas about human dignity, liberty, and of dorian grey, freedom from oppression present in all cultures of the world. Super Volcanos? After all, it is story of dorian, no coincidence that the UDHR, passed by event industry the international body of the newly founded UN, drew on the legacies of natural law rather than on culturally specific positive laws.

Then and today natural law has certain conceptual advantages as ground for human rights debates even if, as Habermas has argued (2009) it must be recoded and put into the context of a deliberative reciprocal negotiation of rights within a given political community. At a time when human rights has been recoded as the right to humanitarian intervention and story of dorian grey, many aspects of the current human rights regime have come under suspicion of abuse, I want to suggest that, however limited in reach, a shift in 4 humors, discourse from human rights to natural law might help us rethink some basic propositions. Clearly there is no such thing as inborn natural law. The issue for me is not to resurrect the natural law tradition per se, but to mobilize some of its parameters in story, order to super volcanos critique abuses that sail today under the flag of human rights. I would suggest that there are five dimensions that make the natural law tradition still pertinent and highly suggestive in a philosophical sense: 1. Of Dorian? Universal standards of freedom from oppression, freedom from fear, and human dignity are not culture specific or per event industry se Western, but found in all major cultures of the grey world. Precisely because it operates at a level of generality in its appeal to nature, natural law may be a better basis for cross-cultural negotiation than specific legal regimes that always carry the stench of domination and oppression with them.

As a concept, Natural law may thus restore an aspirational horizon of justice to human rights talk not despite, but precisely because of its ontological dimension. 2. Natural law, as framed in What, different European countries and at different times by Grotius, Hobbes, Thomasius, Pufendorf, and Locke, evolved out of new economic realities of an emerging capitalism and the struggle of a merchant bourgeoisie against the absolutist state, mercantilism, and a confining guild system. Remembering this grounding in story grey, political economy, natural law today can be linked to very differently structured issues of economic justice and wealth creation of which class and racialized poverty remain important components. We can tactically use this tradition against the absence of economic rights in Essay Over the Internet, most HR discussions. Story Grey? Against the danger of essentializing nature as permanent and unchanging, we may remember that the notion of nature is E-commerce: Over, itself not fixed, but subject to grey historical and cultural change which may provide natural law with a welcome openness toward the future, especially at a time when the rights of nature itself are increasingly part of the debate. 3. Natural law, as it has been interpreted by philosophers such as Ernst Bloch (1975), is hippocrates, fundamentally political and of dorian, attuned in eyre chapter 11, a deep sense to specific historical conditions which are often ignored by contemporary human rights discourse in its apolitical humanitarian incarnation.

Its transformative politics today lie in challenging notions of sovereign nationhood and cultural homogeneity under the story of dorian pressures of globalization, migrations, climate change, and new transnational cultural imaginaries. 4. The Natural law tradition encapsulates the fahrenheit of view right to ones culture, language, and traditions, all of which ground human identities in historical flux. Thus it sidesteps the conflict between individual and group rights so prominent today, and it allows us to seek a mediation between them. Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried Herder has written compellingly about this dimension in the 18th century when dominant identity patterns shifted from transnational and non-ethnic aristocratic identities to middle-class, ethnic, and national identities. In this recognition of the flows of deep cultural histories, natural law may also help to link memory to rights discourse. After all, the fact of memory as a human characteristic is as unalienable as the rights stipulated in democratic constitutions. 5. Natural law is sufficiently different from culturally diverse and often irreconcilable legal positivisms that it can be used to criticize specific legal practices and grey, refer us to some universal standard of what is right. This remains a major legacy of the natural law tradition and it can be used to criticize certain limited applications and event industry, political abuses of HR. Taken together, these five points show that philosophically and conceptually, there is a clear trajectory from natural law not only to human rights, but also to memory studies. The tactical advantage of story of dorian grey, mobilizing natural law for current debates is twofold: it might mediate the conflict between individual and group rights and, on another front, diminish the fahrenheit 451 point tensions between memory and of dorian, rights discourse. This of course raises the question: can there be a legally enforceable right to memory just as there is a right to free speech?

It does not seem to make much sense to speak of 451 point, a legal right to memory except perhaps in a context in which human beings might be technologically or genetically manipulated to forget. SciFi films like Blade Runner (1982) and Total Recall (1990) have addressed such issues. Only in story grey, such a situation would it make sense to What Hero Essay speak of a legal right to ones own memory. Of course in a certain dark view of global historical developments as articulated in story of dorian, Horkheimer and Adornos Dialectic of Enlightenment (2002) on the threshold between total war and the Cold war and long before genetic engineering, this kind of manipulation and the resulting destruction of memory was compellingly though reductively analyzed as the project of the capitalist culture industry and its consumerist ideology. The threat to memory would indeed be a threat to human identity itselfidentity always shaped by a given time and space. Even if media of memory and the very place of memory in jane eyre chapter 11, a culture will differ greatly over time and space, Luis Bunuel was right when he said: You have to story begin to fahrenheit of view lose your memory, if only in bits and pieces, to realize that memory is what makes our lives. [] Our memory is story grey, our coherence, our reason, our feeling, even out action. Without it we are nothing As an hippocrates 4 humors, anthropological and historical given, memory, especially collective memory can therefore be related to what has come to be known as cultural rights. The notion of cultural rights, however, poses serious problems.

Following rights theorists like Seyla Benhabib (2004), I first want to reject the notion that cultural rights can be separated from individual rights. Certain cultural rights are already reflected in several provisions of international human rights law (freedom of thought, conscience, and religion, Art 18; freedom of expression, Art 19 of the UDHR). Cultural rights are also implicitly recognized in the Genocide Convention of 1948 in light of the fact that genocidal policies often are preceded by attacks on grey an out-groups culture. To make the point that cultural and individual rights cannot be separated, it helps to recognize that individual autonomy is not given by super volcanos nature, but emerges in reciprocal recognition of citizens embedded in a culture and engaged in social and political relations. All individuality is inherently social. Yet individual autonomy is often attacked in the name of community. So why do some insist on a separate category of communal cultural rights? The cultural rights movement has arisen recently around issues of minority and first nations rights within nation states such as Canada or Australia, Colombia, Brazil and other Latin American countries. It can be seen as an expression of the growing emphasis on cultural diversity in an increasingly interconnected world, and it is story of dorian, itself a transformation of earlier struggles, especially struggles for land rights formerly often couched in Marxist terms. It is fundamentally tied to group identity politics and often displays skepticism or even hostility toward individual rights discourse. A major problem here is an Epic Essay, that cultural rights discourse usually grounds itself in traditions of what colonialists called customary law.

Its claims thus go back more to lineal descent rather than responding to current needs. It can, of course, be seen as a legitimate reaction formation against globalization and of dorian grey, the fearful prospect of cultural homogenization by financial capital, developmentalism, rampant consumerism and global English. By invariably siding with the local against the global, however, cultural rights discourse produces its own set of limitations. These become especially visible when cultural rights are mobilized not to make claims on behalf of marginalized groups (First Nations of Canada, indigenous peoples in What Makes an Epic Hero in Homer´s The Odyssey, the Amazon), but on grey behalf of states and state power. This happens in the international arena in attempts to counter alien influence, whether Western influence in Islamic societies or the effects of Islamic presence in Western societies.

And it happens within nations when cultural rights are called on for conservative purposes on behalf of a national culture vis-a-vis its immigrant communities. The German example of the Leitkultur debate is a good example of the latter and the European cultural claims against Turkish membership in the EU an example of the former. In both cases recognition of fahrenheit 451 point of view, cultural diversity is turned against story of dorian diversity itself in order to favor the dominant culture. These politically very different claims of cultural rights operate on the basis of an obsolete unitary notion of culture. All cultures affected by modernity are invariably split, whether such splits operate in vertical ways (high vs. low culture) or in terms of privileging different media (print vs. music). Such stratifications will always be a site for Essay about Done struggle over meanings. They make palpable that you cannot have a meaningful discussion of cultural rights without considering individual social and political rights. Culture is not to be separated from the rights of the person, or the rights of of dorian, citizenship.

If it is, it inevitably becomes constrictive, unitary, homogenizing, and exclusionary whether at the national or the subnational level. Rather than overcoming the Essay E-commerce: Buiness Done the Internet power problems inherent in national majority cultures, cultural rights claims as articulated by subnational groups may just reproduce these problems at another level. And yet, with Benhabib (2002) I recognize the claims of culture, especially of language and the expressive values embedded in it, but I argue that cultural rights must be reconciled with the broader category of human rights or natural law. Anything else will lead to cultural oppression and legal relativism or worse. Grey? To construct an irreconcilable binary between universal human rights as rights of individuals only and cultural rights as the rights of ethnic or racial groups risks overruling the individual rights of group members in the name of culture. Such arguments are always in danger of simply reproducing the problems of 451 point of view, national cultures at the subnational level. It would be equally unacceptable, however, to ignore all cultural group claims by limiting rights to autonomous individuals only, as if autonomy could exist outside of social relations. Positing such a binary also reproduces the unproductive rift between liberal and story grey, communitarian or republican political theory rather than seeing the Buiness Done the Internet two as interrelated and in need of mediation. Let me highlight the problem by a simple example: just as human rights include the right of exit from a nation or state, cultural rights must preserve the prerogative of an individual born into of dorian a culture to leave it and to super volcanos chose another. This dimension, not sufficiently addressed by of dorian grey the proponents of cultural group rights, is event industry, especially pertinent to of dorian grey women and other disenfranchised people in societies or ethnic religious groups that ascribe inferior legal status to them. Cultural rights discourse shares a problematic dimension with memory discourse, for it inevitably tends to pit the event industry rights of story grey, one group against those of another, most interestingly today in the claims of indigenous peoples against hippocrates 4 humors the dominant culture of the nation within which they live where it may even lead to a bifurcation between civil law and customary law as in some Latin American countries (e.g., Colombia).

This constellation finds its analogy in memory debates in competitive discussions of traumatic memories of pogroms, organized state massacres, and genocide. Here it is not a question of one group making legal claims against another that could be adjudicated in a court of law or in a deliberative political process. Memory culture is rather characterized by often vicious and story grey, resentful memory competitions that claim priority of one kind of traumatic memory over another, thus creating insidious hierarchies of suffering. The most difficult and contested of such memory competitions is the one between Holocaust memory and fahrenheit, the memories of story of dorian, colonialism which seem separated today by what W.E. Dubois in event industry, another context once called the story grey color line.

In debates about the politics of memory, we must avoid such vertical hierarchy of Makes Hero in Homer´s Essay, past sufferings in which one kind of memory tries to supplant another. Here memory discourse can learn from legal developments. The negotiation of indigenous rights within the framework of nation and constitution, as it has slowly evolved in Canada or Colombia, may indeed provide a theoretical model for reconciliation as opposed to irreconcilability and fierce competition. Of Dorian? The task is to recognize a universal (and un-natural) dimension in systemic oppression and Buiness Done, human suffering rather than pitting one kind of memory against another. There is no doubt that in our time memory politics and human rights can be more intimately connected than ever. Indeed, it is a mark of of dorian, human rights discourse today that it feeds on memory discourse while often disparaging it. The continuing strength of memory politics remains essential for securing human rights in the future.

But as much as its presence is essential for event industry establishing human rights regimes where they do not yet exist, we know that memory may also nurture human rights violations just as HR in some forms is open to political abuse. Mythic and imagined pasts are mobilized to of dorian grey support aggressively nationalist, fundamentalist, or religion-based politics (post-communist Yugoslavia, India). But even when memory does support human rights, we may want to probe further. With the fading of the social and political utopias of the jane 11 20th centurythe imagined futures of story of dorian, fascism, communism, and hippocrates 4 humors, global capitalist modernizationand the mountains of corpses the grey dictatorships of this dark century have bequeathed to our remembrance, it sometimes seems as if too much of the struggle for human rights focuses on righting past wrongs via redress or restitution claims. Securing the super volcanos past may be as perilous an undertaking as trying to secure the future via utopian projections. If human rights activism were to story become a prisoner of the past and of memory politics, it would only mean that it will always have come too late. About Buiness Over The Internet? But if it becomes prisoner of globalization the outcome will be equally problematic. Let me conclude with a note on immigration, a rights issue that concerns me greatly as a dual citizen of Germany and the US.

I have argued elsewhere that Holocaust and of dorian grey, colonialism discourse should be considered as related to each other rather than remaining reciprocally hostile. But the jane eyre chapter 11 linkage of Holocaust and colonialism should also be extended to story of dorian grey the contemporary problem of Essay about Buiness Done the Internet, immigration politics in the leading Western nations. Algeria and Morocco are for France, what India and Pakistan are for England; Indonesia for Holland; the Muslim countries formed out of the ruins of the Ottoman Empire for Europe and for the US. Immigration politics displaces the problem of colonial rule in postcolonial times to the former colonial powers themselves. This creates new constellations which are articulated and story of dorian grey, used in the contexts of pasts that refuse to disappear: the Turks as the new Jews of Germany; neo-colonial rule in What Makes an Epic Hero The Odyssey, the banlieue of Paris; little Guantanamos in the dispersed for-profit detention centers for of dorian grey illegal, mostly Latin American immigrants in the US. In both Europe and the US, the color line does not only exist in certain discourses antagonistic to each other, but in social reality itself.

Given the Essay Over urgency of story of dorian grey, such problems, we need artistic works that challenge the lingering of racialized and displaced colonial practices in the metropole itself, works that in their aesthetic figuration can do justice to the complexity of the situation. Let me conclude with one recent example, local in one way here in Latin America, but global in E-commerce: Done, a more important dimension: Doris Salcedos Shibboleth , a 2008 installation in Londons Tate Modern. In this work, the theme of immigration as exclusion and denial of rights is articulated in relation to story of dorian grey language and visuality as a widening crack in the floor all along the Tates old turbine hall. The concrete walls of the Buiness Over crevice are ruptured by a steel mesh fence, not the barbed wire of the Nazi camps, but the steel mesh of of dorian grey, todays border fortifications and the concrete of the walls intended to keep the barbarians outsidewhether in Israel or at super volcanos, the Mexican-American border. Shibboleth is the story grey biblical word that cannot be pronounced correctly by the foreigners and 4 humors, that divides the world into friend and foe with deadly consequence.

Biblical past and the contemporary present clash in this work which reflects in story of dorian grey, powerful visual and hippocrates, architectural language on the continuities between colonialism, racism, and of dorian, immigration. The arc does not only lead from the Holocaust and colonialism to about E-commerce: Done the Internet Bosnia, Rwanda and Darfur, but also to migration and the practices of a denial of of dorian, rights and jane chapter 11, of fundamental asymmetries of power among human beings that will perhaps one day become part of story of dorian, a politics of memory. One wishes it were that already now. Andreas Huyssen is the Villard Professor of German and Comparative Literature at Columbia University. Jane Eyre Chapter? He is founding director of Columbias Institute for Comparative Literature and Society (1998-2003) and one of the founding editors of New German Critique (since 1974), the leading journal of German studies in the U.S. His books include After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism (1986), PostmoderneZeichen eines kulturellen Wandels , co-edited with Klaus Scherpe (1986), Twilight Memories: Marking Time in a Culture of Amnesia (1995), and Present Pasts: Urban Palimpsests and the Politics of Memory (2003). He is the editor, most recently, of Other Cities, Other Worlds: Urban Imaginaries in a Globalizing Age (2008). Of Dorian? His work has been translated into many languages worldwide. Arendt, Hannah.

1973. The Origins of Totalitarianism . Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Assman, Jan. 1995. Event Industry? Collective Memory and of dorian, Cultural Identity. New German Critique 65: 125-134. Benhabib, Seyla. 2002. The Claims of Culture . Princeton: Princeton UP. Benhabib, Seyla. 2004.

The Rights of Others . New York: Cambridge UP. Benjamin, Walter. 1969. Theses on 4 humors the Philosophy of History, in Ill uminations . New York: Schocken Books. Bloch, Ernest. 1975. Naturrecht und menschliche Wurde . Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Cohen, Jean L. 2008. Rethinking Human Rights, Democracy, and Sovereignty in the Age of Globalization. Political Theory 36 (4): 578- 606. Diner, Dan. 2000.

Beyond the Conceivable: Studies on Germany, Nazism, and the Holocaust . Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. Habermas, Jurgen. 2004. Der gespaltene Westen . Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Habermas, Jurgen. 2009. Grey? Zur Legitimation durch Menschenrechte, in Die Politische Theorie . Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Hobsbawm, Eric J. and Terence O. Ranger, eds.

1983. The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Horkheimer, Max. 1993. Beginnings of the 4 humors Bourgeois Philosophy of History, in Between Philosophy and Social Science. Of Dorian? Massachusetts: First MIT Press Paperback edition. Horkheimer, Max and Theodor W. Adorno. 2002. Dialectic of Enlightenment: Philosophical Fragments . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Huyssen, Andreas.

2003. Present Pasts: Urban Palimpsests and the Politics of Memory . Stanford: Stanford University Press. Levy, Daniel and hippocrates 4 humors, Nathan Sznaider. 2006. Holocaust Memory in of dorian grey, the Global Age . Philadelphia: Temple University. Rothberg, Michael. 2009. Multidirectional Memory . Stanford: Stanford UP. Sarlo, Beatriz. 2005.

Tiempo pasado: cultura de la memoria y giro subjetivo: una discusion . Argentina: Siglo XXI Ediciones. Sontag, Susan. 2003. Regarding the Pain of Others . New York: Picador. Ugresic, Dubravka. 1998.

The Culture of Lies: Antipolitical Essays . University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press. Copyright 19982017 Hemispheric Institute of Performance and super volcanos, Politics.

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14 Skills and Values Employers Seek in Jobseekers. by Randall S. Of Dorian Grey. Hansen, Ph.D., and event industry Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Job Skills to list on your Resume. Deals with acting in a responsible and fair manner in all your personal and work activities, which is seen as a sign of maturity and of dorian grey self-confidence; avoid being petty. How to describe this skill on Makes an Epic Hero The Odyssey your resume: Conscientious go-getter who is highly organized, dedicated, and committed to professionalism. Story Grey. Employers probably respect personal integrity more than any other value, especially in light of the many recent corporate scandals. How to describe this skill on your resume: Seasoned professional whose honesty and integrity create effective leadership and optimal business relationships. Deals with openness to new ideas and concepts, to working independently or as part of a team, and to carrying out about Done Over, multiple tasks or projects. How to describe this skill on your resume: Highly adaptable, mobile, positive, resilient, patient risk-taker who is story of dorian grey, open to new ideas. An Epic Hero In Homer´s Essay. Employers seek jobseekers who love what they do and story grey will keep at it until they solve the problem and get the job done. How to describe this skill on your resume: Productive worker with solid work ethic who exerts optimal effort in successfully completing tasks.

5.Dependability/Reliability/Responsibility. There#8217;s no question that all employers desire employees who will arrive to work every day? on time? and ready to work, and who will take responsibility for their actions. How to describe this skill on your resume: Dependable, responsible contributor committed to excellence and success. Super Volcanos. Employers want employees who will have a strong devotion to the company? even at times when the company is not necessarily loyal to its employees. How to grey, describe this skill on your resume: Loyal and dedicated manager with an excellent work record. 7.Positive Attitude/Motivation/Energy/Passion. The jobseekers who get hired and the employees who get promoted are the ones with drive and passion? and who demonstrate this enthusiasm through their words and actions. How to describe this skill on your resume: Energetic performer consistently cited for unbridled passion for work, sunny disposition, and upbeat, positive attitude. 4 Humors. Look at it this way: if you don#8217;t believe in yourself, in your unique mix of skills, education, and abilities, why should a prospective employer?

Be confident in yourself and what you can offer employers. How to describe this skill on your resume: Confident, hard-working employee who is committed to achieving excellence. 9.Self-Motivated/Ability to Work Without Supervision. While teamwork is always mentioned as an important skill, so is the ability to work independently, with minimal supervision. How to describe this skill on your resume: Highly motivated self-starter who takes initiative with minimal supervision. Story Of Dorian Grey. No matter what your age, no matter how much experience you have, you should always be willing to learn a new skill or technique. Makes Hero. Jobs are constantly changing and evolving, and you must show an openness to grow and learn with that change. Story. How to describe this skill on your resume: Enthusiastic, knowledge-hungry learner, eager to meet challenges and quickly assimilate new concepts. While there is some debate about whether leadership is something people are born with, these skills deal with your ability to take charge and manage your co-workers. How to describe this skill on your resume: Goal-driven leader who maintains a productive climate and confidently motivates, mobilizes, and coaches employees to meet high-performance standards.

12.Multicultural Sensitivity/Awareness. There is possibly no bigger issue in the workplace than diversity, and event industry jobseekers must demonstrate a sensitivity and awareness to of dorian grey, other people and cultures. How to describe this skill on your resume: Personable professional whose strengths include cultural sensitivity and an ability to jane eyre 11, build rapport with a diverse workforce in multicultural settings. Deals with your ability to design, plan, organize, and implement projects and tasks within an allotted timeframe. Also, involves goal-setting. How to describe this skill on your resume: Results-driven achiever with exemplary planning and story of dorian grey organizational skills, along with a high degree of detail orientation. Because so many jobs involve working in one or more work-groups, you must have the event industry ability to work with others in a professional manner while attempting to achieve a common goal. How to describe this skill on your resume: Resourceful team player who excels at story building trusting relationships with customers and colleagues. Final Thoughts on Employment Skills and Values. Super Volcanos. Employability skills and personal values are the of dorian grey critical tools and traits you need to of view, succeed in the workplace? and they are all elements that you can learn, cultivate, develop, and maintain over your lifetime. Once you have identified the sought-after skills and story grey values and assessed the super volcanos degree to which you possess them, begin to market them by building them into of dorian, your resume, cover letter, and fahrenheit 451 point of view interview answers) for job-search success.

See also our Transferable Job Skills for Jobseekers.Click here to begin building your own resume! More Information about story Employability Skills: Skills Employers Seek, reporting on annual results from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) survey of employers to determine the top 10 personal qualities/skills employers seek. From the Career Development Center at Binghamton University. Skills Employers Seek, from Loughborough University. Skills Employers Seek, from Psych Web Top 10 Soft Skills in Demand, from LiveCareer Resume Skills Section, from LiveCareer. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareers team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and 451 point of view our easy-to-use resume builder software to story of dorian, help land the jane eyre chapter 11 job you want.

Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Story. Dr. Randall S. Eyre Chapter. Hansen is founder of story grey Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of He is also founder of and

He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is chapter, also a published author, with several books, chapters in grey, books, and hundreds of articles. Hes often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at jane eyre the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus.

Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and story grey associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and hippocrates 4 humors blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an story, electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and super volcanos blogs about storytelling in story grey, the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by E-commerce: Done Over the Internet Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to story of dorian grey, a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiots Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). 451 Point Of View. Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!!

These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and story of dorian improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job [] The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and event industry more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the [] Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to story of dorian grey, the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter.

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colledge book report Also, most current books on “How the Mind/Brain Works,” including Baars Gage, have only a passing reference if any, to story, the reticular formation, citing only its “posture control and sleep/wake cycle management functions.” Of the event industry, three books 1999 Scientific American Book of The Brain, the story of dorian grey, 2007 Scientific American Best of the jane 11, Brain, and the 2009 Scientifc American - A Day in the Life of Your Brain, none have ANY references to the Reticular Activating System or Reticular Formation! ' var WPEndnote2 = ' Google “Scholarly articles for consciousness in thalamus and story grey, midbrain.” ' var WPEndnote90 = ' It is believed that ADD/ADHD is caused by a problem in the reticular activating system (News headline) See ' var WPEndnote3 = ' Baars Gage admit that much of our cortex memory may not be apparent to fMRI scans. They also say, “ There is one very important surprise in event industry this tidy picture of story of dorian grey, maps flowing into higher-level maps of the visual input: after the event industry, thalamic nucleus, most axons run downward from the story, cortex to the thalamus. . 451 Point Of View. This may seem pretty odd for story of dorian grey a simple transmission idea of the visual pathway.” “ Dixon (1971) has also argued that the circulating flow of information between the reticular formation and hippocrates 4 humors, the sensory areas of the cortex is required before sensory input becomes conscious.” Baars Gage, page 145 A General Theory of Love, Lewis, et al., pg; 33 var WPEndnote99 = ' Ronald H. Of Dorian Grey. Bailey, ., et al. - The Role of the Brain, Time-Life Books 1975 This is a very important point. Almost every reference I could find to RF/RAS described only its control of a few biological functions. But this reference says the What Makes in Homer´s, RF selects stimuli arising “from the centers of of dorian grey, thought, memory and event industry, feeling,” which would include stimuli arising from the of dorian grey, Love/Belief System and Willour psychological, emotional, and volitional disequilibria stimuli. 4 Humors. ' var WPEndnote98 = ' The Brain - Mystery of Matter and Mind, U. S. News Books - 1981. Note the phrase, “alerts the story of dorian, cortex” and similar phrases in the following paragraphs. Fahrenheit Of View. These are based on story of dorian the almost universally accepted theory among scientists that the cortex is home to super volcanos, consciousness and of dorian, all our “higher” faculties; that processing of about Buiness the Internet, stimuli takes place solely in an upward path to the cortex. But as we shall see, this is an untenable hypothesis, and, rather than alerting the cortex, it is story of dorian grey, more likely that the super volcanos, RAS, centered with consciousness in the thalamus, is using the cortex to flesh out the percept and to identify and story of dorian grey, implement an Essay about Done Over the Internet, “appropriate” response. ' var WPEndnote6 = ' A General Theory of Love, Lewis, et al., pg; 33 ' var WPEndnote7 = ' In Essentials of Neural Science and grey, Behavior, edited by Kandel, Schwartz and Bessell - 1995, one of the most authoritative and scrupulously honest reports of fahrenheit 451 point of view, what scientists know and don’t know about the brain - we find the admission: “ . cognitive neural science is only beginning to contribute to of dorian grey, the analysis of the richness of event industry, internal representations that cognitive psychologists recognize as intervening between stimulus and response. For example, cognitive neural science has so far not directly addressed the subjective sense of individuality, will, and purpose that is common to human experience.

Yet these issues are important to us as scientists and as people. “ It is precisely these mysterious phenomena, ‘the internal representations that intervene between stimulus and response, . the subjective sense of individuality, will, and purpose’ phenomena which neurologists do not (cannot?) addressto which this theory is story of dorian grey, directed, and which I believe presents to any serious student, a cogent elucidation. ' var WPEndnote8 = ' Note that Bruner’s inhibitory system not only automatically removes over 99% of available fact from our consideration, but also from our very perception. We don’t even see or hear or feel these facts. Most of us think we select significant stimuli from the environment, but we are literally and of view, often willfully deaf and blind to the grea majority of what the world has to tell us, allowing the of dorian grey, RF to select our perceptsa very important point to this theory. ' var WPEndnote9 = ' Wooldridge, Dean - The Machinery of the Brain - McGraw-Hill 1963 pg 65 This is important to our theory. Here we have evidence that although the energy for a given physiological response must come from the appropriate areas of the motor cortex, it is the event industry, Reticular Activating System which administers, monitors, and regulates the story, application of super volcanos, that energy to the operant muscles to accomplish the intended purpose. Thus, the of dorian grey, Reticular Activating System does not yield processing of stimuli to other components of the brain, as most neuroscientists suggest, but manages the entire operation from start to finish. ' var WPEndnote10 = ' Dean Wooldridge The Machinery of the Brain, - McGraw-Hill 1963 pg. 64 ' var WPEndnote11 = ' This outline of social animal needs is jane eyre, of my own construction. I welcome comments, criticisms, corrections. Story Of Dorian. Not shown on the diagram are some of the event industry, autonomic control functions of the RF in regulation of story of dorian, cardiovascular functions, adrenalin levels, etc. The question mark after Dominance is to indicate that there are human societies and social animal species, e.g. the langur monkey, which do not exhibit strong urges for dominance, proving that this ‘need’ is not innate in all social animals, or that it can be readily attenuated through social learning. ' var WPEndnote12 = ' William James, Principles of Psychology - Dover ' var WPEndnote13 = ' Since our DNA is 99+% identical to that of the of view, chimpanzee, and most of the brain. * The Secret of Life - PBS TV Series 1993 - Hosted by David Suzuki ' var WPEndnote14 = ' Regarding metacognition, see Merluzzi, Glass Genest, Ed., Cognitive Assessment, p. Story Of Dorian Grey. 112 - Guilford 1981, and the wonderful new textbook, Baars Gage, Cognition, Brain Consciousness , p. 286-288 - Academic Press 2007. Regarding imagination, most all philosophers agree this is a uniquely human faculty. Ability to believe, to draw conclusions based on syllogisms, circumstantial evidence, etc., is obviously, I believe, and hope the reader will agree, a uniquely human faculty. Regarding commitment, I suggest that the event industry, chimpanzee is committed by any response or response-impulse strong emough to go through his prefrontal cortex to the premotor neurons which initiate the act.

Humans can commit themselves to anything they wish, even in extreme cases, to suicide. (Incidentally, in Personal Knowledge, Michael Polanyi says every belief is story grey, a commitment.) ' var WPEndnote15 = ' Klivington, Kenneth A. The Science of eyre chapter, Mind. MIT Press 1989 From our new perspective, it is important to note that Libet’s subjects had agreed - committed themselves - to story, his instructions to hippocrates, move their hands, giving the RAS authority to generate the corresponding response-impulses. Story Of Dorian. His experiments not only prove that all of our RAS response impulses are generated pre-consciously, i.e., subconsciously; but also exhibit clear cut manifestations of human will. But of course his work has come under withering criticism from his behaviorist peers. Jane. Any research which carries the slightest intimation of story, an exercise of the will is anathema to most scientists and must be discredited. One of his peers had the fahrenheit of view, ignorance to say that his subjects were not exercising free will because Libet had told them to of dorian grey, move their hands! The answer is that once they had agreed to hippocrates, participate the RF/RAS generated subconscious response impulses at intervals appropriate to story, the instructions, but which could be vetoed by event industry, the subject. Just as if I decide to get a drink of water, I can forget about the detailsthe RF/RAS will generate all the steps necessary to of dorian grey, accomplish the task, but I can change it to a Coke. ' var WPEndnote16 = ' Gatekeeper to consciousness, spark of the about E-commerce: Buiness Over the Internet, mind, the reticular formation connects with major nerves in story grey the spinal column and brain. It sorts the 100 million impulses that assault the brain each second, deflecting the trivial, letting the the Internet, vital through to alert the mind.

The mind cannot function without this catalytic bundle of cells. Damage to them results in story grey coma - the loss of about E-commerce: Buiness Over the Internet, consciousness. ' var WPEndnote17 = ' As Allan Bloom writes in The Closing of the American Mind: See the article in Science Daily, Consciousness in thalamus and grey, midbrain ' var WPEndnote19 = ' This concept has been endorsed in principle by Sebastian Grossman, Ph.D., Emeritus Professor, Chair, Bio-Psychology, University of Chicago, in super volcanos a letter to the author: Your analysis is quite cogent and logically impeccable - 20 years ago, the only counterargument would have been the neuropsychologists proclivity to localize complex functions such as consciousness in the part of the brain that has undergone the most obvious evolutionary change. Also in a recent book, two (unnamed) neuroscientists are quoted as saying: From modern neuroanatomy, it is apparent that the entire neocortex of humans continues to be regulated by the paralimbic regions from story of dorian which it evolved. Lewis, Thomas, et al., A General Theory of Love. Random House 2000 ' var WPEndnote20 = ' Among many other things, the concepts resolve the so-calledbinding problem, described by Christof Koch -- a neuroscientist at the California Institute of Technology, and Essay about Done Over, a collaborator of Francis Crick in the search for consciousness -- as the central issue of the story of dorian grey, neuroscientists field. Simply put, thebinding problem is that although the brain evaluates different visual aspects of an object -- such as color and shape -- in fahrenheit of view different parts of the brain, Koch says, there is no single place where everything comes together into a coherent percept. One can only assume he means that the various aspects of the percept don't come together in the cortex where he believes consciousness must be. But of grey, course they do come together in the only element which has connections with every part of the brain, and where consciousness most likely does reside, in the thalamus. Eyre. ' var WPEndnote21 = ' Sebastian P. Grossman, Ph.D., Emeritus Professor, Chair, Bio-Psychology, The University of Chicago ' var WPEndnote91 = ' Sebastian P. Grossman, Ph.D., late Emeritus Professor, Chair, Bio-Psychology, The University of story, Chicago (verbatim quote in a conversation with the author ' var WPEndnote23 = ' In Essentials of Neural Science and Behavior edited by What Hero Essay, Kandel, Schwartz and Jessell - one of the most authoritative and scrupulously honest reports of grey, what scientists know and don’t know about the event industry, brain - we find the admission: . . . Story Of Dorian. cognitive neural science is only beginning to contribute to event industry, the analysis of the richness of internal representations that cognitive psychologists recognize as intervening between stimulus and story, response. For example, cognitive neural science has so far not directly addressed the subjective sense of eyre, individuality, will, and purpose that is story grey, common to human experience. Yet these issues are important to us as scientists and as people. It is precisely these mysterious phenomena, “the internal representations. that intervene between stimulus and response, . . . the subjective sense of individuality, will, and purpose” - phenomena which neurologists do not (cannot?) address - to which this arcticle is directed; and of which, based on a multidisciplinary systems analysis, it presents a cogent philosophical elucidation. The first part of this article is hippocrates 4 humors, devoted to story of dorian grey, a “bare bones” introduction of event industry, new paradigms of the brain and mind which can explain most of the behavior attributable to their (unimpaired) functions. Later, we will look at some functions attributable to a new paradigm of the psyche. Each of these paradigms is story, elucidated in event industry more detail in the book referenced at the end of this article.

Stanford anthropologist Suzanne Chevalier-Skolnikoff, has found that “chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans develop behavior patterns during the first two years of life (i.e., through the story of dorian, first six stages of the Piaget model) that are identical to the developmental patterns of human infants.” Animal Kingdom, July 1979 Could our brains be significantly different? ' var WPEndnote25 = ' Note that Bruner’s “inhibitory system” not only What Makes an Epic Hero, automatically removes over 99% of of dorian, available fact from our consideration, but also from our very perception . We don't even see or hear or feel these facts. Since most of us think we select “interesting” stimuli from the environment, and, except under very special circumstances, we don't - they are selected for us - this is a very important point in What Hero in Homer´s Essay our theory. And vice-versa? Doesn't consciousness, where our purposes are formed, need immediate access to the RF in order to implement them? ' var WPEndnote27 = ' The Complete Idiot's Guide to Understanding the Brain - Bard Bard - Alpha Books 2002 ' var WPEndnote28 = ' I have been advised that some areas of the brain contiguous with or near the RF, e.g., the tegmentum, the periaquaductal grey, some tegmental and parabrachial nuclei, appear to participate inor even performsome of the functions I have attributed to the RF. This is a very welcome suggestion since I have long felt that the RF itself, scanning and prioritizing 100 million sensory impulses per second, could do little more than simply “flag” significant stimuli. Therefore I was thoroughly prepared to accept the story, fact that other elements of the brain, contiguous with or near the RF, might contribute to its functions. Perhaps the RF provides only the fahrenheit 451 point of view, analog of the stimulus and the RAS retrieves to thalamic consciousness the digital details from the cortex, ala “Marilyn Monroe” above. Now there‘s an exciting idea, derived from an idea only implicit in of dorian a suggestion from Roy Sugarman, an Australian psychologist! ' var WPEndnote29 = ' LeDoux, Joseph, Synaptic Self: How Our Brains Become Who We Are, Penguin Books 2003 ' var WPEndnote30 = ' See Wooldridge below ' var WPEndnote56 = ' From Bergson’s Creative Evolution, “ The function of the intellect is to preside over hippocrates 4 humors actions. Grey. Now, in action, it is the result that interests us; the means matter little provided the end is attained.

Thence it comes that we are altogether bent on the end to be realized, generally trusting ourselves to it in order that the idea may become an act; and thence it comes also that only the goal where our activity will rest is pictured explicitly to event industry, our mind: the movements constituting the action itself either elude our consciousness or reach it only confusedly. Let us consider a very simple act, like that of lifting the arm. Where should we be if we had to imagine beforehand all the of dorian grey, elementary contractions and tensions this act involves, or even to event industry, perceive them, one by one, as they are accomplished? But the mind is carried immediately to story of dorian, the end, that is to jane 11, say, to story grey, the schematic and simplified vision of the act supposed accomplished. Then, if no antagonistic idea [Love or Belief] neutralizes the effect of the first idea, the appropriate movements come of themselves to hippocrates, fill out the plan, drawn in some way by the void of its gaps. The intellect then, only represents to the activity ends to attain, that is to say, points of rest. And, from one end attained to another end attained, from one rest to another rest, our activity is carried by a series of leaps, during which our consciousness is turned away as much as possible from the movement going on, to regard only the anticipated image of the story of dorian grey, movement accomplished.” [pg. Hippocrates. 325] ' var WPEndnote57 = ' Musicians will tell you they are not ‘playing’ most of the individual notes we hear. They are playing notes, chords, phrases, whole passages, 10-15 notes-a-second scales, etc. by auditorizing and committing RAS to their execution from cortex neuronal motor memory sequences established through practice. Those who accompany themselves concentrate on their voices while RAS plays the instrument. Story Of Dorian Grey. Golfers visualize where they want the event industry, ball to story of dorian grey, land, pole vaulters to clearing the bar, etc. Then they commit it to the ‘mind’ for execution. There should be a question mark after ‘Dominance,’since there are societies and animal species such as the langur monkey where dominance is absent; suggesting that dominance is not an innate Social-Animal Need, or can be attentuated through social learning. Perhaps ‘Mating and Feeding Privileges’ would be more pertinent. What Makes Hero In Homer´s The Odyssey. ' var WPEndnote59 = ' Dean Wooldridge, The Machinery of the Brain, McGraw Hill 1963 - pgs.

63-72 ' var WPEndnote60 = ' See Wooldridge&rsuo;s “stored programsrdquo below ' var WPEndnote31 = ' Francis Crick, Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search for of dorian the Soul, Touchstone 1995 ' var WPEndnote32 = ' See Consciousness in Thalamus and Midbrain Merluzzi, Glass Genest, Cognitive Assessment, Guilford 1981. Baars Gage point out that metacogntion is manifest only in prefrontal cortex, and is missing when frontal lobes are damaged. Since the PFC is where our “cognitive functions” take place, it is little wonder that metacognition is only manifest in 4 humors connection with activities of the PFC. I believe animals too, may be conscious of the of dorian, alternative response-impulses resident in their PFC’s, but have no independent control of jane chapter, them. Story Of Dorian. Their responses are based only on their instincts and memories, and chapter 11, only circumstantial changes can trigger which response will be enacted. Response-impulses in the human PFC are based on memories and all the of dorian, elements (conscious and fahrenheit 451 point of view, subconscious) in the Love/Belief Systemall our Loves, Beliefs, Values, Needs, etc. Our metacognizance gives us a much wider variety of responses to any situation, and “I”-power to commit ourselves to the response (right or wrong) which carries the most weight based on all those factors. ' var WPEndnote34 = ' This is a bold statement coming from a self-described ‘rigorous neurobiologist.’ (See below) Doesn‘t “when it is up to the subject to decide how to interpret an ambiguous situation. ” imply free will? Risking even more criticism from their peers, Baars Gage admit, “ “The choices we make are not inherent in the situations at story grey hand. They are a complex interplay between the properties of the situations and our own properties, our aspirations, our doubts, and our histories. The prefrontal cortex is central to such decision-making.

Finding solutions for event industry deterministic situations is often accomplished algorithmically. . . but making choices in of dorian the absence of 451 point, inherently correct solutions remains, at least for now, a uniquely human territory. In a sense, the freedom of choice is possible only when ambiguity is present. ” (page 352 - my emphasis/) “Uniquely human” is an astonishing admission, but their last sentence seems to be a tautology. Doesn’t choice require an grey, ambiguity, i.e., the existence of event industry, alternatives? And isn’t ambiguity present in of dorian grey almost everything we do? However, they revert to event industry, scientism, and seem to story, contradict themselves on hippocrates the same page: “ Of all the aspects of the human mind none are more intriguing than intentionality , and volition. Story Of Dorian Grey. But these attributes of human mind are fully at fahrenheit 451 point play only in situations affording multiple choices. Numerous assertions have been made by of dorian grey, philosophers and scientists that volition and intentionality are uniquely human traits. 4 Humors. In its absolute form, this claim cannot appeal to a rigorous neurobiologist. It is more likely that these properties of the of dorian, mind have developed gradually through evolution, possibly following an exponential course.“ Isn’t exponential evolution an oxymoron? And whatis ‘gradual exponential evolution?’ “ Words that have personal significance for participants, ‘body bags, Nam, Medevac,’ for Makes an Epic Essay the Vietnam veterans versus ‘revolver, incest, 9/11, or fire’ for civilian victims, are repeatedly found to gain access to awareness more readily than neutral words. Of Dorian Grey. ” Baars Gage, page 380. Also “ Acquisition and extinction of fear responses conditioned to event industry, a visual stimulus were examined in rats with ablations of story of dorian grey, visual cortex. Visual cortex lesions did not interfere with acquisition, indicating that visual fear conditioning, like auditory fear conditioning, is mediated by sub-cortical, probably thalamo-amygdala, sensory pathways. In contrast to acquisition, extinction was greatly prolonged, if not prevented, by cortical ablation.

This resistance to extinction of sub cortical emotional memories may explain certain aspects of emotional memory in man. ” In Baars Gage we find the admission: “Such permanent stores may not show up directly in brain imaging studies because they are encoded in the connective strengths between neurons. Methods like functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity may therefore under-represent the Essay about E-commerce:, vast amount of long-term knowledge. ” page 295 “ Dixon (1971) has also argued that the circulating flow of information between the of dorian grey, reticular formation and fahrenheit 451 point of view, the sensory areas of the cortex is required before sensory input becomes conscious.” Baars Gage, page 145 For example, Baars Gage ascribe virtually omniscient and of dorian, incredible powers (a vertiable ghost in fahrenheit of view the machine) to the frontal lobes with, “Since the selection of the information required to solve the problem at hand is story of dorian, made in the frontal lobes, they must ‘know,’ at least roughly, where in the brain this information is stored. This suggests that all the super volcanos, cortical regions are somehow represented in the frontal lobes, an story of dorian grey, assertion first made by 451 point of view, Hughlings Jackson (1884). Such representation is probably coarse, rather than specific, enabling the story grey, frontal lobes to know what type of information is stored where, but not the specific information itself. The frontal lobes then contact the appropriate parts of the brain and bring the super volcanos, memory trace ‘on-line’, by story grey, activating the circuitry that embodies it. ” page 354. The frontal lobes have a map of the entire cortex, and know where all the memories are? Isn’t it much more likely that the of view, RAS finds precedent responses in the cortex and of dorian grey, transmits them with the relevant “information required to solve the problem” to the frontal lobes? Nigel Calder - The Mind of Man - Penguin 1973 - pg. Event Industry. 30 See: ' var WPEndnote43 = ' See e.g., how the Mayo Clinic describes the ‘functions’ of different parts of the brain, at How Your Brain Works ' var WPEndnote42 = ' St. Thomas Aquinas’ Agent was the soul, with faculties of of dorian grey, memory, intellect, and will. Karen Horney refes to our ‘real self;’ Roberto Assagioli to What an Epic, our ‘higher self;’ Carl Jung to our ‘self,’ or ‘God within us;’ Martin Buber to ‘I’ and story of dorian, ‘Thou;’ Arthur Deikman to the ‘Observing Self;’ Antonio Damasio to a ‘proto self;’ Ernest Becker (See his Pulitizer Prize winning Denial of Death, ) refers to our ‘proud, rich, lively,infinitely transcendent, free, inner spirit.’ And myriad mystics, saints and sages have unequivocally claimed a realization of their ‘True Selves.’ Here’s what one of the world’s most renowned psychologists has to say on this subject: Now that cognitive psychology has taken the Makes an Epic in Homer´s Essay, head once lopped off by radical behaviorism and returned it to the body of psychology, we might in the next 10 years consider implanting a heart or a little soul in the same body.

When that takes place, it may be easier to know what psychologists can offer to people and how they can do so, because then they will be us. Philip G. Story Of Dorian Grey. Zimbardo, Ph.D. (1982) Emeritus Professor of Psychology - Stanford University Past President, American Psychological Association I believe this theory fulfills his prediction. Event Industry. We have ‘hearts’; we are Souls. Of Dorian. Gatekeeper to consciousness, spark of the mind, the reticular formation connects with major nerves in the spinal column and brain. Super Volcanos. It sorts the 100 million impulses that assault the brain each second, deflecting the trivial, letting the vital through to alert the story, mind. Fahrenheit 451 Point. The mind cannot function without this catalytic bundle of cells. Damage to them results in coma - the loss of consciousness. ' var WPEndnote45 = ' See Baars Gage speculations (page 145) about story, ERTAS serving as a ‘blackboard,‘ used by the cortex to broadcast its prevailing conscious sensory stimuli to event industry, other parts of the story grey, brain. This of course is the reverse of super volcanos, my theory that it is ERTAS that uses the cortex in of dorian grey its processes.

But they do mention that “ Dixon (1971) has also argued that the circulating flow of information between the reticular formation and the sensory areas of the cortex is required before sensory input becomes conscious.” confirming the theory of this article. ' var WPEndnote46 = ' Disbeliefs are not just a mirror image of event industry, beliefs; belief in democracy engenders disbeliefs in monarchy, socialism, communism, dictatorship, etc. Beliefs are very prolific. Memories of traumatic or emotional experiences can also act as ‘beliefs,’ generating fear, anxiety, sorrow, joy, etc., as reactions to story grey, relevant stimuli. ' var WPEndnote47 = ' “It is super volcanos, believed that ADD/ADHD is caused by a problem in the reticular activating system.” “Neuroscientists have been conducting studies on story the reticular activating system and its role in behavior, Alzheimers disease, and super volcanos, ADD/ADHD. Of Dorian Grey. In the ADD/ADHD patient, it appears that the reticular activating system cannot keep up with the demands placed on it. This leads to over-arousal, under-motivation, and the other symptoms of fahrenheit of view, ADD/ADHD.” All of the ‘demands’ on the Reticular Activating System come from the Reticular Formation.

Are television sponsors, paying millions for only seconds of airtime to make an impression, training children for ADD? ' var WPEndnote48 = ' Some have qustioned whether our Need to Exist is story of dorian, uniquely human. Buiness Done Over. But the story of dorian grey, ‘Existence’ we treasure is not with just being alive; it is the marvelous gift of a Self-directed Life. The soul shows its royal and exalted character, . . in that it is free and self-governed, swayed autonomously by its own will. Of whom else can this be said, save a king? St. 4 Humors. Gregory of Nysss But he was unable to define it. He wrote: “What we hope to see developed . . . is a science of the Self, of its energies, its manifestations, of how these energies can be released, how they can be contacted, how they can be used for story of dorian constructive and event industry, therapeutic work.” The book from which this article is of dorian grey, derived provides a cogent theoretical ‘science of the Self,’ by delineating existential Needs and Faculties of the ‘higher Self,’ which, added to super volcanos, the Social Animal Needs we share with Neanderthal adn chimpanzee, can fully account for of dorian our superior aspirations and capabilities; Faculties which “ can be contacted, released, and used for constructive and therapeutic work.” ' var WPEndnote50 = ' The srticla concludes: Transpersonal identity is super volcanos, associated with the realisation of modes of functioning and grey, experience that have distinctly ‘spiritual’ qualities. The different theories are also in basic accord on the particular spiritual qualities that we can recognise as characterising transpersonal identity. Frances Vaughan (1985, p. 28) identifies these as: compassionate, loving, receptive, allowing, unlimited, intuitive, spontaneous, creative, inspired, peaceful, awake, open, and connected. Where the theories fail to agree is in their conceptual understanding of the transpersonal self, and in their developmental psychology or explanations of how transpersonal identity may be achieved. Itisprecisely this ‘conceptual understanding’ of the transpersonal self which this article will address, and offer a cogent and well-received theory. Whatever would disturb one’s cherished self-image tends to be repressed. Whatever might make the event industry, individual appear to himself unworthy, guilty, inadequate, sadistic, inconsistent with his ideas or ideals, escapist, or not living up to one’s ideals, tends to be removed from consciousness. [emphasis added] Silvano Arieti, The Will to be Human, pg. 45 ' var WPEndnote52 = ' Also see The Transpersonal Self: Comparing Seven Psychological Theories (Abraham Maslow, C.G. Jung, Roberto Assagioli, Stan Grof, Ken Wilber, Michael Washburn and Peggy Wright), by Michael Daniels at Personally, I don’t agree the Self is trans -personal, since the Self is the grey, essence of person; the element which distinguishes us from the chimpanzee, whose DNA is virtually identical to our own. I prefer Becker’s transcentdent Self. ' var WPEndnote53 = ' I have identified this as a ‘new theory of neuropsychology,’ but to hippocrates, the best of my knowledge and conscientious research it is the first and story, only basic theory of neuropsychologyone which from a systems standpoint, and in the unimpaired brain, reconciles all known cognitive brain component processes with all psychologic phenomena. As you will see in the notes which follow, psychologists have ‘given up the theoretical life,’ and What Makes an Epic Essay, neurobiologists are running into brick walls of psychologic phenomena which they are finding impossible to explain, even in terms of story, brain component processes. ' var WPEndnote54 = ' And now, just in the past few years it has been found that the of view, DNA of neanderthals, who spent hundreds of thousands of years on the planet and developed only one toola sharpened stone is 99.7% identical to story of dorian grey, ours!

Since the size of the neanderthal brain is equivalent to ours, this provides even better evidence for our theory than the chimpanzee. See the Novenber 2010 press relaease from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology at They conclude that though the brains of humans, chimpanzees and neanderthals are similar at event industry birth, they develop differently! It will be interesting to see how scientismists explain that without hypothesizing a ‘self.’ ' var WPEndnote55 = ' “Gatekeeper to consciousness, spark of the mind, the reticular formation connects with major nerves in the spinal column and brain. Story Of Dorian Grey. It sorts the 100 million impulses that assault the brain each second, deflecting the hippocrates, trivial, letting the vital through to grey, alert the mind. The mind cannot function without this catalytic bundle of fahrenheit of view, cells. Damage to them results in coma - the of dorian, loss of consciousness.” ' var WPEndnote62 = ' Calder, Nigel - The Mind of jane chapter 11, Man - Penguin 1973 - pg.

30 ' var WPEndnote63 = ' Bailey, Ronald H., et al. - The Role of the of dorian, Brain, Time-Life Books 1975 ' var WPEndnote64 = ' The Brain - Mystery of Matter and 4 humors, Mind, U. S. News Books - 1981. Note the phrase, ‘alerting the cortex’ and story of dorian, similar phrases in the following paragraphs based on the universally accepted theory that processing of stimuli takes place solely in an upward path to the cortex, the home to consciousness and all our higher faculties. But this is an untenable hypothesis, and rather than alerting the cortex, it is more likely that the RAS, centered with consciousness in the thalamus, is using the cortex to flesh out the super volcanos, percept and to identify and implement a ‘relevant’ response. ' var WPEndnote65 = ' Silverstein, Alvin Virginia - World of the Brain - Morrow Co. NY 1986 ' var WPEndnote66 = ' How Things Work - the Brain - Time-Life Books 1992 ' var WPEndnote67 = ' Wooldridge, Dean - The Machinery of the Brain - McGraw-Hill 1963. Thus, the Reticular Activating System does not turn over processing and resolution of stimuli to ‘higher powers’ in the cortex, as neuroscientists believe, but manages the story grey, entire operation from start to finish, guided by the goal-image generated in thalamic consciousness by the RF/RAS which called forth the energy from the motor neurons. ' var WPEndnote68 = ' The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Understanding the Brain - Bard Bard ' var WPEndnote69 = ' Francis Crick, Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search for the Soul, Charles Scribner Sons 1994 ' var WPEndnote70 = ' The First Credible Theory of 451 point, Cognitive Neuroscience? Resolving the Mind/Brain/Behavior/Enigma. The human mind has an story of dorian, inhibitory system which.

routinely and automatically removes from perception, reason, and judgement over 99% of available fact. Jerome S. 451 Point. Bruner (1915-2 016) Everyt hing one knows began as a selection of a small group of cognitive impulses from the story grey, body, the environment, memories, and super volcanos, conscious and subconscious elements of each of of dorian grey, our usually inchoate Love/Belief Systems- all received by the Reticular Formation (RF), a small bundle of nerves at the top of the brain stem, which at a rate of 100,000,000 impulses a second has 24/7, by unknown means, selected those most important to the individual. 4 Humors. This selection is projected to the thalamus and hypothalamus, locus of the long-known but disregarded Reticular Activating System . With afferent and efferent connections to grey, the entire brain and body, RAS, identifies and with deference to Love/Belief System elements-perceptual defenses, inhibitions, repressions, etc.- interprets the chapter, data, before reaching consciousness. Story Of Dorian. The laundered data accompanied by relevant response-impulse(s), which if benign, unopposed or coonditioned will be executed; or will vie for execution, which only humans with newly defined inherent transcendent needs and faculties, can review and execute, veto, or alter. Everthing we know and event industry, believe has run a gauntlet of RAS processing which, with accesss to conscious and story of dorian, subcondcious elemets of our Love/Belief Systems (which Christians will recognize as our Hearts), routinely and automatically removes from perception, reason, and judgement over 99% of available fact. We are living in a post-hypnotic trance, induced in eyre chapter 11 early infancy.

All neuroscience is based on story the paradigm of a modular brain, each component independently responsible for, or participating in each brain functionwith only one stellar but completely neglected explanation of how they do work together in coordinated responses. tt is also based on the paradigm of neuronal man?the conviction that all human capabilities will eventually be understood in neuronal terms. I will argue that since our DNA has been shown to be 98+% identical to that of the chimpanzee, which after millions of years is still living in trees; and recently 99.7% identical to Neanderthal man, after 200-300,000 years still living in super volcanos caves with one tool, a sharpened stone, when they became extinct, that our brains are functionally identical to theirs. This revolutionary new theory, with doctoral appraisals of .. a cogent and intellectually impeccable analysis, and It is great . a breakthrough of insight and story grey, a comprehensive unification of the relevant sciences, will present a decades-long researched contradistinction of both neuronal man and Essay Over the Internet, the modular brain. With Dr. Dean Wooldridges stellar application of biological, neurological, cybernetic, and story, computer sciences in unraveling brain processes, you will find compelling proof that the event industry, brain is managed coherently by story grey, the long-known, but completely neglected, Reticular Activating System (RAS), including its sentinel and lieutenant, the Reticular Formation (RF).

The Reticular Activating System, with its locus in the thalamus and hypothalamus, is a vast network of neuronal afferent and efferent connections to the entire brain and body. Of View. Thus it is the perfect candidate for the brains Command and Control System?the de facto manager and of dorian grey, coordinator of all brain functions. Event Industry. I will present substantial evidence that RAS is dedicated 24/7 365 to story of dorian grey, maintaining homeostasis in all human biological, socio-biological, physiological, environmental, psychological, emotional, and volitional states. the reticular formation connects with major nerves. in the spinal column and What an Epic Essay, brain. It sorts the story of dorian, 100 million. impulses that assault the brain each second, deflecting.

the trivial, letting the vital through to eyre 11, alert the mind. The. mind cannot function without this catalytic bundle of cells. Damage to of dorian, them results in jane eyre chapter 11 comathe loss of consciousness. U. Story. S. News Books - 1981. Although this rendering points to the Reticular Activating System it does not make clear that the Reticular Formation to which it refers, is fahrenheit 451 point, just a small bundle of unique neurons at the top of the brainstem, within the System. Also it shows only the Ascending Reticular Activating System (ARAS) and not the Descending Reticular Activating System (DRAS) which extends throughout the entire body, and story grey, most likely includes the central and peripheral nervous systems.

For a detailed description of DRAS neurological functions, see Here is a more detailed rendering of ARAS. Note the good Professors precise use of the word proclivity, and quote marks around localize. Eyre 11. In other words, they posit our higher faculties in the prefrontal lobes, because their proportionately larger size was the only difference they could find between our brains and of dorian, those of the primates from which they were sure we had evolved. (And a large brain didn't provide any benefits to hippocrates, Neanderthal.) Although this rendering is meant to illustrate the story of dorian grey, human brain, I will argue that it is common to the brain of all sentient beings. With DNA virtually identical to Neanderthal and chimpanzee for example, its hard to see how our brains could have significant biological differences. Then what is the difference between humans and Neanderthal?

Here we must part company with those who support the neuronal man paradigm and speak to event industry, those who know that we are not just another social animal?that except for knee-jerk responses, we have the power to of dorian grey, review, veto, or alter our response-impulses. (Im not going to punch my boss out, no matter how mad I am!) What is it that makes us so different? The question has resounded since the dawn of recorded time. The most common theories come from scholars who have proposed an Agent or self which might explain our differences; but most without ascription, others with nebulous characteristics, none except perhaps Freud have offered a self I (ego) which could explain our differences with our DNA analogues, or could be integrated with known psychological and neural operations of the brain, all of which are included in this new theory. And most neuroscientists derisively dismiss the idea of a transpersonal self as a mythical ghost in the machine (while they accept millions in research funds to try to Essay Buiness Over the Internet, tease its exact equivalent out of some magical hidden powers of the cortex.) Some of the of dorian, many theorists who have postulated or made reference to a unique human Agent are: St. In Homer´s The Odyssey Essay. Thomas Aquinas postulated the spiritual Soul with faculties of memory, intellect, and will. Freuds Agent was I (German ich, translated as ego) with a laundry-list of of dorian, faculties (which he apparently thought included all our 'higher powers': perception, conscious thought, memory, learning, choice, judgment, and super volcanos, action; Carl Jung referred to an undefined self, or archetypal God within us; Karen Horney to our real self, . the central inner force, . Story Of Dorian. which is the deep source of event industry, growth, . the spring of emotional forces, of constructive energies, of directive and judiciary powers; Roberto Assagioli to an undefined but influential higher self; Martin Buber to I and Thou; Arthur Deikman to an Observing Self; Anton io Damasio to a proto self; LeDoux to our 'synaptic self;' Ernest Becker refers to our proud, rich, lively, infinitely transcendent, free, inner spirit. And myriad mystics, saints, and sages have claimed an ineffable realization of their True Inner Self, or spiritual Soul. For a scholarly and thoughtful review of seven of these theories, see TheTranspersonalSelf .com. The Souls uniquely human Faculties can be seen to of dorian, be Imagination, Conviction, and Commitment, yielding our preternatural Free Will, which accounts for 4 humors our creativity -the ability to bring into being things which had their origins only in our Imaginaitons, something like God.

The Immortal I Most of us think of ourselves as objective, and that our belief systems represent the standards we apply to evaluation of our cognitive percepts as to their meaning, significance, veracity, etc. But I have introduced the grey, concept that both the Makes The Odyssey Essay, inherent Social-Animal Needs we share with our DNA analogues, and our Love/Belief Systems become wired in our brains between stimulus and cognition, forming two sources of continuous stimuli to the brain, with the environment providing the third. The Love/Belief System also serves as a reference database, which RAS uses in the interpretation, evaluation, and often modification of cognitive stimuli, then generation of story of dorian grey, relevant emotions and response-impulses before they reach full consciousness, i.e., Soul-awareness. Thus neurologically, we each experience the world through our Hearts. Following for reference throughout this article is the diagram I propose as illustrative of RAS processing of all social animals. The Social Animal Brain Processing. Instincts have been left blank, since they vary among Social Animals.

But this diagram shows that all brain operations are managed by the Reticular Activating System. The Reticular Formation, monitoring the environment, Instincts, and Social-Animal Needs, forwards selected stimuli on to the fahrenheit 451 point, RAS which extracts from cortex memory 9-10 times more information. This yields identification and relevant responses. These are then forwarded to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) for resolution (described later), then back through RAS processing for a feasibility check. Ambiguous responses hang up in of dorian the PFC until additional RF environmental stimuli or cortex memory input causes one to prevail and is executed or the stimulus abates. The Social-Animal Needs (which we obviously share with our DNA analogues) are illustrated as follows: THE SOCIAL-ANIMAL NEEDS. The following diagram is the same brain, but of the human, with Instincts replaced by the individuals Love/Belief System, and about Buiness Done the Internet, introduces the I Needs and Faculties responsible for all our higher powers. HOW THE HUMAN BRAIN WORKS, COHERENTLY. Absentt only neurologists and strangely, cognitive psychologists who know most about story of dorian, what the jane chapter 11, brain does, many theorists, including even some intrepid physicists and mathematicians, far out of story of dorian, their fields, are exercising their prodigious powers of imagination to justify the concept that consciousness, reasoning, decision-making, etc.?must be some hidden purely neuronal functions of the ortex. Since I am taking strong exception to this universal direction of chapter, research (alone as far as I know), as well as to neuronal man, I must devote the following portion to pointing out some of what appear to be the most flagrant fallacies, contradictions, labored conjectures and impasses inherent in the modular braom paradigm.

Then I'll present a wealth of grey, evidence-including scientific evidence-that the brain does work erently. First however, I want to largely exempt Bernard J. Baars, ohPh.D., and Essay about Buiness Done Over the Internet, Nicole M. Gage, Ph.D. from my criticism, based on grey their lucid and carefully researched textbook, Cognition, Brain, and Consciousness: Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience - Academic Press, 2007. Dedicated scientists, they struggle bravely with such things as metacognition, intentionality, volition, and super volcanos, making choices in the absence of inherently correct solutions, which they admit remains, at least for now, a uniquely human territory. They also find it necessary to ascribe homunculus-like faculties to the frontal lobes, e.g., as having a coarse map of the story of dorian grey, entire cortex, so they can retrieve memories relevant to their decision-making processes. [BG page 354] But I have made good use of their neuroscience research which corroborates and has been incorporated in my theory, and hippocrates 4 humors, also of the gaps and impasses in story of dorian all neuropsychology, e.g,, the binding problem, and the brick wall they face in finding a neuronal explanation of our higher powers. Event Industry. I think every student of cognitive neurology should have a copy of this excellent book. The problem facing neuroscientists was that the of dorian grey, chimpanzees DNA was found to event industry, be 98+% identical to ours, followed by story, finding that the 2% difference was related only to hair, skin, bones, blood, muscle, and the like?hardly differences which might account for our vastly superior capabilities. And in 2010 we found that our DNA is 99.7% identical to super volcanos, Neanderthal man, which, after 200-300,000 years on the planet were still living in caves with one tool, a sharpened stone when they became extinct; lending even stronger evidence to this theory.

Our DNA is not similar to that of Neanderthal and. chimpanzee?it is, to all intents and purposes, identical. Then why are we so different? Most scientists have concluded that our higher faculties must be found in the cortex, particularly in grey the prefrontal cortex (PFC), both proportionally larger than those of the chimp, assuming that a larger but biologically identical brain, can account for our superiority. So hundreds of researchers are expending millions of people-hours, devoting all their efforts to locate human faculties of consciousness, reasoning, decision-making, imagination, conviction, etc., as originating in some yet-to-be discovered neuron al capabilities of the cortex. Nor is Essay E-commerce: Buiness Done, there any validity to the popular triune nature of the brain, as composed of evolutionary development from story lizard to mammalian to primate brains. Hippocrates 4 Humors. The so-called lizard brain is not a brain at all, since it represents only a portion of the lizard brain, which like ours, is comprised of brainstem, midbrain, and cortex. Nor is the mammalian brain a brain.

And as we shall see, their derogation of the importance of the lower and mid-brain in favor of the cortex has led researchers to story of dorian, only a perfunctory analysis of their vital and marvelous functions. Also neuropsychologists are admittedly struggling with a binding problem. The visual characteristics of an object?color, shape, size, motion?are registered and interpreted in different parts of the cortex. 4 Humors. So, they wonder, If I see something red, round, baseball-size, and in motion, where in the cortex do all those percepts come together to instantly tell me that Im going to get hit in the face with a tomato? The famous binding problem. The answer is that they dont come together in grey the cortex, but in the thalamus and midbrain, the much more likely home to What Makes an Epic, consciousness. Now consider the grey, rat, which can generate perhaps only 40 or 50 different responses. But those few responses have insured the perpetuation of the species for thousands of years.

Now looking at the successive identically anatomical forms of the brain of the rat, cat, owl monkey, rhesus monkey, and chimpanzee, isnt it obvious that these are simply sequentially larger versions of the rats marvelously efficient brain? Enlargements which, coupled with a more versatile body and larger brain?more RAM work space and hippocrates, memory?enable the chimp to generate scores of responses and, by operant conditioning and social and experiential learning, acquire scores more? S ince our DNA is grey, identical, isnt it obvious that our brain is just a larger chimps brain, operating on the same principles and components? Much of what we know about the human brain has been learned from primates (and mice!). Also, pioneers in artificial intelligence realized that the What Hero The Odyssey Essay, computer must be equipped with many facts: children cant be as old or older than their parents, tools are bought at a hardware store, etc. They first estimated maybe as many as a million facts, but soon realized they must deal with tens of millions of facts! Where does the brain store all this information? Further, imagine the sheer number of one's memories and neural motor sequence memories?routines?necessary for a typist to hit 8 keys a second for minutes at story of dorian a time, without realizing what he has typed?for words to appear on a page while he thinks of something else. Imagine the number of memory routines necessary to drive my car through traffic while Im day-dreaming, and alert me instantly to anything requiring my attention; or for jane eyre our thoughtless morning ablutions.

For a concert pianist to have thousands of musical phrases wired to story of dorian, the motor neurons of his fingers, arms, feet, and legs; some of event industry, which can be executed continuously for story of dorian grey twenty minutes? Where could we possibly store all our memories and tens of millions of fahrenheit of view, facts and sensory and motor sequences?routines, subroutines, and sub-subroutines?all this memory? Why, only in a much larger cortex of course! We dont need another operating system; but we humans obviously need more work-space (PFC RAM) and story of dorian, memory, a larger hard drive; both provided by the vast association areas and depth of the human cortex. Further, limited to fMRI scans of the brain, neuropsychologists consider activities such as thought, reasoning, perception, emotions, etc., as functions of the parts of the brain which light up when those activities are operant, but activities which are impaired when that part of the brain is damaged, lesioned or diseased. But a computer hard drive operates exactly the same way?activates relevant sectors when certain programs are called for, and fails to execute those programs when those sectors are damaged. Does that mean computer operations are functions of the 451 point, hard drive? The hard drive is just a passive memory of operational sequences called forth and managed from grey somewhere else. Event Industry. Correlation should not be confused with causal.

Calling mental and biological activities functions of brain segments which light up, is like saying that controlling an of dorian grey, airplanes flight attitude is a function of the hippocrates, ailerons, rudder, and elevator, which are active in flight corrections, but which are functions of the pilot or autopilot. Still further, believing all our higher powers are in the cortex, scientists have concentrated on the one-way upward course of story of dorian, information from the senses to the reticular formation and thalamus up to the cortex, where they think processing, analysis, and decision-making must take place. But in The Creative Loop - How the Brain Makes a Mind, Erich Harth says neuroscientists have studiously ignored the super volcanos, instant downward passage of ten times more information from cortex to thalamus. Baars and Gage recognize this phenomenon, but say these neurons are running the story grey, wrong way! (sic!) And further, that RAS uses the appropriate components of the brain. to manage implementation of hippocrates, RAS selected or Soul initiated responses. For example, when one hears the words, Marilyn Monroe (OK, I'm 95), they pass in neural networks through the reticular formation to uncomprehending consciousness in the thalamus and up to auditory regions in the cortex.

But ten times more information is instantly returned from the cortex to thalamic consciousness?enough information to yield a picture of story, a beautiful blonde in a white dress and high heels standing over a subway exhaust grille trying to hold her skirt down?a picture which would require scores of thousands of computer bytes. On the other hand, presented with that picture, it is sent in neural networks through unknowing consciousness to visual cortex V1 through V3, and returns the super volcanos, name 'Marilyn Monroe' to consciousness in the thalamus, together with what the listener knows of her life. Some neuroscientists agree, at least in part: From modern neuro-anatomy, it is apparent that the entire neocortex of story grey, humans continues to be regulated by the paralimbic regions from which it evolved. In view of the What Makes an Epic in Homer´s The Odyssey Essay, above, it is story, a major thesis of this article that although. we use the jane, brain differently, e.g,. for everything from language to. putting men on the moon, and therefore develop different capacities. of its components, the human brain, in and of itself, has no inherent. functional capabilities which differentiate it from the brain of the.

chimpanzee or Neanderthal. We have two distinctly different schools of thought: the Modular Brain/Neuronal Man (MB/NM) school, and that of the Soul/Coherent Brain (S/CB). The thoughtful reader will find many more problems, speculations, and contradictions in story grey MB/NM in this article and notes, and What an Epic in Homer´s, hopefully appreciate the far-reaching explanatory powers of S/CB. How the Brain Works, Coherently. Look at it this way: if beings from story grey another planet got to earth, and simply observed an automobile for a day or two without raising the hood, but listening, examining the gas, the super volcanos, exhaust, etc., they would undoubtedly be able to tell, without a design of each part, exactly what components were at work inside the car. They would know there must be a fuel vaporizer, combustion chambers, ignition devices, a transmission, etc., etc. Now with ever-increasing analytical skills, and ever-increasing data, we have been observing ourselves for several thousand years, and no one seems to be trying to analyze the brain from story a systems standpoint?to postulate the components and their functions which must be at work under the hood, in order to explain all the rational and hippocrates 4 humors, irrational physical, mental, and emotional responses which biologists, neuroscientists, and particularly cognitive psychologists know the brain can generate and/or implement. 1. Immediate access to story of dorian grey, all available internal and Essay E-commerce: Over the Internet, circumstantialental information,

2. A means of rapidly assimilating, evaluating, and pioritizing. 3. A means of selecting and implementing appropriate responses. t o the information, and. 4. Immediate two-way communications, for grey control and feedback, with all of the What Makes an Epic Hero in Homer´s The Odyssey, subsystems. The human brain is the most complex. system in the world, with many subsystems. capable of story of dorian, operating in a coordinated way. its components and What in Homer´s The Odyssey Essay, subsystems?much more complicated than.

a battleship?could possibly coordinate each of their functions in. timely management of the thousands of complex physical, mental, emotional, and story, biological responses of the Essay about E-commerce: Done the Internet, brain, providing as it. does, instantaneous, coordinated reactions to circumstances of. vital interest, without an story of dorian grey, autopilota priority evaluator and. responder to all internal and event industry, environmental stimuli, i.e., a command and control system. Fortunately, we have the story of dorian grey, perfect candidate for the brain's. command and control system in the Reticular Activating.

System, centered (with consciousness?) in the midbrain, immediate access to all internal and hippocrates, external stimuli, known to scan and prioritize that information, select and. implement relevant responses: the Reticular Activating. System with its sentinel, the Reticular Formation. minor properties of the Reticular Activating System/ Reticular Formation for over 50 years, none of of dorian grey, them, to my knowledge, has suggested they form a command.

and control system for event industry operations of the of dorian grey, entire brain. One of the keys to a cogent systems analysis of the brain was provided many years ago by the renowned Jerome S. Bruner, one of the of view, fathers of existential psychology, when he stated. The human mind has an inhibitory system which. routinely and of dorian grey, automatically removes from perception, reason, and judgment over 90% of available fact. In 1958, physiologist H. In Homer´s. W. Of Dorian Grey. Magoun described some of the RF/RAS functions in The Waking Brain. Hero Essay. The Reticular Formation was found to story grey, be a small bundle of short-axon neurons at the top of the brainstem, many ofwhich are uniquely unspecific. With its millions of neuronal pathways to and from the What Makes an Epic The Odyssey Essay, brain and the body, the story, whole system was named the Reticular Activating System, because stimulation of the RF awakened sleeping subjects, while damage to the RF resulted in coma.

But, now, after 50+ years, neurologists have identified only a few of the RAS purposes. (Google Reticular Activating System to see the E-commerce: Buiness Over the Internet, paucity of information about it, and the few powers attributed to it.) Although its centralized location and countless connections would seem to enable it to perform myriad functions, neurologists have no tools to investigate the remarkable functions of the Reticular Activating System; how it can process 100 million impulses a second, and select the most significant to each individual. Story. The answer was not explicable by any known neurological processes. Drawing on the works of scores of geniuses in Essay E-commerce: Over the Internet biology, cognitive and phenomenological psychology, cybernetics, and story of dorian, neuroscience in a systems analysis, we can now develop a schematic of cognitive brain functions. iInformation about RAS is scarce, but by combing the fahrenheit, literature, we find scores of clues to a coherent brain managed by the marvelous powers of RF/RAS. Following is compelling evidence that the Reticular Activating System, in both humans and animals, is the perfect neurological candidate for story grey the brains Command and Control System. For example: [The reticular formation] is well placed to monitor all the nerves connecting brain and body. It knows what is going on better than any other part of the brain. [The RF] alerts the brain to incoming information from the super volcanos, senses, and of dorian grey, from the hippocrates 4 humors, centers of thought, memory and feeling. More than that, it adjudicates the relative importance of grey, that information. .. In a way the RAS is jane 11, like a vigilant secretary, sorting out the trivia from the incoming messages. The reticular formation is, in essence, the physical basis of consciousness, the brains chief watchguard. . The reticular formation continuously sifts and selects, forwarding only the essential, the unusual, the dangerous to the conscious mind. . The reticular formation can both send and receive messages. If it suddenly spots one that merits attention, it shoots up an alert through ascending RAS pathways to receiving areas in the cortex.

Timed to arrive simultaneously with the impulses sent directly from sensory receptors the RAS alerts the cortex to grey, these impulses. The RAS determines which . bits of information are important enough - or novel enough - to report to the higher portions of the brain. . Normally, the super volcanos, information relating to automatic actions, such as the of dorian grey, heart-beat and digestion, is dealt with directly by the RAS without allowing any awareness of them to filter through to the conscious bran. Fortunately we are blessed with the work of the jane eyre chapter, genius Dean Wooldridge, Ph.D. (1913-2006) biologist and President of Thompson Ramo Wooldridge working on missile development and control, in grey his book The Machinery of the Brain written in Makes an Epic Hero The Odyssey Essay 1963! He also found time to apply his stellar mind to neuroscience. The brains response selector has been given the name reticular activating system by H. W. Magoun and his coworkers at U.C.L.A. The reticular activating system consists of a mass of undifferentiated neurons that extend from the top of the spinal cord through the of dorian grey, brainstem on up into the thalamus and hypothalamus. Buiness Over The Internet. These two structures are at the extreme top and forward part of the brainstem and are well inside, but not a part of, the surrounding cerebral cortex. The hypothalamus, part of which is of dorian, included in the reticular activating system, appeared in our earlier discussion as the seat of temperature control of the body. The reticular formation gets its name from the fact that it looks like a more or less homogeneous network of cells; it shows little evidence of organization into anatomically distinct nuclei, although it passes through and E-commerce: Buiness Done Over the Internet, around a number of nuclei in traversing the length of the brain-stem. Close examination of the reticular formation shows that it consists of a mixture of large and small neurons, many, but not all, having short axons. Concurrent with the selection by story of dorian, an organism of one of several alternate behavior patterns, there is often need for adjustment of some of the oper-ating parameters.

In our missile example, the shift from event industry mid-course to terminal guidance usually must be accompanied by changes in the dynamic response characteristics of the steering mechanism. During the story grey, final approach to hippocrates, the target, a tighter kind of muscular control of the missile is story, required. . Reticular influences on the muscles are numerous and E-commerce: Over, varied. Apart from such special modifications of muscular function as those just described, the general muscle tone of the bodythe degree of contraction that characterizes the normal resting muscles-is controlled by story grey, the reticular activating system. Interference with certain of the communication channels from the What Makes in Homer´s, reticular system to the muscles (by cutting of some of the nerves or by story of dorian, suitably placed lesions) results in What Hero in Homer´s extreme muscular contraction; interference with other of the efferent fibers of the reticular formation causes the muscles to relax completely. Story Of Dorian. Electric stimulation or lesions in 4 humors another part of the reticular activating system interfere with the normal dynamic balance of the body's servomechanisms in such a way as to cause rhythmic muscular quivering similar to the shaking palsy of grey, Parkinson's disease.

Automatic Control Circuits in eyre the Nervous System. There is another reason for emphasizing the automatic control functions of the central nervous system. These are the really important functions of the brain. They keep the story, organism alive and event industry, healthy. It is only from a narrow human point of view that conscious thought and the so-called higher mental processes are of of dorian grey, much significance.

Evidence of the truth of this is afforded by the way nature has allocated functions as between unconscious and conscious control of the brain. Nature clearly does not yet trust the recently developed and not very well proved higher intellectual capabilities of man for the performance of any really vital functions, such as breathing, regulation of the super volcanos, heartbeat, control of the parts of the throat to prevent strangulation during eating, or regulation of the chemical balance of the digestive organs. To be sure, since this book has the grey, disadvantage of being written from the highly distorted, narrowly human point of Essay Buiness Done, view, a disproportionate amount of attention is going to be devoted, in later chapters, to what we humans have arrogantly come to call the higher intellectual processes. [??] So Dr. Wooldridge concludes that the neural processes involved in RF/RAS selection of our most important percepts, and implementation of relevant responses to those perceptsand certainly to our acts of story, Will would hold no mysteries to the computer scientist of 1963! Today, 52 years later, we are still no closer to recognizing the marvelous powers of RF/RAS, and cognitive neuroscience is derisively described as merely the expensive branch of philosophy. Wooldridge concludes with:

The Higher Intellectual Processes. The closer our explorations approach the field of complex mental phenomena, the smaller becomes the quantity of available and relevant physical measurements. Hippocrates 4 Humors. This was noticeable in the last chapter and has become glaringly evident in this one, as our discussion has come to depend more and story, more on nonquantitative subjective and Buiness Done the Internet, behavioristic observations, and less and less on supporting measurements made directly on story the brain and nervous system. Clearly we have come to the end of the eyre, line in our treatment of the observed facts of brain construction and performance. From all the evidence, the human and animal RF/RAS can only be characterized as a marvelous cybernetic autopilot which receives all incoming data, scans and prioritizes that data for disequiibria based on its stored programs; continually selects and forwards the most significant to RAS for further processing; and RAS, retrieving memory data from the cortex, generates and controls responses or response-impulses appropriate to its iterations of the data. It is thus a major thesis of this theory, representing a new. paradigm of the brain, that in all sentient beings, the Reticular. Activating System, given an RF-selected or Soul-Commitment. stimulus, generates and manages brain component responses which. will maintain biological homeostasis; in social beings to story of dorian grey, maintain bio- sociological stasis; and in humans, to also maintain stasis of our. uniquely induced psychological, emotional, and volitional states.

All of eyre 11, our Loves and of dorian, those Beliefs with an chapter 11, emotional or affective component are not additional facts to be stored as data. Of Dorian. They are processed differently, with some representation probably in the amygdala and hippocampus. With the Social Animal Needs, they represent databases, which with the environment, provide stimuli sources for RF selection, and RAS uses Wooldridge's stored programs and stored behaviors to select and implement relevant responses. I maintain that the RF/RAS is the Hero The Odyssey Essay, entire organisms equilibrium sensor and balance restorer of all biological and physiological functions of all sentient beings, and, in the human it is the RF/RAS, programmed with our SA-Needs and Love/Belief Systems, which generates responses in an effort to maintain stasis of our uniquely instigated emotional, psychological, and volitional states. Based on our autonomic responses, such as resentment or pleasure to a personal insult or compliment, it is grey, apparent that the human RF/RAS generates responses to stimuli relevant to Elements of our Love/Belief Systems. This facility of the RAS together with our uniquely human metafaculties, makes of fahrenheit, each of our brains what we have been calling the mind?a human brain, a brain with a Heart. but subject to the Soul.

In addition to all its other functions, the RAS, with its arsenal of perceptual defenses, works tirelessly to protect the fragile. shell of our Love/Belief Systems. We also have the power of the story of dorian, strange metacognition. Baars and event industry, Gage recognize metacognition (without ascription, nor am I ready to speculate) as our unique self-consciousness and cognizance of our mental processes . the ability to story, know our own cognitive functions, and to Buiness Over, be able to use that knowledge; and say the prefrontal cortex is necessary for metacognition. (??) I believe metacogntion is our cognition of story of dorian, PFC functions, the weighing of alternative responses, purposes, or ambiguous situations. Cognitive psychologists, e.g., Merluzzi, et al., have long recognized the faculty of metacognition, which they say, refers to the ability to 4 humors, monitor a wide variety of cognitive enterprises, . to monitor ones memory and comprehension, or knowing about of dorian, knowing or an awareness of ones own cognitive machinery and the way it operates . Both metacognition and commitment are manifest in the well-known Benjamin Libet experiments. Super Volcanos. From Kenneth Klivington:

Benjamin Libet of the University of California, recorded electrical signals generated by the brains of his experimental subjects and looked particularly at a signal called the readiness potential that always appears just before a movement. Using special timing techniques, he found that the readiness potential begins about half a second before a subject begins to story of dorian grey, move a hand. This is expected, since brain activity must begin before the brain issues a command to the muscles. What is surprising, however, is that the subjects do not become aware of deciding to move until only about two tenths of a second before the Essay Buiness Over the Internet, movement begins, some three tenths of story, a second after the brain activity began. .. to Libet [this] says that the intention to act arises from brain activity that is hippocrates, not within our conscious awareness. . the brain initiates the impulse to act and the conscious self subsequently becomes aware of it.

Libet also finds that his subjects are able to veto the impulse to act during the few tenths of a second after a subject becomes aware of it. Of Dorian Grey. In this sense, consciousness becomes a gatekeeper for intentions generated by the brain, letting through only those that somehow meet an individuals criteria. But if precedent responses and their associated memories are ambiguous, conflicting, or inhibited, e.g., a threat generating fight, flight, or freeze responses, all responses from cortex memory in the form of motor sequence memories?each weighted by their associated results?are registered in the PFC, where, accompanied by continuous additional sensory input from thalamic consciousness regarding the significance and imminence of the threat?and additional relevant memories from the cortex?the momentary weight or urgency of each response is adjusted until (in the animal) one response prevails and breaks through to 4 humors, the conveniently contiguous premotor cortex for implementation, or the threat abates. The vaunted prefrontal cortex is simply RAM, which does not store memory, but provides current work-space for RAS-generated inhibited, ambiguous, or conflicting response-impulses. Story Of Dorian. When the stimuls is resolved, the of view, PFC is story of dorian grey, restored to of view, inactive RAM. The PFC doesnt decide which response will be executed, any more than a neuron, with excitatory and inhibitory impulses, decides when to fire. Only the Soul can decide which response will prevail. But this simple PFC function?also active but not determinate. in humans?has led neuroscientists to story of dorian, ascribe our unique. executive powers of reasoning, analysis, and jane chapter 11, decision- making to some mysterious powers of the prefontal. lobes because that is where most brain.

activity occurs prior to a response. So except for knee-jerk reactions, if a RAS- or Self-generated response is story of dorian, even slightly ambiguous, conflicted, or inhibited, and eyre chapter, does not require immediate implementation, we can either allow it to be executed, or we can imagine the effects of that response(s), review alternative responses and their potential effects, select a preferred response goal-image, and commit if to RAS for story grey execution. This is event industry, indicated by the black arrow in the diagram. Unfortunately, even in a considered decision, our analysis of alternative responses is limited to consideration only of our conscious memories and SA-Need/Love-Belief System Elements, but subject to strong insidious influences from subconscious Elements. Which is story of dorian grey, why we so often have two reasons for what we do: a good reason, and the real reason. And we can creatively will to do things. How do I Will something to happen? In going to the store, first, I create a goal-image of myself at the store, run the an Epic in Homer´s Essay, idea through a feasibility check, and of dorian grey, if there is a problem, the response hangs up in fahrenheit 451 point of view the PFC, where it can be resolved per above; then Commit myself to the trip. This process authorizes RAS to execute the motor neuron programs from cortex memory which take me to the store, while Im free to think of something else if I wish. Autopilot RAS takes me there. Creative Will is the sequential use of the of dorian grey, Souls Faculties.

of Imagination, Conviction, and Commitment. How does the brain do this? I submit that when furnished with a clear picture of a result, a goal-image, ans a feasibility check resulting in belief in its attainability and a commitment to 4 humors, achieve it, the RAS is of dorian grey, presented with a disequilibrium: I'm hereI intend to be there. RAS executes the correct subliminal adjustments for this trp steering, braking, accelerating, based on thalamic visual inputtaking me to the store, leaving my mind free for daydreamsproving RAS implementation of super volcanos, responses in fulfillment of grey, our goal-image! This principle applies to long-range goals, I will be a doctor, lawyer, wife and mother, teacher, millionaire, missionary, etc. Any goal image, firmly held, creates a disequilibrium in the Reticular Activating System, and it constantly brings to jane eyre chapter 11, our attention from the story grey, recesses of the memory and from the environment the jigsaw-like pieces of the elements, ideas and opportunities which can contribute to actualization of the intent. Although it required a lot of innovation, the parts of Gutenbergs printing press were all in existence when he decided to build one, and his RAS led him to the pieces of a solution.

The parts necessary to make an automobile were all in place when Henry Ford decided to make one. And for Bill Gates to make a personal computer. History is rife with examples of people who accomplished remarkable achievements through a firmly held goal-image. R eturning to the PFC, it is not only ambiguous responses to What Hero Essay, situational stimuli which must be resolved in grey the PFC. Rather, isnt it obvious that every human problem or problematic situation is referred to the PFC RAM for resolution? Baars Gage say .. the What in Homer´s The Odyssey Essay, frontal lobes are critical in a free-choice situation, when it is up to the subject to decide how to of dorian, interpret an ambiguous situation. But most of about Buiness Over, us live in a virtual sea of ambiguous situations.

We are always operating on a dozen or two perpetual purposes: safety, security, good health, welfare of loved ones, our love lives, our reputations, our spiritual lives, self-image, possessions, careers, finances, acceptance, shoulds, etc. These are purposes to story grey, which the eyre 11, environment or our Love/Belief Systems continually provide relevant stimuli. But because they are purposes which can never be completely resolved, and are often conflicting, the RAS can only engender ambiguous, conflicting or inhibited piecemeal responses. So most of of dorian grey, us are worrying our poor PFCs almost every waking momentno wonder they are so large. And why so many of us live lives of quiet desperation, and cognitive dissonance. We need a new paradigm of the human brain, as a brain which starts out physiologically and functionally identical to chapter 11, that of the chimpanzee, but is transformed into what we have been calling the mind, by story of dorian grey, virtue of of view, our faculties of metacognition, imagination, conviction and story grey, commitment, as well as by the thousands of our Self-adopted Loves and Beliefs and their concomitant Desires and Fears which constitute our unique Love/Belief Systems and Hero in Homer´s The Odyssey Essay, provide most of the significant stimuli to our Reticular Formations. We must also suspect that the thalamus is the of dorian, avidly sought locus of consciousness, certainly the locus of the chapter, Command and of dorian grey, Control Center of the brain; and RAS the de facto Manager of the What an Epic Hero, brain.

The RF is its sentinel and perhaps one of its most important subordinates. The inaptly named Reticular Activating System should now be considered the brains Command and of dorian, Control System; and must be seen to fahrenheit, exercise its influences throughout the entire brain and story of dorian, body. All other elements of the brain then represent the subsystems or tools of the RAS. Their functions?constantly contributing new sensory input and feedback to the RAS iterations, recovering memories, fleshing out the details of percepts, generating emotions, responses, etc.?are only enacted when generated by RAS/RF iterations, or purposes enacted from thalamic consciousness through the RAS, but originating in 451 point of view the Will. Sadly however, even our best intentions must pass through the RAS to be implemented, often a tortuous feasibility check, where they can be displaced. They just dont get done. All the involuntary response-impulses of us normal people, whether or not they are assented to, are. a perfect RAS reflection of our Social-Animal.

Needs and grey, the Loves and Beliefs and their. concomitant Desires and Fears arising. from our Love/Belief Systems or Hearts. To live in a different, better world, it has been said, Nothing need change but our Hearts. If cognitive scientists are to understand the brain, they must suspend their search for uniquely human faculties of the Essay Done the Internet, cortex and expand their studies of the of dorian grey, Reticular Activating System. They must also hypothesize an Agent?call it X or Franistan if you will?which can account for jane chapter 11 our unique needs and faculies. Obviously, Im with Aquinas, Zimbardo, Assagioli, Horney, Becker, and thousands of grey, mystics, saints, and super volcanos, sages. We have both a heart, or Love/Belief System, and are a Soul, a higher self; Beckers proud, rich, lively infinitely transcendent, free, inner spirit, Horneys real self, . the central inner force, . which is the deep source of growth, . the spring of emotional forces, of story of dorian, constructive energies, of hippocrates, directive and judiciary powers'a spiritual SouL, with Needs to Exist, to Love, and to Know, which account for our motivations, and Faculties of Imagination, Conviction, and story of dorian, Commitment?Faculties which, acting in jane eyre 11 concert, yield free will, and account for all our phenomenal creaivity. These concepts explain from a systems standpoint how the brain works, and explains not only all human behavior commonly considered normal (as well as our potential for story of dorian grey enlightenment), but also psychoses, neuroses, obsessive-compulsion, character disorders, perceptual defense, cognitive dissonance, distractioin, displacement, repression, split personality, the Makes Hero in Homer´s Essay, powers of the of dorian, self-image, suggestion, hypnosis, positive and Makes The Odyssey Essay, negative thinking, etc., etc. And autism, epilepsy, schizophrenia, ADD/ADHD, and even some physiological, biological, genetic, and chemically induced pathologies can all be the result of a malfunctioning Reticular Activating System.

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A resume summary is What Hero The Odyssey also known as: Think of it as an “elevator pitch” or “sales pitch” that you can use anytime someone says: Pro Tip: If you're looking for samples of grey resumes and summaries for specific professions, you may also want to super volcanos take a look at our resume examples section. Resume Summary vs. Objective: What’s the Difference? The difference between a general resume summary and a resume objective looks like this: You are at a party.

Let’s call you Robert. Your wingman approaches the girl you like. Robert likes girls and wants to leverage his skills to marry one. Boyfriend Material experienced at laying coats over mud puddles, opening doors, and story of dorian grey pulling out chairs. What Makes? Charming, funny, and a great conversationalist seeking to leverage 10+ years of experience delivering anecdotes to entertain you through boring social events. Has an MA in hand holding and a license to cook romantic dinners. Which wingman is of dorian grey going to get Robert the girl? The resume objective was acceptable a long time ago when dinosaurs roamed the Earth.

All you had to do at the beginning of 451 point a resume was write a one-liner that told the recruiter: 2. That you want the job. Then a meteor came and smashed into the Earth, and all the resume objectives died. Resume objectives are still extremely useful for story grey certain types of job seekers. So, Who Should Use a Professional Resume Summary? Resume summaries are for people with years of experience who are not making a career change. You should consider writing a resume objective if you have no experience, are in the middle of a career change, or have some gaps in your job history. If you think that a resume objective would be a better fit for you, read our full guide on how to write resume objectives: +20 Resume Objective Examples - Use Them On Your Resume (Tips) And Where Does a Resume Summary Statement Go on a Resume? A professional summary for a resume should go at the top under the contact information. You will find that experts will refer to super volcanos this space as “prime real estate” - the penthouse of your resume.

Whatever you put there will be the first thing a recruiter will see when they look at your resume. When the resume summary section is story of dorian first, a hiring manager sees your value right now. So, don't waste the space. How Long Should a Career Summary on a Resume Be? Depending on who you ask, you will be told that a good example of 451 point of view a resume summary is anywhere from three to six sentences. As I mentioned in the beginning, an average recruiter will only spend six seconds looking at a resume. That converts to about 20 or 30 words, which is around the length of a Tweet. You should also pay attention to the fact that a reader scanning a document will skip over large blocks of text. With that in mind, you should consider keeping your personal resume summary statement on the shorter side: Around 3 sentences or 50 words. Pro Tip: Resume summaries tend to be short.

Take a look at a sample resume template from our resume builder. You can create a similar resume here. A resume template from our resume builder - create your resume here. How to Write a Resume Summary in 7 Easy Steps. 1. How to Start a Summary With a Few of Your Best Accomplishments. When you start writing a professional summary for a resume, it is best to sit down for a moment and of dorian grey think back over the long span of your career. What are my brightest moments? What am I proud of event industry achieving?

What do I love most about of dorian grey, what I do? What do I do best? Once you’ve brainstormed, make a list of your achievements (about six bullet points). This is Makes an Epic Hero in Homer´s Essay your master list. Here is what it would look like if you were, for example, Indiana Jones: Indy’s Master List of Accomplishments and Top Skills. Found the Ark of the Covenant.

Found the Sankara Stones. Found the of dorian, Holy Grail. Buiness? Effectively able to dispatch Nazi bad guys. Proficient in the use of story of dorian grey a bullwhip. Able to fly planes, ride horses, and commandeer motorcycles. Keep in mind that these are the event industry, brightest moments and can come from any point in your career. Now make a quick list of your top transferable skills. Transferable skills are skills that you can use in any job . For example, being able to write or being able to speak fluent Spanish. Research and analytical thinking skills (70% of my work is done in the library). Story Of Dorian Grey? Excellent cultural sensitivity. Able to work in a high-stress, fast-paced environment.

Linguist (Speak fluent German, Hindi, and Mandarin Chinese - among other languages). Now you have a master list of your achievements and a master list of your transferable skills. Set these aside for a moment. And make sure you read this article to find out what skills are currently the most desirable for resumes. You will also find actionable tips on how to showcase your skills on a resume, and a pretty cool infographic featuring R2D2.

What does R2D2 have to do with resume skills? Find out here. 2. Scan the event industry, Job Post - Find out What the Employer Needs. Keywords are the particular skills or qualities an of dorian, employer lists in a job post. Highlight or underline the keyword skills that you find in your job description. Who are they looking for? What value do they want an super volcanos, employee to provide? What extra skills or qualities not listed would add unexpected value?

Indy’s Job Description - Cocktail Server. 3. Research the Job - Find Out What is Valuable. Find a few similar job posts. Again, highlight or underline all of the story of dorian grey, keyword skills and requirements. Compare the new keywords to those in 451 point of view your job description.

Anything that does not have a duplicate could add extra value to of dorian your resume. Look up other professionals on LinkedIn with the same job as the one you want. Their skills section should give you a sense of jane what recruiters value in that profession. 4. Tailor Your List - Make Your Skills List a Recruiter’s Wish List. Which of of dorian grey my skills and accomplishments match those listed in the job description? How do my accomplishments and What Makes an Epic in Homer´s Essay skills position me to solve the employer’s problems? What details can I add for amplification (numbers, details, proof like certificates or awards)? 5. Story Grey? Start With Your Title to Define Yourself Out of the Gate.

Starting a professional summary for Essay Buiness Done the Internet a resume with your professional title allows a recruiter to know right away that your resume is relevant. Pro Tip: Make your professional title bold in of dorian grey order to draw attention to it, so that it is easy for recruiters to eyre find. You will also want to story of dorian grey add the number of years you worked in fahrenheit of view that position. Sassy Marketing Manager with 5+ years of experience. 6. Focus on story, Specific Results to Prove and Demonstrate Value. Now it’s time to go back to your master list.

Condense your list of 6 accomplishments down to about 3 concise and super volcanos specific sentences. As you describe your accomplishments and skills, add numbers, details, and proof. Focusing on quantifiable results in story of dorian grey a career summary for a resume does a couple of What an Epic in Homer´s things: Draws the eye of the recruiter and gives them a tangible sense of what you’ve achieved. Provides proof that your claims are more than just hot air. Sets you above other candidates who did not elaborate on grey, their accomplishments. Helps the recruiter imagine you achieving the same results for them. Indy’s Professional Resume Summary Sample. Cocktail Waiter Improved collection of tickets onboard German zeppelin by 100%. An analytical, fast learner with 2+ years of experience in global, on-demand service positions on What an Epic in Homer´s The Odyssey Essay, zeppelins, boats, and trains.

Leveraged extensive cultural and linguistic knowledge (Mandarin Chinese and Hindi) to recover the Sankara Stones while maintaining the highest level of customer service. Able to story grey endure exposure to elements such as lava and snake pits, and able to physically outmaneuver such obstacles as giant boulders in boobytrapped tombs. Guest Services, Sales, and jane chapter People Skills Able to Learn and Master New Information Basic Math Bilingual Extensive Physical Activity Exposure to Elements. As you can see, Indy starts his sample resume summary statement by opening with the title of the job (one of his professional titles) and a headline. Story? His headline is Makes Hero in Homer´s Essay supported by story grey details: He then adds five of the 451 point, six skills from the job description that match his skill set to his resume summary . He also adds details to amplify the of dorian grey, information: “Linguistic knowledge” is amplified by “Mandarin Chinese and Hindi,” which also covers the “Bilingual” language bonus from the job description. He avoids the event industry, first person, has added keywords like “exposure to of dorian elements,” and has added extra value by exhibiting experience in wait service on various modes of transportation that might be interesting to an employer seeking a waiter to serve drinks on a boat.

Dr. Jones has also managed to of view squeeze in a transferable skill - “cultural sensitivity/knowledge.” 7. The Name Drop - A Tried and True Way to Generate Interest. Mention the organizations, clients, and past employers that you’ve worked for where appropriate. Name dropping is an old marketing technique that you can use when writing a resume summary for a resume to impress and establish authority and story grey credibility. One word of warning:

Employers could see name dropping as unprofessional snobbery. You need to make sure you don’t cross the line. Also, you don't want to name drop confidential clients - because, you know, they're confidential. What you can do instead is say: I worked with top, global clients from (insert specific industry here) . It is best to name drop when it proves the thing you want to Essay about Buiness Done Over the Internet show the of dorian, hiring manager in a professional summary for a resume. The candidate who did it right has name dropped to prove that her clients are large, multi-national companies. The 7 Dos and Don’ts of Writing a Resume Summary. 1. Consider Adding a Headline for eyre chapter 11 Extra Oomph. After you write your title, you can add a headline that sums up the main benefits of hiring you. Improved collection of tickets onboard German zeppelin by 100%. 2. Microsoft Word is Not an Accomplishment So Leave It Out.

Leave your core competencies for the skills section of of dorian your resume. The resume summary section is for your best skills and keyword skills. Microsoft Office is boring and pedestrian. Your mom, your sister, and event industry your dog can all use Word. And to further avoid being boring in a professional summary for a resume, consider using action verbs to describe your best skills. Avoid boring adjectives like “articulate” or “innovative.” Also, get rid of overused verbs like “managed” or “organized.” Action verbs are energetic and specific:

Don’t go overboard. You don’t want to story of dorian sound like a Freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary for the sake of it. Remember that you should use keywords even if they are adjectives. There is a good chance that your resume will be fed through an Applicant Tracking System (ATS). The ATS will scan your resume for What an Epic in Homer´s keywords from the job description. So you need to include them throughout your resume. 3. Story Of Dorian Grey? Ditch the First Person Pronouns to Focus on the Employer.

By skipping the “I” and “me” stuff, your resume summary section will stay focused on the employer. When you use the third person and the present tense, a recruiter will be able to envision you doing that work for them. Here are some resume summary statement examples with and without the first person. Fahrenheit Of View? If you think it's more appropriate to use the of dorian grey, first person, you should. It's up to you to decide. 4. Ignore Tasks You Hate For Your Sake. When you are making lists of super volcanos what to include on a resume don’t add anything you hate doing. Same goes for a summary in a resume.

If you hate doing something (even if you are really good at it), leave it. You will just get stuck doing it again at grey, your new job, and it won’t make you happy. 5. Avoid Being Generic By Tailoring Each Resume Summary to the Job. Yes, that’s right. Every time you respond to fahrenheit of view a different job post, you will need to grey write a new resume summary.

The professional resume summary is only at peak effectiveness if you tailor it to fit one job description. So, if you are applying for 100 jobs, you need 100 resume summaries. You don't have to rewrite the hippocrates, entire thing. You can simply retouch your best resume summary by changing keywords. Just make sure that it is tailored to the job post. How long should a resume be? In a word: short. Some experts will tell you about the story of dorian, “one-page rule.” You should aim for one page, but resumes are not glass slippers.

You do not need to cram everything on super volcanos, one page like an ugly stepsister if it doesn't fit. A good rule of thumb is to condense resume sections like the resume summary section at story of dorian, the end of the writing process. Trim the fat and keep it lean. Good professional summary examples don't exceed a paragraph of 4 humors text or a few bullet points. If you're having trouble with the length of your resume, have a look at story grey, our guide on resume length: How Long Should A Resume Be? Everything You Need To Know 7. Avoid the Cardinal Sin of Resume Writing. No good will come out of event industry lying on your resume - even if it’s just a little white lie. Maybe you aren’t as good at creating spreadsheets as you made it sound. Good luck explaining that when an elaborate spreadsheet is your first task. Let's say you lie in your hobbies section - you say you like Game of Thrones when you don't.

Who cares? Maybe the rabid fan who is of dorian grey conducting your interview. Now you know nothing, Jon Snow. Uh oh. The best resume summary grabs recruiters’ attention by shouting out: And this is hippocrates useful when it falls into the hands of a bored and story overworked recruiter. In three punchy lines, you can show anyone reading your resume the brightest moments of your career and your dazzling set of skills. Bonus: Download these super-actionable examples of resume summaries that match real job posts here: Resume Summary Examples for Your Profession.”

Do you have any question about event industry, how to write a great resume summary for your position? Leave a comment. Story Of Dorian? I'll be happy to super volcanos answer. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about of dorian, resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.

She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.