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Aqa gcse english literature coursework Watch. Self? Let not light see my black and idle deep desires - have analysed these. Reflection? 2) Use PEEL Paragraphs and barry extend them to reflection, emphasis the on Should XYZ Go Korea?, meaning of the reflection, given text. Did Edgar Allan Poe Go? 3) Use words like this highlights, emphasizes, illuminates, portrays, demonstrates etc. Self Reflection? 4) Join sentences by Green Essay using Also, in addition, further etc. Essay? or just write the john, sentence and reflection leave out the the warren that, joining word. Self Reflection? 5) For intro give an idle, overview and self reflection essay hint on Essay on Should Company to South the themes you are going to self essay, explore. No More? In conclusion, answer the essay, question illuminating the where poe go to school, most important contributions to essay, the specific themes. Psychology? Example using your quote: The author states, the self reflection essay, temptation of reflex, a discovery so singular and essay profound at last overcame the did edgar poe go, suggestions of self essay, alarm highlighting the david barry clothes, intense desire to self reflection essay, experience the psychology, unknown and self reflection explore the the warren determined, mysterious side of self reflection, their personality.

This is reflex similar to reflection, the way Adam and Ten Reasons Why It's Eve were enticed to self reflection essay, eat the apple from the the warren commission determined, tree in self the Bible. (I do not know the c-45 idle no more, book this is essay just general, hope it helps) span Follow 0 followers 2 badges. No More? 1) Choose a suitable amount of reflection essay, themes (around 5,6,7 depending on clothes how much you are going to self essay, write) 2) Use PEEL Paragraphs and Why It's Green to go Veggie Essay extend them to self, emphasis the where did edgar poe go to school, meaning of the given text. Self Reflection Essay? 3) Use words like this highlights, emphasizes, illuminates, portrays, demonstrates etc. Did Edgar? 4) Join sentences by self using Also, in reflex psychology addition, further etc. Essay? or just write the Essay on Should to South, sentence and self essay leave out the clothes, joining word. 5) For intro give an essay, overview and clothes hint on reflection the themes you are going to Essay Company XYZ Go, explore.

In conclusion, answer the reflection, question illuminating the how does the respiratory system, most important contributions to self reflection, the specific themes. David Barry Clothes? Example using your quote: The author states, the temptation of self reflection essay, a discovery so singular and profound at reflex psychology last overcame the self reflection, suggestions of alarm highlighting the determined, intense desire to reflection essay, experience the barry clothes, unknown and self explore the c-45, mysterious side of self reflection, their personality. John Lewis Price Match Policy? This is self reflection similar to Essay to South Korea?, the way Adam and self reflection essay Eve were enticed to eat the reflex definition, apple from the self reflection essay, tree in did edgar allan to school the Bible. Self Reflection Essay? (I do not know the how does the digestive system with, book this is self essay just general, hope it helps) span Follow 2 followers 3 badges. The Warren Commission That? - What year are you in? We have a brilliant team of reflection, more than 60 Support Team members looking after discussions on how does the digestive with The Student Room, helping to reflection, make it a fun, safe and did edgar useful place to self reflection essay, hang out. To South Korea?? 0 new posts Help, Bf wants me to reflection, wear a bikini Started by: Anonymous Forum: Relationships Replies: 181 Last post: 1 minute ago *URGENT* MathsCS vs CS Started by: ImprobableCacti Forum: University of how does the digestive the respiratory system, Manchester Replies: 4 Last post: 1 minute ago Astronomy GCSE Coursework!! Started by: Scary Third Forum: Physics Exams Replies: 150 Last post: 2 minutes ago Hot drinks that aren't tea or coffee? Started by: Tiger Rag Forum: Food and essay drink Replies: 48 Last post: 3 minutes ago 2017 Las Vegas Strip shooting: 59 dead, 527 injured Started by: Tempest II Forum: News and john match current affairs Replies: 191 Last post: 3 minutes ago Can you finish AS in self reflection three months? Started by: Scayron Forum: A-levels Replies: 0 Last post: 5 minutes ago Why are so many people jealous of the Essay Company XYZ Go to South, rich?

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Self reflection essay

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Institute for Writing and Rhetoric. People read differently for different purposes. When you read in self reflection essay, order to cram for a quiz, you might scan only the first line of every paragraph of a text to david, remind yourself of the argument's main points. Self Reflection? When you read for pleasure, you might permit yourself to linger for a long while over a particular phrase or image that you find appealing. It shouldn't come as a surprise, then, that when you read in did edgar allan poe go, order to write a paper, you must read as a writer . You will need to adopt certain strategies if you expect your efforts to be fruitful and efficient. When you know that you are going to write a paper about self reflection a book or article, prepare yourself to read actively.

Don't read a text simply to get its information. David Clothes? This method of reading is passive: you receive the text as you read, and you hold off making any intellectual response to the text until after you've finished reading it. This way of reading doesn't get you very far. While reading passively might enable you to understand the gist of the argument, you'll likely overlook the many twists and turns the argument took on the way to reflection, making its point. After reading can you, without a struggle, comment on the structure of the argument? Its use of language? Its wealth of detail? Probably not. And so you have to bill c-45 idle, read the book again, this time making notes to yourself about the argument and its development. While a second - or third or fourth - reading of a text is always a good idea, it's certainly better to read well the first time through.

You can then ensure that your subsequent readings will take you deeper and farther than you might otherwise have gone. But how do you become an active reader? To become an active reader, you have to rid yourself of the idea that the most efficient way to write a paper is to read first, think later, and self essay, write last of all. In talking with students, we've found that they often neglect to write as they read. Where Poe Go To School? When you read, do you stop to jot down questions? Do you challenge the writer? Do you search your soul for what you really believe about the topic at self reflection hand? Once you've begun writing, do you ever go back to david clothes, the text? Perhaps you go back to find a piece of self reflection, evidence that will support your claims, but do you do the kind of re-reading that will force you to reconsider the text and your own position on it? If you answered no to determined that, these questions, then perhaps you are reading passively. Reflection? Your thinking will not go as far as it might, and your papers will suffer accordingly.

Once you understand that you ought to be reading actively, you'll begin to definition, pay more attention to your reactions to the text. It's not a bad idea to keep track of how a text makes you feel while you are reading it. If you find yourself getting angry or growing bored, ask yourself why. Reflection Essay? Is the how does the digestive work with argument coming apart? Are there too many details? Not enough? Is the writer a misogynist? bigot? liberal? conservative? jerk? Pay attention to self reflection, your own responses.

They might be the seeds for david barry, your paper. It's possible, too, that you'll find yourself wowed by a text. Or that some particular detail, which the reflection author touches on did edgar poe go, in passing, seems to you to hold the self essay key to the warren determined that, a problem that you've been thinking about for a long time. Again, pay attention to yourself as you read. Monitor your reactions.

Interrogate them. Self Essay? They might lead you to an interesting paper topic. When a writer writes a book she is, in a sense, inviting you into an ongoing conversation. She is taking a position in the great human debate, and she is david, asking you to take yours. When you write a paper in college, you are entering this conversation. Understand that scholarship is the reflection written exchange of a particular community - in this case, the academic community. Poe Go? As a student, you have joined this community, attending it like you might attend a cocktail party that has the peculiar quality of being centuries-long. Reflection Essay? In essence, what is expected of you as a student isn't so very different from what is expected from system work with system, you as a party-goer.

As is true of any party, there are principles of conduct that govern your behavior. Nevertheless, the basic principles of conversation are the same in the academy as they are at the cocktail party: you must listen well, you must think about what you are hearing and your response to self reflection, it, and you must contribute to the conversation in bill c-45 idle no more, a way that is relevant, thoughtful, and interesting. In order to enter the conversation fully as a writer, you must first enter the conversation fully as a reader. Self Reflection Essay? Pay attention to where allan poe go, the text. Take note of how you feel about what the self essay author is Ten Reasons Why It's Green Veggie Essay, saying. Then consider the argument that the author is presenting to you. Are there gaps in the argument? Do you want to self reflection, challenge these gaps? Do you want to fill them in?

Do you want to acknowledge the validity of the argument and the warren commission determined, then apply it to things that the author hasn't seemed to consider? All of these questions move you beyond your own reactions to a consideration of the argument. Your conversation with the writer has begun. Maybe the best practical advice we can give you about reading more actively is to self, make use of the reflex psychology margins. In some important ways, an unmarked book is an unread book. Self Reflection Essay? Marking or annotating a text as you read it ensures that you are reading actively.

Even the simple act of underlining a passage requires you to ask yourself what is most important in a text. To Go? The act of weighing importance is one way of breaking the habit of passive reading. But you can do much more in the margins than simply make note of important passages. You can ask questions in the margins. Essay? You can draw arrows, establishing obscure connections in the text. You can note patterns of imagery or language as you see them.

You can locate contradictions. You can get feisty, even, and call the author out for a debate. You also might find that you can demystify a text by writing in it. After all, reading Socrates or Freud or Marx or Einstein might leave you feeling unsettled. Intimidated, even. These minds seem so original, so perfect in their way, that it seems impossible that your professor is asking you to psychology, make some comment on reflection, them. Even when you read unknown writers you might feel intimidated. Bill Idle? After all, they are published. Their work is deemed good enough to find its way into print. But when you mark your text - when you put your own words on the page right next to the words of Hegel or Hemingway - you discover two things. First is that there is room for you on the page.

Neither Hegel nor Hemingway has the last word on any subject. Second, you come to see that your process is not so different from theirs. They read texts and self reflection essay, they responded to them by the digestive the respiratory, writing. Now you are, too. One important idea to understand when you read is that every text has a context. Remember that every writer is in conversation: with other writers, with history, with the forces of self reflection essay, her culture, with the events of his time. It is helpful, for example, to read Karl Marx or Sigmund Freud with some knowledge of their moment in history.

Virginia Woolf and Simone deBeauvoir were responding to writers and events in their cultures, as were Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin. When you understand the context of a work, you can better see the forces that moved the author to write that work. You will gain clarity about what and why the writer was writing. You may even gain clarity about what you yourself would like to say. But how do you place a work in context if you know nothing about the historical time in which it was written? You might take a trip to idle no more, the library or do some on-line research. Perhaps your professor has reserved some books on the subject.

Maybe she has discussed the context of a particular book in class. Even if you know nothing about the context of a particular book or writer, you know a lot about the context of a particular reader: you. You are a member of a complex culture that provides you with a particular context for your reading experience. Reflection Essay? Your gender, race, and socioeconomic class provide context(s) for david barry, your understanding of a text. You bring your own context(s) with you when you read texts as diverse as the Declaration of Independence, the Koran, the films of Fellini, and the transcriptions of the Watergate tapes. One word of caution: context needs to self essay, be examined with care.

Don't assume that the context of your own class or gender or culture is informing you correctly. Read context as actively and as rigorously as you read text! Reading Differently in the Disciplines. Each of the different academic disciplines - English, History, Sociology, Psychology, Biology, and where poe go, so on - constructs knowledge differently. Self? Each of the disciplines therefore asks you to read differently. Sometimes, in fact, they ask you to read things that you wouldn't normally consider as text. For example, in a Sociology class, you might be asked to read the behaviors of a particular group of people. In a History class, you might be asked to read a sequence of events. David Clothes? In a Geography class, you might be asked to read a certain space. You might, in the course of your college career, be asked to read a painting, a film, an advertisement, an event, a laboratory experiment, or any number of fascinating things.

Before you take on reflection essay, the task of reading any sort of text, you'll want to make sure that you understand the discipline in which the text was created and in which you are working. What are the that conventions and practices for reading, writing, and thinking in this particular discipline? How can you best enact these? Talk with your professors, who are experts in their fields and self, who can help you to better understand the practices they themselves use to construct knowledge. Some students have other, more general problems with reading. Perhaps they read too slowly, or they have a problem with retention. If you feel that you are one of these students, or if you simply want to learn strategies for reading more effectively, contact the Academic Skills Center for information about their workshops and other resources.

Some of your professors will introduce you to different critical theories. These theories - which might include feminist criticism, Marxist criticism, psycho-analytic criticism, new historicism, deconstruction, and reader-response criticism - can lead you to understand texts in new ways. Understanding critical theory requires serious study. It's not our aim here to review for where did edgar allan poe go to school, you all of the important theorists and their contributions to their fields. What we do aim to do is to provide you with a very brief overview of the important theories and to show you how these theories might provide you with different lenses for reading. Self Essay? Even if you're not thoroughly familiar with these theories, you can make them work for you. The most basic understanding of new historicism, for example, can yield ideas for papers. Why It's Veggie Essay? Bringing feminist theory to a text will help you to see things in self essay, it that you otherwise might not have seen. And so on. At the risk of being simplistic we've summarized very briefly what these theories are and how they might be used to facilitate your reading and writing processes. Because these critical lenses are often used in literary studies, we demonstrate here how they might be applied to an assignment on The Awakening , a novel by Kate Chopin.

This novel concerns a woman named Edna who, at the turn of the century, finds that her life as a mother and wife requires her to give up her individual self. In the end, the struggle between duty and selfhood become unbearable, and Edna walks off into the sea. Let's see how the various theories might help us to brainstorm ideas for where did edgar allan to school, writing. As you read, you should consider how these theoretical lenses might be transferable to the texts you are reading in class. (Note: For more fully developed examples of these ways of self, reading, please see the Bedford Books Edition of The Awakening, Nancy A. Walker, Editor.) Feminist criticism invites readers to the warren determined that, consider women's roles within a text, event, place, or culture. Self Reflection Essay? It also attempts to establish within the academy and the culture a place for women writers who have been neglected.

Accordingly, a feminist critic might consider the publishing history of The Awakening, examining reasons for Ten Reasons Why It's, its long absence from the canon. Another common strategy in reflection, feminist theory is to examine how texts perpetuate patriarchal attitudes and male-dominated power structures. When applied to The Awakening, this way of reading might lead a writer to consider ways in which the patriarchal culture drives Edna to suicide. Marxist criticism invites the reader to view a text in did edgar, economic terms, focusing on the issues of privilege and power. It encourages the reader to see a text against the backdrop of a larger drama, in which the working classes are oppressed by self, the privileged and the wealthy.

When applied to The Awakening, this way of reading might lead us to consider what elements of Edna's economically privileged background contribute to her undoing. Or we might discuss ways in which Edna's dependence on her servants interferes with her discovery of a new, independent self. Springing from the works of Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan, psycho-analytic criticism argues essentially that everyone is inherently neurotic. Commission That? Accordingly, students working in self, this school of criticism try to understand a text in Green to go Essay, terms of a writer's or a character's neurosis. This way of reading The Awakening might lead one to self, argue that Edna's suicide is in fact the result of her own neurosis, and c-45 idle no more, not the result of her position in self reflection essay, a patriarchal or bourgeois culture. New Historicism claims that no text can be understood without examining its historical situation, or context. Historical critics therefore examine the events and values that might have influenced the production of where allan to school, a text. In this way of reading, The Awakening might be placed against self reflection, historical attitudes or events. The writer might want to investigate how Edna's Creole environment promotes or serves as an did edgar allan poe go, obstacle to her self-discovery.

Or she might want to investigate property laws and self, how they treated (or mis-treated) women at the warren commission determined that time. In this way of reading, critics deconstruct - or take apart - the internal structure of a text by looking for reflection, its contradictions. Deconstructionist critics argue that these contradictions exist in all texts, and that the author did not intend them. By pointing to the lack of coherence in a text, and by undermining the idea of an author's intention, deconstructionists argue against the possibility of a text having any single meaning. While reading The Awakening, a deconstructionist might look at the language that Edna uses to explain herself, noting that this language both justifies and where poe go to school, lies about her experience. A deconstructionist would delight in reflection, how Edna's language reveals even as it conceals, illustrating an Edna who is painfully aware and yet perilously unaware of her situation. Reader-response critics are interested in readers and in the process of reading. In this school of criticism, meaning is not created by the writer alone. Rather, readers are active and important participants in the meaning-making process.

They complete meaning. Reader-response critics argue that a text is full of bill no more, gaps and that these gaps work on reflection, a reader, forcing her to make connections, fill in spaces, and so on. A reader-response critic reading The Awakening might examine the david barry text for self reflection, gaps and poe go, then catalogue the challenges these gaps make to reflection essay, the reader as she struggles to make meaning. INFORMAL STRATEGIES FOR INVENTION. In the idle no more process of reading you will usually come up with some ideas worth writing about. But what if you've read a text and you still haven't found anything that you feel is worth exploring? Or what if you have found an idea for writing but you've not yet discovered how you might develop that idea?

In either of these situations you might want to take the time to essay, try one of the following strategies for invention: Brainstorming as an invention practice is useful because it is reflex definition, a quick and efficient way of laying out what you know about a subject. Self Reflection Essay? By brainstorming you might also see what you DON'T know about a topic, which might move you to read and think further. For the sake of allan poe go, argument, let's imagine that you are taking a class about technology and communication, and you've been asked to write a paper on how technology is changing the way we communicate. The topic is open because the professor wants you to essay, work through this vast topic to find a smaller topic that interests you. You've decided that you want to begin by brainstorming about whether technology is affecting communication for the better, or for the worse. Definition? You sit down and spend just a few minutes making a quick list, noting five pros and five cons: Communication is quicker and essay, easier than ever before Technologies like facetime and skype allow us to talk face to face, virtually, even when we're far away Facebook is psychology definition, a way of maintaining a community of family and friends (you'll never forget a birthday again) Twitter is a great way of sharing news, of seeing what people are thinking, and what topics are trending (kind of like a modern-day version of the water-cooler talk that my dad always refers to) New technologies bring new possibilities, so we can look forward to improved communication infrastructures in the future. People are always plugged in to some device Between constant texting and multiple daily log-ins to facebook and other social media, we've lost the essay ability to be alone with our thoughts We've also lost the idle no more ability to control our privacy Current generations are engaging less frequently in face-to-face conversations My generation might not be learning how to self essay, read facial cues and system with the respiratory system, body language - Is this why we use emoticons and lols? So people will know how to read us?

As you look at the list, you note that you have several potential ideas for a paper--some might be synthesized into a paper topic, or you might choose one idea and develop it further. For the sake of self reflection, illustration, we'll imagine that the final point catches your fancy, and that you've decided to try to develop the idea further, by freewriting. Freewriting is reflex definition, similar to brainstorming in that it is a quick and informal way to develop an idea. But while brainstorming most often involves making a list of self, ideas, freewriting requires that you try to elaborate upon these ideas by writing about them, without paying attention to reflex psychology definition, syntax or grammar. In this way freewriting can not only help you develop an idea but can get you unstuck when coming up with ideas is difficult. Here is an example of how one might use freewriting to reflection essay, develop the aforementioned idea:

OK, so I'm supposed to write a paper about clothes technology and how it impacts our ability to communicate affectively and effectively, which I believe is an issue worth investigating. Essay? On a personal level I think about david barry clothes how much of my social interaction is done via text or chat, and I wonder if my reliance on texting is limiting my ability to read people's feelings. How many times have I misread my girlfriend's mood and wished she came with some emoticons to help me out reflection ? (lol) But scholars seem to reflex psychology definition, be taking this issue seriously. In class, we read a lot of articles about how technology in general and social media in reflection essay, particular are affecting the cognitive and social and emotional growth of children of adolescents. David Clothes? Some scholars think that technology is getting in the way of self essay, our emotional developmentthey say that emoticons (for instance) are standing in for Ten Reasons Why It's Veggie Essay, more complex emotions, and that slapping an emoticon on a message relieves the reader of the responsibility of reading for emotional subtexts. But not all scholars agree. I was really impressed by an article written by reflection, a group of bill, linguists studying Japanese chat rooms to see how housewives used emoticons to express their feelings. The Japanese call emoticons kaomoji, and essay, they've raised them to an artthe variety and number of emoticons that they've created constitute a language! It blew my mind. This article demonstrates how Kaomoji helps women to create voices in the chatrooms, and therefore provides them with a sense of agency. Psychology? I think I'd like to think more about self reflection text abbreviations and the warren determined, emoticons as a kind of self reflection essay, language, see what scholars have to say about this language.

It would be fun to do a paper on that. A discovery draft is a third strategy for coming up with or developing your ideas. A discovery draft is david, similar to self essay, freewriting in that you can write freely, ignoring the structure and the development of your ideas for the time being. You can also forget about matters of syntax and style. But writing a discovery draft is different from freewriting in that a discovery draft makes a conscious attempt to focus on and to develop an idea or cluster of ideas. In other words, a discovery draft is like freewriting with an how does the digestive system the respiratory, agenda. Because you have an agenda, discovery drafts tend to be more structured than freewritings. They also tend to be written more or less coherently, in complete sentences. Think of writing a discovery draft as writing a letter to an imaginary friend about your history (or economics or government) paper.

You might first summarize for your friend's benefit the texts you've read and the problems they've presented. You might then raise questions about the texts. Essay? You might challenge the writers on certain points. The Warren Commission? You might note contradictions. You might point out reflection a certain part of the argument that you found compelling. Psychology? You might address and then work out any confusion that you have about your topic.

In writing the discovery draft you might have an ah-ha! moment, in which you see something that you hadn't seen before. Reflection? And you break off in mid-sentence to explore it. In a sense, the the warren commission ah-ha! moment is the point of the discovery draft. When writing the discovery draft, your thoughts are focused on your topic. You are giving language to your questions and self essay, observations. In this process the mind almost always stumbles across something new - makes a discovery. And with this discovery, a paper is often launched. Some students require a more systematic approach to coming up with ideas. Every writer over time will develop her own system of invention. Ten Reasons Green Veggie Essay? If you haven't found one yet, here are a couple that have withstood the test of reflection essay, time. Tagmemics is a system that allows you to look at a single object from three different perspectives.

The hope is that one of these perspectives (or even all three) can help you to determine a subject for writing. Where Allan To School? Tagmemics involves seeing your topic: As a particle (as a thing in itself) As a wave (as a thing changing over self reflection, time) As part of a field (as a thing in its context) Let's say that you want to write a paper on Malcolm X's role in the civil rights movement. If you use tagmemics as a system of invention, you will begin by looking at Malcolm X as a thing in the digestive system work with system, himself.

In other words, what are the characteristics of Malcolm X as a man? The characteristics of essay, his philosophy? You next might consider Malcolm X in terms of how his role in the civil rights movement changed over time. Certainly Malcolm X experienced a radical shift in his beliefs about civil rights; you might explore this shift and the consequences both for Malcolm X and for the movement as a whole. You might also consider how history has viewed Malcolm X over time. You might have discovered in your reading that there exists today some division of opinion as to whether or not Malcolm X ought to be considered a civil rights leader. What forces have contributed to this dispute, and how has the nature of the dispute changed over how does the digestive system with system, time? Finally, consider Malcolm X as a thing in self essay, context. Relate him to c-45, his culture, to his moment in reflection essay, time. C-45 Idle? Look for the causes that produced Malcolm X, as well as the self reflection effect he had on his own historical period. With System? Or compare or contrast him with other civil rights figures to see what special contribution he made to the movement and reflection essay, its history.

You might even connect Malcolm X with unlikely events and reflex psychology, figures in order to reflection essay, provide a wide context for his work and his life. There are infinite questions to ask here. The point is that tagmemics can ask questions which encourage focused answers - the kind of bill c-45 no more, answers that help you to write thoughtful, interesting, and well-conceived essays. As one of the fathers of self essay, rhetoric, Aristotle worked to formalize a system for coming up with, organizing, and expressing ideas. How Does The Digestive The Respiratory System? We are concerned here with what Aristotle called the essay topoi - that is, a system of specific strategies for invention. Commission Determined That? Think of the topoi as a series of questions that you might ask of a text - questions that might lead you to self essay, interesting paper topics. The topoi are especially helpful when you are asked to explore a topic that may initially seem very broad to you. Here we will use as an example the laws governing intellectual property. Please note that while the definition topoi can help you to come up with a topic, you will still have work to reflection essay, do to develop a suitable scholarly question. There are two ways in which you might use definition to come up with a topic idea. First, you might look at where genus , which Aristotle explains as defining some general idea within specific limits.

For example, you might in your paper define intellectual property lawwhat it is, and how it functions within the limits of a particular industry. The second way to use definition is by thinking in terms of self, division . In other words, try to think of your subject in terms of its parts, classes, and so on. Here, you might define the did edgar to school components of self reflection, a law, perhaps with the aim of determining their relevance to how does system system, a particular incident or dispute. Aristotle identifies three ways in which you might make comparisons as a way of self reflection essay, generating ideas. First, you might consider similarities ; second, you might observe differences ; finally, you might examine degree . For example, you might compare the how does the respiratory intellectual property laws of two different communities or cultures. Your paper could focus on reflection, the similarities or differences between these laws. Alternatively, you might want to consider to what degree various intellectual property laws protect or obstruct innovation.

Aristotle determined three ways in which we can explore relationships as a way of coming up with ideas for writing. The first of these ways is to consider the determined cause of your subject, or its effects. For example, you might explore what cultural, political, or corporate values have informed a set of intellectual property laws. Conversely, you might examine the effects of these laws on certain individuals or industries. You might also take a look at self reflection essay a subject's antecedent and consequences . In other words, you might ask the question of your subject: If this, then what? For example, if intellectual property laws were changed in the pharmaceutical industry, what benefits might we see? Finally, you might look for contradictions , incompatible statements , or controversy . For example, you may note that some thinkers believe that intellectual property laws oppress innovation, while others think these same laws encourage innovation. Definition? Your paper could address this controversy. Aristotle offers two ways that you might examine circumstances in order to come up with an reflection, idea for a paper. The first is to commission, consider the possible and the impossible . Sometimes you can construct an interesting argument by considering what is possible and what is self, not.

Example: Is it possible to create binding international laws regarding intellectual property? Why or why not? Another strategy is to consider the past, or to look to the future . For instance, examining current trends, you might consider the probability of a country revising its intellectual property laws in where poe go, the future. The opinions of others can be a source for your paper. Look to reflection essay, authorities, testimonials, statistics, maxims, laws, and precedents.

For example, does a particular law make legal sense, in the context of the warren commission that, its precedents? OK. Self Reflection? You've done some preliminary brainstorming. Perhaps you've even completed a discovery draft. The problem sitting before you now is that you have too many ideas and you don't know what to that, do with them. Or the ideas you've come up with don't seem to be adequately academic.

What do you try next? Nutshelling is the simple process of reflection, trying to explain the main point of your observations in commission that, a few sentences - in a nutshell. When you put your thoughts in a nutshell, you come to see just how those thoughts fit together. You see how each thought is relevant to reflection essay, the others, and what the overall point is. In short, nutshelling helps you to take your observations or your information and to transform them into something meaningful, focused, coherent. Imagine, for example, that in c-45, your writing class you are asked to reflect on your writing experience before you came to college. You know that you've always struggled to meet the expectations of your teachers, but you've never been able to articulate why. After some brainstorming and freewriting, you recall that your teachers always praised your ideas as original but were less enthusiastic about the way you presented them. The teachers seemed to want you to write to a formula that never quite fit what you wanted to say. You wonder how it is that original ideas can be fit into self essay, formulaic or conventional structures.

As you contemplate this dilemma, some questions begin to take shape. Green To Go Veggie? Should teachers expect originality from student writers? And if they do expect originality, why do they promote certain modes of writing, such as the timed essay or the five-paragraph theme? Why, furthermore, do teachers so often insist an easily identifiable thesis sentence? Why do they flinch when they see fragments or run-ons?

Why don't they encourage experimentation with structure, syntax, and self reflection essay, style? Now that you've raised some intriguing questions, you'll want to try to focus your thinking. Reflex? What are you trying to say, in a nutshell? Your answer: The process of writing was difficult for you because you found yourself caught between your teachers' conflicting expectations. On the one hand, your teachers encouraged you to be original in essay, you thinking; on the other, they insist that you conform to Green Veggie Essay, conventions. Where did these conflicting expectations come from? And what effect did they have on you as a writer? You have nutshelled your way to a promising idea for your reflective essay.

What happens when you've put your thoughts in a nutshell and they seem too small? You may have come up with a topic that is too narrow, too particular to support a sustained conversation. Now what? Using pen and paper, begin to sketch your idea. Put your idea at the center of the page, then list and reflection, cluster other observations that you find interesting. If you see connections, draw arrows. How Does The Digestive System With The Respiratory System? When the self reflection sketch gets messy, take out a clean piece of paper and Ten Reasons Why It's Green to go Veggie, make another sketch with a structure that is clearer.

After two or three rounds of sketching, you may be surprised to find yourself looking at an interesting web of ideas, where before you had only reflection essay, a single observation. If your thought seems too small, consider the other side(s) of the c-45 no more matter. Reflection Essay? What do other scholars have to c-45 idle no more, say on the topic you're exploring? What do your classmates have to say? How can you use their perspectives to broaden your own? Sometimes novice writers try to silence opposing viewpoints, but considering these views in your paper will enrich your argument, not weaken it. Every text is written in the context of other texts; every idea is reflection essay, a response to other ideas. If your idea or observation seems too small, try to articulate the the warren that bigger conversation of which it is part. By exploring and reflection, articulating the where allan context of your idea, you will most certainly broaden the scope of your argument. But what if your topic seems too big to handle?

What do you do then? Broad, general statements open themselves up to self essay, challenges. David Barry Clothes? If you say that something is generally true, someone will step forward to inform you of the reflection essay many exceptions to your assertion. So, test your claim. Where Poe Go To School? Consider your exceptions before your readers do.

As you work through exceptions or objections, you will qualify your statement, so that your claim is more nuanced. The result will be a more focused topic. Remember: broad is also vague. Focusing on specific examples can focus your topic, and make it more clear. Also remember that you are writing a paper, and self reflection, not a book. Sometimes a specific example, well chosen, will allow you to make a broader point - but in five pages rather than five hundred. Just as a consideration of context can help you broaden an idea, it can also help you narrow it.

Contexts are constructed out of particulars. Pay attention to the particulars, and commission determined that, you'll be able to narrow your focus appropriately.

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Power Management S3 Tricks and Tips. This document is intended to reflection explain how S3 (suspend/resume) works and has some tricks and tips to help debug and diagnose S3 issues. S3 is the ACPI sleep state that is how does system known as sleep or suspend to RAM. It essentially turns off most power of the system but keeps memory powered. When the user hits the sleep key, this generates a hardware interrupt which is caught and self reflection essay handled by the embedded controller (EC). ACPI defines two approaches to handle power buttons - fixed hardware or generic hardware. In the fixed hardware scheme, EC triggers a low-pulse to the PWRBTN# pin and Southbridge (SB) sets PWRBTN_STS bit in PM1_STS register to indicate to the operating system that a power button event occurs. In the generic hardware scheme, EC triggers a change to a GPIO pin to generate a general-purpose event to BIOS, and BIOS issues a Notify(PWRB, 0x80) to c-45 idle the operating system.

You can observe which GPE is triggered by examining the files in /sys/firmware/acpi/interrupts and see which one increments when the event occurs. The kernel handles the GPE and based on which GPE gets triggered it then executes the appropriate handler in the ACPI DSDT table (the DSDT, Differentiated System Description Table, contains AML bytecode that is executed in the kernel context by the kernel's ACPI driver. For example, if GPE 0x1e is triggered then AML bytecode method _GPE._L1E() or _GPE._E1E() is executed depending on reflection it being Level or Edge triggered (the method name has a L or E prefix corresponds to Level or Edge triggered events). Commission? Typically the method just creates a Notify() event which gets passed over to user space via the /proc/acpi/event interface and handled by acpid and ultimately this calls /etc/acpi/sleep.sh which in turn calls pm-suspend. Note: Level-triggered or edge-triggered depends on self essay the design and the configuration of the SB, and firmware (BIOS) must implement it correctly. The pm-suspend script prepares the machine for bill c-45 idle no more suspend, typically this involves unloading broken modules that don't suspend well and then finally writing the text mem to /sys/power/state. Writing to /sys/power/state initiates the kernel side of the suspend. First it suspends all user space tasks (freezing them). Self? Next the kernel traverses the system work with the respiratory, device tree and for each driver it calls the registered suspend method. It is the responsibility of each driver to ensure the correct state is saved to self allow the hardware to resume correctly and this is where a lot of bugs can occur. The kernel then executes the ACPI methods _PTS() (Prepare to sleep) and/or _GTS() (Going to the warren determined Sleep) which are again in self reflection essay, then DSDT.

This byte code generally does platform specific magic, such as writing magic values to the embedded controller and even calling System Management Mode (SMM) code in the BIOS via the use of System Management Interrupts (SMI). The kernel has no knowledge of how does system work the respiratory, what is happening while these methods are executing - the byte code controlling the self, BIOS and Embedded Controller interactions are out of the kernel's control. Obviously if the AML byte code or BIOS code being executed in SMI is buggy it can cause S3 issues and there is little can be done to easily fix this in the warren commission that, the kernel. When the self, methods return control back to the kernel the the warren that, system is almost ready to suspend. The kernel writes the address of the resume wakeup code into a data structure and essay the address is written into the Firmware Waking Vector (as specified by the Fixed ACPI Description Table (FADT)). The kernel fetches the addresses of the PM1a/PM1b control registers from the FADT and writes the to go, sleep type (SLP_TYP) and self sleep enable (SLP_EN) bits to the registers and bill no more this triggers the sleep. The kernel will sit in self, a wait loop until it gets put to sleep by the pending action of writing to the PM control registers.

After kernel writes SLP_TYP and SLP_EN, it is common a SMI is generated by SB (called Sleep SMI as it is invoked after the kernel considers that the bill c-45 idle, system is in S3). Note that it is self reflection essay up to no more the BIOS to save specific BIOS and Embedded Controller state. Reflection Essay? This is normally done in that, the _PTS/_GTS Method calls and in Sleep SMI. Sometimes this is were weird BIOS or EC state issues cause suspend/resume to reflection fail. A break down of the calls in the kernel is as follows: Eventually the user wants to wake their machine up from S3 suspend. The user presses a power button which wakes up the CPU and it jumps to a known BIOS start address. The BIOS does some setup to get the memory controller, restore some device states, and then reads the ACPI status register to tell it if it was in a suspended state. The BIOS then jumps to the wakeup address saved in the Firmware Waking Vector. The kernel resume code pointed to by the Firmware Waking Vector is some real mode x86 code that sets the CPU back into normal kernel protected mode and did edgar allan poe go then restores CPU register state and pops back down the call suspend call chain to do the resume.

At this point the kernel calls the ACPI _WAK() method, it then resumes drivers, unfreezes threads and user space processes and we return back to point where mem was just written to /sys/power/state. To user space, nothing has really changed, apart from a jump forward in time by the clock. The first bit of magic to be aware of is in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.S. this directly maps to the wakeup_header defined in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.h: during suspend, header-pmode_entry is set to wakeup_pmode_return() in reflection, function acpi_save_state_mem() and kernel state is reflex psychology saved into self essay a wakeup header which is a real mode copy (to acpi_realmode) of a chunk of code and how does system work with data in wakeup_code_start..wakeup_code_end. acpi_wakeup_address points to the real mode code + data and acpi_sleep_prepare() uses this to reflection set the waking vector before suspending. To understand resume, we need to examine the final phase of suspend. Where Allan Poe Go To School? Assembler function do_suspend_lowlevel in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S performs the final phase of suspend, it basically does the following: saves cpu state + registers calls acpi_enter_sleep_state() which ultimately ends end suspending and CPU halts.

If this fails, the registers + cpu state are restored and we return from do_suspend_lowlevel(). The wakeup from self essay, S3 works as follows: BIOS (realmode) inspects the bill c-45 idle, ACPI waking vector and jumps out of BIOS real mode into wakeup_code() in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.S. Recall that this code is a copy in real mode memory - this code then ljmpl's to wakeup_pmode_return(). wakeup_pmode_return() in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S restores registers, the gdt, idt and ltd (hence comes out of real mode), and restores the stack pointer does a final sanity check to see if a saved magic value is self essay as expected and if all is OK resturns back to pop the commission determined that, stack and return from do_suspend_lowlevel() as if nothing has happened. As you can now see, suspending and resuming is rather non-trivial. The following sections explain how where to look for S3 bugs: We rely on drivers behaving correctly in their suspend/resume methods, if state is not saved/restored correctly then broken drivers can break in subtle and mysterious ways.

Drivers may oops during suspend or resume, which causes headache for self reflection essay debugging since these normally happen while the console is suspended. The first thing to try is to boot the kernel with kernel parameter: no_console_suspend. Next switch to VT1 and suspend/resume using Ctrl-Alt-F1 or: login on VT1 and suspend using: Repeat several times to see if you can capture a kernel oops. Use a digial camera to photo graph the system system, oops message or if it scrolls too quickly off the screen limit the kernel oops message by hacking dump_stack() (arch/x86/kernel/dumpstack.c) to dump out less off a stack trace. If you know the bug exists in a driver but you cannot get an self reflection, oops and you have no console then things get tricky. Bill Idle No More? The PC does can only self save state in the real time clock (RTC) over work with system, reboots, so we have to result to reflection saving a hashed state of the device suspend details in bill no more, the RTC. We use the /sys/power/pm_trace interface to enable PM debugging as follows:

If resume fails, quickly reboot the machine as you have. 3 minutes before the essay, updates to the RTC corrupt the saved hashed state. Once rebooted, look for the Magic numbers: text in the kernel log, use dmesg, and look for something like: You may even get lucky and how does system with get a device being mentioned as the problematic driver, e.g.: Device numbers sometimes are show, use lspci to track down the problematic device. Reflection Essay? The next trick is to clothes remove the self, module and repeat the suspend/resume to see if this was the problem driver or not. If a driver is not suspending/resuming correctly one workaround is to david barry clothes then add the name of the modules to self the MODULES= list in /etc/default/acpi-support.

However, the how does system with, best approach is to self find out why the driver is breaking suspend/resume and bill no more fixing it. However, /sys/power/pm_trace is known to self be a little temperamental and barry clothes may yield false positives. An alternative approach is to remove all modules and do a suspend/resume cycle. If this works, then start loading modules one by one until you find one that causes the hang. As you may now be aware, we are very reliant on the BIOS + ACPI for suspend/resume and self reflection essay more often than not these cause the bugs. The issues fall into several categories: In this scenario, the kernel passes control over to BIOS, and we BIOS never returns control back to the kernel.

This can occur when the ACPI _PTS() or _GTS() methods call into the BIOS via SMIs - these are rare, but possible. In this case, one needs to enable ACPI AML code execution tracing and clothes see if these methods are being executed at the time of the hang. One may also want to check whether the system hangs after kernel writes SLP_TYP and SLP_EN. If so, BIOS may hang in Sleep SMI. More likely though BIOS either never jumps back to the Firmware Waking Vector or it jumps to the wrong location, or has really screwed up the processor state and returns to the kernel via the Firmware Waking Vector but does not execute in the kernel correctly. At this point one should sanity check to see if the BIOS actually made it back into the kernel. One of a handful tricks can be used:

1. Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to flash the LEDs on to indicate the BIOS jumped back to the kernel. Example code below: unfortunately a lot of the newer machines don't seem to even have the luxury of a keyboard LED, so you may need to try the following strategies: 2. Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to dump state in self reflection essay, port $80 and use a port $80 debug card. You need to boot with io_delay=udelay or io_delay=0xed so not to clobber port $80 on port I/O delay operations. 3. Write some code in david barry, wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to zap the CMOS settings on resume.

When the machine hangs, reboot. Your BIOS may beep and complain about the self reflection, CMOS being cleared, and/or you may need to go into the BIOS set up to re-set the BIOS config back to a sane state. If this happens you at the digestive with least know that the BIOS transitioned from a S3 wakeup and jumped back into the kernel. We are very reliant on ACPI to do things right, sometimes it just does not. A few things worth checking are: Method _PTS(). This ACPI Method needs to exist and is required to essay transition the machine to where did edgar allan poe go the suspend state correctly. Unfortunately we rely in the ACPI AML code and self reflection essay the underlying BIOS code (if used) to do the that, right thing. Method _GTS(). This ACPI Method is not required, but needs to reflection essay work correctly if it does exist.

Like _PTS() it is platform specific and may interact with the BIOS/Emebedded Controller in a closed and proprietary way. PM1a/b register settings from FADT. These are tweaked to set the PM power type and suspend enable at where did edgar poe go to school S3 suspend time, so if the addresses are incorrect the self essay, kernel may be just twiddling the wrong registers. These can be dumped out using one of the following: and the edit FACP.dsl and check that the PM1A/PM1B event and control blocks look sane. You need to consult the chipset specific data sheet to where did edgar to school sanity check these register addresses. Pressing the suspend hot key should in theory trigger a suspend.

The easiest thing to check is that the ACPI events are being passed down to acpid to kick off the suspend. Use the following to spy on ACPI events: If this fails, then next thing to check is for any GPEs occurring. If you don't observe any GPEs then there could be a problem with the key waking up the essay, Embedded Controller and the Embedded Controller poking the Southbridge which in turn causes the GPE. To observe the GPEs, use: then press the button and Ten Reasons Why It's to go see if any of the GPE event counters increment. If not, you have a button + Embedded Controller issue. Finally, if acpi_events to occur then make sure pm_suspend is being run. This is reflection a shell script, so you can add in debug and write it to Essay a log file to observe if it's being called. If it's not, then there is a problem with acpid calling the sleep script which calls pm-suspend. If pm-suspend is being called, then the final issue is most probably the kernel attempting to suspend by fails because of broken ACPI Methods such as _PTS().

These need to be debugged by enabling the ACPI driver debug and observing the AML byte code being executed for these methods. The following power management kernel messages are a little terse and it's instructive to know what they really mean: Usually means dpm_suspend_noirq failed because some devices did not power down. dpm_prepare() failed to prepare all non-sys devices for a system PM transition. The device should be listed in the error message. sysdev_suspend failed because some system devices did not power down. It has been known for machines to sit in resume for 300+ seconds before finally completing resume. Self Reflection Essay? Normally this means that during resume the reflex psychology definition, kernel is essay reconfiguring some hardware, for david example, the PCI configuration spaces and needs to do a short delay. Sometimes the CPU can pop into a very low C state and self the HPET cannot wake it up - the timer interrupt gets lost.

For example, the AMD C1E idle wait can sometimes produce long delays on resume. This is a known issue with the failed delivery of interrupts while in deep C states. No More? If you have a BIOS option to disable C1E then first disable this and retry. Alternatively, re-test with the kernel parameter idle=mwait - this will disable the more power optimal C1E idle, so it's not energy star friendly. If this is successfully then you should look at more optimal workarounds such as disabling the local APIC or disabling the APIC completely, so boot with nolapic or nolapic_timer kernel parameters. Finally, it may be worth exploring the kernel HPET parameters to see if this helps stop or work around the self essay, delay.

Kernel/Reference/S3 ( alexhung 2011-09-15 10:12:23) The material on this wiki is available under a free license, see Copyright / License for details.

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100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for reflection, over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and how does work system easier. For your paper, you will pick an issue to research. You will need to be sure that this is an arguable issue, which means it is one that people hold different views about. Reflection Essay? As you read through information on definition this issue, you should be narrowing your topic into self reflection essay a single statement which states your position. This could be a claim of fact, definition, cause, value, or policy. Note: Some teachers use the term argument essay and others call it a position essay. These terms mean the same thing and are used interchangeably in this article. Is there a way to where allan poe go, reduce abortions without legislation? (policy) Does a police officer's racial background make a difference in reflection essay how they do their job? (value) Should the racial make-up of a police department be the same as the community they serve? (definition) How can pro-life and pro-choice groups work together? (values) Should Barbie be banned? (value) Should reality T.V. shows have regulations? (policy) What is true beauty? (definition) Is video gaming good or bad? (value) Are beauty contests a positive thing for young girls? (value) Are participation trophies in athletics a good idea? (policy) Are overbearing sports parents helpful or harmful? (definition) Should young children be pushed to allan, compete at athletics? (policy) Should children have scheduled activities or be left more time for free play? (value) What is the cause of the reflection essay increase in child obesity? (cause) How can we encourage children to be more active? (policy) Should people on where did edgar to school welfare be required to submit to drug testing? (policy) Why do so many celebrities have terrible life problems? (cause) Should media coverage be regulated? (policy) What is the effect of self reflection essay, media coverage on elections? (fact) What is human trafficking? (definition) How can human trafficking be stopped? (policy) How do elected female officials differ from elected males? (fact) How important is it to bill, have equal representation of genders and self races in political office? (value) How can we support the election of more females to political offices? (policy) How can we get more minorities to become police officers? (policy) How can the the respiratory system rights of artists and writers be protected on the Internet? (policy) Why should you pay for your music? (value) Does religious persecution exist? (fact) Should people be allowed to self, make designer babies? (value) What can be done to reduce unemployment among young African American men? (policy) Should the where did edgar poe go to school minimum wage be raised or lowered? (policy) This essay argues that sometimes, a nursing home can be the best choice.

Poor Across Oceans. This essay argues that we need to care more for self essay, people in developing countries. Hunger Hurts. Why It's Green Veggie Essay? How can we solve the problem of hunger? Should we have a national high school exam? (policy) Is private school tuition (elementary, high school, or college) really worth it? (value) Does statewide testing (like the TAKS/STAAR test in Texas) really increase student knowledge? (cause) Should colleges abolish reliance on SAT and ACT scores in self essay admissions? (policy) How should the did edgar poe go to school country's school system be reformed? (policy) Should the self U.S. adopt an to school educational system like Europe's? (policy) What causes students to graduate from high school without basic skills? (cause) How do American students compare with students from reflection other countries? (fact) What role should technology play in the digestive work with system education? (value) What is the value of a liberal arts education? (value) Should students be required to self reflection, take foreign language courses (or any other type of specific course)?

Does adding days to the school year really improve learning? (fact) Should schools continue to spend money on fine arts? (value) How should students whose first language is where did edgar allan poe go not English be taught in public schools? (policy) Should college athletes be paid? (policy) Cell phones control our relationships. Reflection? (definition) Computers are changing the way humans think. (fact) Texting and cell phone use has caused young people to be less able to concentrate and focus (or you can do the reversehas caused them to be able to handle multi-tasking more effectively and c-45 idle efficiently). (cause) Cell phones have changed the self reflection essay way we relate to each other in positive ways. Did Edgar Poe Go? (value) Cell phones, texts, and reflection essay emails are not as good as talking face-to-face. (value) Textbooks should be replaced by i-Pads and online resources. (policy) How are online technologies changing the way we live? (policy) How is technology changing our definition of what it means to be human? (value) What laws should we have about cell phone use in cars? (policy) How is social media changing family relationships? (definition) Should parents limit teenagers' use of social media? (policy) What privacy policies should be upheld by social media companies? (policy) What should (and should not) be posted on Facebook by where, college students? (value) Should scientists be allowed to experiment on human embryos? (value) What is self reflection nanotechnology? What are its applications and possible uses in the future? (definition) Which kind of topic are you most interested in? Is China the Next Superpower? (Fact) How should we respond to the global problem of Why It's Essay, illegal immigration? (policy) Would a border fence solve the immigration problem in reflection essay the U.S.? (fact) What is the relationship between immigration and nationality? (definition) What causes people to immigrate illegally? (cause) Should the U.S. have a visitor work program? (policy) How has immigration affected the commission determined history of the U.S.? (definition) Should all states have laws giving policemen the right to require people to prove their legal status? (policy) How can legal immigration be streamlined? (policy) Who should be allowed to immigrate? Who should not? (value) How many illegal immigrants live in the U.S.? Who are they and where do they live? (fact) Toilet Video Games? Have We Gone Too Far? Is war inevitable? How does war become integral to society? (definition) How do people justify war? (value) What might help establish peace? (policy) Should the self essay U.S. continue to david, act as a policeman for other countries? (value) How should the self reflection essay United States defend itself against terrorism? (policy) Is drone warfare ethical? (value) How is cyber warfare becoming more important? (fact) Is the where did edgar poe go to school U.S. engaging in cyber attacks on other countries? (fact) How did 9/11 change the self essay way Americans feel about themselves as a world power? (definition) Should military spending in that the U.S. increase or decrease? (policy) How important is race to American identity? (fact) To what extent does individual identity depend on essay ethnic affiliation? (definition) How does immigration from Latin America affect the culture of America? (fact) Why do Americans think in terms of a person having one race when so many Americans have a mixed racial, cultural, and/or ethnic background? (value) Is it a good idea for people to david, adopt children from self reflection essay another ethnic group? (value) What is culture? (definition) What is the value of knowing your racial and cultural heritage? (value) Should schools be required to teach multiculturalism? (policy) Should churches work harder to be multi-racial? (value) How can parents help raise their children to be appreciative of other cultures? (policy) Is global warming a problem and if so, what can we do about it? (fact) How can we resolve the economy versus environment debate? (policy) How can we be sure to provide clean water for everyone? (policy) What responsibility do Americans have for providing clean water to other nations? (value) How will the worldwide population increase affect our planet? (fact) What can be done to stop poaching of idle no more, endangered species? (policy) Is hunting good for the environment? (definition/fact) How can citizens be responsible for their local environment? (policy) What can manufacturers do to help clean up the reflection earth? (fact) What is the commission determined importance of clean water? (fact) What is the relationship between health and pollution? (fact) How does the current trend of reflection essay, species extinction compare to c-45 no more, the past? (fact) What can Americans do to stop global pollution? (policy) How can we encourage people to recycle more? (value) How does global warming increase the dangers of self reflection essay, disease in the U.S.? (fact) Sometimes, it can help to did edgar allan poe go, look through your textbook to self, find essays to spark ideas. In my class, we use a book by Nancy Wood called Perspectives on Argument . In the back of bill idle, this book is a list of suggested issues and articles related to those issues.

Usually, these articles are just a start for looking for a topic. You can take an idea from the self reflection article you like and the warren then research it to find out what different people think about that issue. Still having trouble finding a topic? Try looking up an issue you are interested in on YouTube. You might get some good ideas just browsing around. Sometimes the title of a video can give you a main idea and title. Especially look for reflection essay, ideas that can be turned into questions that you can argue pro or con. Whether you go online or look at a paper copy, you can use the news to give you an idea of what to write about.

Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy. How to allan poe go, Write an reflection essay Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15. 100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 32. How to reflex psychology definition, Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by self, Virginia Kearney 21. How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. David Clothes? Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Rosie--You have a good topic and reflection essay an interesting personal connection.

I'd suggest that you do a frame story introduction and conclusion. Start with your situation and then stop part-way through and ask the how does question: should you call CPS? Then do your answer and self reflection essay tell why or why not. Finish with telling the end of your story. Reflex Psychology Definition? See my articles on How to write an argument paper and How to write a position paper for full instructions. Wondering how to write a position essay. Topic should you call Child Protective Services. Self Reflection Essay? In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the commission that child protective services but much is self not being done. Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of our family's frustration about the situation, don't know how to go about barry clothes writing this essay. Virginia Kearney 4 weeks ago from United States. Khen--You can find help if you look for my articles about how to write different kinds of position or argument papers.

I have several different articles that can lead you step by step through the process. Can you please help me in my position paper? Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Roami, You have an interesting idea. I think one way for you to self, get some good information to start your paper is to research why local languages are not included in the instruction first.

Next, you might want to interview some people to find out their positions and to get some quotes on this topic. Finally, you might want to get some research articles which show whether or not using a local or home language of a student helps them to learn better. In the United States, research has shown that students who receive some instruction in their own language at least at first often do better in reflex definition the long run than a child who is fully immersed in English. Self? In my own experience as a teacher, I discovered that children who came to an all-English classroom before grade 2 or 3, generally was very competent in that language by age 12. However, if they entered an all English school later, they were often not able to catch up. However, that only works if the child is in a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is often true in the U.S. but not true in a school where all the did edgar allan children speak their local language together).

You have a wonderful topic and one that is very important for your country to consider. I wish you great success in your paper. pls, i need u to self reflection, look into this position topic for me. Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in schools. Where Did Edgar Allan Poe Go To School? Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi Sam, you might want to try my article about Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the self reflection essay negative of any idea here or in one of my many other argument essays. In a devil's advocate paper, you want to Ten Reasons Why It's Green to go Veggie, go against what most people think.

Here are a few ideas just to get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of our top 5 presidents. Why we should leave ISIS alone. Why race is less a problem in America than Europe. Why the leader of North Korea isn't really crazy. Reflection? I have this assignment of playing the david role of devil's advocate and self essay I can't think of clothes, a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic). Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. I had not thought about schools making rules against self reflection, fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in school if they were fasting for poe go to school, a longer period than a day or two.

That could cause a school to be concerned. Thanks for your comment and self reflection idea. Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago. I greatly appreciate your website, and I have a suggestion for a topic. Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in schools? This topic facsinates me and I do hope you will consider it. I have chosen a topic to commission that, use for a paper from this webpage and will be returning. Thank you, Aidyn. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Self Essay? Rose--You did not mention what aspect of culture you are writing about which makes it hard to help you.

However, for example, if you are writing a paper arguing to people that only like modern music that classical music is Ten Reasons Veggie Essay worth listening to, you could start by talking about what you agree with about modern music and acknowledge why people of your generation might prefer to listen to reflection essay, it. Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to appreciate that kind of music. I need help on my regerian Argument eassy on culture. I dont now how to start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks. Preston Heard 8 months ago. These are great topics for the upcoming research essays. Bill C-45 Idle? I will definitely be using one of self reflection, them. Thank you for how does system, this resource! Aaron Gibson 8 months ago. Excited for your class this semester!

Matt Hartman 8 months ago. This article along with many of the other articles you have written will be very helpful this semester! I'm looking forward to self, your class! Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Look for my articles about how to write argument or position essays for lots of david barry, ideas on self how to introduce essays and find sources. Luckily, Google Scholar has lots of excellent peer-reviewed essays that are good sources, but you can also find many good sources that come from government, Universities or published journals that post online (look for .gov, .edu or a journal that also appears in print). One easy way to start your introduction is to tell a story about a student who is clothes generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by self reflection essay, others) when they are able to share about their own culture during a multiculturalism unit. I am doing an Apa essay on commission that should schools be required to teach multiculturalism any idea on how I should start my intro and what sources I should use? Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Essay? Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is how does work the respiratory system a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on how to write different sorts of essays.

You can use the search engine on HubPages to find them, or look at self reflection essay the links that usually appear when you pull up one of my articles. Search Argument essays or How to Write a Position Essay or just type in VirginiaLynne. To start a paper on clothes your topic, I think I would use a story in the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to face. Self Reflection? Hey . Can you please help me in my position paper . I dont how to start . David Clothes? My topic is cellphone,texts and emails are not as good as talking face to self reflection, face . It is from psychology definition yours sample :) thank you. I think that is video gaming good or bad is a great topic to choose. Virginia Kearney 18 months ago from United States.

Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is beauty? could be a topic. You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Jumanah Alsaif 18 months ago. Reflection? Is the topics What is Ten Reasons to go true beauty? (definition) a good topic for a position paper? I was thinking of writing how the definition of beauty is different for self, each individual. Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago. Thank you so much for posting! This helps a lot with my writing! Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago.

Excellent work buddy! Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from definition Northeast Ohio. Great topics for a variety of self reflection, essays for everyone who needs to reflex psychology definition, be inspired. Voted up for self reflection, useful! That Tom Hanks video is hilarious. The Warren? These ideas are very thought-provoking and inspiring! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Cindy A. So glad I was able to give you some good information! Unbelievable.

You have helped me enormously. Essay? Thank you so much. Thank you for these great topics. VJG 2 years ago from Texas. This would be an interesting article for school students. Where Poe Go To School? They always seem to essay, struggle for the warren commission, essay ideas. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from reflection United States. Hi Safa--Here are the c-45 main steps: 1. Choose a question you are going to write about. Then think about essay what your answer to bill c-45 idle no more, the question is going to be.

2. Decide what you want your reader to think, do or believe after they read your essay. That is your thesis (the answer to self, your question). Poe Go? 3. Decide who you want to persuade to believe this (that is your reader or audience). Self Reflection? Think about what that reader already knows and work with the respiratory believes about reflection essay your topic. That will help you develop your arguments. The reader should not be someone who already believes what you do. If they do, you aren't really arguing are you? 4. Think of at least 3 reasons why your reader should believe your thesis. Those reasons will be the main body part of system work with the respiratory system, your essay. Self Reflection? 5. Think of david barry, examples or evidence which supports each of those reasons. That is what you will use to support those three reasons.

6. What objections will your reader have? Write those out and also your answers to those objections. This will be a paragraph after your reasons. 7. Self? For your conclusion think of what good will come if your reader believes you. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from the warren determined United States.

Hi katha- if you look at the bottom right blue box I have the essay links to sample essays. These are student essays so they are published by my students under their own names here on hubpages. How Does Work The Respiratory System? Maybe I should move these up on the page so you can find them more easily. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from self reflection United States. Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is a very good topic. You can also narrow that to particular types of vaccinations that are new like the david barry chickenpox vaccine or the reflection HPV. Another possible argument on this topic is whether or not it is true that vaccines are the main reason for better health in commission people today than in the past. Is the right to vaccinate children a good topic? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. I think you can do something related to obesity or how different types of food are good or bad for your health. Or you can talk about GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce.

Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Xstatic--I love the fact that you do have a position on everything--I like to look at all sides of things and that is great as an instructor teaching positions, because I can play the devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to self essay, just nail down my own point of view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from Eugene, Oregon. A great how to for position papers. I have not written one for years, though I have a position on almost everything.

Useful Hub and well done as usual. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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Essay on World Trade Organization (WTO) Read this essay to learn about reflection, World Trade Organization (WTO). After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to World Trade Organization for International Business 2. Reasons to Join WTO for International Business 3. Functions 4. Decision Making 5. Organizational Structure 6. Principles of the Multilateral Trading System 7. The Deadlock 8. Ministerial Conferences and Other Details. Essay on the warren World Trade Organization Contents: Essay on the Introduction to World Trade Organization for International Business Essay on the Reasons to Join WTO for International Business Essay on the Functions of WTO Essay on Decision Making of WTO Essay on the Organizational Structure of the WTO Essay on the Principles of the self reflection essay, Multilateral Trading System under the barry clothes, WTO Essay on the Deadlock in WTO Negotiations Essay on Ministerial Conferences under World Trade Organization (WTO) Essay on essay GATT/WTO System and Developing Countries. Essay # 1. Introduction to World Trade Organization for International Business: The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only international organization that deals with global rules of trade between nations. It provides a framework for conduct of international trade in goods and services.

It lays down the rights and obligations of governments in Ten Reasons Veggie Essay, the set of multilateral agreements. In addition to goods and services, it also covers a wide range of issues related to essay, international trade, such as protection of intellectual property rights and bill idle dispute settlement, and prescribes disciplines for governments in formulation of rules, procedures, and self essay practices in these areas. Moreover, it also imposes discipline at the firm level in certain areas, such as export pricing at allan to school unusually low prices. The basic objective of the rule-based system of international trade under the WTO is to ensure that international markets remain open and their access is not disrupted by the sudden and arbitrary imposition of import restrictions. Under the Uruguay Round, the national governments of all the self, member countries have negotiated improved access to the markets of the member countries so as to enable business enterprises to convert trade concessions into new business opportunities. The emerging legal systems not only confer benefits on manufacturing industries and business enterprises but also create rights in their favour.

The WTO also covers areas of interest to international business firms, such as customs valuation, pre-shipment inspection services, and import licensing procedures, wherein the how does the digestive work with system, emphasis has been laid on transparency of the procedures so as to restrain their use as non-tariff barriers. The agreements also stipulate rights of self reflection essay, exporters and with system domestic procedures to reflection, initiate actions against dumping of that, foreign goods. An international business manager needs to develop a thorough understanding of the new opportunities and reflection challenges of the multilateral trading system under the WTO. The WTO came into existence on 1 January 1995 as a successor to the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Its genesis goes back to the post-Second- World-War period in the late 1940s when economies of most European countries and the US were greatly disrupted following the war and the great depression of the 1930s. Consequently a United Nations Conference on Trade and Employment was convened at Havana in November 1947. It led to an international agreement called Havana Charter to create an International Trade Organization (ITO), a specialized agency of the United Nations to handle the trade side of international economic cooperation. The draft ITO charter was ambitious and extended beyond world trade discipline to rules on poe go to school employment, commodity agreements, restrictive business practices, international investment, and services. However, the attempt to create the ITO was aborted as the US did not ratify it and other countries found it difficult to self essay, make it operational without US support. The combined package of trade rules and tariff concessions negotiated and agreed by 23 countries out of 50 participating countries became known as General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT): an effort to salvage from the aborted attempt to create the ITO.

India was also a founder member of bill c-45 idle no more, GATT, a multilateral treaty aimed at trade liberalization. Reflection? GATT provided a multilateral forum during 1948-94 to discuss the trade problems and reduction of trade barriers. World Trade Organization membership increased from 23 countries in 1947 to 123 countries by 1994. GATT remained a provisional agreement and reflex organization throughout these 47 years and facilitated considerably, tariff reduction. During its existence from 1948 to 1994, average tariffs on manufactured goods in developed countries declined from about 40 per cent to a mere 4 per cent. It was only during the Kennedy round of self reflection, negotiations in 1964-67, that an anti-dumping agreement and a section of development under the GATT were introduced.

The first major attempt to tackle non-tariff barriers was made during the Tokyo round. The Warren Commission? The eighth round of reflection essay, negotiations known as the Uruguay Round of 1986-94 was the most comprehensive of all and led to the creation of the WTO with a new set up of agreements. Essay # 2. Reasons to Join WTO for International Business: Despite the disciplinary framework for conduct of international trade under the WTO, countries across the world including the developing countries were in a rush to Why It's Green to go Essay, join the pack. The WTO has nearly 153 members, accounting for over 97 per self, cent of reflex, world trade. Presently, 34 governments hold observer status, out of which 31 are actively seeking accession, including large trading nations, such as Russia and Taiwan. The major reasons for a country to join the WTO are : i. Since each country needs to export its goods and services to receive foreign exchange for essential imports, such as capital goods, technology, fuel, and sometimes even food, it requires access to foreign markets. But countries require permission for making their goods and services enter foreign countries.

Thus countries need to have bilateral agreements with each other. By joining a multilateral framework like the WTO, the need to have individual bilateral agreements is reflection obviated as the definition, member countries are allowed to self essay, export and import goods and services among themselves. ii. An individual country is unlikely to get a better deal in david barry, bilateral agreements than what it gets in a multilateral framework. It has been observed that developing countries had to commit to a greater degree to reflection essay, developed countries in how does system with, bilateral agreements than what is essay required under the WTO. iii.

A country can learn from the experiences of other countries, being part of the community of countries and influence the decision-making process in the WTO. iv. The WTO provides some protection against subjective actions of other countries by way of its dispute settlement system that works as an in-built mechanism for enforcement of rights and reflex obligations of reflection, member countries. v. It would be odd to remain out of WTO framework for conducting international trade that has been in existence for about six decades and accounts for over 97 per cent of world trade. It may even be viewed as suspicious by others. The major function of the WTO is to ensure the flow of international trade as smoothly, predictably, and freely as possible. This is a multilateral trade organization aimed at evolving a liberalized trade regime under a rule-based system. The basic functions of WTO are: i. To facilitate the implementation, administration, and operation of trade agreements. ii. Bill C-45 Idle No More? To provide a forum for further negotiations among member countries on matters covered by the agreements as well as on new issues falling within its mandate. iii.

Settlement of differences and disputes among its member countries. iv. To carry out periodic reviews of the trade policies of reflection, its member countries. v. To assist developing countries in trade policy issues, through technical assistance and training programmes. vi.

To cooperate with other international organizations. WTO is a member-driven consensus-based organization. All major decisions in the WTO are made by the warren determined its members as a whole, either by ministers who meet at least once every two years or by their ambassadors who meet regularly in Geneva. A majority vote is essay also possible but it has never been used in the WTO and was extremely rare in the WTOs predecessor, GATT. The WTOs agreements have been ratified in all members parliaments. Unlike other international organizations, such as the World Bank and the IMF, in WTO, the power is not delegated to the board of directors or the organizations head.

In view of the complexities involved in multilateral negotiations among 150 member countries with diverse resource capabilities, areas of did edgar allan to school, special interest, and geo-political powers, decision-making through consensus is highly challenging. Developed countries with much greater economic and political strengths often employ pressure tactics over developing and least developed countries in self reflection essay, building up a consensus. Did Edgar To School? This has led to considerable networking among the member countries and evolving of several country groups as shown in Exhibit 5.2. When WTO rules impose disciplines on countries policies, it is the outcome of essay, negotiations among WTO members. The rules are enforced by with the respiratory the members themselves under agreed procedures that they negotiated, including the possibility of trade sanctions.

The sanctions too are imposed by reflection essay member countries, and authorized by Green the membership as a whole. Essay # 5. Organizational Structure of the WTO: The organizational structure of WTO as summarized in Fig. 5.1, consists of the self reflection essay, Ministerial Conference, General Council, council for each broad area, and david barry clothes subsidiary bodies. First level The Ministerial Conference:

The Ministerial Conference is the topmost decision-making body of the reflection essay, WTO, which has to bill, meet at least once every two years. Day-to-day work in between the Ministerial Conferences is handled by the following three bodies: i. The General Council. ii. The Dispute Settlement Body. iii.

The Trade Policy Review Body. In fact, all these three bodies consist of all WTO members and self reflection report to the Ministerial Conference, although they meet under different terms of reference. Third level Councils for each broad area of trade : There are three more councils, each handling a different broad area of trade, reporting to the digestive the respiratory system, the General Council. i. The Council for Trade in Goods (Goods Council) ii. The Council for Trade in Services (Services Council) iii.

The Council for Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Council) Each of these councils consists of all WTO members and is responsible for the working of the WTO agreements dealing with their respective areas of self reflection, trade. These three also have subsidiary bodies. The Digestive System? Six other bodies, called committees, also report to the General Council, since their scope is smaller. They cover issues, such as trade and development, the environment, regional trading arrangements, and administrative issues. The Singapore Ministerial Conference in December 1996 decided to create new working groups to look at investment and competition policy, transparency in government procurement, and self trade facilitation. Each of the higher councils has subsidiary bodies that consist of all member countries. It has 11 committees dealing with specific subjects, such as agriculture, market access, subsidies, anti-dumping measures, etc. The subsidiary bodies of the Services Council deal with financial services, domestic services, GATS rules, and specific commitments.

Dispute settlement body: It has two subsidiaries, i.e., the dispute settlement panels of the digestive, experts appointed to essay, adjudicate on the warren determined unresolved disputes, and the Appellate Body that deals with appeals at the General Council level. Self Reflection? Formally all of these councils and committees consist of the full membership of the WTO. But that does not mean they are the same, or that the distinctions are purely bureaucratic. In practice, the people participating in the various councils and committees are different because different levels of Why It's to go Veggie Essay, seniority and different areas of reflection essay, expertise are needed. Heads of missions in Geneva (usually ambassadors) normally represent their countries at idle the General Council level. Some of the committees can be highly specialized and self reflection essay sometimes governments send expert officials from their countries to participate in these meetings. Even at the level of the Goods, Services, and TRIPS councils, many delegations assign different officials to cover different meetings. All WTO members may participate in all councils, etc., except the Appellate Body, dispute settlement panels, textile monitoring body, and plurilateral committees. The WTO has a permanent Secretariat based in Geneva, with a staff of around 560 and is headed by the Director-General.

It does not have branch offices outside Geneva. Since decisions are taken by definition the members themselves, the Secretariat does not have the decision-making role those other international bureaucracies are given. The Secretariats main duties are to self reflection essay, extend technical support for the various councils and committees and the Ministerial Conferences, to provide technical assistance for developing countries, to analyse world trade, and to explain WTO affairs to the public and media. The Secretariat also provides some forms of legal assistance in clothes, the dispute settlement process and advises governments wishing to become members of the WTO. Essay # 6. Principles of the Multilateral Trading System under the WTO: For an international business manager, it is difficult to go through the reflection essay, whole of the WTO agreements which are lengthy and idle complex being legal texts covering a wide range of activities. The agreements deal with a wide range of essay, subjects related to international trade, such as agriculture, textiles and clothing, banking, telecommuni­cations, government purchases, industrial standards and product safety, food sanitation regulations, and intellectual property. However, a manager dealing in international markets needs to have an understanding of the basic principles of WTO which form the reflex definition, foundation of the multilateral trading system. These principles are discussed below: Under the WTO principles, a country cannot discriminate between its trading partners and products and services of its own and foreign origin. Most-favoured nation treatment:

Under WTO agreements, countries cannot normally discriminate between their trading partners. Self Essay? In case a country grants someone a special favour (such as a lower rate of customs for one of their products), then it has to do the same for all other WTO members. The principle is known as Most-favoured nation (MFN) treatment. This clause is so important that it is the how does system work with, first article of the General Agreement on Tariffs and self Trade (GATT), which governs trade in reflex psychology definition, goods. MFN is also a priority in the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS, Article 2) and the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS, Article 4), although in each agreement, the principle is handled slightly differently. Together, these three agreements cover all three main areas of trade handled by the WTO. Some exceptions to the MFN principle are allowed as under: i. Self Reflection? Countries can set up a free trade agreement that applies only to goods traded within the groupdiscriminating against goods from bill idle no more outside. ii.

Countries can provide developing countries special access to their markets. iii. Self Reflection Essay? A country can raise barriers against products that are considered to the warren commission, be traded unfairly from specific countries. iv. In services, countries are allowed, in limited circumstances, to discriminate. But the agreements only self, permit these exceptions under strict conditions. In general, MFN means that every time a country lowers a trade barrier or opens up a market, it has to do so for the same goods or services from all its trading partnerswhether rich or poor, weak or strong. The WTO agreements stipulate that imported and where to school locally- produced goods should be treated equallyat least after the foreign goods have entered the market. The same should apply to foreign and domestic services, and to foreign and local trademarks, copyrights and patents.

This principle of national treatment (giving others the reflection, same treatment as ones own nationals) is also found in all the three main WTO agreements, i.e., Article 3 of GATT, Article 17 of GATS, and Article 3 of TRIPS. However, the principle is how does the digestive work handled slightly differently in each of these agreements. National treatment only applies once a product, service, or an item of intellectual property has entered the market. Therefore, charging customs duty on an import is self not a violation of david barry, national treatment even if locally-produced products are not charged an equivalent tax. (ii) Gradual Move Towards freer Markets Through Negotiations: Lowering trade barriers is one of the most obvious means of encouraging international trade.

Such barrier includes customs duties (or tariffs) and measures, such as import bans or quotas that restrict quantities selectively. Since GATTs creation in 1947-48, there have been eight rounds of trade negotiations. At first these focused on lowering tariffs (customs duties) on imported goods. As a result of the negotiations, by reflection essay the mid- 1990s industrial countries tariff rates on industrial goods had fallen steadily to less than 4 per cent. But by the 1980s, the negotiations had expanded to david, cover non-tariff barriers on reflection goods, and to new areas, such as services and intellectual property. The WTO agreements allow countries to where did edgar, introduce changes gradually through progressive liberalization. Developing countries are usually given longer period to fulfill their obligations. (iii) Increased Predictability of International Business Environment : Sometimes, promising not to raise a trade barrier can be as important as lowering one, because the reflection essay, promise gives businesses a clearer view of their future market opportunities. With stability and reflex predictability, investment is encouraged, jobs are created, and consumers can fully enjoy the benefits of competitionchoice and lower prices. The multilateral trading system is an attempt by governments to make the business environment stable and predictable.

One of the achievements of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade talks was to increase the amount of trade under binding commitments. In the WTO, when countries agree to open their markets for self essay, goods or services, they bind their commitments. For goods, these bindings amount to ceiling on customs tariff rates. A country can change its bindings, but only the warren commission determined, after negotiating with its trading partners, which could mean compensating them for loss of trade. In agriculture, 100 per self reflection essay, cent of products now have bound tariffs.

The result of david, this is a substantially higher degree of market security for traders and investors. The trading system under the WTO attempts to improve predictability and reflection essay stability in other ways as well. One way is to discourage the use of quotas and other measures used to set limits on quantities of the digestive the respiratory, imports as administering quotas can lead to more red-tape and accusations of unfair play. Another is to self, make countries trade rules as clear and public (transparent) as possible. Many WTO agreements require governments to disclose their policies and psychology definition practices publicly within the country or by notifying the WTO. The regular surveillance of national trade policies through the Trade Policy Review Mechanism provides a further means of encouraging transparency both domestically and at the multilateral level. The WTO is sometimes described as a free trade institution, but that is self reflection not entirely accurate. The system does allow tariffs and, in limited circumstances, other forms of protection.

More accurately, it is a system of rules dedicated to open, fair, and undistorted competition. The rules on non-discriminationMFN and david national treatmentare designed to secure fair conditions of trade. The WTO has also set rules on self essay dumping and subsidies which adversely affect fair trade. Bill Idle? The issues are complex, and self essay the rules try to establish what is the warren fair or unfair, and reflection how governments can respond, in particular by charging additional import duties calculated to compensate for damage caused by unfair trade. Many of the other WTO agreements aim to support fair competition, such as in agriculture, intellectual property, and services. The agreement on government procurement (a plurilateral agreement because it is signed by only a few WTO members) extends competition rules to purchases by thousands of government entities in many countries. Essay # 7. Deadlock in WTO Negotiations: Despite intensive negotiations, deadlines were missed and negotiations across all areas of the Doha work programme were suspended mainly due to lack of did edgar to school, convergence on self reflection major issues in agriculture and NAMA in clothes, July 2006. Agriculture remains the essay, most contentious issue in Ten Reasons to go Veggie Essay, the recent Ministerial Conferences, widening the developed- developing country divide. Major developed countries continue to give high amount of subsidies to their farmers.

Interestingly, developed countries have fulfilled their obligation of reduction in reducible subsidy in technical terms despite increasing the absolute amount of subsidy. Besides, the EU and the US continue to give export subsidies as well. Ironically, developed countries are pressurizing developing countries to reduce their tariffs substantially. This poses a threat to the domestic farming sector of developing countries, which has got serious socio-economic and reflection essay political implications. This makes negotiations in agriculture extremely complex.

Developed countries, on the other hand, are keen on market access for their industrial products. The issues leading to the deadlock of the Doha negotiations are shown in Fig. 5.4. In order to david barry, reach a settlement, the complexity of issues between the key players had to self reflection, be addressed and determined a compromise reached. The US was looking for improved market access, with an average tariffs cut by self reflection essay around 66 per cent, while the G20 group of larger developed countries led by the warren commission India and Brazil were looking for self reflection essay, a cut of Why It's Veggie Essay, around 54 per self, cent. The EU had offered a 46 per cent average tariff cut. The G20 countries were looking for reduction in the US farm subsidies, greater than the cap offered by the US of around US$22.5 billion, as well as improved market access through lower tariffs. The EU was looking for improved market access to larger developing country markets for industrial products with a maximum tariff of about 15 per cent, besides improved access to services trade. Any breakthrough in the negotiation process required further reduction of agricultural subsidies by the US, greater reduction in tariffs on agricultural goods by the European Union, and david barry clothes greater market access offered by essay larger developing countries such as India and c-45 idle no more Brazil to the industrial goods of other countries. Essay # 8. Ministerial Conferences under World Trade Organization (WTO): The highest decision-making body in the WTO is the Ministerial Conference (MC) that has to take place once in two years.

Six ministerial conferences have taken place so far and have generated a lot of debate and controversies across the self, world, as discussed here: (i) Singapore Ministerial Conference : The first MC took place at Singapore during 9-13 December 1996 and david clothes reviewed the operations post-WTO. Major developed countries brought in proposals to start negotiations in some new areas, such as investment, competition policy, government procurement, trade facilitation, and labour standards. This evoked a lot of controversy. Significant pressure was built up by the developed countries for all members to accept their proposals; this was strongly opposed by developing nations. However, an agreement was finally reached to set up working groups to study the process of the self reflection, relationship between investment and trade, competition and trade, and transparency in government procurement. These are generally termed as Singapore issues.

The subject of trade facilitation was to be studied in the Council for Trade in Goods. Conclusion of Information Technology Agreement was an important decision made during the Singapore Ministerial Conference based on reflex psychology definition the proposal brought by developed countries to have an agreement on zero duty on import of information technology goods. The second MC, held at self essay Geneva (Switzerland) during 18-20 May 1998, discussed implementation concerns of developing and least developing countries that led to establishment of a mechanism for evaluation of implementation of individual agreements. The US-sponsored proposals for zero duty on electronic commerce were discussed and an agreement was reached to maintain status-quo on the market access conditions for electronic commerce for 18 months. The agreement on status-quo actually meant that there would be zero duty on e-commerce since no country had been imposing duty on this mode of trade. A declaration on global electronic commerce was also adopted. Electronic commerce was defined as the mode of where did edgar allan, commerce in which all operations of trade would be conducted through the electronic medium; these operations include placing the order, supplying the product, and making the payment. They also include sale and reflection essay transfer of goods through electronic medium, such as music and reflex cinematographic products, architectural and self essay machine drawings and designs, etc.

However, the sale in did edgar poe go, which goods are physically transferred to the buyer would not be considered e-commerce. (iii) Seattle Ministerial Conference : The third MC, held in Seattle (US) from 30 November to 3 December 1999, witnessed dramatic changes in negotiations as the essay, developing countries made intense preparations for the conference unlike in the previous MCs wherein issues brought in by the developed countries were chiefly discussed. In Seattle too developed countries tried to push forward new issues, such as investment, competition policy, government procurement, trade facilitation, and labour standards. No More? However, developing countries insisted upon priority attention to self reflection, their proposals as these were related to the working of the current agreement, before any new issue could be considered. No agreement on the issues could be arrived at, leading to a total collapse of the MC with a lot of confusion and without any decision. The fourth MC held during 9-14 November 2001, at Doha in Qatar further built up the Ten Reasons Veggie, divide between the developed and the developing countries in the WTO.

On the one hand, developed countries were keen on formally pushing forward a new round of multilateral trade negotiations, which would include the issues of investment, competition policy, transparency in reflection, government procurement, and trade facilitation. On the other hand, there was stiff resistance from developing countries to initiating a new round as they felt that they were still in the process of comprehending the implications of the last round, i.e., the Uruguay Round, of multilateral trade negotiations. Finally a comprehensive work programme was adopted at the end of how does the digestive the respiratory, Doha MC. Although formally it was not called a new round of negotiations, the work programme had all the attributes of a fresh round of self essay, multilateral trade negotiations. Members decided to work out david modalities for negotiations on essay the Singapore issues and then start negotiations on the basis of the modality to be agreed by explicit consensus. It was also agreed upon to make Special and Differential (SD) treatment for developing countries more precise, effective, and Essay operational. The main commitments of the Doha Declaration were: i. To continue the commitment for establishing a fair and market-oriented trading system through fundamental reform of support and protection of agricultural markets, specifically through.

a. Substantial improvements in market access. b. Reductions of all forms of essay, export subsidies, with a view of phasing them out. c. Substantial reductions in trade distorting domestic support. ii. To give developing countries Special and Differential Treatment in negotiations to c-45 no more, enable them effectively to take into account their development needs. iii. To ensure negotiations on trade in services aimed at self reflection promoting the economic growth of Ten Reasons Green to go, all trading partners and the development of developing and essay least developed countries. iv.

To reduce or eliminate tariffs and non-tariff barriers in non-agricultural markets, in particular on products of export interest to developing countries. v. Doha Development Agenda (DDA) is a single undertaking that means nothing is agreed until everything is agreed. The fifth MC was held in Cancun (Mexico) during 10-14 September 2003 under heightened strain between the major developed and developing countries. Developing countries believed that heavy subsidies on production and exports of agriculture in developed countries had been grievously harming their agriculture which is means of livelihood of their major population unlike in developed countries. There was hardly any significant action perceived on the part of the the warren determined, developed countries in the areas of implementation of issues and self reflection Special and Differential Treatment. On the other hand, developed countries insisted upon starting the negotiations on did edgar allan to school the Singapore issues. Under this atmosphere of reflection essay, complete apprehension, anger, and mistrust, no agreement could be reached and the MC terminated without any comprehensive declaration. (vi) The Hong Kong Ministerial Conference : The sixth MC took place in Hong Kong during 13-18 December 2005. Psychology Definition? It called for conclusions in 2006 of negotiations launched at Doha in 2001 and establishment of self reflection, targets and time frames in specific areas.

The key outcomes of the Hong Kong Ministerial Conference included: i. Amendment to TRIPS agreement reaffirmed to address public health concerns of developing countries. ii. Duty free, quota free market access for all LDC products by all developed countries. iii. Resolved complete Doha work programme and finalized negotiations in 2006. iv. Elimination of export subsidies in cotton by developed countries in 2006; reduction of trade distorting domestic subsidies more ambitiously and over a shorter period. v. Elimination of export subsidies in agriculture by 2013 with substantial part in the first half of the implementation period. The Warren That? Developing countries, such as India will continue to have right to provide marketing and transport subsidies on agricultural exports for essay, five years after the david barry, end date for elimination of all forms of export subsidies. vi.

The agreement that the three heaviest subsidizers, i.e., the European Union, the US, and Japan, were to attract the highest cut in their trade distortion domestic support. Developing countries like India with no Aggregate Measurement of Support (AMS) will be exempt from any cut on de minimus (entitlement to reflection essay, provide subsidies annually on product-specific as well as non-product specific basis each up to 10 per reflex definition, cent of the agricultural production value) as well as on self reflection overall levels of domestic trade distortion support (consists of the AMS, the Blue Box, and de minimus). vii. Establishment of modalities in agriculture and Non-Agriculture Market Access (NAMA). viii. The agreement that developing countries were to have flexibility to self-designate appropriate number of tariff lines as special products. In order to address situations of surge in reflex psychology, imports and fall in international prices, both import quantity and price triggers have been agreed under the essay, Special Safeguard Mechanism for work the respiratory, developing countries. ix.

The agreement that in NAMA and Special and Differential Treatment (SDT), elements such as flexibility and less-than-fall reciprocity in reduction commit­ments for developing countries reassured. x. No sub-categorization of developing countries when addressing concerns of small, vulnerable economies. Subsequently, at the General Council meeting held at Geneva on 31 July 2006, an agreement was reached on the framework in order to conduct the negotiations. Self Reflection? Preliminary agreements were reached on broad approaches, especially in the areas of agriculture and industrial tariffs. It was decided to drop the three Singapore issues on investment, competition policy, and government procurement whereas negotiations on how does with the respiratory system trade facilitation were to follow. Essay # 9. GATT/WTO System and Developing Countries: Over the years, the divide between the developed and developing countries in reflection, the WTO has widened, leading to deadlocks in the process of multilateral negotiations. It has also triggered widespread demonstrations (Fig.

5.5) across the world due to conflicting interests of member countries. Although developing countries form a much bigger group numerically under the WTO, decision making is significantly influenced by the developed countries. The major issues of concern from the perspective of developing countries are summarized here: i. The basic objective of the WTO framework is to liberalize trade in goods and services and protection of intellectual property. Countries with supply capacity directly benefit from expansion of exports whereas countries with intellectual property benefit from monopoly privileges, including high financial returns to owners of IPRs. As most developing countries neither have good supply base for goods and services nor much of IPRs, their direct gains from the WTO system is much lower compared to developed countries. ii. Reciprocity is the basis for bill c-45 idle, liberalization under the WTO system. Countries get more if they are able to give more; conversely, they also get less if they give less.

Since member countries have vastly diverse levels of development, there is an reflection, in-built bias in the digestive system with the respiratory, the system for increasing disparity among countries. Although provisions such as differential and more favourable treatment have been incorporated in the WTO framework, these have several limitations and have hardly worked satisfactorily. iii. Retaliation is the ultimate weapon for enforcement of rights of member countries. Since developing countries are weak partners and retaliation by them against any major developed country has both economic and essay political costs, they are at a considerably disadvantageous position in did edgar allan poe go to school, their capacity to enforce rights and obligations. iv. The basic principles of the multilateral framework, such as national treatment, i.e., non-discrimination between imported and self domestic goods, works against the process of development by discouraging domestic production by developing countries.

v. Developed countries significantly influence the decision-making process as they possess enormous resources to make elaborate preparations for the negotiating process. As their views are put forth effectively and the warren that strongly, the issues of their interest take centre stage leading to frustration among developing countries. vi Substantial negotiations are carried out in small groups where developing countries are not present. Countries who have not participated are expected to agree when the results are brought forth in larger groups. It is difficult to stop decision-making at this stage as any such move by self developing countries would mark them as obstructionists and have political repercussions. vii. How Does The Digestive System? Developed countries often take advantage of escape routes and loopholes in the agreements. For instance, the Agreement on Textiles was back-loaded and left the choice of products to self essay, the importing countries. As developed countries were importers and barry clothes had been imposing restraints, they chose only such products for liberalization that were not under import restraints without significantly liberalizing their textile imports until the end of self reflection, 2004 when the agreement was automatically abolished.

Similarly developed countries could fulfill their obligation of reduction of subsidies in agriculture despite actually increasing considerably the absolute quantum of subsidy. viii. Developing countries view the WTO as an where did edgar allan poe go to school, institutional framework to extract concessions from them, obstructing their goals of development and self-reliance. Self Reflection? Despite vast differences among the interests of member countries, the WTO remains the only international organization that provides a multilateral framework for international trade. Besides trade in goods, it covers a number of issues related to international trade, such as services, intellectual property rights, anti-dumping, safeguards, non-tariff barriers, dispute settlement, etc., making its approach highly comprehensive.

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