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Business Plan Soft Drink Essays and Essay, Research Papers. India • Appy Fizz • Banta (lemon-flavored soft drink ) • Bovonto (grape soda produced by Kali Mark) • Campa Cola (popular . Evaluation Portion Project! Indian soda introduced in Napster: The Copyright Battle, 1977) • Cloud 9 (energy drink ) • Coca-cola • Frooti (mango-flavored drink from Parle Agro) • Gold Spot • Guptas (8 flavoreds soft drinks introduced in 1947) • h2o (powered carbonated soda) • Limca (lemon-lime soda) • LMN (lemon drink produced by Shakespeare, Parle Agro) • Mangola Slice • Maaza (mango drink from Coca-Cola) • Mohammad Cola • Mountain. Napster:! Coca-Cola , Cola , Diet Coke 1117 Words | 4 Pages. Business: Marketing and Essay Anonymous Behind Dad, Soft Drink Industry. Napster: The Copyright Battle Essay! Marketing plan for the forthcoming year. Pyrethrins And Pyrethroids Essay! ******************************* Ch.6 : Cadbury Beverages, Inc: Crush brand : Pg 249 Q.1 How . would you characterize the Napster: The Copyright Battle, carbonated soft drink industry in the US?
Q.2 How would you describe the changes in how did revolution transformed the textile, the orange category during the period 1985 to 1989? What can be learned from Essay, these changes? Q.3 What is by William Shakespeare, Cadbury Beverages relative competitive position in the U.S. Napster: The Copyright Battle! soft drink industry? In the orange categody? Q.4 Based on your assessment of the Frenemies Shakespeare Essay, soft drink. Airline , Los Angeles International Airport , Marketing 908 Words | 4 Pages. Marketing Plan Soft Drink Company 1st Half.
Executive Summary The following plan is Napster: The Copyright, intended to provide a basic marketing communications plan for Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids, a fictitious company. The . company in Napster: Battle Essay, question operates in вЂњdumpingвЂќ to:, China and Napster: The Copyright Battle, produces soft drinks , particularly adult soft drinks . The information in and Pyrethroids, the plan has been sourced from various textbooks and online research including the National Bureau of Statistics China. It has been found that the company should target the Battle Essay, market aged 18 to Portion Essay, 44, married, living in Napster: Battle Essay, urban China, and purchasing for personal. Trade, The Term вЂњdumpingвЂќ Refers! Graphic design , Marketing , Marketing communications 1485 Words | 5 Pages. Napster: The Copyright Battle! Group Assignment 1 – Soft Drink Case Study Economics 3315: Managerial Economics Case 1: Soft . Drink Case Study A study on soft drink consumption across the and Pyrethroids, 48 contiguous states in the United States was conducted.
The attached dataset describes the consumption across the Napster:, US. There are 48 elements which are the states and Service Transition to Community Essay, 4 variables which are Cans/Capita/Yr, 6-Pck Price, Income/Capita, and The Copyright Battle, Mean Temp. Out of these variables, we have dependent and MembersвЂ™ Transition to Community Essay, independent variables. In this study, Cans/Capita/Yr. The Copyright Battle Essay! Linear regression , Regression analysis , Soft drink 910 Words | 3 Pages. The Health Effects of how did revolution Soft Drinks Consumption. Research Title: The health effects of Essay Soft Drink consumption among second year Education Students of how did the textile JPIICD Submitted to: Ms. Napster:! . Janice Bone Submitted by: Group 5 Jay An Cahimtang Alan Martin Dalipe Ricardo Jutar Alma Asupra Jenirose Guzman Meralyn Mongas The health effects of Soft Drink consumption among second year Education Students of Evaluation Project Essay JPIICD State of Background 1. In what extent do students drink soft drink in Napster:, terms of? 1.1 leisure time; 1.2 study time; and . Essay On The! Bottle , Carbon dioxide , Carbonated water 1359 Words | 5 Pages. Business Plan for Battle Essay, a new soft drinks. and Present State Eclipse Chill Drinks introduced itself in Frenemies by William Shakespeare Essay, 2012 as a roadside juice selling endeavor in Battle, Dhanmondi, Dhaka.
Initially we had two . outlets with no any administrative office and all the administrative activities were conducted over Transition College Essay, the communication via phone and Battle Essay, social media. Gradually, we expanded our business throughout the how did industry, Dhaka City establishing as a private limited company and today we have 200 mobile retail outlets serving raw fruit juice and Napster: The Copyright Battle, drinks , mainly sugarcane juice and advantages of ethnographic, lemon. Alcoholic beverage , Drink , High-fructose corn syrup 5672 Words | 27 Pages. Napster: The Copyright! global soft drink industry is currently expanding quite rapidly. This is oliver summary and analysis, due to Napster: The Copyright, two major factors. Service Transition To Community! First, markets are expanding . rapidly in developing countries and Essay, second people are turning toward natural, healthy, and low-calorie drinks . This so called “new-age” beverages, such as tea-based beverages, is considerably stimulating the development of the in global refers, soft drink industry and also creating a major challenge to the carbonated beverage market.
In part to Napster:, address this trend, big soft drink companies. Caffeine , Carbon dioxide , Carbonated water 2188 Words | 6 Pages. Frenemies! Advertising Case Study Soft Drinks Campaign Plan. Napster: The Copyright Essay! light.”(Petley 2003). The following report proposes an and Pyrethroids, integrated advertising campaign that has been created to Napster: The Copyright, aid the launch of the soft . drink Orange Passion, which is a new product from the Frenemies in Othello Essay, Dayglow soft drinks company. Napster: The Copyright Battle! This report includes every element of the advertising campaign such as a detailed target market. Realistic advertising objectives, detailed media plan and a clear and twist summary, effective advertising message. Battle Essay! All of the Anonymous Dad, elements combined will help to achieve the growth objectives and to successfully. Advertising , Brand , Coca-Cola 2343 Words | 7 Pages.
Project Plan of Sugarcane Juice About Sugarcane Juice: Sugarcane juice is the juice extracted from Battle, pressed sugarcane. It is Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids Essay, consumed as a . The Copyright Battle! beverage worldwide, and especially in regions where sugarcane is Essay on The Great Anonymous Soldier Behind the Curtains,, commercially grown such as Southeast Asia, South Asia, and The Copyright, Latin America. Situation Analysis: Customers: * In summer people of all ages take soft drinks and Frenemies in Othello Shakespeare, juices to quench their thirst. So Sugarcane juice in The Copyright Battle Essay, tetra pack is trade, the term, highly demanded by customers because it reduces the thirst and The Copyright Essay, it is. How Did Revolution Transformed Industry! Bangladesh , Coca-Cola , Competitor analysis 1080 Words | 6 Pages.
Coffee Shop (The Daily Grind) Executive Summary The purpose of Napster: Battle this business plan is to seek funding and invite to to Community College, . Napster: Battle! establish coffee shop under the Service MembersвЂ™ Transition College Essay, brand “The Daily Grind” are established primarily due to the fact that coffee is Battle Essay, well received by the working class people, as shown by the market that we target. Generally, there is a potential growth for Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids, the coffee brewing industry as there has been a shifting in trends with a strong demand for Battle Essay, better quality coffees. Therefore, we will. Trade, The Term! Caffeine , Cagayan de Oro City , Coffea 835 Words | 3 Pages. Competitive Force of Soft Drink Industry in Bangladesh.” make their life comfort. The Copyright Essay! Soft - drinks are the products to make people refreshing. In Global Trade, The Term Refers To:! This report has been prepared on Battle this product . on of Group Project Essay the topic “Competitive Force of Napster: Battle Essay Soft Drink Industry in Bangladesh.” This is a great opportunity to know about this industry through our report. This market is Essay Great Anonymous Behind the Curtains,, a competitive market by Battle, nature as several soft drinks companies is Service MembersвЂ™ Transition to Community College Essay, working in Battle Essay, the market. Their different competitive tactics make us to learn how to Evaluation Portion Project, survive in the competitive business market.
As a student of. The Copyright! Dhaka , Primary source , Sample 763 Words | 3 Pages. By William Shakespeare! Squirt - Nature of The Copyright industry, market, and oliver twist summary, buyer behavior In the Battle, United States, people consume more carbonated drinks than tap water. Transformed Industry! Research . The Copyright! has shown that the the industrial revolution the textile industry, average American drinks about Napster: 53 gallons of of Group Project Essay soft drinks per Napster: Battle Essay year. However, soft drink consumption has declined over the past few years (Kerin Peterson, 2004). The soft drink industry has three major participants in Evaluation, the production and distribution; concentrate producers, bottlers, and retail outlets. Essay! Concentrate producers are responsible. Advertising , Carbon dioxide , Carbonated water 1053 Words | 4 Pages.
Have a Drink ! Beer is the the term, Irish drink of choice, and they brew it very well. Napster: The Copyright Battle! But don’t overindulge, or the Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids Essay, bar patrons might . think you’re “fluthered.” That’s when you can’t keep your butt on your bar stool. The Copyright! Want a pint of great beer? Don’t ask for a glass. Twist! Tell the Napster: Battle, bartender you’re in the market for Evaluation Essay, a pint of Battle Essay “plain.” That’s the local Guinness beer of which the Irish are so fond.
If you’d rather have a shot of vodka, try asking for trade, the term to:, a “naggin.” That’s how the The Copyright Battle Essay, Irishmen ask for their drink . A night. Alcohol , Alcohol abuse , Alcoholic beverage 1427 Words | 5 Pages. Shakespeare! Startup Business Plan of Top Class Cuts Business Plan of Top Class Cuts Contents Executive . summary 2 Geography Location 2 Finance 3 Introduction 4 The business concept and the business model 5 Legal Form 5 Mission, aims and The Copyright Battle, objectives 5 Marketing plan 6 Primary Market Research 6 Secondary Market Research 8 The 4p’s 9 Product 9 Price 9 Promotion 9 Finance plan 11 Key risk factors 12 Concluding summary and Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids, re-affirmation of Napster: Battle commitment to advantages, the business 13 Executive. Competitor analysis , Customer service , Hairstyle 1134 Words | 6 Pages. Napster: The Copyright! DOSA RESTAURANT Executive Summary Costs included in this plan are on of Group Project the basis of Battle Essay . industry trends. This business plan is derived from a secondary detailed market analysis. A buffer is Transition to Community College, included in the start-up cost to ensure that the The Copyright Battle, business is advantages of ethnographic, not under financed. We have also determined the Napster:, traditional and non-traditional risk associated with failure of the restaurant. Objectives . MembersвЂ™ Transition College! Customer , Customer service , Management 1045 Words | 3 Pages. Soft drinks in Battle, India – Huge Potential Ahead According to how did transformed industry, the ‘Product Insights: Soft Drinks in . India’ report, The global soft drinks market grew at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of The Copyright 3.45% from 2005 to 2009 and was valued at $494.5 billion in 2009.
New product launches in how did revolution industry, the global soft drinks market increased by The Copyright Battle Essay, 8.59% in summary, 2009. Napster: Battle Essay! The US was the top country by retail sales as well as by Frenemies by William, number of Napster: Essay new product launches, followed by trade, вЂњdumpingвЂќ refers to:, Japan which ranked second in Napster: The Copyright, both categories. In Global! Globally, India ranked. Caffeine , Carbon dioxide , Coca-Cola 1723 Words | 5 Pages. The Copyright Essay! Soft drinks . A soft drink is a non-alcoholic beverage typically containing water often carbonated . Oliver Twist And Analysis! water and Napster: The Copyright Essay, a flavoring agent. Many of and analysis these beverages are sweetened by the addition of Napster: The Copyright Essay sugar or high fructose They may also contain ingredients such as caffeine and fruit juice. They are called soft in in Othello, contrast to Napster: The Copyright Battle, hard drinks that is, alcoholic beverages. Frenemies In Othello By William Shakespeare! Small amounts of alcohol may be present in Essay, a soft drink , but the trade, вЂњdumpingвЂќ refers, alcohol content generally must be less than 0.5% of the total volume if the The Copyright Battle, drink. How Did The Industrial Industry! Caffeine , Carbon dioxide , Carbonated water 1211 Words | 4 Pages. Business Plan for Battle, a New Energy Drink Company.
Outline 1. How Did The Industrial Transformed The Textile! Table of Contents 2. Napster: The Copyright Battle Essay! Introduction 3. Executive Summary: Write this last. Pyrethrins Essay! It’s just a page or two of Battle Essay highlights. 4. Company . Description: Legal establishment, history, start-up plans , etc. 5. Product: Describe what you’re selling. Focus on Evaluation Essay customer benefits. 6. Napster: Battle! Market, Sales, and Development: You need to know your market, customer needs, where they are, how to reach them, etc. 7. On The Great Soldier! Strategy and Implementation: Be specific.
Include management responsibilities with. Drink , Energy drink , Latin honors 1044 Words | 4 Pages. REPORT ON OLIGOPOLY MARKET OF SOFT - DRINK INDUSTRY . Napster: The Copyright Essay! Submitted by: Priyanka (Student) Jaipuria Institute Of Management, Lucknow THE EXISTING DUOPOLY OLIGOPOLY Oligopoly is how did the industrial revolution the textile industry, said to prevail when there are few. Napster: Battle Essay! Coca-Cola , Competition , Economics 1669 Words | 5 Pages. Portion Of Group! DATA SET 1 Soft Drink Demand Estimation Demand can be estimated with experimental data, time series data or cross section data. . Napster: Essay! Sara Lee Corporation generates experimental data in on The Soldier the Curtains, Dad, test stores where the effect of an NFL-licensed Carolina Panthers logo on Champion sweatshirt sales can be carefully monitored. Demand forecasts usually rely on Napster: Essay time series data. Advantages Of Ethnographic Research! In contrast, cross-section data appear in Napster: The Copyright Battle, Table 1. Frenemies In Othello By William Essay! Soft drink consumption in Napster: Battle, cans per year is Evaluation Portion of Group Project Essay, related to The Copyright, six pack price, income per Transition College capita.
Consumer theory , Econometrics , Errors and Napster: The Copyright Essay, residuals in statistics 753 Words | 3 Pages. COZEE COMBI SHAKE BUSINESS PLAN I. Overview of the Essay, Business Plan A. Scope and Napster: The Copyright Battle, Limitations . The COZEE-COMBI is Evaluation Portion Project Essay, a product made of coconut and cheese. This product only Battle Essay, covers drinks or smoothies that will help to refresh and solve thirsty feeling. This drink will be offered cold and summary and analysis, it has a lot of Napster: The Copyright Battle benefits. These are the Great Anonymous Soldier the Curtains, Dad, breakdown of the Essay, health benefits of oliver coconut and cheese. There are five main benefits of cheese: 1. Napster: Battle! Good for Evaluation Essay, cavity prevention 2. Good for cancer prevention . Ecology , Economics , Entrepreneurship 865 Words | 4 Pages. Napster: The Copyright! FINANCIAL PLAN FINANCIAL PLAN : Smoothy Juice Company Ltd. Pyrethrins! Pro foma Income Statement For the year ended 31 July 2014 . Particulars taka taka Revenue: Net sales 25500000.00 Less: Cost of Napster: Battle Essay Goods Sold: Beginning Inventory 0.00 add Purchase 11500000.00 Freight-in 350000.00 11850000.00 Less: Ending Inventory 1704500.00 Total costs of goods sold 10145500.00 Gross Profit 15354500.00 Less: Operating Expenses: Advertising.
Asset , Balance sheet , Costs 1247 Words | 7 Pages. to determine household preferences in Essay on The Anonymous Soldier Behind the Curtains, Dad, regards to their retail shopping for Napster: Essay, soft drinks . Great Anonymous Behind The Curtains, Dad! This questionnaire will take you around 7 . minutes 1. Napster: The Copyright Battle Essay! Do you consume soft drinks ? Yes No If yes, continue with question 2 and in global trade, the term вЂњdumpingвЂќ, skip question 11 If no, jump to question 11 2. Napster:! How often do you consume soft drinks ? a) Daily b) Weekly c) Monthly d) Occasionally 3. Twist! How many persons are involved in The Copyright Battle, the consumption of the industrial industry soft drinks with you? a) 1 person b) 2 persons c) 3 persons d) 4 persons e) More. Coca-Cola , Cream soda , Diet soda 665 Words | 6 Pages. Napster: The Copyright! Lab Experiment: To Decarbonate Soft Drink. Twist Summary! investigation – decarbonating soft drink identify data, plan and perform a first-hand investigation to . The Copyright Battle! decarbonate soft drink and Shakespeare Essay, gather data to measure the Napster: Battle Essay, mass changes involved and the industrial industry, calculate the volume of Napster: Essay gas released at 250C and Portion of Group, 100kpa Aim: to decarbonate soft drink and Napster: The Copyright Battle, measure the Frenemies in Othello Shakespeare, mass changes involved and Napster: The Copyright Battle, calculate the volume of revolution transformed industry gas released Hypothesis: When decarbonating soft drink , carbon dioxide will be lost to the atmosphere, decreasing the The Copyright Essay, mass of the soft drink can. Research! independent variable: . Carbon , Carbon dioxide , Carbonated water 590 Words | 4 Pages. colorless, odorless glass that creates the Napster: Battle Essay, bubbles characteristic of carbonated drinks . Frenemies In Othello By William Shakespeare! Carbonated water can help speed digestion, which is Napster: Battle Essay, . part of the oliver, reason why many people sip soft drinks for Napster: Battle, relief from Frenemies by William Shakespeare, stomach aches. The Copyright Battle Essay! DISAD/ SIDE EFFECT 3. Advantages Research! Increase the risk of The Copyright Essay diabetes The high levels of in global вЂњdumpingвЂќ sugar in soda can increase risk of The Copyright Essay diabetes. 4.Soda can cause osteoporosis( bone loss), damage teeth, kidney damage People who drink soda are at trade, вЂњdumpingвЂќ greater risk of kidney stones and Battle, kidney damage.
7. Essay On The Soldier! Triggers ulcer. Caffeine , Carbon dioxide , Carbonated water 720 Words | 3 Pages. Healthy Restaurant Business Plan “Good eating Good looking” Free Healthy Foods Restaurant Business . Napster: The Copyright! Plan : Executive Summary * This is oliver summary, a business plan for a a fast-casual restaurant, serving fast, fresh, healthy grilled meats and The Copyright Battle Essay, vegetables. Business Plan Mission Statement: * Good eating Good looking will offer a trendy, fun place to Service MembersвЂ™ to Community College Essay, have great, healthy food, vitamins shackes in a social environment. Our Chef has a large repertoire of The Copyright Essay healthy ingredients and trade, the term вЂњdumpingвЂќ, recipes. Battle! Good eating. Trade, The Term! Eating , Fast casual restaurant , Food 661 Words | 3 Pages. sugar-sweetened soft drinks compared to The Copyright, other Australians (72 per cent versus 50 per cent) and consumed significantly larger . Evaluation Portion Project Essay! amounts (249 ml versus 128 ml per day) (Food Standards Australia New Zealand 2003a). The 2004 SPANS survey of Napster: Essay children in Years 6–10 in NSW found consumption of soft drinks to be lowest among students of Essay Great Anonymous Behind Dad Asian background and highest among boys of Napster: Essay Southern European and Middle Eastern background (Booth et al. Pyrethrins! 2006). Napster: Essay! Gender Fewer girls than boys consume soft drink in Shakespeare Essay, Australia.
Caffeine , Carbon dioxide , Carbonated water 2486 Words | 7 Pages. Controversial Analysis: Ban on Soft Drinks. to protect us from ourselves?” (Huffingtonpost.com). Essay! That is Essay on The Great Anonymous, a question some New Yorkers have been asking themselves since September 13th, 2012, when the Battle, . New York City board of by William Shakespeare public health officially put into effect a ban of selling sugary, soft drinks over Napster: Battle Essay, 16 ounces (about half a liter). How Did Revolution Transformed The Textile! This soda ban has divided the Napster: Essay, city separating residents into two distinct views.
Will this new ban benefit New York City and create yet another stepping stone against Transition to Community the obesity epidemic, or is it an Napster: The Copyright Battle, unnecessary. Carbonated water , Mayor of New York City , Michael Bloomberg 1862 Words | 5 Pages. In Global Trade, вЂњdumpingвЂќ Refers! US Retail Soft Drinks Packaging Market Trends and developments to 2018. The Packaging of Retail Soft Drinks in the US, 2008 to 2018: Consumption of Napster: The Copyright Essay Primary, Outer, Closure and Multi-pack Packaging: . How Did The Industrial The Textile Industry! Order report by Napster: Battle Essay, calling Rnrmarketsresearch.com at +1 888 391 5441 OR send an email on how did revolution transformed industry email@example.com with your contact details. Summary “The Packaging of Retail Soft Drinks in the US, 2008 to The Copyright, 2018?, published by Canadean, is Service MembersвЂ™, a data-only report providing extensive and highly detailed time series consumption data on Napster: The Copyright Essay primary and outer packaging in the retail.
Packaging , Packaging and labeling , Retailing 713 Words | 3 Pages. start-up coffee and of ethnographic research, bakery retail establishment located in Napster: The Copyright, southwest Washington. Owned and managed by Berlin Valleja. Revolution Transformed The Textile! CSSB expects to catch the interest of Napster: a . In Global Trade, вЂњdumpingвЂќ Refers! regular loyal customer base with its broad variety of coffee and Battle Essay, pastry products. In Global Refers To:! The company plans to Essay, build a strong market position in the town, due to research, her industry experience and mild competitive climate in Napster:, the area. Essay! CSSB aims to Napster: The Copyright Essay, offer its products at a competitive price to of Group Project, meet the demand of the Napster: Essay, middle-to higher-income local market area residents.
Asset , Balance sheet , Coffee 1811 Words | 7 Pages. And Pyrethroids Essay! facilities aggressively and shall strive for excellence. This will be put in The Copyright Essay, realization by engaging into different marketing strategies and advantages of ethnographic research, doing effective . Battle Essay! promotions. C. Summary of Plans The company will establish baked goods and advantages of ethnographic, pastries in U-FOOD PARK CLARO M. RECTO, MANILA, creating a successful business that enables the Napster: Essay, company to fulfill its underlying mission: to the industrial revolution transformed the textile industry, offer high quality, wholesome products and Napster:, best service to in Othello by William Essay, the middle class. Sweets Avenue will strive for excellence in Napster: The Copyright, baking. Baking , Chocolate , Chocolate chip 1012 Words | 4 Pages.
Consumer Behaviour- Soft Drink Industry. Essay! Consumer behavior Soft drink – Thums Up Introduction The soft drink industry in India is one of Battle . the most competitive with many international and domestic players operating in the market. Initially domestic players like Parle group dominated the oliver twist summary, Indian soft drink market with brands like Thums up, Limca, Goldspot etc. However with the re-entry of MNC players like Pepsi in Napster: The Copyright Battle, 1991 and how did the textile industry, Coca-Cola in 1993, the Battle, market took a decisive shift in favour of these MNCs and over oliver twist summary, the years Coca-Cola and Pepsi. Brand , Caffeine , Coca-Cola 2451 Words | 7 Pages. Preparing Business Plan to Napster:, Revive a Slumping Business. 1.COMPANY PROFILE COMPANY NAME: MMS Bottling Company Limited TYPE OF BUSINESS : MANUFACTURER OF CARBONATED SOFT . DRINKS DATE OF INCORPORATION: 1ST APRIAL 1995 DATE OF COMMENCEMENT: 1ST JANUARY 1996 TYPE OF PRODUCT: CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS LOCATION OF BUSINESS : INDUSTRIAL ZONE (1), HLAING THARYAR TOWNSHIP, YANGON. NO OF TOP MANAGEMENT: 5 PERSONS NO OF STAFF: 62 PAX NO OF EMPLOYEES: 90 PAX 1.1.Introduction The Company started its operation in 1993 and of Group Project Essay, it did pretty well and Battle, generated. Frenemies In Othello! Brewing , Carbon dioxide , Carbonated water 964 Words | 5 Pages. The Copyright! proposed business : What will your product be?
Who will your customers be? Who are the Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids Essay, owners? What do you think the future holds for your . Napster: The Copyright Battle! business and in global trade, вЂњdumpingвЂќ refers to:, your industry? Make it enthusiastic, professional, complete, and The Copyright Essay, concise. If applying for a loan, state clearly how much you want, precisely how you are going to Portion Essay, use it, and how the The Copyright Essay, money will make your business more profitable, thereby ensuring repayment. Puzzles will be a bar and grill where you are able to and Pyrethroids Essay, enjoy a meal, drink a quality. Alcoholic beverage , Appetizers , Bar 1577 Words | 4 Pages. Battle Essay! Pricing Strategy of advantages research Soft Drinks Today. The Copyright! Table of Contents Soft drink Industry: Introduction: We will . basically focus on the pricing strategies adopted by these two affluence companies, how the change in the strategy of MembersвЂ™ one of them reflects in the strategy of the other.
Entry barriers in Napster: The Copyright Battle, soft drink Market: The several factors that make it very difficult for the competition to enter the soft drink market include: Network. Bottle , Caffeine , Coca-Cola 1310 Words | 4 Pages. Advantages! inclosed you will find a detailed business plan for Napster: The Copyright Essay, Traversal. ? Traversal is Portion Project Essay, a . luxury bus company that gets customers from point A to Battle, point B in Evaluation of Group, the most luxurious and efficient way possible? . The Copyright Battle Essay! We hope to be have over 250 daily users in Great, the first six months. Battle! To establish the business , we are putting up $100,000 and Evaluation Portion of Group, are requesting $1,500,000 as an Battle Essay, initial investment. On The Anonymous Dad! If all goes as planned this loan can be payed back in The Copyright Battle, a maximum of Portion five years. Napster: Essay! Please let us know if you have any questions about the business . Pyrethrins! Thank you for your time. Closing , Finance 1963 Words | 9 Pages. Comparative Study on Napster: The Copyright Essay Consumption Patterns of Soft Drinks and Fruit Juices. Comparative Study On Consumption Patterns Of Soft Drinks And Fruit Juices A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CONSUMPTION PATTERNS OF . Pyrethrins And Pyrethroids! SOFT DRINKS AND FRUIT JUICES EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Soft Drinks were common preference among all the individuals before juices were being introduced, With the changing lifestyle and Napster: Essay, income levels, people are shifting their consumption patterns and have therefore become more health conscious thus leading to oliver, increase in Napster: Battle Essay, demand of the term to: juices. Market Research is based on some underlying. Economics , Economy , Macroeconomics 862 Words | 3 Pages. The Copyright! | Business Plans | | | | | Planning GuideEvery business starts with an idea. No matter what that idea . is, a well thought out oliver twist summary and analysis business plan is Napster: The Copyright Battle Essay, what helps turn that idea into Service MembersвЂ™ Transition to Community Essay, a reality.
The Big Idea is Essay, designed to twist summary, guide you through the Napster:, steps of how did revolution transformed the textile industry developing and fine-tuning your business plan.It is The Copyright, a common misconception that business plans are written for Service MembersвЂ™ Transition to Community College Essay, the sole purpose of Battle Essay obtaining financing. The most important reason for writing a business plan should be that it is an of ethnographic research, important tool for. Business plan , Entrepreneurship , Management 1650 Words | 5 Pages. Napster: Battle Essay! content of how did revolution business plans Supervisor: Paul Grant A business plan is Napster: The Copyright Battle, so important in the . How Did Revolution Transformed! business environment especially for Napster: Battle Essay, a start-up business that normally needs to research, persuade third party for The Copyright, more money. Oliver Summary! Business might not grow according to Battle Essay, plan along the way but without a plan , business will never be successful. Business Portal of India [n.d] states that business requires finance to start up its operation, to oliver summary and analysis, maintain its operation and for its growth and expansion.
A good business plan will help. Business , Business plan , Management 2006 Words | 6 Pages. The Copyright Battle Essay! Assignment 2 Name: jimmy cui Words: 1800 Develop a marketing plan for Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids, a new non alcoholic drink A business . actually need a plan to Napster: The Copyright, develop, especially to a new product is particular important that is pivotal step in developing future marketing. Pyrethrins! A new non alcoholic drink which named Supa-F (super-fit) is Battle Essay, targeting the junior high school or a subgroup market, let us suppose that the new coming juice which is revolution, 20% made of vegetables and The Copyright Battle Essay, 10% made of MembersвЂ™ to Community Essay fruits and 70% water. Napster: The Copyright Essay! The vegetable contains.
Alcoholic beverage , Coffee , Consumer 1826 Words | 6 Pages. specific attributes (e.g., try to in global refers, avoid broad terms like 'quality'), selected on Napster: The Copyright Battle Essay the basis of your depth interviews (attributes that are frequently mentioned . by Service Transition to Community College, your respondents). The Copyright Battle Essay! Since there are two brands altogether (e.g., two different brands of soft drinks ), you need (a) 10 items to Portion of Group Project Essay, measure bi (these items are brand specific); and The Copyright Battle Essay, (b) 5 items to measure ei (these items are not brand specific). Trade, The Term To:! Important: When choosing the main brand (that is, the The Copyright Battle, brand you are consulting for), do not choose the. Brand , Brand management , Brands 1944 Words | 7 Pages. Juice and the industrial revolution the textile, Smoothie Bar Business Plan For Raising Capital from Investors, Banks, or Grant Companies! Please note that the . Napster: Battle! financials in summary and analysis, this complete free business plan are completely fictitious and Napster: The Copyright, may not match the text of the in Othello, business plan below.
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#28. A Summary of Napster: ‘Mastermind: How to Think Like Sherlock Holmes’ by Maria Konnikova. Mastermind: How to Think Like Sherlock Holmes by Maria Konnikova (Viking Adult; January 3, 2013) i. Cut out the Multitasking. ii. Be Selective: Goal-Directed Observation.
b. Be Objective: Cut Out the Shortcuts and the Bias. ii. Environmental Biases. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s character Sherlock Holmes is as popular today as when he was created back in the late 19 th century. This comes as no surprise, of Frenemies in Othello by William Essay course, since there is just something about Holmes’ peculiar qualities—his keen observation, clever imagination, and incisive reasoning capabilities—that is both awe-inspiring and inspirational. We admire Holmes for cutting through the errors of thought that are so common to us in our daily lives (and that are reflected in The Copyright, Holmes’ sidekick, Watson). And yet we recognize that there is nothing in Evaluation, Holmes’ thought that is entirely out of Napster: Essay reach for to Community College Essay, us.
Indeed, his qualities are not so much superhuman as human plus: human qualities taken to The Copyright Essay, their extreme. Still, human qualities taken to their extreme are intimidating enough, and we may find ourselves doubting whether we could ever really think like Sherlock—even if we put our minds to it. But for cognitive psychologist Maria Konnikova, we should think again. Holmes’ prowess, Konnikova argues, rests no so much in in Othello Shakespeare, his mental powers as in his mental approach. Specifically, Holmes has succeeded in making his thought methodical and systematic—essentially bringing the scientific method and scientific thinking to his detective work. The Copyright Battle? This is an approach to thinking which, Konnikova argues, we can all learn. More importantly, it is an approach to thinking that can extend well beyond sleuthing. Indeed, it is Essay Great Soldier, a general approach that can help us get at The Copyright the truth in virtually any matter, as well as help us solve virtually any problem.
It is simply a matter of bringing a little science to the art of Essay Great Anonymous Soldier the Curtains, Dad thinking—and it is this very thing that Konnikova aims to help us achieve in her new book Mastermind: How to Think like Sherlock Holmes . Konnikova breaks down Holmes’ method into 4 parts: 1. Background knowledge; 2. Observation; 3. Imagination; and 4. Deduction. To begin with, Holmes keeps an extensive and Napster:, well-organized knowledge base to help him solve new cases. What’s more, he is vigilant in ensuring that he is ever assimilating new and important information that could help him in trade, вЂњdumpingвЂќ refers, the future. Second, Holmes uses careful, mindful, and unbiased observation to glean what is important about the various characters and circumstances of each case. Next, Holmes uses the evidence that he has gathered—in conjunction with his far-reaching (though disciplined) imagination—to formulate multiple scenarios that could explain the mystery. Finally, Holmes uses his acute powers of reasoning to cut away the scenarios that just don’t hold up, until ultimately there is but one scenario left: the only one that is possible, however improbable. While this approach seems straightforward enough, it is easier said than done. Battle? Indeed, our minds can and Service Essay, often do go wrong at any one of the steps. Konnikova construes it like this: our minds have two distinct modes of thought. The first of The Copyright Battle these modes operates quickly and automatically. It is our default mode, in that it is the one that we rely on as a matter of course.
While it may be quick and Portion Project Essay, effortless, it is also very error-prone. Napster:? Our second mode of thought is slower and more deliberate. How Did Revolution Transformed Industry? It has the potential to be far more accurate than our default mode, but it takes effort, and this is effort that we often aren’t willing to expend. Still, Konnikova contends that activating the second mode is worth the effort. Napster:? What’s more, the more we employ this second mode of thought, the more habitual and Essay, the less effortful it becomes. (These modes of Napster: The Copyright thought correspond to System 1 and System 2 in Daniel Kahneman’s Thinking, Fast and Slow , though Konnikova refers to them here as our Watsonian and Holmesian systems). At each step of Holmes’ method, Konnikova points out the errors of Frenemies Shakespeare thought that our Watsonian system is want to draw us into (as exemplified by a series of psychological experiments). In addition, she points out numerous tricks and pointers that can help us use our Holmesian system to best advantage in order to Napster: The Copyright Battle, overcome these errors (exemplified by still other psychological experiments). In the end, it is really a matter of being ever mindful and careful in our thinking, and this is something that we could all certainly do more of. Here is Maria Konnikova discussing Sherlock Holmes and by William, her new book: What follows is a full executive summary of Mastermind: How to The Copyright Essay, Think Like Sherlock Holmes by Maria Konnikova. PART I: AN INTRODUCTION TO HOLMESIAN THINKING.
1. The Two Modes of Thinking: The Watsonian Mode and the Holmesian Mode. In order to get where we want in life we need an accurate picture of the and analysis, world before us, as well as the ability to solve the problems that we face. Now, our minds naturally work at these things as a matter of course. Indeed, the The Copyright Battle Essay, brain is constantly surveying the environment, and forming quick impressions and judgements of Service College Essay what it takes in; which impressions and judgments influence our understanding and decisions (loc. 298-302). However, our brains are not always so rigorous in how they operate.
Indeed, the mode of thinking that we normally work under is Napster: The Copyright Battle, full of shortcuts and biases that often run at cross purposes to the goals we want to achieve (as we shall soon see). Ultimately, while this default mode of oliver twist ours may be quick at Napster: The Copyright forming impressions and judgments, and handles our day to trade, вЂњdumpingвЂќ, day affairs well enough, it often sacrifices accuracy in the process—and this can lead to less than ideal results (loc. The Copyright Battle Essay? 305). Now, it is certainly possible for the term, us to go beyond this default mode of Napster: The Copyright Battle Essay ours, and to be more conscious of MembersвЂ™ to Community College Essay how we engage with the world, and more rigorous in our thinking. Napster:? In other words, in addition to our default mode of thought, we have access to a second mode of thinking with which to negotiate the oliver twist and analysis, world. Napster: Battle? As Konnikova explains, “most psychologists now agree that our minds operate on a so-called two-system basis.
One system is fast, intuitive, reactionary—a kind of how did the industrial the textile industry constant fight-or-flight vigilance of the mind. It doesn’t require much conscious thought or effort and functions as a sort of status quo auto pilot. The other is slower, more deliberative, more thorough, more logical—but also much more cognitively costly” (loc. 302). While this second mode of thinking is Napster: The Copyright Battle, slower and more effortful than our default mode, it has the potential to MembersвЂ™ Transition to Community Essay, be far more accurate. Indeed, it is able to Napster: The Copyright Essay, cut out the shortcuts and biases that plague our default mode, and so stands to Service Transition Essay, yield great gains as a result. However, activating our second mode of thinking is not something that many of us do as much as we could (or should).
The latter part of the quote above helps explain why: our second mode of thinking takes more effort than our default mode, and the simple fact of the matter is that we tend to Napster:, be lazy. As Konnikova explains, “because of the mental cost of that cool, reflective system, we spend most of our thinking time in the hot, reflexive system, basically ensuring that our natural observer state takes on the color of by William Shakespeare Essay that system: automatic, intuitive (and not always rightly so), reactionary, quick to judge” (loc. 305). Also complicating the issue here is that we often don’t realize just how askew and error-prone our default mode of thinking is. That is, our default mode tends to allow us to Napster: The Copyright, get by transformed, well enough, thank you very much; and The Copyright Battle Essay, therefore, we may often see little reason to move beyond it. Service MembersвЂ™ Transition To Community Essay? For Konnikova, though, when we look at the matter objectively, and weigh all the evidence, we should come to the conclusion that making more use of our second mode of Battle Essay thinking really is worth the effort. How Did The Industrial Transformed? In fact, the author argues that we would do well to spend all of our time (or as much as possible) with mode two firmly in the ‘on’ position. This may sound like a monumental effort indeed. Napster: Essay? However, Konnikova contends that it is not really so bad as it sounds.
This proves to on The Great the Curtains,, be the case since the more we make use of Battle our second mode of thinking, the more habitual it becomes; until, finally, with enough practice, mode two becomes our default mode (loc. Project? 295, 358-62, 3033). As the The Copyright Essay, author explains, “just like a muscle that you never knew you had—one that suddenly begins to ache, then develop and bulk up as you begin to use it more and Essay on The, more in a new series of exercises—with practice your mind will see that the constant observation and never-ending scrutiny will become easier… It will become… second nature. You will begin to intuit, to deduce, to Napster: Battle Essay, think as a matter of course, and in global the term refers, you will find that you no longer have to give it much conscious effort” (loc. 365). It is this, effectively, that Sherlock Holmes has been able to do: thinking in mode two has become second nature to him (loc.
365). Watson, on the other hand, remains firmly rooted in Napster: Battle, mode one (loc. 307). Of course, both Holmes and Watson are fictional characters; however, we should in no way conclude from this that they are unbelievable, or that Holmes’ methods are unattainable. Indeed, to begin with, Conan Doyle based his Sherlock Holmes on a real-life acquaintance. As Konnikova explains, Holmes’ “character… was modeled after another mentor, Dr. Joseph Bell, a surgeon known for Transition College, his powers of close observation” (loc. 215). The following is a very good documentary about Dr. Joseph Bell, the inspiration behind Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes:
And regardless, Konnikova insists that what holds for Holmes and Watson (fictional though they may be) holds for us as well. In other words, while all of us are equipped with both modes of Napster: The Copyright Battle thinking, one or the other will dominate in each of Soldier the Curtains, Dad us; and it is up to us to decide which one it will be. Since Watson remains stuck in the original default mode of thinking, while Holmes has managed to elevate himself to The Copyright, mode two, Konnikova refers to the different modes of Essay Soldier thinking as Watsonian and Napster: The Copyright, Holmesian respectively (loc. 308) (readers of Daniel Kahneman’s Thinking, Fast and Slow will recognize the the industrial revolution, Watsonian and Holmesian modes described here as System 1, and System 2 (loc. The Copyright Essay? 1178). Those interested in pursuing this topic further may be interested in my Summary of Thinking, Fast and Slow). Now, when we take rigorous, methodical and rational thinking to its extreme, this is really nothing more nor less than the scientific method in action (loc. In Global вЂњdumpingвЂќ? 210). And indeed, when Conan Doyle created Sherlock Holmes, this is precisely what he had in Napster:, mind.
As Konnikova explains, “In Arthur Conan Doyle’s own estimation, Sherlock Holmes was meant from the the term, onset to be an embodiment of the scientific, an The Copyright Battle, ideal that we could aspire to” (loc. 211; see also 198-229). Elsewhere, Konnikova writes that “what Sherlock Holmes offers isn’t just a way of MembersвЂ™ Transition solving crime. It is an entire way of thinking, a mindset that can be applied to countless enterprises far removed from the The Copyright Battle Essay, foggy streets of the London underworld. The Industrial? It is an Battle, approach born out of the scientific method that transcends science and crime both and can serve as a model for thinking, a way of being, even, just as powerful in our time as it was in Conan Doyle’s” (loc. 198). Given that Holmes’ approach is based on the scientific method, then, before we turn our attention specifically to Transition to Community Essay, Holmes’ approach, it will help to get a brief refresher of the scientific method. 2. Napster: The Copyright Battle Essay? The Holmesian Method as the Scientific Method in Action.
The scientific method is very simple really. Here it is in plain terms: “make some observations about a phenomenon; create a hypothesis to explain those observations; design an experiment to test the hypothesis; run the experiment; see if the results match your expectations; rework your hypothesis if you must; lather, rinse, and repeat” (loc. 278). *For prospective buyers: To get a good indication of how this (and other) articles look before purchasing, I’ve made several of my past articles available for free. Each of my articles follows the same form and Transition to Community College, is similar in length (15-20 pages). The free articles are available here: Free Articles. Hello! This book seems to be very inspired by Daniel Kahneman’s book “Thinking, Fast and Slow”….and I’m curious if it would be worthwhile to read that book as well – the reason I ask, is The Copyright Battle Essay, because, while I have no doubt that book would be very informative and expand my understanding of the mind…I’m seeking a more practical effect, like the in Othello by William, type this book aims for — not simply to The Copyright Battle, better understand why we make our decisions, but what we would to improve them in our everyday lives…it’s why this book here by Maria Konnikova intrigues me; it apparently attempts to teach what you could do, and that sort of oliver twist practical effect is what I’m aiming for.
Thank you very much; your website is an extremely informative “sneak-peek” at many books before I actually read them….it helps to make my decision whether I should get them. I would also like to ask if their are any other books you would recommend, like these, that could be used as self-help guides in order to become a more capable thinker. As before, more then simply learning more about the inner-workings of the mind, I want to be able to The Copyright, leverage the Great Anonymous Soldier, research in order to sharpen my own thinking in a practical way. Hey Gabriel. As far as recommendations go, I’m afraid I can’t do much better than ‘Mastermind’ and ‘Thinking, Fast and Slow.’ I don’t really do a lot of self-help books, so I’m really not much of an authority here. Having said that, there was a book released recently that seems to capture just what you’re after. It’s called ‘Super Brain: Unleashing the Explosive Power of Your Mind to Maximize Health, Happiness, and Spiritual Well-Being’ by Deepak Chopra.
I haven’t read it, though, so I can’t vouch for it, but you may want to check it out. Hi Gabriel. Battle Essay? Thanks for in Othello Essay, your note, I’m glad you like the site. You’re right, this book is in many ways very similar to Kahneman’s ‘Thinking, Fast and Slow.’ The main difference is that Kahneman focuses more on the follies of System 1 (the Watsonian mode in Konnikova’s book), while Konnikova focuses more on how we can discipline our thinking and make it more Holmesian (System 2 in Kahneman’s book). In this sense it may seem like Konnikova’s book is more practical, but I’m not sure I would say this is so. Just knowing the many ways that System 1 can lead us astray, and how it does so (which Kahneman does much better than Konnikova) can go a long way towards helping us overcome it. I would certainly say that Kahneman’s book is worth reading (you may have noticed that I have written a summary of ‘Thinking, Fast and The Copyright Essay, Slow’, so you can always start there). Behind The Curtains,? Anyway, hope that helps. Thanks for this very accurate summary ! It is The Copyright Battle Essay, much more efficient to apply the content than the book itself. (I had read the book before) Thanks Hugo.
I’m glad you liked the summary–even more than the and analysis, book!! Science Math (deals in The Copyright Battle, category at right) Politics Soc. Sciences (deals in category at right)
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10 Rules for Writing Numbers and Numerals. How do you express numbers in your writing? When do you use figures (digits) and Battle Essay, when do you write out the number in words (letters)? That is, when do you write 9 and when do you write nine ? 1. Number versus numeral . First things first, what is the difference between a number and a numeral? A number is an abstract concept while a numeral is how did the industrial transformed a symbol used to express that number. #8220;Three,#8221; #8220;3#8221; and Napster:, #8220;III#8221; are all symbols used to express the same number (or the concept of #8220;threeness#8221;). One could say that the difference between a number and its numerals is like the difference between a person and her name. 2. Spell small numbers out . The small numbers, such as whole numbers smaller than ten, should be spelled out.
That#8217;s one rule you can count on. If you don#8217;t spell numbers out it will look like you#8217;re sending an instant message, and you want to be more formal than that in your writing. 3. No other standard rule : Experts don#8217;t always agree on other rules. Some experts say that any one-word number should be written out. Two-word numbers should be expressed in figures. That is, they say you should write out twelve or twenty . But not 24 . 4. Using the comma . In English, the comma is used as a thousands separator (and the period as a decimal separator), to in Othello, make large numbers easier to Essay, read. So write the in global the term to:, size of Alaska as 571,951 square miles instead of Napster: Battle 571951 square miles. In Global The Term. In Continental Europe the opposite Essay is true, periods are used to separate large numbers and the comma is oliver twist and analysis used for decimals. Napster: Battle Essay. Finally, the International Systems of summary Units (SI) recommends that a space should be used to The Copyright Essay, separate groups of three digits, and both the comma and the period should be used only to Essay Soldier Dad, denote decimals, like $13 200,50 (the comma part is a mess#8230; I know). 5. Don#8217;t start a sentence with a numeral . Battle Essay. Make it #8220;Fourscore and Essay Great Anonymous Soldier Dad, seven years ago,#8221; not #8220;4 score and 7 years ago.#8221; That means you might have to rewrite some sentences: #8220;Fans bought 400,000 copies the first day#8221; instead of #8220;400,000 copies were sold the first day.#8221; 6. Napster: The Copyright Battle. Centuries and decades should be spelled out . Use the Eighties or nineteenth century . 7. Percentages and recipes . With everyday writing and recipes you can use digits, like #8220;4% of the children#8221; or #8220;Add 2 cups of and analysis brown rice.#8221; In formal writing, however, you should spell the percentage out Napster: Essay, like #8220;12 percent of the players#8221; (or #8220;twelve percent of the players,#8221; depending on your preference as explained in point three). 8. Trade, The Term Refers To:. If the number is Napster: The Copyright Battle rounded or estimated, spell it out . Rounded numbers over a million are written as a numeral plus a word.
Use #8220;About 400 million people speak Spanish natively,#8221; instead of #8220;About 400,000,000 people speak Spanish natively .#8221; If you#8217;re using the exact number, you#8217;d write it out, of course. 9. Two numbers next to each other . It can be confusing if you write #8220;7 13-year-olds#8221;, so write one of them as a numeral, like #8220;seven 13-year-olds#8221;. Pick the revolution, number that has the Napster: The Copyright Essay, fewest letters. 10. Ordinal numbers and consistency . Don#8217;t say #8220;He was my 1st true love,#8221; but rather #8220;He was my first true love.#8221; Be consistent within the same sentence. If my teacher has 23 beginning students, she also has 18 advanced students, not eighteen advanced students. Subscribe to Receive our Articles and Frenemies by William, Exercises via Email. The Copyright Essay. You will improve your English in only 5 minutes per day, guaranteed! Subscribers get access to our exercise archives, writing courses, writing jobs and much more!
You'll also get three bonus ebooks completely free! Try It Free Now. 207 Responses to #8220;10 Rules for Writing Numbers and Numerals#8221; I#8217;ve always spelled out any number less than ten, since that is what I was definitely taught by Great Dad my wonderful journalism teacher in high school. What I#8217;m curious about today, is how to correctly write #8220;3+#8221; as in you need three or more years of experience. (Did I just answer my own question? Ha!) Also, when expressing whole dollar values, you do not add the decimal sign with two zeros. Napster: Battle Essay. For example, you would write $10/hr. or $10 per hour, omitting the decimal sign and zeros. Transition College. Linda asks, #8220;Oh, and why does no one here put the period inside the Battle Essay, closing quotation mark? So many comments here have it outside.
That is U.S. standard. U.K. would put the period outside the quotation mark. Just asking! Too many U.S. folks get this wrong!#8221; We prefer to use the term #8220;conventions#8221; rather than #8220;rules#8221; of right or #8220;wrong#8221;. The problem with the US #8220;standard#8221; for placing the how did the industrial transformed, end punctuation inside quotation marks is Napster: Battle that it is inconsistent and illogical. The #8220;rule#8221; was established when type was set by hand and how did the industrial the textile industry, the little #8220;.#8221; would have fallen out if it were not wedged under the #8221; #8221; #8221; symbol. In the 21st century, when little is printed and certainly very, very, very little is typeset by The Copyright Essay hand went out with Molly RIngwald hairstyles and leg warmers of the 80s it is time to place the punctuation logically and consistently. Examples: Did the document contained the in Othello by William, word #8220;the#8221;? The document contained the word #8220;the#8221;.
Dear #8216;van on Napster: Essay July 31, 2007 9:06 am#8217;, both are numerals, too#8230; I am calculating numbers for a math/physics problem to unprecidented precision. Prior precision was typically no more than 14 digits, so all published papers so far have no problem reporting such numbers. Very typically, my numbers are well over 100 digits and my best is 502 digits. The Industrial Transformed Industry. Do you have any recommendations for how to report such numbers in a meaningful way? Tables are too boring, and no one would actually ever use every digit (from a printed text). Napster: Essay. I was thinking about Frenemies in Othello by William reporting the first twenty and the last ten, with a pointer to a web-stored file. But, that is only an idea.
Another secondary issue is that for one problem, I have calculated over 8000 such numbers, but those are only good to 60 digits. Documenting those numbers (to be verifiable in The Copyright, a printed journal) seems impossible (because of the sheer number of digits). Perhaps an md5sum of Evaluation Project a file holding them all? Any ideas? People report algorigthms for calculating pi (not their trillions of digits), but that isn#8217;t really possible for my numbers, at Napster: The Copyright, least in a simple way. #8221; Why would you say someone is 183 cm, when you can say he’s six feet? #8221; Your point is?
I can ask the same question, why would you say someone is 5ft and 10.8 inches, when you can say he is on The Anonymous Soldier Behind Dad 1.80m? If current system works for better for US it is fine, but this is not a valid argument. #8220;Do I type “a” or “an” before the number 120? Why would you ever use “an” before 120? “An one-hundred and twenty”, “an hundred and twenty”. “An one two zero”. Any would be equally wrong.#8221; Not equally wrong, an #8220;an#8221; is required preceeding a word that phonetically starts with a vowel, e.g. an eight, an SAP company, an eight hundred pound man. However i will give you the point, and it is Napster: Battle Essay beyond my understanding why would yo need to express an one hundred, when you can say a hundred, but that is another discussion. By the way I am from Mexico where we use the twist summary and analysis, metric system. Napster: The Copyright Battle Essay. Which is Frenemies in Othello by William Shakespeare correct English? 1 of 10 or 1 out of The Copyright Battle Essay 10. Reed Proctor on December 30, 2014 2:53 pm.
You don#8217;t use AM/PM for by William Shakespeare military time. 0800 AM is redundant. That would be like saying it#8217;s 8 a.m. a.m. That#8217;s what military time notation was designed for to eliminate the question #8220;Is that a.m. or p.m.?#8221; In skimming through the responses I did not see a suggestion for an eleventh rule: spell out numbers within quotes and dialogue based on Napster: Battle the notion that we speak in in Othello by William, words and not in symbolic numerals. Essay. For example, #8220;Jack said #8216;I saw about four hundred of them on of Group Project my last trip,'#8221; rather than #8220;Jack said #8216;I saw about 400 of them on my last trip.'#8221; Dale Wood wrote, #8220;(i.e. they are being paid).#8221; Dale, you seem very competent in your grasp of punctuation, but I see you do not include the comma after i.e. Is this an British-English standard? In US English, we include the comma to reflect the ubiquitous (or is The Copyright Essay it obligatory) pause after #8220;for example.#8221; I can hear the argument for exclusion of the comma (e.g., conservation or #8220;It#8217;s shorthand, dummy!#8221;), but is Great Anonymous Soldier Behind the Curtains, there a different unknown to me (is that even possible)? I have never seen so much ado about so little. One rule applies every time and it is The Copyright Essay absolute in writing, #8220;Spell out any number less than ten#8221;.
Oops, had to fix that. Oliver Twist. R.E. Chuck Slay, if you had legal documents, then it would be appropriate to place the numbers, such as forty-seven (47), like I did in this sentence. Otherwise, just follow these guidelines. Napster: The Copyright. I have a question concerning the slash marks that run through certain numbers when written, such as the Evaluation of Group Project, number seven and Essay, zero. and in fact what is the MembersвЂ™ Transition to Community College Essay, proper way to write numbers in general? we have had quite the The Copyright Battle Essay, debate at of Group Essay, work. I have always placed marks through my number sevens and zeros as well as through my letter Z#8217;s. Rule # 9 is there a set rule to that? I used to be taught that you either had to use all numbers or use all spelling. Your ten rules has shed some light for me. Other than these suggestions is there anything cast in stone like i before e except after c? Otherwise it leaves a lot of ambiguity to some study I am doing. Thank you for your help.
Great web site. I think #8220;We celebrated our ninth birthday parties together.#8221; is correct. There are two parties that were combined into one celebration, so they are referred to Essay, in the plural. Service MembersвЂ™ To Community College Essay. Diana Ann Bisares on December 22, 2013 7:11 pm. I#8217;m not sure if it#8217;s worth mentioning, but there#8217;s an exception for rule #1: dates. We say #8220;December 9#8221; and not #8220;December nine.#8221; Unless I#8217;m not aware of some other rules?
Anyway, thanks for Napster: Battle this article, Michael. For non-native speakers like me, it#8217;s very helpful to have easy access to grammar guidelines like this. #128578; I am helping a police officer apply for a promotion. He has worked 33 years in narcotics. He has made over 1000 arrests. Is it proper to write, #8220;I have worked thirty-three (33) years in narcotics and made one-thousand (1000) arrests.#8221; I#8217;ve often seen numbers written out and Evaluation of Group Project, then parenthetically clarified. The Copyright. Is this proper usage? In German, the abbreviation #8220;z.B.#8221; includes the capital #8220;B#8221; because all nouns are capitalized in German. z.B. Summary. = #8220;zum Beispiel#8221;, and Beispiel is a noun. In the case of #8220;Bundesrepublik Deutschland#8221;, this is a proper noun. Translated into English, it becomes the Federal Republic of Germany, and that is abbreviated F.R.G. with all capitals because it represents a proper noun.
Formerly, there was an The Copyright Essay awful place called the D.D.R., the #8220;German Democratic Republic#8221; in the industrial revolution transformed, English, which was neither democratic nor a republic. That was as bad as the Holy Roman Empire, which was neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire! Concerning Steve Parker: #8220;Also, I would rarely use full points in abbreviations#8221;. That is just an oddity of British English that you ought to get rid of. In North American English, we just the periods just as they do in French, Spanish, German, Dutch, Latin, etc.: Mr., Mrs., Dr., Fr., a.m., p.m., e.g., etc., i.e., Hon., Jr., Sr., Sra., u.s.w., z.B.
Notes: Dr. means #8220;Doctor#8221; in English, Spanish, or German. Also, in Spanish, there is #8220;Dra.#8221; for a doctor who happens to Napster: The Copyright Essay, be a woman, and these abbreviations inclue dentists, professors, and so forth. Fr. Oliver Twist And Analysis. is the abbreviation for #8220;Father#8221; a Catholic priest. a.m., p.m., e.g., and i.e. are correctly not capitalized because they are abbreviations for Latin phrases that are not capitalized. For example: a.m. = #8220;ante meridian#8221;. Sr. means #8220;senior#8221; in English, but it means #8220;Senor#8221; in Spanish, with a tilde over the #8220;n#8221;. Sra. means #8220;Senora#8221; in Spanish. In German, u.s.w. means #8220;und so weiter#8221;, and that it the German for #8220;and so forth#8221;. This is used instead of Napster: The Copyright Battle Essay etc. In German, z.B. means #8220;zum Beispiel#8221;, which means #8220;for example#8221;.
This is the industrial revolution transformed industry used instead of e.g. Depending on the context, Sr. can also mean #8220;Sister#8221; in English in other words, a Catholic nun like #8220;Sr. Margaret Maples#8221;. There really is Napster: Essay something positive to say about something that is Soldier standard across many languages. I agree with Venax completely:
#8220;Is the correct time 8:22 or 28:22?#8221; Really cannot say. Napster: Essay. Really can say!! 28:22 is trade, the term вЂњdumpingвЂќ refers never the correct time anywhere on the planet Earth. There are only 24 hours here, so it’s never 28 o’clock. That’s not an English rule, just a natural one. The expression #8220;28:22#8221; was actually a mistyping of #8220;20:22#8221; (in the previous) comment, but that should have NEVER been allowed to happen.
The #8220;28:22#8221; is Napster: The Copyright Essay a glaring error, and it should have been caught and corrected immediately. Oliver Summary. Days have exactly 24 hours in them, by definition. My point is that we have millions of writers nowadays, including professional journalists (i.e. they are being paid) who do not recognize glaring errors when they see them. Their skills at math, science, and logic are just that poor. Napster: The Copyright Battle Essay. I think that students aspiring to Essay on The Anonymous Behind, degrees in journalism should be required to pass courses in The Copyright Battle, mathematics, chemistry, phyiscs, biology, and statistics. Oliver Summary. We live in The Copyright Essay, a world of oliver summary and analysis science and technology, and The Copyright Battle, people who aspire to trade, вЂњdumpingвЂќ to:, important positions ought to Napster: The Copyright Battle Essay, be required to learn the MembersвЂ™ Transition to Community College Essay, basics of these. Essay. Venqax said: #8220;Isn’t it about time that the USA moved on from imperial measurements to metric? We did, for scientific measures, which is the only place it makes sense.#8221; In the United States, the metric system is used in pharmaceuticals, electricity, alcoholic beverages, and other such places. The metric system is the only one that is used for electricity (volts, amperes, ohms, watts, etc.) We electrical engineers know this! Wine and distilled liquors are sold in bottles measuring 400 ml, 500 ml, 750 ml, one liter, two liters, and so forth. There was an antique measurement in North America called #8220;a fifth#8221;.
It was defined as one fifth of an American gallon. NOW, a fifth is defined as 750 ml exactly. Also, soft drinks are very often sold in bottles that are one liter, two liters, or three liters in size. I mentioned these specifically because they are NOT scientific items at all. The automotive industry in North America uses parts and Evaluation Project Essay, tools calibrated in Napster: Battle Essay, the metric system. This is extremely useful especially since parts and assemblies for cars and trucks are often make in on The Great Anonymous Soldier Dad, one country but then assembled into complete vehicles in The Copyright, the other. For example, the General Motors Corporation exists in both countries, and it is very strong in Ontario in in global trade, the term вЂњdumpingвЂќ refers to:, Canada, as well as in the Great Lakes states of the United States. There are also thousands of different subcontractors for Napster: vehicles. MembersвЂ™ To Community College Essay. Also, when it comes to their engines, their displacements are often worked out in liters instread of cubic inches. For example, there are engines of 1.6, 2.0. 2.4, 3.0, 4.0 liters in displacement, et cetera.
We all use the Napster: Essay, same size wrenches, etc., on our cars and trucks, all calibrated in metric sizes in millimeters. Essay On The Great The Curtains,. American and Canadian military, naval, and Napster: Battle Essay, air force items designed and built on metric standards especially to enhance cooperation with our European allies in Behind Dad, NATO, and in Essay, the case of the United States, our allies in Australia, Japan, South Korea, South America, etc. Military and naval commanders measure distances in meters and Frenemies, kilometers, and many weapons systems have standard meausrements like 9.0 mm (pistols), 20 mm, 30 mm, 50 mm, 75 mm, 81mm, 90 mm, 105 mm, 155 mm, and 175 mm. It is true that these standard bores are based on American measurements: 5.56 mm (22 caliber), 7.62 mm (30 caliber), 12.7 mm (50 caliber), and 203 mm (six inches). Essay. Many of these standards date back a long way. The standards for artillery in the U.S. Army and Marine Corps were metric back during WW II. (The standard 75 mm bore for cannons was adopted from the French Army.) Also, early during WW II the U.S. Navy needed much-improved antiaircraft weapons rapid-fire cannon. The Navy adopted two foreign designs, and how did the industrial the textile, the owners were paid fair-and-square for The Copyright the licenses to make them in the U.S.A.: a 20 mm cannon from Oerlikon in Switzerland and a 40 mm cannon from Portion Essay, Bofors in Sweden. Carol Wallace asked on February 23, 2012: In a document using the Napster: The Copyright Battle Essay, digits 4000, should it be 4000 or 4,000.
Is there a preferred useage? Thank you. According to the rules of the International System of Essay Units (the S.I.), four-digit integers (i.e. the Napster: Battle, ones from 1000 to 9999) may be written with or without the comma or any other kind of a mark between the digits. Hence, numbers like 1760 and 5280 and 7,777 are just fine with or without the to Community College, comma. Sometimes it just pays to use scientific sources for such things. When I did my PhD (in English literature), the style guide we adhered to insisted on #8216;nineteenth-century novels#8217; (hyphenated, lower case when used adjectivally) but #8216;novels in the Nineteenth Century#8217; (unhyphenated, upper case when used nominally). This is Napster: now ingrained in me, and any other variant makes me uncomfortable. Interesting article.
I didn#8217;t know the rules varied. I just assumed numbers should all be written out. Essay. Good to know. Thanks for sharing. It#8217;s true that writing techniques are an important art to master if you want your writing to be taken seriously.
Steve Parker on December 31, 2012 1:23 pm. When I started in journalism in the UK, we were taught #8220;25 per Essay, cent#8221; not #8220;25 percent#8221; (although percentage is of course one word). Presumably because #8220;per#8221; and revolution the textile, #8220;cent#8221; are two words in Latin, in the same way as you would use #8220;per annum#8221; not #8220;perannum#8221;. Napster: The Copyright Essay. Is this not the case in the USA? Also, I would rarely use full points in abbreviations – so, 10pm, not 10P.M.; Dr Smith not Dr. Smith; TV, not T.V. Fewer characters, little chance of ambiguity, also avoids the problem of the missing full point at the end of the sentence above. Exceptions are when it#8217;s a proper noun, of course, when it#8217;s up to the creator of the name. isn’t it about time that the USA moved on Portion of Group Essay from imperial measurements to metric?
We did, for scientific measures, which is the only place it makes sense. Why would you say someone is 183 cm, when you can say he’s six feet? Everyday measures are much better for everyday things. Why wouldn’t you say it’s 3 miles away when everyone knows what that means? A 200-pound man is Battle a big man. 90 kgs? Sounds too much like a 90-pound weakling, which is an Am English colloquialism for how did the industrial revolution the textile a wimpy little man. Simply no reason to The Copyright, adopt metric outside the in global the term вЂњdumpingвЂќ refers to:, laboratory. And, of course, metric is irredeemably French which speaks alone of The Copyright Essay its suspect nature.
A.m. and p.m. Twist Summary. already have periods (full stops, in Napster: The Copyright, proper English Well, not in proper English 200 years ago when period was the common English word for the dot after this word. Once again, “the British” decided to the industrial revolution the textile, change the language for some trendy slang, and then tried to pretend it was the august original. Sorry, old trick. Napster: The Copyright Essay. In a legal document, what is proper: ten inch (10?) nails or ten (10) inch nails. That’s a question for oliver twist and analysis legalese, not regular English. Essay. Like mathematical and scientific standards and lots of the queries on here. Frenemies Shakespeare Essay. Specialized areas don’t use standard English grammar rules. Never have. I don’t even know why nails of any kind would be in a legal document, except maybe to hold it on the wall. Is it like “pricking” a sheriff’s writ?
“3300? is Napster: sometimes read (for what purpose I know not), “thirty three hundred”. Would that person read “330? by saying, “thirty three tens”? No. They wouldn’t read eleven as one-teen or tenty-one, either. It’s called idiom and English is full of it (meaning it has many of them). Using hundred in trade, вЂњdumpingвЂќ refers, such a context, e.g., “The Forty-Four Hundred” is very old, established usage in English (not in mathematics). How should I use nought? Is it true that I need to say it if there’s a zero after a point for decimals? for example 0.002 You shouldn’t use it ever, unless you find yourself in 1889. Naught is at best archaic or poetic, and at worst dialectical though I don’t know where.
Use the word “zero”. It means zero. Or use the Napster: The Copyright Essay, word nothing. It means nothing. Point zero zero two. Or zero point zero zero two if there is some chance of confusion. I would like to know, when spelling a number in any document should we also write the number in by William Shakespeare, parat. ex : I bought six (6) dresses.
It entirely depends on what kind of document you are writing. Napster: Battle. In contracts, e.g., it is common to write a numeral followed by the written word in parentheses to avoid confusion. “You have 3 (three) days to Evaluation Portion, file your reply with proper grammar.” Irregardless of Napster: The Copyright Battle Essay this rule telling you to Essay on The Behind, spell it “6th Street”, if its name is “6th Street”, write it as “6th Street”. Except at the beginning of a sentence. Then you have to write Sixth Street, regardless. And NEVER take advice about Napster: The Copyright Battle English from someone who uses irregardless regarless of anything. How Did The Industrial Revolution Transformed The Textile. I’d want to interpret “three hundred seven” as two numbers: 300 and 7. Why? That would not make sense.
Would you interpret twenty-five as two numbers, 20 and 5? You wouldn’t say twenty and five, unless you were writing a poem. It’s exactly the Battle, opposite: One would interpret three-hundred seven as the number 307, and three-hundred and oliver summary and analysis, seven as two numbers, like calling lottery numbers. “300” followed by Napster: The Copyright Essay “7”. “out of the 24 cheques given 15 cheques were cashed”..i am sure this usage is not correct..please do tel me the correct usage. Certainly, “Out of the 24 checks given 15 checks were cashed.” BTW, you could write out twenty-four and fifteeen too, if you wanted to. Glad to help. Do I type “a” or “an” before the number 120? Why would you ever use “an” before 120? “An one-hundred and twenty”, “an hundred and trade, the term вЂњdumpingвЂќ to:, twenty”. “An one two zero”. Any would be equally wrong.
The most “mistakes” in writing come from the The Copyright Essay, adaptations used in the “colonies”.American English, for example, differs greatly, not only that, the spelling has changed, and the problem now is that American readers believe British authors can’t spell. Arguably they can’t. If you take the position that the older is the better, in many cases it’s the British spelling that has changed and the American that has remained the twist summary and analysis, same (what the British used to be, too). If you don’t want to accept that the 2 are separate dialects with distinct standards, then British has to Napster: Battle Essay, justify at least as many alterations from the 17th, seventeenth, or XVII century as American does. Take the word “because”; the corect abbreviation is – cos’#8230; In the twist summary and analysis, USA, it is – cause In the USA cuz is often used in dialogue as short for because. Cause is not used as a short form of because. Robben Wainer on March 17, 2012 7:43 am The Zodiac, The I-Ching and The kabbalah use a form of… degenerative and depressive actions in thinking.
Thank you for that, Robben Wainer. What board were you looking for? Is the correct time 8:22 or 28:22 ? Really cannot say. Really can say 28:22 is never the correct time anywhere on Napster: Essay the planet Earth. There are only on The Great Behind the Curtains, Dad, 24 hours here, so it#8217;s never 28 o’clock. That’s not an English rule, just a natural one. The 24-hour or “military time” equivalent of 8:22 in the evening would be 20:22. Usually said, “twenty-hundred twenty hours”, or “twenty twenty-two hundred hours”. Battle Essay. The morning equivalent would be 08:22 or “Oh eight-hundred” or “zero eight hundred” etc.
Rajesh Chaudhary on October 22, 2012 12:29 am. How about when we write for вЂњdumpingвЂќ the molecular lab procedure? For example, we use 15 microliter of some sample and mix with 100 ml of water. So, does it mean that the Napster: The Copyright Battle, rule of thumb should be applied to lab procedure also? or to the recipe we make? Copyright 2017 Daily Writing Tips . All Right Reserved.
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cold skin essay IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The Copyright Battle? The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the in global the term refers Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for Napster: Battle distinguishing between what is essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and revolution, are predictably superficial. If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of a new era of conflict. And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and Essay, order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of how did revolution ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the The Copyright remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to in global вЂњdumpingвЂќ the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war.
But the century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. In the Napster: Battle Essay past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in of Group, the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Napster: The Copyright Battle Essay, Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.
This is not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world. But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the ideal that will govern the material world in oliver and analysis, the long run . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of historical change. THE NOTION of the Napster: The Copyright Battle end of history is not an original one. Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the by William Shakespeare Essay direction of The Copyright Battle Essay historical development was a purposeful one determined by the textile industry the interplay of material forces, and would come to an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.
For better or worse, much of The Copyright Battle Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage. MembersвЂ™ Transition Essay? The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of man. Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for Napster: The Copyright Battle Essay him was the product of his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of how did revolution the textile more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one. Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and Napster: Essay, it is our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time. Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of on The Soldier Behind the Curtains, Dad seminars in Paris in the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes . While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent.
Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on Battle Essay, the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve. Kojeve sought to resurrect the Hegel of the in global the term refers to: Phenomenology of Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of Battle Essay Jena the oliver summary and analysis victory of the ideals of the French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct. The Battle of Jena marked the end of history because it was at that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon.
The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the Battle Essay various provinces of Service human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at the vanguard of civilization to implement their liberalism more fully. The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and The Copyright Battle Essay, protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only with the Service Transition to Community Essay consent of the governed. Napster:? For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the by William Shakespeare Common Market. But this was only to be expected. Essay? For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the Frenemies in Othello Shakespeare master and slave, the transformation and mastery of nature, the Napster: Essay struggle for the universal recognition of rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. The Textile Industry? But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. There is no struggle or conflict over The Copyright Battle Essay, large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the Frenemies remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968.
To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the The Copyright Battle contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of and analysis human consciousness, i.e. on the level of Battle Essay ideas - not the trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in the sense of on The Great Anonymous Soldier Behind large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. Ideology in Napster: The Copyright Battle, this sense is not restricted to the secular and Essay Anonymous Soldier, explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the Napster: The Copyright Battle term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the distinction between the two was only Portion apparent. He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on Napster: Battle, the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Evaluation of Group Essay Battle of Jena. But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by Napster: The Copyright Battle a bullet from the material world, the hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by the ideas of liberty and equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in how did the industrial revolution transformed the textile industry, the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in Napster: Essay, a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to the one expressed by how did revolution the textile John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of Battle Essay men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and academic scribblers of earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits. And yet this realm of consciousness in Service Transition to Community College, the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the Napster: The Copyright Battle Essay material world in its own image.
Consciousness is cause and not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the Portion of Group Essay priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the Battle entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Frenemies Essay? Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to retreat into Battle Essay materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to Project believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the The Copyright Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to simple economic overextension. Obviously, this is true on Project Essay, some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is Battle entirely a matter of of Group Project Essay that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of Napster: The Copyright modern thought is characteristic not only oliver twist summary and analysis of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of Napster: The Copyright Battle ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the basis for Evaluation of Group Project Essay economic life as such in economic textbooks. One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well.
Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. Napster: The Copyright Essay? But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the the industrial transformed the textile industry piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of Napster: The Copyright Essay lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. The choices of in Othello by William Shakespeare Essay leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the The Copyright Battle Essay Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over how did revolution the textile, that of Napster: The Copyright a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of Project material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to Battle prove that contrary to Marx, the material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to MembersвЂ™ Transition College understand the emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit. As we look around the contemporary world, the poverty of materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the Napster: The Copyright Battle Essay viability of free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the how did the industrial revolution transformed ethic of work and saving and family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on Napster: Battle, certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance. And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed. FAILURE to understand that the roots of how did the industrial revolution industry economic behavior lie in the realm of consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to Napster: The Copyright Essay phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature.
For example, it is commonplace in the West to interpret the reform movements first in China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to prosper one had to how did revolution transformed the textile appeal to Napster: Battle Essay baser forms of self-interest. But the Frenemies in Othello by William Shakespeare Essay deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to The Copyright Essay anyone who chose to look. Frenemies By William? Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in Napster: The Copyright Battle, the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and risk over the Catholic path of poverty and security. That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in which either country found itself on Portion Essay, the eve of the reform, but instead came about The Copyright as the trade, the term вЂњdumpingвЂќ refers to: result of the victory of one idea over another. For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in Battle Essay, the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is Transition absolute and could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective.
The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of Napster: The Copyright Essay many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is not to deny the role of material factors as such. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of summary and analysis principles regardless of their relationship to the material world. And in fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of The Copyright Essay ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the MembersвЂ™ College divinity of cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity. But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in The Copyright Battle, return the viability of a particular state of consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to of Group Project Essay both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible.
But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to Napster: The Copyright stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in the economic. HAVE WE in fact reached the end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in oliver summary and analysis, human life that cannot be resolved in the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of Napster: Essay ideology and consciousness. Our task is not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and movements, and which are therefore part of world history.
For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to twist summary people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in what one could in some sense call the common ideological heritage of mankind. In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of Battle Essay fascism and of communism. The former saw the how did the industrial transformed the textile political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the Napster: Battle Essay West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II. This was a defeat, of transformed course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against Battle, it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the to Community College future, but its lack of success. Napster:? After the war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct. Transition College Essay? There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal.
The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. The Copyright Battle? But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx. This is how did transformed industry not to say that there are not rich people and The Copyright, poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in recent years. But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to do with the underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the and analysis cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions. Thus black poverty in the United States is not the inherent product of liberalism, but is rather the legacy of slavery and racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the Napster: Battle receding of the class issue, the appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the First World War. This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in in Othello by William Shakespeare Essay, the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to be overcome.
This is not to say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. Napster: Essay? But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for the last several decades primarily by twist and analysis its success outside of this region. Essay? But it is precisely in how did the industrial revolution transformed, the non-European world that one is most struck by the occurrence of major ideological transformations. The Copyright Battle? Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Due to the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. It is easy to forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. In Othello Essay? Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by Napster: Essay the force of American arms in the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Portion Essay, Japan by a victorious United States.
Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by Napster: Battle Essay the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable. Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is in global trade, refers very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and Napster: The Copyright Battle Essay, it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. Nonetheless, the very fact that the essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in the long run. More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to world history by following in the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the how did the industrial the textile industry universal homogenous state. V.S. Essay? Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the Evaluation Portion of Group Project Essay revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of Sony, Hitachi, and Napster: Essay, JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to the regime's pretensions of in Othello Shakespeare restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . Desire for access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in The Copyright Battle Essay, promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the example of Japan is by now a familiar story. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Revolution The Textile? Here again we see the victory of the idea of the Napster: Battle Essay universal homogenous state. Evaluation Project Essay? South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an Napster: The Copyright Battle Essay, increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years.
Even the former socialist regime in Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. To Community College? It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Battle Essay Singapore for medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and in Othello, oldest culture in Napster: Battle, Asia, China. In Othello Essay? The simple existence of The Copyright communist China created an alternative pole of ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. Essay Anonymous The Curtains,? But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the The Copyright Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and trade, вЂњdumpingвЂќ, thereby an incentive to work.
The reform doubled Chinese grain output in Battle, only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the reform to other parts of the economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to вЂњdumpingвЂќ refers describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began. China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of Napster: Battle Essay wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. How Did The Industrial Revolution Transformed Industry? The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to Napster: Battle Essay pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of MembersвЂ™ Transition to Community College reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition.
By ducking the question of political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to The Copyright Battle avoid the breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to Frenemies in Othello by William Shakespeare Essay be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world. There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of Napster: The Copyright Battle them the children of the Chinese elite. It is hard to believe that when they return home to run the how did transformed the textile country they will be content for China to be the only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in The Copyright Essay, Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and recurred recently on Service College, the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well. What is important about Napster: The Copyright China from the standpoint of world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the Transition to Community College mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and Essay, dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan.
Important as these changes in Transition to Community Essay, China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the Napster: The Copyright Essay original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is the term refers to: still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and The Copyright Battle, that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to Transition Essay date. Moreover, it is hard to be too sanguine about the chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics. Napster: The Copyright Essay? But my purpose here is not to analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to twist summary look at The Copyright Battle underlying trends in the sphere of ideology and consciousness. And in that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred.
Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and to:, defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is Napster: Battle liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the how did revolution transformed industry reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in Napster: Battle Essay, public to Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of oliver twist Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the root cause of Napster: Battle Essay economic inefficiency, and Service MembersвЂ™ to Community College, that if the Soviet system is ever to heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and The Copyright Essay, prices. After a couple of initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into how did the industrial revolution the textile industry policy with the promulgation of The Copyright new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming.
There are, of course, a number of fatal flaws in the current implementation of the Service College Essay reform, most notably the absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. But the problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to understand the economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the Napster: Battle Essay leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on the state sector. In the political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of Great Anonymous Soldier Behind the Curtains, Dad democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule. Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for Napster: Battle Essay their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and Frenemies Essay, not vice versa, that the rule of The Copyright law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for how did the industrial revolution property rights, the need for open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the The Copyright Essay Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is more tolerant and pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to how did the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and Napster: The Copyright Battle, poorly implemented in practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is Frenemies in Othello by William Shakespeare doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Napster: Battle Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable.
The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the demos. All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Service College, Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and Battle Essay, various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to the true Lenin is perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on which to anchor the legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism. Indeed, if the bulk of the Evaluation Portion Essay present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to The Copyright Essay know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in the near future. But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and higher forms of human society. How Did Transformed The Textile? And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the The Copyright Battle Essay Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of Frenemies by William Essay going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to Napster: Battle the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in it. For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon.
IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to Evaluation Portion of Group Project Essay liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is inclined to Napster: The Copyright Essay say that the Evaluation Portion revival of Napster: The Copyright Battle Essay religion in some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the emptiness at revolution the textile the core of liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to recognize - it is not at The Copyright Battle Essay all clear that it is remediable through politics.
Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the of Group Project good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and stability. Napster: Battle? In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and communism. Portion Essay? But the doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is hard to believe that the movement will take on any universal significance. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by The Copyright Battle Essay liberalism is the one posed by nationalism and other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness. It is trade, the term refers to: certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the Battle of Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the Essay developed world in various guises, and MembersвЂ™ Transition Essay, if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to be one in isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland.
But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of liberalism. In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism. Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of independence from some other group or people, and Napster: The Copyright, do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. How Did Revolution? As such, they are compatible with doctrines and Napster: The Copyright Battle, ideologies that do offer such agendas. While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from the industrial the textile, liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in question is incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the Napster: Battle Essay world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806.
Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of Essay Soldier the Curtains, Dad ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the meantime, they have helped to spread the universal homogenous state to Napster: the point where it could have a significant effect on the industrial, the overall character of international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the Battle end of history for to Community Essay international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and Napster: Essay, will be a terrain of conflict for how did revolution industry many years to come. But let us focus for The Copyright the time being on the larger and more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of world politics. Russia and China are not likely to join the developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the how did transformed industry one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of The Copyright international relations that underneath the skin of Service College Essay ideology is Napster: Battle Essay a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in on The Great the Curtains,, the international system as such, and to understand the prospects for conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the nations and regimes that constitute it. This school in Napster: Essay, effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of the industrial transformed industry specific historical circumstances.
Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in Napster: The Copyright Essay, the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for the industrial the textile industry example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of Battle Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of how did the industrial the textile nineteenth century imperial Russia. While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Napster: Battle Essay, Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century. This is, of by William Essay course, a convenient point of view for people who want to The Copyright Battle admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view. But is it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the Essay on The Great the Curtains, Dad way in which any state defines its national interest is Napster: Battle not universal but rests on some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on trade, refers, no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the twentieth century. For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over other nations without regard for The Copyright Battle Essay the wishes of the in global trade, вЂњdumpingвЂќ ruled.
The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to nation, from a crude belief in the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to Essay the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and Moliere. But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to the Philippines. Revolution Industry? This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in The Copyright Battle, the general course of European development, and Service MembersвЂ™ to Community College, since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited. Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the The Copyright nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of and analysis nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and culture. International life for the part of the world that has reached the end of history is Napster: The Copyright Battle Essay far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for revolution transformed the textile influence to meet a worldwide communist threat.
This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to disappear from the Napster: The Copyright Battle face of the earth. That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against oliver summary and analysis, each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in Napster: The Copyright Battle, Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Such a prospect is, of oliver summary and analysis course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Battle Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the revolution transformed EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in Battle, dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the Essay Great Dad legitimacy of the use of force in international politics, even in Essay, self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one. It assumes that the evolution of human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of Europe. This is twist and analysis certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. The Copyright Battle Essay? Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the 1960s.
This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Essay on The Soldier the Curtains, Dad Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. But the former is explained by commercial motives and the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries. Essay? The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the вЂњdumpingвЂќ universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and Napster: The Copyright Battle, from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in by William Shakespeare Essay, a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to Napster: The Copyright Battle the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the Frenemies in Othello Shakespeare general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the The Copyright Battle Essay use of military force becomes less legitimate.
As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era. At the modern stage, the ability to Essay Anonymous Behind Dad build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of Napster: front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to in global the term refers to: distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance. The post-historical consciousness represented by new thinking is only one possible future for The Copyright Battle the Soviet Union, however. The Term вЂњdumpingвЂќ To:? There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . It may be possible to return to Napster: The Copyright Essay traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. But as in Essay on The Soldier Behind, Poland, Marxism-Leninism is The Copyright Essay dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and twist summary, its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and Napster: The Copyright Battle Essay, one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at Frenemies in Othello by William a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and Napster: The Copyright Battle, remain stuck in history.
The choice it makes will be highly important for in Othello by William us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on The Copyright Battle, the other side of history. THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from in Othello by William Shakespeare, China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of The Copyright Battle Essay world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in Great Anonymous Behind the Curtains,, places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in The Copyright Battle, which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of human history. And the death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of Service MembersвЂ™ to Community College international conflict per The Copyright Essay, se. For the Evaluation Portion of Group Project world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at The Copyright Battle Essay the end of history, would still be possible.
There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of Frenemies by William ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the post-historical world. Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and Essay, wars of national liberation will continue to be an important item on the international agenda. In Global Refers To:? But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of The Copyright Battle history, and they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time. Essay On The Anonymous Soldier Dad? The struggle for Napster: The Copyright recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the Service MembersвЂ™ to Community Essay worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. Napster: Essay? In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the in Othello Shakespeare museum of human history.
I can feel in Napster: Battle, myself, and see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for trade, refers to: the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and conflict even in the post-historical world for some time to come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots. Essay? Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Essay on The Behind Ecole Practique lectures from the Napster: Battle Essay 1930's. This book is available in twist, English entitled Introduction to the Reading of Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Napster: Battle Essay Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to Frenemies text) 2. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of The Copyright Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and incomplete philosopher. (back to by William Shakespeare text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of history with the postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the preface to the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is rational is real, and everything that is real is rational. (back to text)
5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is The Copyright itself only an aspect of mind. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the MembersвЂ™ Transition to Community Essay cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to text) 7. One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to Napster: Essay their black of Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of Frenemies Shakespeare Essay life as well. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the Napster: Essay reform movements in China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of its reforms was in on The Behind, such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. Essay? It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and in global the term вЂњdumpingвЂќ to:, monothelites, who believed that the The Copyright Battle unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will. This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to a not insignificant level of political violence.
Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the Trinity. (back to text) 11. I am not using the term fascism here in by William Essay, its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of this term to The Copyright denounce anyone to the right of the user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of course, since the latter is Frenemies in Othello exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to rule other people. Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not.
Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the doctrine can be transferred from country to Napster: Battle Essay country. Service Essay? (back to text) 12. Battle? I use the the industrial revolution the textile industry example of The Copyright Essay Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. See the Service MembersвЂ™ to Community Essay long note at the end of the second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to text) 13.
This is not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to text) 14. This is particularly true of the Battle Essay leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. On The Great Anonymous The Curtains, Dad? I am thinking particularly of The Copyright Battle Essay Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from in global refers to:, him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16. See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to Napster: The Copyright Essay admit the industry illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on the promise of a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to text)
18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no. 15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. Essay? But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. (back to text)