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Beat the about of Revelation, Robots: How to Get Your Resume Past the System Into Human Hands. Skyline History. Mark Slack and Erik Bowitz. Essay About The Book Of Revelation. Landing an interview for romantic setting a position in a giant organization can feel impossible if you dont have any personal connections. People often blame the Essay about Reading The Book, sheer volume of resumes that are submittedHR simply cant review them all with enough detail to see what a perfect candidate you are! And this is postmodern art vs art, partially trueone study suggests that recruiters spend only about Reading The Book six seconds looking at vs selective breeding, each resume. However, many resumes are trashed before theyre even seen by human eyes. Essay Of Revelation. How is art vs, that possible?

Heres how: Many large organizations rely on Reading The Book of Revelation, applicant tracking systems (ATS) to help pre-filter resumes. The systems work by scanning resumes for The Pros Essay contextual keywords and about The Book of Revelation key phrases, mathematically scoring them for nissan skyline relevance, and sending only the Essay Reading The Book of Revelation, most qualified ones through for human review. Essentially, theyre the transgenesis breeding, 21st century version of the troll under the about Reading of Revelation, bridge. Undoubtedly, this saves HR managers the setting, time and about trouble of sorting through irrelevant, underprepared, and and Cons of Technology Essay weak resumes to find the Essay about Reading The Book of Revelation, golden candidates. But it also means that your application could slip through the cracks if you dont format your resume just right or include the nissan skyline, exact keywords the hiring manager is about Reading of Revelation, searching for. Transgenesis. To make sure you get past the about of Revelation, troll and into the door for mexican an interview, check out Essay about these tips for writing a resume that an ATS will approveand a hiring manager will love. While you might want to highlight your creativity or individuality to a hiring manager, ATS require cold conformity and definition simplicity. Therefore, youll need to delete any extra touches youve added to your resume, like logos, pictures, symbols, and Essay about The Book of Revelation shadings. Also, stick to modern art, standard resume formatting in a normal font like Arial, Courier, or Times New Romanthe ATS cant read fancy fonts and will reject your resume out of confusion. Essay Reading Of Revelation. Furthermore, only teenager relationship include the about The Book of Revelation, usual sections of a resume: Qualifications, Professional Experience, Education, Skills, and postmodern art vs modern art the like. Adding unfamiliar headings like Affiliations, Publications, or Memberships can choke up an Essay about, ATS.

Finally, send your resume as a Word doc or in rich text format instead of breeding a PDF. About Reading The Book. Though ATS software is becoming better at romantic, reading PDFs, it can still miss important things when trying to Essay Reading of Revelation, process them. Nissan. For any profession, theres always lingo, software, responsibilities, basic skills, and Essay about Reading of Revelation licenses or certificates associated with performing the job welland an ATS will be looking for The Pros key phrases and The Book contextual information related to quakerism, those qualifications. To make sure the software recognizes that youre a good fit for Essay The Book the job, use these tips to art vs modern art, successfully keyword optimize your resume: Include verb phrases and skills written in the job description on your own resume. These are very likely to Reading The Book of Revelation, be the same keywords and Are Guns phrases the hiring manager has programmed the Essay The Book of Revelation, ATS to pick upproject manager, Final Cut Pro, or social media marketing, for jose's restaurant example. Essay About The Book. Try services like Wordle and TagCrowd to help you figure out parent teenager relationship which keywords to focus on. Input the Essay about Reading The Book of Revelation, job descriptions into these tools to create a word cloud that visually highlights the and Cons of Technology, most frequently used words, and make sure theyre sprinkled throughout your resume. The Book Of Revelation. Use both the relationship, acronym and the spelled-out form of Essay Reading The Book any given title, certification, or organization, so youre set regardless of The Pros and Cons which format the Essay about The Book, ATS is looking for.

For example: Certified Public Accountant (CPA). Teenager Relationship. An important note here: Dont go overboard. In the past, people thought that they could exploit the system by Essay, overstuffing their resumes with keywords, thus ranking them higher in The Pros and Cons of Technology, the eyes of the Essay The Book of Revelation, ATS. This is a very bad idea: Not only is the Essay about Are Guns, software sophisticated enough to about Reading of Revelation, see this kind of romantic setting keyword stuffing, if your resume does make it into Essay Reading The Book of Revelation, human hands, no one will be impressed by The Pros and Cons Essay, a nonsensical resume dressed to the nines in about Reading, keywords. Aim for repeating important skills-related keywords two or three times (and no more). How can you do that without repeating job responsibilities or sounding obnoxious? Try this: WANT TO GIVE YOURSELF AN EXTRA BOOST?

Are there people who would say no to that? 3. Romantic Setting. Ditch the Career Objective Section. Career objective sections are kind of a waste of space. That boring boilerplate I am a hard working person who wants to Essay about, work in (blank) industry is a bit obvious: Why else would you be submitting your resume? Furthermore, its not about how you want to apply your skills, its about how the The Pros, company needs you to apply them.

Instead, try replacing this with a qualifications summarya six-sentence (or bullet pointed) section filled with ATS-friendly keywords. Even better, use those six sentences to concisely present the creme of the about Reading The Book, crop of quakerism definition your achievements, major skills, and important experiences. By doing this, youre killing two birds with one stone: Youre appeasing the ATS with keywords, and about of Revelation youre also giving the setting, hiring manager the juicy, important bits right at the top where he or she can quickly scan and understand the The Book of Revelation, value you would bring the company. Seriously, spelling mistakes are the death of transgenesis vs selective your resume. Essay Of Revelation. While a human being can at Essay about Are Guns, least figure out Essay about The Book what you mean (before tossing your resume into the trash in disapproval), an setting, ATS will terminate you immediately because it will simply have no idea what youre talking about.

So double, triple, and Reading The Book of Revelation quadruple check your resume before sending it in. About. Have someone else do the same. The Book. Spelling mistakes can be easily avoided if youre careful. So take the time to follow these tips, and setting youll have a resume that will make it onto Essay about, a hiring managers deskand ultimately snag you the transgenesis breeding, interview. Feeling on Essay about Reading The Book of Revelation, a roll with your resume? Why not check out how to optimize your contact information or beef up your skills section? Photo of person on laptop courtesy of Sawitree Pamee/EyeEm/Getty Images#46; Mark Slack and quakerism definition Erik Bowitz are Senior Resume Consultants and content managers of the Resume Companion Blog. Resume Companion is Essay The Book, a leading online resume building company with over 650,000 registered users, and over 8 million resumes created to date.

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Essay about Reading The Book of Revelation

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Politics and the English Language. Most people who bother with the matter at all would admit that the Reading of Revelation English language is in a bad way, but it is generally assumed that we cannot by conscious action do anything about it. Our civilization is decadent and our language so the argument runs must inevitably share in the general collapse. It follows that any struggle against the abuse of language is a sentimental archaism, like preferring candles to Essay Are Guns, electric light or hansom cabs to aeroplanes. Essay About Reading Of Revelation? Underneath this lies the half-conscious belief that language is a natural growth and not an instrument which we shape for our own purposes. Now, it is clear that the decline of a language must ultimately have political and nissan skyline history, economic causes: it is about Reading The Book not due simply to The Pros and Cons, the bad influence of this or that individual writer. But an effect can become a cause, reinforcing the original cause and producing the same effect in an intensified form, and Essay about of Revelation, so on indefinitely. A man may take to drink because he feels himself to be a failure, and then fail all the more completely because he drinks. It is rather the same thing that is happening to the English language. It becomes ugly and inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, but the slovenliness of our language makes it easier for quakerism, us to have foolish thoughts. The point is that the process is reversible.

Modern English, especially written English, is Essay The Book full of bad habits which spread by imitation and which can be avoided if one is willing to romantic, take the Essay about necessary trouble. If one gets rid of postmodern art vs art these habits one can think more clearly, and to think clearly is a necessary first step toward political regeneration: so that the fight against about Reading of Revelation, bad English is quakerism definition not frivolous and is not the exclusive concern of professional writers. I will come back to this presently, and I hope that by that time the meaning of about Reading what I have said here will have become clearer. Meanwhile, here are five specimens of the English language as it is now habitually written. These five passages have not been picked out because they are especially bad I could have quoted far worse if I had chosen but because they illustrate various of the mental vices from which we now suffer.

They are a little below the average, but are fairly representative examples. I number them so that I can refer back to romantic setting, them when necessary: 1. I am not, indeed, sure whether it is not true to say that the Milton who once seemed not unlike a seventeenth-century Shelley had not become, out of an experience ever more bitter in each year, more alien [sic] to the founder of that Jesuit sect which nothing could induce him to tolerate. Professor Harold Laski (Essay in Freedom of Expression ) 2. Above all, we cannot play ducks and drakes with a native battery of idioms which prescribes egregious collocations of vocables as the Basic put up with for tolerate , or put at a loss for Essay of Revelation, bewilder . Professor Lancelot Hogben ( Interglossia ) 3. On the one side we have the free personality: by definition it is not neurotic, for postmodern, it has neither conflict nor dream. Its desires, such as they are, are transparent, for they are just what institutional approval keeps in the forefront of consciousness; another institutional pattern would alter their number and intensity; there is little in them that is natural, irreducible, or culturally dangerous. Essay About Reading? But on the other side , the social bond itself is postmodern nothing but the mutual reflection of these self-secure integrities. Recall the definition of Essay about Reading The Book of Revelation love. Is not this the very picture of a small academic? Where is there a place in this hall of mirrors for either personality or fraternity?

Essay on psychology in Politics (New York) 4. All the best people from the gentlemen's clubs, and all the romantic setting frantic fascist captains, united in common hatred of Socialism and bestial horror at the rising tide of the mass revolutionary movement, have turned to acts of provocation, to foul incendiarism, to about Reading The Book, medieval legends of poisoned wells, to legalize their own destruction of proletarian organizations, and nissan skyline history, rouse the agitated petty-bourgeoise to chauvinistic fervor on behalf of the fight against the revolutionary way out about The Book, of the crisis. 5. If a new spirit is to be infused into Essay this old country, there is one thorny and contentious reform which must be tackled, and Essay about Reading The Book, that is the humanization and galvanization of the B.B.C. Timidity here will bespeak canker and atrophy of the soul. The heart of Britain may be sound and of strong beat, for instance, but the British lion's roar at present is like that of Bottom in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream as gentle as any sucking dove. A virile new Britain cannot continue indefinitely to be traduced in the eyes or rather ears, of the world by the effete languors of romantic setting Langham Place, brazenly masquerading as standard English. When the Voice of Britain is heard at nine o'clock, better far and infinitely less ludicrous to hear aitches honestly dropped than the present priggish, inflated, inhibited, school-ma'amish arch braying of blameless bashful mewing maidens! Letter in Tribune.

Each of these passages has faults of about The Book of Revelation its own, but, quite apart from avoidable ugliness, two qualities are common to all of them. The first is staleness of imagery; the other is lack of precision. Teenager? The writer either has a meaning and cannot express it, or he inadvertently says something else, or he is Essay almost indifferent as to whether his words mean anything or not. Essay? This mixture of vagueness and sheer incompetence is the most marked characteristic of about Reading The Book modern English prose, and especially of any kind of political writing. As soon as certain topics are raised, the concrete melts into the abstract and no one seems able to think of turns of art vs speech that are not hackneyed: prose consists less and Essay about of Revelation, less of words chosen for skyline history, the sake of their meaning, and more and more of phrases tacked together like the sections of a prefabricated hen-house. I list below, with notes and examples, various of the tricks by means of which the work of prose-construction is habitually dodged. DYING METAPHORS. Reading Of Revelation? A newly invented metaphor assists thought by evoking a visual image, while on of Technology, the other hand a metaphor which is about Reading The Book of Revelation technically dead (e. g. iron resolution) has in setting effect reverted to being an The Book, ordinary word and can generally be used without loss of vividness. But in between these two classes there is a huge dump of worn-out metaphors which have lost all evocative power and are merely used because they save people the nissan skyline history trouble of inventing phrases for Essay Reading The Book of Revelation, themselves. Examples are: Ring the changes on, take up the cudgel for, toe the line, ride roughshod over, stand shoulder to shoulder with, play into modern art the hands of, no axe to grind, grist to Essay Reading The Book, the mill, fishing in troubled waters, on the order of the day, Achilles heel, swan song, hotbed . Many of these are used without knowledge of their meaning (what is a rift, for Essay about, instance?), and incompatible metaphors are frequently mixed, a sure sign that the writer is not interested in what he is saying. Essay About The Book? Some metaphors now current have been twisted out of their original meaning without those who use them even being aware of the definition fact.

For example, toe the line is sometimes written as tow the line . Another example is the hammer and the anvil , now always used with the implication that the anvil gets the worst of it. Essay Reading The Book Of Revelation? In real life it is always the anvil that breaks the hammer, never the other way about: a writer who stopped to think what he was saying would avoid perverting the original phrase. OPERATORS OR VERBAL FALSE LIMBS. These save the trouble of picking out appropriate verbs and The Pros Essay, nouns, and at the same time pad each sentence with extra syllables which give it an appearance of symmetry. Characteristic phrases are render inoperative, militate against, make contact with, be subjected to, give rise to, give grounds for, have the effect of, play a leading part (role) in, make itself felt, take effect, exhibit a tendency to, serve the purpose of, etc., etc. The keynote is the elimination of simple verbs. Instead of being a single word, such as break, stop, spoil, mend, kill, a verb becomes a phrase , made up of Essay about Reading a noun or adjective tacked on to some general-purpose verb such as prove, serve, form, play, render . Postmodern Art Vs? In addition, the passive voice is wherever possible used in preference to the active, and Essay of Revelation, noun constructions are used instead of gerunds ( by examination of instead of by parent relationship examining ). The range of verbs is further cut down by means of the -ize and de- formations, and the banal statements are given an appearance of profundity by means of the not un- formation. Simple conjunctions and prepositions are replaced by such phrases as with respect to, having regard to, the fact that, by dint of, in Reading The Book of Revelation view of, in the interests of, on the hypothesis that ; and relationship, the ends of sentences are saved by anticlimax by such resounding commonplaces as greatly to be desired, cannot be left out of account, a development to be expected in the near future, deserving of serious consideration, brought to Reading of Revelation, a satisfactory conclusion, and so on and so forth. PRETENTIOUS DICTION.

Words like phenomenon, element, individual (as noun), objective, categorical, effective, virtual, basic, primary, promote, constitute, exhibit, exploit, utilize, eliminate, liquidate, are used to definition, dress up a simple statement and give an air of scientific impartiality to The Book of Revelation, biased judgements. Adjectives like epoch-making, epic, historic, unforgettable, triumphant, age-old, inevitable, inexorable, veritable, are used to dignify the sordid process of international politics, while writing that aims at glorifying war usually takes on an archaic colour, its characteristic words being: realm, throne, chariot, mailed fist, trident, sword, shield, buckler, banner, jackboot, clarion. And Cons Essay? Foreign words and expressions such as cul de sac, ancien regime, deus ex machina, mutatis mutandis, status quo, gleichschaltung, weltanschauung, are used to give an air of culture and elegance. Except for the useful abbreviations i. e., e. g. and etc., there is no real need for any of the hundreds of foreign phrases now current in the English language. Bad writers, and about Reading, especially scientific, political, and sociological writers, are nearly always haunted by the notion that Latin or Greek words are grander than Saxon ones, and unnecessary words like expedite, ameliorate, predict, extraneous, deracinated, clandestine, subaqueous, and Essay about, hundreds of others constantly gain ground from their Anglo-Saxon numbers (1) . The jargon peculiar to Marxist writing ( hyena, hangman, cannibal, petty bourgeois, these gentry, lackey, flunkey, mad dog, White Guard, etc.) consists largely of words translated from Russian, German, or French; but the about Reading The Book normal way of coining a new word is to use Latin or Greek root with the appropriate affix and, where necessary, the Essay size formation. It is often easier to make up words of this kind ( deregionalize, impermissible, extramarital, non-fragmentary and so forth) than to think up the Reading of Revelation English words that will cover one's meaning. The result, in Essay general, is an increase in slovenliness and vagueness. MEANINGLESS WORDS. In certain kinds of writing, particularly in art criticism and literary criticism, it is normal to come across long passages which are almost completely lacking in Reading The Book meaning (2) . Words like romantic, plastic, values, human, dead, sentimental, natural, vitality, as used in art criticism, are strictly meaningless, in the sense that they not only do not point to Essay about Are Guns the Problem?, any discoverable object, but are hardly ever expected to do so by the reader.

When one critic writes, The outstanding feature of about The Book of Revelation Mr. X's work is The Pros and Cons of Technology its living quality, while another writes, The immediately striking thing about Mr. X's work is its peculiar deadness, the reader accepts this as a simple difference opinion. If words like black and white were involved, instead of the jargon words dead and about Reading The Book, living , he would see at once that language was being used in modern art an improper way. Many political words are similarly abused. The word Fascism has now no meaning except in so far as it signifies something not desirable.

The words democracy, socialism, freedom, patriotic, realistic, justice have each of them several different meanings which cannot be reconciled with one another. In the case of Essay Reading The Book a word like democracy , not only is there no agreed definition, but the attempt to romantic, make one is resisted from all sides. It is Essay about of Revelation almost universally felt that when we call a country democratic we are praising it: consequently the setting defenders of every kind of regime claim that it is a democracy, and fear that they might have to stop using that word if it were tied down to any one meaning. Words of this kind are often used in a consciously dishonest way. That is, the person who uses them has his own private definition, but allows his hearer to think he means something quite different. Statements like Marshal Petain was a true patriot, The Soviet press is the freest in the world, The Catholic Church is opposed to persecution, are almost always made with intent to deceive.

Other words used in variable meanings, in most cases more or less dishonestly, are: class, totalitarian, science, progressive, reactionary, bourgeois, equality. Now that I have made this catalogue of swindles and perversions, let me give another example of the kind of writing that they lead to. Essay Reading The Book Of Revelation? This time it must of its nature be an imaginary one. I am going to translate a passage of good English into modern English of the worst sort. Here is a well-known verse from Ecclesiastes : I returned and quakerism, saw under the Essay The Book of Revelation sun, that the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of postmodern art vs modern art understanding, nor yet favour to men of Essay about skill; but time and chance happeneth to setting, them all.

Here it is in modern English: Objective considerations of contemporary phenomena compel the conclusion that success or failure in about Reading competitive activities exhibits no tendency to be commensurate with innate capacity, but that a considerable element of the history unpredictable must invariably be taken into account. This is a parody, but not a very gross one. About Reading Of Revelation? Exhibit (3) above, for and Cons of Technology, instance, contains several patches of the same kind of English. It will be seen that I have not made a full translation.

The beginning and ending of the sentence follow the original meaning fairly closely, but in the middle the concrete illustrations race, battle, bread dissolve into the vague phrases success or failure in competitive activities. This had to be so, because no modern writer of the kind I am discussing no one capable of using phrases like objective considerations of contemporary phenomena would ever tabulate his thoughts in that precise and detailed way. About? The whole tendency of of Technology modern prose is away from concreteness. Now analyze these two sentences a little more closely. The first contains forty-nine words but only sixty syllables, and Essay Reading of Revelation, all its words are those of everyday life.

The second contains thirty-eight words of setting ninety syllables: eighteen of those words are from Latin roots, and Essay about Reading, one from Greek. The first sentence contains six vivid images, and only one phrase (time and modern art, chance) that could be called vague. The second contains not a single fresh, arresting phrase, and in spite of its ninety syllables it gives only a shortened version of the meaning contained in Reading The Book of Revelation the first. Yet without a doubt it is the second kind of sentence that is gaining ground in modern English. Parent Relationship? I do not want to exaggerate. This kind of writing is not yet universal, and Essay The Book of Revelation, outcrops of about the Problem? simplicity will occur here and there in the worst-written page.

Still, if you or I were told to write a few lines on the uncertainty of human fortunes, we should probably come much nearer to my imaginary sentence than to the one from Ecclesiastes . As I have tried to show, modern writing at Essay Reading of Revelation its worst does not consist in picking out words for the sake of their meaning and inventing images in order to make the meaning clearer. It consists in gumming together long strips of words which have already been set in order by someone else, and making the results presentable by sheer humbug. The attraction of this way of romantic setting writing is that it is easy. It is easier even quicker, once you have the habit to say In my opinion it is not an The Book, unjustifiable assumption that than to say I think . If you use ready-made phrases, you not only don't have to hunt about for the words; you also don't have to definition, bother with the rhythms of your sentences since these phrases are generally so arranged as to be more or less euphonious. When you are composing in a hurry when you are dictating to a stenographer, for instance, or making a public speech it is natural to Reading The Book of Revelation, fall into a pretentious, Latinized style. Tags like a consideration which we should do well to bear in nissan skyline history mind or a conclusion to which all of Reading The Book of Revelation us would readily assent will save many a sentence from coming down with a bump. By using stale metaphors, similes, and idioms, you save much mental effort, at romantic setting the cost of leaving your meaning vague, not only for about Reading of Revelation, your reader but for yourself. This is the significance of mixed metaphors. The sole aim of a metaphor is to call up a visual image.

When these images clash as in The Fascist octopus has sung its swan song, the jackboot is thrown into the melting pot it can be taken as certain that the writer is romantic setting not seeing a mental image of the objects he is naming; in other words he is not really thinking. Look again at the examples I gave at the beginning of this essay. Professor Laski (1) uses five negatives in fifty three words. One of these is superfluous, making nonsense of the whole passage, and in addition there is the slip alien for akin making further nonsense, and about Reading of Revelation, several avoidable pieces of clumsiness which increase the general vagueness. Professor Hogben (2) plays ducks and drakes with a battery which is able to write prescriptions, and, while disapproving of the definition everyday phrase put up with , is about Reading The Book unwilling to look egregious up in the dictionary and see what it means; (3), if one takes an uncharitable attitude towards it, is simply meaningless: probably one could work out its intended meaning by reading the art vs art whole of the article in which it occurs. In (4), the Essay Reading writer knows more or less what he wants to say, but an accumulation of stale phrases chokes him like tea leaves blocking a sink. In (5), words and meaning have almost parted company.

People who write in this manner usually have a general emotional meaning they dislike one thing and want to express solidarity with another but they are not interested in the detail of what they are saying. A scrupulous writer, in teenager relationship every sentence that he writes, will ask himself at least four questions, thus: What am I trying to Essay about The Book of Revelation, say? What words will express it? What image or idiom will make it clearer? Is this image fresh enough to parent teenager, have an effect? And he will probably ask himself two more: Could I put it more shortly? Have I said anything that is Essay about Reading of Revelation avoidably ugly? But you are not obliged to go to all this trouble. You can shirk it by simply throwing your mind open and letting the ready-made phrases come crowding in. The will construct your sentences for quakerism definition, you even think your thoughts for of Revelation, you, to a certain extent and at and Cons need they will perform the Reading important service of partially concealing your meaning even from yourself.

It is at this point that the special connection between politics and the debasement of language becomes clear. In our time it is broadly true that political writing is bad writing. Essay Are Guns? Where it is not true, it will generally be found that the Essay Reading The Book of Revelation writer is some kind of rebel, expressing his private opinions and not a party line. Romantic? Orthodoxy, of whatever colour, seems to demand a lifeless, imitative style. The political dialects to be found in pamphlets, leading articles, manifestos, White papers and the speeches of undersecretaries do, of course, vary from about The Book party to party, but they are all alike in that one almost never finds in them a fresh, vivid, homemade turn of art vs speech. When one watches some tired hack on the platform mechanically repeating the familiar phrases bestial, atrocities, iron heel, bloodstained tyranny, free peoples of the world, stand shoulder to shoulder one often has a curious feeling that one is Essay about not watching a live human being but some kind of dummy: a feeling which suddenly becomes stronger at moments when the light catches the speaker's spectacles and The Pros of Technology Essay, turns them into blank discs which seem to have no eyes behind them.

And this is not altogether fanciful. A speaker who uses that kind of phraseology has gone some distance toward turning himself into a machine. The appropriate noises are coming out of his larynx, but his brain is about Reading of Revelation not involved, as it would be if he were choosing his words for himself. If the art vs modern art speech he is making is one that he is accustomed to make over and over again, he may be almost unconscious of Essay about Reading of Revelation what he is saying, as one is when one utters the quakerism responses in Essay Reading church. And this reduced state of consciousness, if not indispensable, is at any rate favourable to political conformity. In our time, political speech and writing are largely the nissan skyline defence of the The Book indefensible. Things like the continuance of British rule in India, the Russian purges and deportations, the skyline dropping of the atom bombs on Japan, can indeed be defended, but only by arguments which are too brutal for Essay about Reading, most people to face, and which do not square with the professed aims of the political parties. Thus political language has to romantic setting, consist largely of euphemism, question-begging and sheer cloudy vagueness. Essay The Book? Defenceless villages are bombarded from the air, the inhabitants driven out into the countryside, the cattle machine-gunned, the huts set on fire with incendiary bullets: this is called pacification . Millions of peasants are robbed of their farms and sent trudging along the roads with no more than they can carry: this is called transfer of population or rectification of frontiers . People are imprisoned for years without trial, or shot in the back of the neck or sent to die of scurvy in Arctic lumber camps: this is called elimination of unreliable elements . Such phraseology is art vs modern art needed if one wants to name things without calling up mental pictures of Reading The Book of Revelation them.

Consider for instance some comfortable English professor defending Russian totalitarianism. He cannot say outright, I believe in killing off your opponents when you can get good results by quakerism doing so. Reading The Book? Probably, therefore, he will say something like this: While freely conceding that the Soviet regime exhibits certain features which the humanitarian may be inclined to deplore, we must, I think, agree that a certain curtailment of the right to political opposition is an nissan, unavoidable concomitant of transitional periods, and that the rigors which the Russian people have been called upon to undergo have been amply justified in the sphere of concrete achievement. The inflated style itself is a kind of Essay about The Book of Revelation euphemism. A mass of postmodern modern art Latin words falls upon the facts like soft snow, blurring the outline and covering up all the details. The great enemy of clear language is insincerity. When there is a gap between one's real and one's declared aims, one turns as it were instinctively to long words and Reading The Book of Revelation, exhausted idioms, like a cuttlefish spurting out ink.

In our age there is no such thing as keeping out of politics. Skyline? All issues are political issues, and Essay about, politics itself is a mass of lies, evasions, folly, hatred, and schizophrenia. Nissan? When the general atmosphere is bad, language must suffer. I should expect to find this is a guess which I have not sufficient knowledge to verify that the German, Russian and Italian languages have all deteriorated in the last ten or fifteen years, as a result of dictatorship. But if thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought. A bad usage can spread by tradition and imitation even among people who should and do know better.

The debased language that I have been discussing is in some ways very convenient. Phrases like a not unjustifiable assumption, leaves much to of Revelation, be desired, would serve no good purpose, a consideration which we should do well to bear in mind, are a continuous temptation, a packet of aspirins always at skyline history one's elbow. Look back through this essay, and for certain you will find that I have again and again committed the very faults I am protesting against. By this morning's post I have received a pamphlet dealing with conditions in Germany. The author tells me that he felt impelled to write it. I open it at random, and here is Essay about of Revelation almost the first sentence I see: [The Allies] have an opportunity not only of achieving a radical transformation of romantic setting Germany's social and political structure in such a way as to avoid a nationalistic reaction in Germany itself, but at the same time of Essay of Revelation laying the foundations of setting a co-operative and unified Europe. You see, he feels impelled to write feels, presumably, that he has something new to say and yet his words, like cavalry horses answering the bugle, group themselves automatically into the familiar dreary pattern. This invasion of one's mind by ready-made phrases ( lay the foundations, achieve a radical transformation ) can only be prevented if one is Essay about of Revelation constantly on guard against them, and setting, every such phrase anaesthetizes a portion of one's brain. I said earlier that the decadence of our language is probably curable.

Those who deny this would argue, if they produced an argument at Essay Reading The Book of Revelation all, that language merely reflects existing social conditions, and that we cannot influence its development by any direct tinkering with words and constructions. Nissan? So far as the general tone or spirit of a language goes, this may be true, but it is Reading not true in skyline detail. Silly words and expressions have often disappeared, not through any evolutionary process but owing to Reading of Revelation, the conscious action of a minority. Two recent examples were explore every avenue and leave no stone unturned , which were killed by the jeers of a few journalists. There is a long list of flyblown metaphors which could similarly be got rid of if enough people would interest themselves in the job; and it should also be possible to laugh the not un- formation out of existence (3) , to reduce the amount of The Pros and Cons of Technology Essay Latin and Greek in the average sentence, to drive out Essay about Reading The Book of Revelation, foreign phrases and strayed scientific words, and, in general, to make pretentiousness unfashionable. But all these are minor points. The defence of the English language implies more than this, and The Pros and Cons Essay, perhaps it is best to about Reading The Book, start by saying what it does not imply. To begin with it has nothing to do with archaism, with the definition salvaging of obsolete words and turns of speech, or with the setting up of a standard English which must never be departed from. On the about The Book contrary, it is especially concerned with the scrapping of The Pros of Technology Essay every word or idiom which has outworn its usefulness.

It has nothing to do with correct grammar and syntax, which are of no importance so long as one makes one's meaning clear, or with the Essay avoidance of setting Americanisms, or with having what is called a good prose style. On the other hand, it is about The Book not concerned with fake simplicity and the attempt to make written English colloquial. Nor does it even imply in every case preferring the Saxon word to the Latin one, though it does imply using the fewest and shortest words that will cover one's meaning. What is above all needed is to let the meaning choose the word, and not the other way around. In prose, the Are Guns the Problem? worst thing one can do with words is surrender to them. When you think of a concrete object, you think wordlessly, and then, if you want to describe the thing you have been visualising you probably hunt about until you find the Essay about of Revelation exact words that seem to fit it. When you think of something abstract you are more inclined to relationship, use words from the start, and unless you make a conscious effort to prevent it, the existing dialect will come rushing in and do the job for you, at the expense of blurring or even changing your meaning. Probably it is better to put off using words as long as possible and get one's meaning as clear as one can through pictures and Essay about The Book, sensations. Afterward one can choose not simply accept the teenager phrases that will best cover the meaning, and then switch round and decide what impressions one's words are likely to make on another person. This last effort of the mind cuts out all stale or mixed images, all prefabricated phrases, needless repetitions, and Essay about The Book of Revelation, humbug and of Technology Essay, vagueness generally. But one can often be in doubt about the effect of a word or a phrase, and one needs rules that one can rely on when instinct fails.

I think the following rules will cover most cases: Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print. Never use a long word where a short one will do. Essay The Book Of Revelation? If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out. Never use the passive where you can use the parent active. Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent. Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous. These rules sound elementary, and so they are, but they demand a deep change of attitude in anyone who has grown used to writing in the style now fashionable. One could keep all of them and still write bad English, but one could not write the kind of stuff that I quoted in those five specimens at Reading The Book the beginning of this article. I have not here been considering the literary use of The Pros and Cons language, but merely language as an instrument for expressing and not for concealing or preventing thought.

Stuart Chase and others have come near to claiming that all abstract words are meaningless, and have used this as a pretext for advocating a kind of political quietism. Essay Reading The Book? Since you don't know what Fascism is, how can you struggle against Fascism? One need not swallow such absurdities as this, but one ought to recognise that the present political chaos is connected with the decay of language, and that one can probably bring about some improvement by starting at the verbal end. If you simplify your English, you are freed from the skyline worst follies of Essay about orthodoxy. You cannot speak any of the necessary dialects, and when you make a stupid remark its stupidity will be obvious, even to yourself. Political language and with variations this is postmodern art vs modern true of about of Revelation all political parties, from Conservatives to Anarchists is designed to art vs, make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to give an appearance of solidity to pure wind. One cannot change this all in a moment, but one can at least change one's own habits, and from time to time one can even, if one jeers loudly enough, send some worn-out and useless phrase some jackboot, Achilles heel, hotbed, melting pot, acid test, veritable inferno, or other lump of verbal refuse into the dustbin where it belongs. George Orwell: Politics and Essay, the English Language First published: Horizon . GB, London. April 1946.

Reprinted: Shooting an Elephant and Other Essays. 1950. The Orwell Reader, Fiction, Essays, and Reportage 1956. Collected Essays. 1961. Decline of the English Murder and Other Essays. 1965. The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of The Pros of Technology Essay George Orwell. 1968.

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UML, le langage de modlisation objet unifi. N de la fusion des mthodes objet dominantes (OMT, Booch et OOSE), puis normalis par l'OMG en 1997, UML est rapidement devenu un standard incontournable. Essay About Reading The Book! UML n'est pas l'origine des concepts objet, mais il en en donne une dfinition plus formelle et apporte la dimension mthodologique qui faisait dfaut l'approche objet. Le but de cette prsentation n'est pas de faire l'apologie d'UML, ni de restreindre UML sa notation graphique, car le vritable intrt d'UML est ailleurs ! En effet, matriser la notation graphique d'UML n'est pas une fin en soi. Modern Art! Ce qui est primordial, c'est d'utiliser les concepts objet bon escient et d'appliquer la dmarche d'analyse correspondante. Cette prsentation a donc pour objectif, d'une part, de montrer en quoi l'approche objet et UML constituent un plus et d'autre part, d'exposer comment utiliser UML dans la pratique, c'est--dire comment intgrer UML dans un processus de dveloppement et comment modliser avec UML. Les textes qui composent la prsentation sont (volontairement) trs synthtiques, la manire de transparents qu'on projette au cours d'une formation. Il faut donc savoir lire entre les lignes, car il ne s'agit l que d'un tour d'horizon. Reading The Book Of Revelation! Cette prsentation ne se substitue donc ni aux formations plus acadmiques, ni aux ouvrages de rfrence.

Article lu fois. Publié le 22 octobre 2007 - Mis à jour le 14 septembre 2009. I-A-1. Postmodern Art Vs Modern! Approche fonctionnelle vs. About! approche objet^ I-A-1-a. Skyline! La dcoupe fonctionnelle d'un problme informatique : une approche intuitive^ Exemple de dcoupe fonctionnelle d'un logiciel ddi la gestion d'une bibliothque : Le logiciel est compos d'une hirarchie de fonctions, qui ensemble, fournissent les services dsirs, ainsi que de donnes qui reprsentent les lments manipuls (livres, etc).

Logique, cohrent et intuitif. I-A-1-b. Essay About Reading! Le plus de l'approche fonctionnelle : la factorisation des comportements^ Une dcoupe fonctionnelle intelligente consiste factoriser certains comportements communs du logiciel. Teenager Relationship! En d'autres termes : pour raliser une fonction du logiciel, on of Revelation, peut utiliser un ensemble d'autres fonctions, dj disponibles, pour peu qu'on rende ces dernires un tant soit peu gnriques. Quakerism Definition! Gnial ! I-A-1-c. About The Book! Le revers de la mdaille : maintenance complexe en cas d'volution^ Factoriser les comportements n'a malheureusement pas que des avantages. Art Vs Modern! Les fonctions sont devenues interdpendantes : une simple mise jour du logiciel un point donn, peut impacter en cascade une multitude d'autres fonctions. About The Book Of Revelation! On peut minorer cet impact, pour peu qu'on utilise des fonctions plus gnriques et des structures de donnes ouvertes.

Mais respecter ces contraintes rend l'criture du logiciel et sa maintenance plus complexe. En cas d'volution majeure du logiciel (passage de la gestion d'une bibliothque celle d'une mdiathque par exemple), le scnario est encore pire. Are Guns! Mme si la structure gnrale du logiciel reste valide, la multiplication des points de maintenance, engendre par le chanage des fonctions, rend l'adaptation trs laborieuse. Essay About! Le logiciel doit tre retouch dans sa globalit : I-A-1-d. The Pros Essay! La sparation des donnes et des traitements : le pige !^ Examinons le problme de l'volution de code fonctionnel plus en dtail. Faire voluer une application de gestion de bibliothque pour grer une mdiathque, afin de prendre en compte de nouveaux types d'ouvrages (cassettes vido, CD-ROM, etc. Essay Of Revelation! ), ncessite : de faire voluer les structures de donnes qui sont manipules par les fonctions, d'adapter les traitements, qui ne manipulaient l'origine qu'un seul type de document (des livres).

Il faudra donc modifier toutes les portions de code qui utilisent la base documentaire, pour grer les donnes et les actions propres aux diffrents types de documents. Il faudra par exemple modifier la fonction qui ralise l'dition des lettres de rappel (une lettre de rappel est une mise en demeure, qu'on envoie automatiquement aux personnes qui tardent rendre un ouvrage emprunt). Parent Teenager Relationship! Si l'on dsire que le dlai avant rappel varie selon le type de document emprunt, il faut prvoir une rgle de calcul pour chaque type de document. En fait, c'est la quasi-totalit de l'application qui devra tre adapte, pour grer les nouvelles donnes et raliser les traitements correspondants. Essay The Book! Et cela, chaque fois qu'on dcidera de grer un nouveau type de document ! I-A-1-e. Are Guns! 1re amlioration : rassembler les valeurs qui caractrisent un type, dans le type^

Une solution relativement lgante la multiplication des branches conditionnelles et des redondances dans le code (consquence logique d'une trop grande ouverture des donnes), consiste tout simplement centraliser dans les structures de donnes, les valeurs qui leurs sont propres : Quoi de plus logique ? En effet, le dlai avant dition d'une lettre de rappel est bien une caractristique propre tous les ouvrages grs par notre application. Mais cette solution n'est pas encore optimale ! I-A-1-f. Of Revelation! 2me amlioration : centraliser les traitements associs un type, auprs du type^ Pourquoi ne pas aussi rassembler dans une mme unit physique les types de donnes et tous les traitements associs ? Que se passerait-il par exemple si l'on centralisait dans un mme fichier, la structure de donnes qui dcrit les documents et la fonction de calcul du dlai avant rappel ? Cela nous permettrait de retrouver en un clin d'oeil le bout de code qui est charg de calculer le dlai avant rappel d'un document, puisqu'il se trouve au plus prs de la structure de donnes concerne. Ainsi, si notre mdiathque devait grer un nouveau type d'ouvrage, il suffirait de modifier une seule fonction (qu'on sait retrouver instannment), pour assurer la prise en compte de ce nouveau type de document dans le calcul du dlai avant rappel. Definition! Plus besoin de fouiller partout dans le code. Ecrit en ces termes, notre logiciel sera plus facile maintenir et bien plus lisible. Essay About Reading Of Revelation! Le stockage et le calcul du dlai avant rappel des documents, est dsormais assur par une seule et unique unit physique (quelques lignes de code, rapidement identifiables). Pour accder la caractristique dlai avant rappel d'un document, il suffit de rcuprer la valeur correspondante parmi les champs qui dcrivent le document. Essay! Pour assurer la prise en compte d'un nouveau type de document dans le calcul du dlai avant rappel, il suffit de modifier une seule fonction, situe au mme endroit que la structure de donnes qui dcrit les documents : En rsum : centraliser les donnes d'un type et les traitements associs, dans une mme unit physique, permet de limiter les points de maintenance dans le code et facilite l'accs l'information en cas d'volution du logiciel : Les modifications que nous avons apport notre logiciel de gestion de mdiathque, nous ont amen transformer ce qui tait l'origine une structure de donnes, manipule par des fonctions, en une entit autonome, qui regroupe un ensemble de proprits cohrentes et de traitements associs. About Of Revelation! Une telle entit s'appelle. Teenager! un objet et constitue le concept fondateur de l'approche du mme nom ! Un objet est une entit aux frontires prcises qui possde une identit (un nom).

Un ensemble d'attributs caractrise l'tat de l'objet. Reading The Book Of Revelation! Un ensemble d'oprations (mthodes) en dfinissent le comportement. And Cons Of Technology! Un objet est une instance de classe (une occurrence d'un type abstrait). Essay Reading The Book! Une classe est un type de donnes abstrait, caractris par des proprits (attributs et mthodes) communes des objets et permettant de crer des objets possdant ces proprits. I-A-2. The Pros Essay! Quels sont les autres concepts importants de l'approche objet ?^ Consiste masquer les dtails d'implmentation d'un objet, en dfinissant une interface. Essay! L'interface est la vue externe d'un objet, elle dfinit les services accessibles (offerts) aux utilisateurs de l'objet. Definition! L'encapsulation facilite l'volution d'une application car elle stabilise l'utilisation des objets : on Reading The Book, peut modifier l'implmentation des attributs d'un objet sans modifier son interface. Romantic! L'encapsulation garantit l'intgrit des donnes, car elle permet d'interdire l'accs direct aux attributs des objets (utilisation d'accesseurs). L'hritage est un mcanisme de transmission des proprits d'une classe (ses attributs et mthodes) vers une sous-classe.

Une classe peut tre spcialise en d'autres classes, afin d'y ajouter des caractristiques spcifiques ou d'en adapter certaines. Essay About Reading The Book Of Revelation! Plusieurs classes peuvent tre gnralises en une classe qui les factorise, afin de regrouper les caractristiques communes d'un ensemble de classes. Essay About! La spcialisation et la gnralisation permettent de construire des hirarchies de classes. Essay The Book! L'hritage peut tre simple ou multiple. Teenager Relationship! L'hritage vite la duplication et encourage la rutilisation. Essay Reading The Book! Le polymorphisme reprsente la facult d'une mthode pouvoir s'appliquer des objets de classes diffrentes. About The Problem?! Le polymorphisme augmente la gnricit du code. Exemple d'une hirarchie de classes : Il s'agit d'une relation entre deux classes, spcifiant que les objets d'une classe sont des composants de l'autre classe. Une relation d'agrgation permet donc de dfinir des objets composs d'autres objets. Essay Reading! L'agrgation permet d'assembler des objets de base, afin de construire des objets plus complexes. I-A-2-d.

Rsum sur les concepts fondateurs de l'approche objet^ la notion d'objet et de classe (d'objets) l'encapsulation (les interfaces des objets) l'hritage (les hirarchies d'objets) l'agrgation (la construction d'objets l'aide d'objets) Remarque : Les langages orients objet fournissent de nombreux autres mcanismes qui affinent ces concepts de base, favorisent la gnricit du code ou amliorent sa robustesse. I-A-2-e. The Pros And Cons Essay! L'approche objet, hier et aujourd'hui^ Les concepts objet sont stables et prouvs (issus du terrain) Simula, 1er langage de programmation implmenter le concept de type abstrait ( l'aide de classes), date de 1967 ! En 1976 dj, Smalltalk implmente les concepts fondateurs de l'approche objet (encapsulation, agrgation, hritage) l'aide de : classes associations entre classes hirarchies de classes messages entre objets Le 1er compilateur C++ date de 1980, et C++ est normalis par l'ANSI. Essay About Reading Of Revelation! De nombreux langages orients objets acadmiques ont tays les concepts objets : Eiffel, Objective C, Loops. About Are Guns The Problem?! Les concepts objet sont anciens, mais ils n'ont jamais t autant d'actualit L'approche fonctionnelle n'est pas adapte au dveloppement d'applications qui voluent sans cesse et dont la complexit croit continuellement.

L'approche objet a t invente pour faciliter l'volution d'applications complexes. Essay About Reading! De nos jours, les outils orients objet sont fiables et performants Les compilateurs C++ produisent un code robuste et optimis. The Pros And Cons Of Technology Essay! De trs nombreux outils facilitent le dveloppement d'applications C++ : gnrateurs d'IHM (Ilog Views, TeleUse. About Reading The Book! ) bibliothques (STL, USL, Rogue Wave, MFC. Modern Art! ) environnements de dveloppement intgrs (Developper Studio, Sniff+. Essay! ) outils de qualimtrie et de tests (Cantata++, Insure++, Logiscope. The Pros Of Technology! ) bases de donnes orientes objet (O2, ObjectStore, Versant. About Reading The Book! ) I-A-2-f. And Cons Essay! L'approche objet : une solution parfaite ?^ Un ensemble de concepts stables, prouvs et normaliss. About The Book! Une solution destine faciliter l'volution d'applications complexes. Parent Relationship! Une panoplie d'outils et de langages performants pour le dveloppement. Malgr les apparences, il est plus naturel pour nos esprits cartsiens, de dcomposer un problme informatique sous forme d'une hirarchie de fonctions atomiques et de donnes, qu'en terme d'objets et d'interaction entre ces objets. About Of Revelation! De plus, le vocabulaire prcis est un facteur d'chec important dans la mise en oeuvre d'une approche objet. L'approche objet est moins intuitive que l'approche fonctionnelle ! Quels moyens utiliser pour faciliter l'analyse objet ? Quels critres identifient une conception objet pertinente ? Comment comparer deux solutions de dcoupe objet d'un systme ? L'application des concepts objets ncessite une grande rigueur ! Le vocabulaire est prcis (risques d'ambiguts, d'incomprhensions). Setting! Comment dcrire la structure objet d'un systme de manire pertinente ? I-A-2-g.

Quels sont les remdes aux inconvnients de l'approche objet ?^ Un langage pour exprimer les concepts objet qu'on utilise, afin de pouvoir : Reprsenter des concepts abstraits (graphiquement par exemple). Reading! Limiter les ambiguts (parler un langage commun). Romantic Setting! Faciliter l'analyse (simplifier la comparaison et l'valuation de solutions). Essay Reading! Une dmarche d'analyse et de conception objet, pour : Ne pas effectuer une analyse fonctionnelle et se contenter d'une implmentation objet, mais penser objet ds le dpart. Essay Are Guns! Dfinir les vues qui permettent de couvrir tous les aspects d'un systme, avec des concepts objets. Bref : il nous faut un outil qui apporte une dimension mthodologique l'approche objet, afin de mieux matriser sa richesse et sa complexit. I-B. Essay About The Book! Les mthodes objet et la gense d'UML^ Les premires mthodes d'analyse (annes 70) Dcoupe cartsienne (fonctionnelle et hirarchique) d'un systme. Parent Teenager Relationship! L'approche systmique (annes 80) Modlisation des donnes + modlisation des traitements (Merise, Axial, IE. Reading The Book Of Revelation! ). Definition! L'mergence des mthodes objet (1990-1995) Prise de conscience de l'importance d'une mthode spcifiquement objet : comment structurer un systme sans centrer l'analyse uniquement sur les donnes ou uniquement sur les traitements (mais sur les deux) ? Plus de 50 mthodes objet sont apparues durant cette priode (Booch, Classe-Relation, Fusion, HOOD, OMT, OOA, OOD, OOM, OOSE. Reading The Book! ) ! Aucun mthode ne s'est rellement impose.

Les premiers consensus (1995) OMT (James Rumbaugh) : vues statiques, dynamiques et fonctionnelles d'un systme Issue du centre de RD de General Electric. Definition! Notation graphique riche et lisible. Essay Reading The Book! OOD (Grady Booch) : vues logiques et physiques du systme Dfinie pour le DOD, afin de rationaliser de dveloppement d'applications ADA, puis C++. Quakerism! Ne couvre pas la phase d'analyse dans ses 1res versions (prconise SADT). About The Book Of Revelation! Introduit le concept de package (lment d'organisation des modles) OOSE (Ivar Jacobson) : couvre tout le cycle de dveloppement Issue d'un centre de dveloppement d'Ericsson, en Sude. Essay About The Problem?! La mthodologie repose sur l'analyse des besoins des utilisateurs. Essay About Reading Of Revelation! L'unification et la normalisation des mthodes (1995-1997) UML (Unified Modeling Langage), la fusion et synthse des mthodes dominantes : UML aujourd'hui : un standard incontournable UML est le rsultat d'un large consensus (industriels, mthodologistes. Skyline History! ). Of Revelation! UML est le fruit d'un travail d'experts reconnus. The Pros Of Technology Essay! UML est issu du terrain. About Reading Of Revelation! UML est riche (il couvre toutes les phases d'un cycle de dveloppement).

UML est ouvert (il est indpendant du domaine d'application et des langages d'implmentation). And Cons Of Technology Essay! Aprs l'unification et la standardisation, bientt l'industrialisation d'UML : les outils qui supportent UML se multiplient (GDPro, ObjectTeam, Objecteering, OpenTool, Rational Rose, Rhapsody, STP, Visio, Visual Modeler, WithClass. About Reading The Book Of Revelation! ). The Pros And Cons Of Technology! XMI (format d'change standard de modles UML). About The Book Of Revelation! UML volue mais reste stable ! L'OMG RTF (nombreux acteurs industriels) centralise et normalise les volutions d'UML au niveau international. Art Vs Modern! Les groupes d'utilisateurs UML favorisent le partage des expriences. Essay Reading Of Revelation! De version en version, UML gagne en maturit et prcision, tout en restant stable. Postmodern Modern! UML inclut des mcanismes standards d'auto-extension. Essay About Of Revelation! La description du mtamodle d'UML est standardise (OMG-MOF). UML n'est pas une mode, c'est un investissement fiable ! Si l'on parle de mthode objet pour UML, c'est par abus de langage ! Ce constat vaut aussi pour OMT ou d'autres techniques / langages de modlisation. Definition! Une mthode propose aussi un processus, qui rgit notamment l'enchanement des activits de production d'une entreprise.

UML a t pens pour permettre de modliser les activits de l'entreprise, pas pour les rgir (ce n'est pas CMM ou SPICE). Of Revelation! Un processus de dveloppement logiciel universel est une utopie : Impossible de prendre en compte toutes les organisations et cultures d'entreprises. Skyline! Un processus est adapt (donc trs li) au domaine d'activit de l'entreprise. Essay About The Book! Mme si un processus constitue un cadre gnral, il faut l'adapter de manire prcise au contexte de l'entreprise. UML est fond sur un mtamodle, qui dfinit : les lments de modlisation (les concepts manipuls par le langage), la smantique de ces lments (leur dfinition et le sens de leur utilisation). Postmodern Modern Art! Un mtamodle est une description trs formelle de tous les concepts d'un langage. Essay About Reading Of Revelation! Il limite les ambiguts et encourage la construction d'outils. Romantic! Le mtamodle d'UML permet de classer les concepts du langage (selon leur niveau d'abstraction ou domaine d'application) et expose sa structure. Essay The Book Of Revelation! Le mtamodle UML est lui-mme dcrit par un mta-mtamodle (OMG-MOF). Nissan! UML propose aussi une notation, qui permet de reprsenter graphiquement les lments de modlisation du mtamodle.

Cette notation graphique est le support du langage UML. diffrentes vues (perspectives) complmentaires d'un systme, qui guident l'utilisation des concept objets, plusieurs niveaux d'abstraction, qui permettent de mieux contrler la complexit dans l'expression des solutions objets. Sa notation graphique permet d'exprimer visuellement une solution objet. About The Book! L'aspect formel de sa notation limite les ambiguts et les incomprhensions. Nissan Skyline History! Son aspect visuel facilite la comparaison et l'valuation de solutions. The Book Of Revelation! Son indpendance (par rapport aux langages d'implmentation, domaine d'application, processus. Teenager! ) en font un langage universel.

I-C. Essay The Book! Avantages et inconvnients d'UML^ gain de prcision gage de stabilit encourage l'utilisation d'outils. Il cadre l'analyse. Of Technology Essay! Il facilite la comprhension de reprsentations abstraites complexes.

Son caractre polyvalent et sa souplesse en font un langage universel. La mise en pratique d'UML ncessite un apprentissage et passe par une priode d'adaptation. Mme si l'Espranto est une utopie, la ncessit de s'accorder sur des modes d'expression communs est vitale en informatique. Essay Reading! UML n 'est pas l'origine des concepts objets, mais en constitue une tape majeure, car il unifie les diffrentes approches et en donne une dfinition plus formelle. Or, l'intgration d'UML dans un processus n'est pas triviale et amliorer un processus est un tche complexe et longue.

Les auteurs d'UML sont tout fait conscients de l'importance du processus, mais l'acceptabilit industrielle de la modlisation objet passe d'abord par la disponibilit d'un langage d'analyse objet performant et standard. Un modle est une abstraction de la ralit. L'abstraction est un des piliers de l'approche objet. Il s'agit d'un processus qui consiste identifier les caractristiques intressantes d'une entit, en vue d'une utilisation prcise. Nissan Skyline! L'abstraction dsigne aussi le rsultat de ce processus, c'est--dire l'ensemble des caractristiques essentielles d'une entit, retenues par un observateur. The Book Of Revelation! Un modle est une vue subjective mais pertinente de la ralit Un modle dfinit une frontire entre la ralit et la perspective de l'observateur. Definition! Ce n'est pas la ralit, mais une vue trs subjective de la ralit.

Bien qu'un modle ne reprsente pas une ralit absolue, un modle reflte des aspects importants de la ralit, il en donne donc une vue juste et pertinente. Essay About Reading The Book! Quelques exemples de modles Modle mtorologique : partir de donnes d'observation (satellite . Are Guns! ), permet de prvoir les conditions climatiques pour les jours venir. About Reading Of Revelation! Modle conomique : peut par exemple permettre de simuler l'volution de cours boursiers en fonction d'hypothses macro-conomiques (volution du chmage, taux de croissance. Quakerism! ). About The Book! Modle dmographique : dfinit la composition d'un panel d'une population et son comportement, dans le but de fiabiliser des tudes statistiques, d'augmenter l'impact de dmarches commerciales, etc. Postmodern Art Vs Modern Art! Caractristiques fondamentales des modles. Le caractre abstrait d'un modle doit notamment permettre : de faciliter la comprhension du systme tudi. Un modle rduit la complexit du systme tudi. Essay The Book! de simuler le systme tudi. Un modle reprsente le systme tudi et reproduit ses comportements. Un modle rduit (dcompose) la ralit, dans le but de disposer d'lments de travail exploitables par des moyens mathmatiques ou informatiques : UML est un langage qui permet de reprsenter des modles, mais il ne dfinit pas le processus d'laboration des modles ! Cependant, dans le cadre de la modlisation d'une application informatique, les auteurs d'UML prconisent d'utiliser une dmarche : itrative et incrmentale, guide par les besoins des utilisateurs du systme, centre sur l'architecture logicielle. D'aprs les auteurs d'UML, un processus de dveloppement qui possde ces qualits devrait favoriser la russite d'un projet. II-B-1.

Une dmarche itrative et incrmentale ?^ L'ide est simple : pour modliser (comprendre et reprsenter) un systme complexe, il vaut mieux s'y prendre en plusieurs fois, en affinant son analyse par tapes. Postmodern Art Vs Modern! Cette dmarche devrait aussi s'appliquer au cycle de dveloppement dans son ensemble, en favorisant le prototypage. Le but est de mieux matriser la part d'inconnu et d'incertitudes qui caractrisent les systmes complexes. II-B-2.

Une dmarche pilote par les besoins des utilisateurs ?^ Le primtre du systme modliser est dfini par les besoins des utilisateurs (les utilisateurs dfinissent ce que doit tre le systme). Of Revelation! Le but du systme modliser est de rpondre aux besoins de ses utilisateurs (les utilisateurs sont les clients du systme). A chaque itration de la phase d'analyse, on romantic setting, clarifie, affine et valide les besoins des utilisateurs. About Reading The Book! A chaque itration de la phase de conception et de ralisation, on quakerism definition, veille la prise en compte des besoins des utilisateurs. Essay The Book Of Revelation! A chaque itration de la phase de test, on quakerism definition, vrifie que les besoins des utilisateurs sont satisfaits. II-B-3.

Une dmarche centre sur l'architecture ?^ Une architecture adapte est la cl de vote du succs d'un dveloppement. Elle dcrit des choix stratgiques qui dterminent en grande partie les qualits du logiciel (adaptabilit, performances, fiabilit. Essay About Of Revelation! ). Cette vue (4+1) a fortement inspir UML : II-B-4. Postmodern Art Vs Modern Art! Dfinir une architecture avec UML (dtail de la vue 4+1)^ Cette vue de haut niveau se concentre sur l'abstraction et l'encapsulation, elle modlise les lments et mcanismes principaux du systme. Essay About Of Revelation! Elle identifie les lments du domaine, ainsi que les relations et interactions entre ces lments : les lments du domaine sont lis au(x) mtier(s) de l'entreprise, ils sont indispensables la mission du systme, ils gagnent tre rutiliss (ils reprsentent un savoir-faire). Romantic Setting! Cette vue organise aussi (selon des critres purement logiques), les lments du domaine en catgories : pour rpartir les tches dans les quipes, regrouper ce qui peut tre gnrique, isoler ce qui est propre une version donne, etc. Cette vue de bas niveau (aussi appele vue de ralisation), montre : L'allocation des lments de modlisation dans des modules (fichiers sources, bibliothques dynamiques, bases de donnes, excutables, etc. Reading The Book Of Revelation! ). The Pros And Cons Of Technology Essay! En d'autres termes, cette vue identifie les modules qui ralisent (physiquement) les classes de la vue logique.

L'organisation des composants, c'est--dire la distribution du code en gestion de configuration, les dpendances entre les composants. Essay Reading The Book Of Revelation! Les contraintes de dveloppement (bibliothques externes. The Problem?! ). Essay Of Revelation! La vue des composants montre aussi l'organisation des modules en sous-systmes, les interfaces des sous-systmes et leurs dpendances (avec d'autres sous-systmes ou modules). Cette vue est trs importante dans les environnements multitches ; elle montre : La dcomposition du systme en terme de processus (tches). Postmodern Art Vs Modern! Les interactions entre les processus (leur communication). Essay About! La synchronisation et la communication des activits parallles (threads). Cette vue trs importante dans les environnements distribus, dcrit les ressources matrielles et la rpartition du logiciel dans ces ressources := La disposition et nature physique des matriels, ainsi que leurs performances.

L'implantation des modules principaux sur les noeuds du rseau. Essay! Les exigences en terme de performances (temps de rponse, tolrance aux fautes et pannes. About! ). Cette vue (dont le nom exact est vue des cas d'utilisation), guide toutes les autres. Setting! Dessiner le plan (l'architecture) d'un systme informatique n'est pas suffisant, il faut le justifier ! Cette vue dfinit les besoins des clients du systme et centre la dfinition de l'architecture du systme sur la satisfaction (la ralisation) de ces besoins. Essay About Reading Of Revelation! A l'aide de scnarios et de cas d'utilisation, cette vue conduit la dfinition d'un modle d'architecture pertinent et cohrent. Relationship! Cette vue est la colle qui unifie les quatre autres vues de l'architecture. Essay About! Elle motive les choix, permet d'identifier les interfaces critiques et force se concentrer sur les problmes importants. Modliser une application ? Mais comme UML n'est pas un processus. Quelle dmarche utiliser ? Optez pour une approche itrative et incrmentale. Postmodern Art Vs Modern Art! Centrez votre dmarche sur l'analyse des besoins des utilisateurs.

Prenez grand soin la dfinition de l'architecture de votre application (l'approche 4+1 permet de mieux la cerner). Bien qu'UML n'est pas un processus, il facilite une dmarche d'analyse itrative et incrmentale, base sur les niveaux d'abstraction. Essay About The Book Of Revelation! Les niveaux d'abstraction permettent de structurer les modles. Romantic! Un micro-processus rgit les itrations niveau d'abstraction constant. The Book Of Revelation! Un macro-processus rgit le passage de niveau niveau. Skyline History! Une dmarche incrmentale consiste construire les modles de spcification et de conception en plusieurs tapes (cible = catgories). Le schma ci-dessous montre les niveaux d'abstraction principaux, qu'on peut identifier dans un processus de dveloppement logiciel : II-B-6. The Book! Elaboration plutt que transformation^ Les modles d'analyse et de conception ne diffrent que par leur niveau de dtail, il n'y a pas de diffrence dans les concepts utiliss. Definition! UML n'introduit pas d'lments de modlisation propres une activit (analyse, conception. Essay About! ) ; le langage reste le mme tous les niveaux d'abstraction.

L'laboration encourage une approche non linaire (les retours en arrire entre niveaux d'abstraction diffrents sont facilits). Art Vs Modern! La traabilit entre modles de niveaux diffrents est assure par l'unicit du langage. II-B-7. Essay About Reading! Dtail des diffrents niveaux d'abstraction (phases du macro-processus)^ L'entre de l'analyse ce niveau, est le dossier d'expression des besoins client. Are Guns! A ce niveau d'abstraction, on Essay about, doit capturer les besoins principaux des utilisateurs. Modern Art! Il ne faut pas chercher l'exhaustivit, mais clarifier, filtrer et organiser les besoins ! Le but de la conceptualisation est : de dfinir le contour du systme modliser (de spcifier le quoi), de capturer les fonctionnalits principales du systme, afin d'en fournir une meilleure comprhension (le modle produit sert d'interface entre les acteurs du projet), de fournir une base la planification du projet. L'entre de l'analyse ce niveau, est le modle des besoins clients (les cas d'utilisation UML). Essay About Reading The Book! Il s'agit de modliser les lments et mcanismes principaux du systme. The Pros! On identifie les lments du domaine, ainsi que les relations et interactions entre ces lments : les lments du domaine sont lis au(x) mtier(s) de l'entreprise, ils sont indispensables la mission du systme, ils gagnent tre rutiliss (ils reprsentent un savoir-faire). Essay Reading! A ce stade, on about, organise aussi (selon des critres purement logiques), les lments du domaine en catgories : pour rpartir les tches dans les quipes, regrouper ce qui peut tre gnrique, etc.

A ce niveau, on about Reading The Book, modlise les aspects informatiques du systme, sans pour autant rentrer dans les dtails d'implmentation. Postmodern Art Vs Modern! Les interfaces des lments de modlisation sont dfinis (cf. Essay Reading The Book Of Revelation! encapsulation). Parent Teenager! Les relations entre les lments des modles sont dfinies. Essay Reading Of Revelation! Les lments de modlisation utiliss peuvent tre propres une version du systme. On y modlise tous les rouages d'implmentation et on setting, dtaille tous les lments de modlisation issus des niveaux suprieurs. Essay About The Book! Les modles sont optimiss, car destins tre implments. II-B-8.

Activits des micro-processus d'analyse (niveau d'abstraction constant)^ A chaque niveau d'abstraction, un micro-processus rgit la construction des modles. Romantic! UML ne rgit pas les activits des micro-processus, c'est le principe d'abstraction qui permet l'laboration itrative et incrmentale des modles. About Reading The Book Of Revelation! Exemple de micro-processus de construction d'un modle : recherchez les classes candidates (diffrentes suivant le niveau d'abstraction) l'aide de diagrammes d'objets (bauches), filtrez les classes redondantes, trop spcifiques ou vagues, qui ne reprsentent qu'une opration ou un attribut, documentez les caractristiques des classes retenues (persistances, nombre maximum d'instances, etc.). recherchez les connexions smantiques et les relations d'utilisation, documentez les relations (nom, cardinalits, contraintes, rles des classes. The Pros Essay! ), en spcification, filtrez les relations instables ou d'implmentation, dfinissez la dynamique des relations entre objets (les interactions entre instances de classes et les activits associes). recherchez les attributs dans les modles dynamiques (recherchez les donnes qui caractrisent les tats des objets), filtrez les attributs complexes (faites-en des objets) et au niveau spcification, ne reprsentez pas les valeurs internes propres aux mcanismes d'implmentation, recherchez les oprations parmi les activits et actions des objets (ne pas rentrer dans le dtail au niveau spcification). choisissez vos critres d'optimisation (gnricit, volutivit, prcision, lisibilit, simplicit. About Of Revelation! ), utilisez la gnralisation et la spcialisation (classification), documentez et dtaillez vos modles, encapsulez.

vrifiez la cohrence, la compltude et l'homognit des modles, confrontez les modles la critique (comit de relecture. Art! ). Modliser une application n'est pas une activit linaire. itrative et incrmentale (grce aux niveaux d'abstraction), car il est plus efficace de construire et valider par tapes, ce qui est difficile cerner et matriser, centre sur l'architecture (dfinie par la vue 4+1), car il s'agit de la cl de vote qui conditionne la plupart des qualits d'une application informatique, guide par la prise en compte des besoins des utilisateurs ( l'aide des cas d'utilisation), car ce qui motive l'existence mme du systme concevoir, c'est la satisfaction des besoins de ses utilisateurs. OK pour la dmarche d'laboration d'un modle, mais. II-B-10-a. About Of Revelation! Comment rdiger un modle avec UML ?^ UML permet de dfinir et de visualiser un modle, l'aide de diagrammes. Parent Relationship! Un diagramme UML est une reprsentation graphique, qui s'intresse un aspect prcis du modle ; c'est une perspective du modle, pas le modle. Reading The Book Of Revelation! Chaque type de diagramme UML possde une structure (les types des lments de modlisation qui le composent sont prdfinis). Relationship! Un type de diagramme UML vhicule une smantique prcise (un type de diagramme offre toujours la mme vue d'un systme).

Combins, les diffrents types de diagrammes UML offrent une vue complte des aspects statiques et dynamiques d'un systme. Reading Of Revelation! Par extension et abus de langage, un diagramme UML est aussi un modle (un diagramme modlise un aspect du modle global). II-B-10-b. The Pros And Cons Of Technology Essay! Quelques caractristiques des diagrammes UML^ Les diagrammes UML supportent l'abstraction.

Leur niveau de dtail caractrise le niveau d'abstraction du modle. Essay Reading! La structure des diagrammes UML et la notation graphique des lments de modlisation est normalise (document UML notation guide). Parent Teenager! Rappel : la smantique des lments de modlisation et de leur utilisation est dfinie par le mtamodle UML (document UML semantics). Essay About Reading The Book! Le recours des outils appropris est un gage de productivit pour la rdaction des diagrammes UML, car : ils facilitent la navigation entre les diffrentes vues, ils permettent de centraliser, organiser, partager, synchroniser et versionner les diagrammes (indispensable avec un processus itratif), facilitent l'abstraction, par des filtres visuels, simplifient la production de documents et autorisent (dans certaines limites) la gnration de code. II-B-10-c. Romantic! Les diffrents types de diagrammes UML^ Vues statiques du systme : diagrammes de cas d'utilisation diagrammes d'objets diagrammes de classes diagrammes de composants diagrammes de dploiement. Vues dynamiques du systme : diagrammes de collaboration diagrammes de squence diagrammes d'tats-transitions diagrammes d'activits. Les paquetages sont des lments d'organisation des modles. The Book Of Revelation! Ils regroupent des lments de modlisation, selon des critres purement logiques.

Ils permettent d'encapsuler des lments de modlisation (ils possdent une interface). Setting! Ils permettent de structurer un systme en catgories (vue logique) et sous-systmes (vue des composants). Essay The Book Of Revelation! Ils servent de briques de base dans la construction d'une architecture. Nissan! Ils reprsentent le bon niveau de granularit pour la rutilisation. The Book Of Revelation! Les paquetages sont aussi des espaces de noms. II-C-1-b. Art Vs Modern Art! Paquetages : relations entre paquetages^ II-C-2-a. Essay About The Book Of Revelation! Symbole de modlisation collaboration^ Les collaborations sont des interactions entre objets, dont le but est de raliser un objectif du systme (c'est--dire aussi de rpondre un besoin d'un utilisateur). And Cons Essay! L'lment de modlisation UML collaboration, reprsente les classes qui participent la ralisation d'un cas d'utilisation.

Attention : ne confondez pas l'lment de modlisation collaboration avec le diagramme de collaboration, qui reprsente des interactions entre instances de classes. II-C-3. About Reading The Book! INSTANCES ET DIAGRAMME D'OBJETS ^ Ce type de diagramme UML montre des objets (instances de classes dans un tat particulier) et des liens (relations smantiques) entre ces objets. Nissan! Les diagrammes d'objets s'utilisent pour montrer un contexte (avant ou aprs une interaction entre objets par exemple). Essay About The Book! Ce type de diagramme sert essentiellement en phase exploratoire, car il possde un trs haut niveau d'abstraction. II-C-4-a. Quakerism Definition! Classe : smantique et notation^ Une classe est un type abstrait caractris par des proprits (attributs et mthodes) communes un ensemble d'objets et permettant de crer des objets ayant ces proprits.

Classe = attributs + mthodes + instanciation. Il s'agit juste d'un filtre visuel, destin donner un certain niveau d'abstraction son modle. De mme, ne pas spcifier les niveaux de protection des membres d'une classe ne veut pas dire qu'on ne reprsente que les membres publics. Essay Of Revelation! L aussi, il s'agit d'un filtre visuel. Documentation d'une classe (niveaux d'abstraction), exemples : Attributs multivalus et drivs, exemples : Classe abstraite, exemple : Template (classe paramtrable), exemple : II-C-5-a. Romantic! Diagramme de classes : smantique^ Un diagramme de classes est une collection d'lments de modlisation statiques (classes, paquetages. Essay About Of Revelation! ), qui montre la structure d'un modle. Essay About Are Guns! Un diagramme de classes fait abstraction des aspects dynamiques et temporels. Essay The Book! Pour un modle complexe, plusieurs diagrammes de classes complmentaires doivent tre construits.

les classes qui participent un cas d'utilisation (cf. Setting! collaboration), les classes associes dans la ralisation d'un scnario prcis, les classes qui composent un paquetage, la structure hirarchique d'un ensemble de classes. About! Pour reprsenter un contexte prcis, un diagramme de classes peut tre instanci en diagrammes d'objets. Une association exprime une connexion smantique bidirectionnelle entre deux classes. Nissan! L'association est instanciable dans un diagramme d'objets ou de collaboration, sous forme de liens entre objets issus de classes associes. II-C-5-c. Essay The Book! Documentation d'une association et types d'associations^ Association en forme verbale active : prcise le sens de lecture principal d'une association. Voir aussi : association navigabilit restreinte. Rles : spcifie la fonction d'une classe pour une association donne (indispensable pour les associations rflexives).

Cardinalits : prcise le nombre d'instances qui participent une relation. Relation de dpendance : relation d'utilisation unidirectionnelle et d'obsolescence (une modification de l'lment dont on romantic setting, dpend, peut ncessiter une mise jour de l'lment dpendant). Association navigabilit restreinte. Par dfaut, une association est navigable dans les deux sens. About Of Revelation! La rduction de la porte de l'association est souvent ralise en phase d'implmentation, mais peut aussi tre exprime dans un modle pour indiquer que les instances d'une classe ne connaissent pas les instances d'une autre. Association n-aire : il s'agit d'une association qui relie plus de deux classes. Note : de telles associations sont difficiles dchiffrer et peuvent induire en erreur. About! Il vaut mieux limiter leur utilisation, en dfinissant de nouvelles catgories d'associations. Classe d'association : il s'agit d'une classe qui ralise la navigation entre les instances d'autres classes. Qualification : permet de slectionner un sous-ensemble d'objets, parmi l'ensemble des objets qui participent une association. La restriction de l'association est dfinie par une cl, qui permet de slectionner les objets cibls.

Les hirarchies de classes permettent de grer la complexit, en ordonnant les objets au sein d'arborescences de classes, d'abstraction croissante. Dmarche descendante, qui consiste capturer les particularits d'un ensemble d'objets, non discrimins par les classes dj identifies. Essay The Book! Consiste tendre les proprits d'une classe, sous forme de sous-classes, plus spcifiques (permet l'extension du modle par rutilisation). Dmarche ascendante, qui consiste capturer les particularits communes d'un ensemble d'objets, issus de classes diffrentes. Modern Art! Consiste factoriser les proprits d'un ensemble de classes, sous forme d'une super-classe, plus abstraite (permet de gagner en gnricit). L'hritage (spcialisation et gnralisation) permet la classification des objets.

Une bonne classification est stable et extensible : ne classifiez pas les objets selon des critres instables (selon ce qui caractrise leur tat) ou trop vagues (car cela gnre trop de sous-classes). Essay The Book! Les critres de classification sont subjectifs. Romantic Setting! Le principe de substitution (Liksow, 1987) permet de dterminer si une relation d'hritage est bien employe pour la classification : Il doit tre possible de substituer n'importe quel instance d'une super-classe, par n'importe quel instance d'une de ses sous-classes, sans que la smantique d'un programme crit dans les termes de la super-classe n'en soit affecte. Essay About Reading! Si Y hrite de X, cela signifie que Y est une sorte de X (analogies entre classification et thorie des ensembles). L'agrgation est une association non symtrique, qui exprime un couplage fort et une relation de subordination. Postmodern Modern Art! Elle reprsente une relation de type ensemble / lment. Essay About Reading The Book Of Revelation! UML ne dfinit pas ce qu'est une relation de type ensemble / lment, mais il permet cependant d'exprimer cette vue subjective de manire explicite. About! Une agrgation peut notamment (mais pas ncessairement) exprimer : qu'une classe (un lment) fait partie d'une autre (l'agrgat), qu'un changement d'tat d'une classe, entrane un changement d'tat d'une autre, qu'une action sur une classe, entrane une action sur une autre.

A un mme moment, une instance d'lment agrg peut tre lie plusieurs instances d'autres classes (l'lment agrg peut tre partag). About Reading! Une instance d'lment agrg peut exister sans agrgat (et inversement) : les cycles de vies de l'agrgat et de ses lments agrgs peuvent tre indpendants. La composition est une agrgation forte (agrgation par valeur). Postmodern Art Vs Modern Art! Les cycles de vies des lments (les composants) et de l'agrgat sont lis : si l'agrgat est dtruit (ou copi), ses composants le sont aussi. Essay About! A un mme moment, une instance de composant ne peut tre lie qu' un seul agrgat. And Cons! Les objets composites sont des instances de classes composes.

II-C-5-g. Of Revelation! Agrgation et composition : rappel^ L'agrgation et la composition sont des vues subjectives. Are Guns The Problem?! Lorsqu'on reprsente (avec UML) qu'une molcule est compose d'atomes, on about The Book, sous-entend que la destruction d'une instance de la classe Molcule, implique la destruction de ses composants, instances de la classe Atome (cf. Parent Teenager Relationship! proprits de la composition). Essay! Bien qu'elle ne reflte pas la ralit (rien ne se perd, rien ne se cre, tout se transforme), cette abstraction de la ralit nous satisfait si l'objet principal de notre modlisation est la molcule.

En conclusion, servez vous de l'agrgation et de la composition pour ajouter de la smantique vos modles lorsque cela est pertinent, mme si dans la ralit de tels liens n'existent pas ! Une interface fournit une vue totale ou partielle d'un ensemble de services offerts par une classe, un paquetage ou un composant. Romantic! Les lments qui utilisent l'interface peuvent exploiter tout ou partie de l'interface. Essay The Book Of Revelation! Dans un modle UML, le symbole interface sert identifier de manire explicite et symbolique les services offerts par un lment et l'utilisation qui en est faite par les autres lments. Les associations drives sont des associations redondantes, qu'on peut dduire d'une autre association ou d'un ensemble d'autres associations. About Are Guns! Elles permettent d'indiquer des chemins de navigation calculs, sur un diagramme de classes. About Reading The Book Of Revelation! Elles servent beaucoup la comprhension de la navigation (comment joindre telles instances d'une classe partir d'une autre). II-C-5-j. Setting! Contrainte sur une association^

Les contraintes sont des expressions qui prcisent le rle ou la porte d'un lment de modlisation (elles permettent d'tendre ou prciser sa smantique). About Reading The Book! Sur une association, elles peuvent par exemple restreindre le nombre d'instances vises (ce sont alors des expressions de navigation). Nissan Skyline History! Les contraintes peuvent s'exprimer en langage naturel. The Book Of Revelation! Graphiquement, il s'agit d'un texte encadr d'accolades. UML formalise l'expression des contraintes avec OCL (Object Constraint Language). Essay About The Problem?! OCL est une contribution d'IBM UML 1.1. Essay! Ce langage formel est volontairement simple d'accs et possde une grammaire lmentaire (OCL peut tre interprt par des outils). The Pros Of Technology! Il reprsente un juste milieu, entre langage naturel et langage mathmatique.

OCL permet ainsi de limiter les ambiguts, tout en restant accessible. Essay Reading The Book Of Revelation! OCL permet de dcrire des invariants dans un modle, sous forme de pseudo-code : pr et post-conditions pour une opration, expressions de navigation, expressions boolennes, etc. Essay Are Guns! OCL est largement utilis dans la dfinition du mtamodle UML. Nous allons nous baser sur une tude de cas, pour introduire brivement OCL. Monsieur Formulain, directeur d'une chane d'htels, vous demande de concevoir une application de gestion pour ses htels. About The Book Of Revelation! Voici ce que vous devez modliser : Un htel Formulain est constitu d'un certain nombre de chambres. Definition! Un responsable de l'htel gre la location des chambres. Of Revelation! Chaque chambre se loue un prix donn (suivant ses prestations).

L'accs aux salles de bain est compris dans le prix de la location d'une chambre. Essay About! Certaines chambres comportent une salle de bain, mais pas toutes. Reading The Book! Les htes de chambres sans salle de bain peuvent utiliser une salle de bain sur le palier. And Cons Essay! Ces dernires peuvent tre utilises par plusieurs htes. Les pices de l'htel qui ne sont ni des chambres, ni des salles de bain (hall d'accueil, cuisine. Essay About Reading The Book! ) ne font pas partie de l'tude (hors sujet). Des personnes peuvent louer une ou plusieurs chambres de l'htel, afin d'y rsider. Art Vs Modern Art! En d'autre termes : l'htel hberge un certain nombre de personnes, ses htes (il s'agit des personnes qui louent au moins une chambre de l'htel. Essay About Reading Of Revelation! ). Le diagramme UML ci-dessous prsente les classes qui interviennent dans la modlisation d'un htel Formulain, ainsi que les relations entre ces classes. Attention : le modle a t rduit une vue purement statique. Setting! La dynamique de l'interaction entre instances n'est pas donne ici, pour simplifier l'exemple. Essay About Reading! Lors d'une modlisation complte, les vues dynamiques complmentaires ne devraient pas tre omises (tout comme la conceptualisation pralable par des use cases).

Remarque : cet exemple est inspir d'un article paru dans JOOP (Journal of definition, Object Oriented Programming), en mai 99. OCL permet d'enrichir ce diagramme, en dcrivant toutes les contraintes et tous les invariants du modle prsent, de manire normalise et explicite ( l'intrieur d'une note rattache un lment de modlisation du diagramme). Voici quelques exemples de contraintes qu'on pourrait dfinir sur ce diagramme, avec la syntaxe OCL correspondante. Les exemples de syntaxe OCL ci-dessous ne sont pas dtaills, rfrez-vous au document de la norme UML adquat (OCL spcification). Essay Reading! Il ne s'agit l que d'un trs rapide aperu du pouvoir d'abstraction d'OCL.

Les strotypes permettent d'tendre la smantique des lments de modlisation : il s'agit d'un mcanisme d'extensibilit du mtamodle d'UML. Art! Les strotypes permettent de dfinir de nouvelles classes d'lments de modlisation, en plus du noyau prdfini par UML. Essay! Utilisez les strotypes avec modration et de manire concerte (notez aussi qu'UML propose de nombreux strotypes standards). II-C-6. Postmodern! DIAGRAMMES DE COMPOSANTS ET DE DEPLOIEMENT^ Les diagrammes de composants permettent de dcrire l'architecture physique et statique d'une application en terme de modules : fichiers sources, librairies, excutables, etc. Ils montrent la mise en oeuvre physique des modles de la vue logique avec l'environnement de dveloppement. About Reading The Book Of Revelation! Les dpendances entre composants permettent notamment d'identifier les contraintes de compilation et de mettre en vidence la rutilisation de composants.

Le composants peuvent tre organiss en paquetages, qui dfinissent des sous-systmes. Essay About Are Guns! Les sous-systmes organisent la vue des composants (de ralisation) d'un systme. Essay Reading Of Revelation! Ils permettent de grer la complexit, par encapsulation des dtails d'implmentation. Diagramme de composants (exemple) : Les diagrammes de dploiement montrent la disposition physique des matriels qui composent le systme et la rpartition des composants sur ces matriels. Quakerism! Les ressources matrielles sont reprsentes sous forme de noeuds. About Reading The Book! Les noeuds sont connects entre eux, l'aide d'un support de communication. La nature des lignes de communication et leurs caractristiques peuvent tre prcises. Nissan Skyline History! Les diagrammes de dploiement peuvent montrer des instances de noeuds (un matriel prcis), ou des classes de noeuds. About! Les diagrammes de dploiement correspondent la vue de dploiement d'une architecture logicielle (vue 4+1). II-D-1-a. Of Technology! La conceptualisation : rappel^

Le but de la conceptualisation est de comprendre et structurer les besoins du client. Essay The Book! Il ne faut pas chercher l'exhaustivit, mais clarifier, filtrer et organiser les besoins ! Une fois identifis et structurs, ces besoins : dfinissent le contour du systme modliser (ils prcisent le but atteindre), permettent d'identifier les fonctionnalits principales (critiques) du systme. Skyline! Le modle conceptuel doit permettre une meilleure comprhension du systme. Essay About The Book Of Revelation! Le modle conceptuel doit servir d'interface entre tous les acteurs du projet. Essay About! Les besoins des clients sont des lments de traabilit dans un processus intgrant UML. Il s'agit de la solution UML pour reprsenter le modle conceptuel. Essay About Reading Of Revelation! Les use cases permettent de structurer les besoins des utilisateurs et les objectifs correspondants d'un systme. Parent Teenager Relationship! Ils centrent l'expression des exigences du systme sur ses utilisateurs : ils partent du principe que les objectifs du systme sont tous motivs. Essay Reading The Book Of Revelation! Ils se limitent aux proccupations relles des utilisateurs ; ils ne prsentent pas de solutions d'implmentation et ne forment pas un inventaire fonctionnel du systme.

Ils identifient les utilisateurs du systme (acteurs) et leur interaction avec le systme. Parent! Ils permettent de classer les acteurs et structurer les objectifs du systme. About Reading! Ils servent de base la traabilit des exigences d'un systme dans un processus de dveloppement intgrant UML. Il tait une fois. Le modle conceptuel est le type de diagramme UML qui possde la notation la plus simple ; mais paradoxalement c'est aussi celui qui est le plus mal compris ! Au dbut des annes 90, Ivar Jacobson (inventeur de OOSE, une des mthodes fondatrices d'UML) a t nomm chef d'un norme projet informatique chez Ericsson. Skyline History! Le hic, c'est que ce projet tait rapidement devenu ingrable, les ingnieurs d'Ericsson avaient accouch d'un monstre. About Reading! Personne ne savait vraiment quelles taient les fonctionnalits du produit, ni comment elles taient assures, ni comment les faire voluer.

Classique lorsque les commerciaux promettent monts et merveilles tous les clients qu'ils dmarchent, sans se soucier des contraintes techniques, que les clients ne savent pas exprimer leurs besoins et que les ingnieurs n'ont pas les ressources pour dvelopper le mouton cinq pattes qui rsulte de ce chaos. Pour viter de foncer droit dans un mur et mener bien ce projet critique pour Ericsson, Jacobson a eu une ide. Postmodern Art Vs! Plutt que de continuer construire une tour de Babel, pourquoi ne pas remettre plat les objectifs rels du projet ? En d'autres termes : quels sont les besoins rels des clients, ceux qui conditionneront la russite du projet ? Ces besoins critiques, une fois identifis et structurs, permettront enfin de cerner ce qui est important pour la russite du projet. Le bnfice de cette dmarche simplificatrice est double. Reading Of Revelation! D'une part, tous les acteurs du projet ont une meilleure comprhension du systme dvelopper, d'autre part, les besoins des utilisateurs, une fois clarifis, serviront de fil rouge, tout au long du cycle de dveloppement.

A chaque itration de la phase d'analyse, on of Technology, clarifie, affine et valide les besoins des utilisateurs ; chaque itration de la phase de conception et de ralisation, on Essay about of Revelation, veille la prise en compte des besoins des utilisateurs et chaque itration de la phase de test, on parent teenager relationship, vrifie que les besoins des utilisateurs sont satisfaits. Simple mais gnial. About Reading The Book! Pour la petite histoire, sachez que grce cette dmarche initie par Jacobson, Ericsson a russi mener bien son projet et a gagn une notorit internationale dans le march de la commutation. Morale de cette histoire : La dtermination et la comprhension des besoins sont souvent difficiles car les intervenants sont noys sous de trop grandes quantits d'informations. Of Technology Essay! Or, comment mener bien un projet si l'on ne sait pas o l'on va ? Conclusion : il faut clarifier et organiser les besoins des clients (les modliser). Un modle est une simplification de la ralit. Essay About Reading The Book Of Revelation! Il permet de mieux comprendre le systme qu'on doit dvelopper. Essay! Les meilleurs modles sont proches de la ralit. Les use cases, permettent de modliser les besoins des clients d'un systme et doivent aussi possder ces caractristiques.

Ils ne doivent pas chercher l'exhaustivit, mais clarifier, filtrer et organiser les besoins ! dfinissent le contour du systme modliser (ils prcisent le but atteindre), permettent d'identifier les fonctionnalits principales (critiques) du systme. Les use cases ne doivent donc en aucun cas dcrire des solutions d'implmentation. Essay About Reading! Leur but est justement d'viter de tomber dans la drive d'une approche fonctionnelle, o l'on liste une litanie de fonctions que le systme doit raliser. Bien entendu, rien n'interdit de grer l'aide d'outils (Doors, Requisite Pro, etc. And Cons Of Technology Essay! ) les exigences systmes un niveau plus fin et d'en assurer la traabilit, bien au contraire. Mais un modle conceptuel qui identifie les besoins avec un plus grand niveau d'abstraction reste indispensable. About! Avec des systmes complexes, filtrer l'information, la simplifier et mieux l'organiser, c'est rendre l'information exploitable.

Produisez de l'information phmre, complexe et confuse, vous obtiendrez un joyeux dsordre (pour rester poli). Utilisez les use cases tels qu'ils ont t pens par leurs crateurs ! UML est issu du terrain. Skyline! Si vous utilisez les use cases sans avoir en tte la dmarche sous-jacente, vous n'en tirerez aucun bnfice. II-D-1-c. Essay About Reading The Book! Elments de base des cas d'utilisation^ L'acteur peut consulter ou modifier l'tat du systme. Nissan History! En rponse l'action d'un acteur, le systme fournit un service qui correspond son besoin. About Reading Of Revelation! Les acteurs peuvent tre classs (hirarchiss). Les uses cases peuvent tre structurs. Teenager Relationship! Les uses cases peuvent tre organiss en paquetages (packages). Essay! L'ensemble des use cases dcrit les objectifs (le but) du systme.

Cas d'utilisation standard : Les diagrammes de collaboration montrent des interactions entre objets (instances de classes et acteurs). Essay! Ils permettent de reprsenter le contexte d'une interaction, car on The Book, peut y prciser les tats des objets qui interagissent. II-D-2-a. Quakerism! Synchronisation des messages^ UML permet de spcifier de manire trs prcise l'ordre et les conditions d'envoi des messages sur un diagramme dynamique. Essay About Of Revelation! Pour chaque message, il est possible d'indiquer : les clauses qui conditionnent son envoi, son rang (son numro d'ordre par rapport aux autres messages), sa rcurrence, ses arguments. pr : prdcesseurs (liste de numros de squence de messages spars par une virgule ; voir aussi sq). Indique que le message courant ne sera envoy que lorsque tous ses prdcesseurs le seront aussi (permet de synchroniser l'envoi de messages). Quakerism Definition! cond : garde, expression boolenne. Permet de conditionner l'envoi du message, l'aide d'une clause exprime en langage naturel. Of Revelation! sq : numro de squence du message. Indique le rang du message, c'est--dire son numro d'ordre par rapport aux autres messages.

Les messages sont numrots la faon de chapitres dans un document, l'aide de chiffres spars par des points. Modern Art! Ainsi, il est possible de reprsenter le niveau d'embotement des messages et leur prcdence. Exemple : l'envoi du message 1.3.5 suit immdiatement celui du message 1.3.4 et ces deux messages font partie du flot (de la famille de messages) 1.3. Pour reprsenter l'envoi simultan de deux messages, il suffit de les indexer par une lettre. Exemple : l'envoi des messages 1.3.a et 1.3.b est simultan. Essay About Reading The Book Of Revelation! iter : rcurrence du message.

Permet de spcifier en langage naturel l'envoi squentiel (ou en parallle, avec ||) de messages. About! Notez qu'il est aussi possible de spcifier qu'un message est rcurrent en omettant la clause d'itration (en n'utilisant que * ou *||). Essay About The Book! r : valeur de retour du message. Permet d'affecter la valeur de retour d'un message, pour par exemple la retransmettre dans un autre message, en tant que paramtre. Teenager Relationship! msg : nom du message. Essay Reading! par : paramtres (optionnels) du message. UML permet de reprsenter des communications entre objets actifs de manire concurrente. Parent! Cette extension des diagrammes de collaboration permet notamment de reprsenter des communications entre processus ou l'excution de threads. II-D-3-a.

Diagramme de squence : smantique^ Les diagrammes de squences permettent de reprsenter des collaborations entre objets selon un point de vue temporel, on Essay Reading The Book of Revelation, y met l'accent sur la chronologie des envois de messages. Skyline History! Contrairement au diagramme de collaboration, on Essay about The Book, n'y dcrit pas le contexte ou l'tat des objets, la reprsentation se concentre sur l'expression des interactions. Nissan Skyline! Les diagrammes de squences peuvent servir illustrer un cas d'utilisation. About Reading! L'ordre d'envoi d'un message est dtermin par sa position sur l'axe vertical du diagramme ; le temps s'coule de haut en bas de cet axe. Skyline! La disposition des objets sur l'axe horizontal n'a pas de consquence pour la smantique du diagramme. Essay Of Revelation! Les diagrammes de squences et les diagrammes d'tat-transitions sont les vues dynamiques les plus importantes d'UML. Comme vous pouvez le voir dans l'exemple ci-dessus, UML propose un certain nombre de strotypes graphiques pour dcrire la nature du message (ces strotypes graphiques s'appliquent galement aux messages des diagrammes de collaborations) : Message dont on Essay about, ne spcifie aucune caractristique d'envoi ou de rception particulire. Essay Reading The Book! message minut (timeout) Bloque l'expditeur pendant un temps donn (qui peut tre spcifi dans une contrainte), en attendant la prise en compte du message par le rcepteur.

L'expditeur est libr si la prise en compte n'a pas eu lieu pendant le dlai spcifi. History! message synchrone. Bloque l'expditeur jusqu' prise en compte du message par le destinataire. Of Revelation! Le flot de contrle passe de l'metteur au rcepteur (l'metteur devient passif et le rcepteur actif) la prise en compte du message. Nissan Skyline! message asynchrone. N'interrompt pas l'excution de l'expditeur. The Book! Le message envoy peut tre pris en compte par le rcepteur tout moment ou ignor (jamais trait). Postmodern Modern Art! message drobant. N'interrompt pas l'excution de l'expditeur et ne dclenche une opration chez le rcepteur que s'il s'est pralablement mis en attente de ce message. Sur un diagramme de squence, il est aussi possible de reprsenter de manire explicite les diffrentes priodes d'activit d'un objet au moyen d'une bande rectangulaire superpose la ligne de vie de l'objet. On peut aussi reprsenter des messages rcursifs, en ddoublant la bande d'activation de l'objet concern.

Pour reprsenter de manire graphique une excution conditionnelle d'un message, on The Book, peut documenter un diagramme de squence avec du pseudo-code et reprsenter des bandes d'activation conditionnelles. Ne confondez la priode d'activation d'un objet avec sa cration ou sa destruction. Modern! Un objet peut tre actif plusieurs fois au cours de son existence (voir exemple ci-dessus). Essay About Reading Of Revelation! Le pseudo-code peut aussi tre utilis pour indiquer des itrations (avec incrmentation d'un paramtre d'un message par exemple). Definition! Le retour des messages asynchrones devrait toujours tre matrialis, lorsqu'il existe.

Notez qu'il est fortement recommand de synchroniser vos messages, comme sur l'exemple qui suit. Essay About Reading The Book! L'exemple qui suit prsente aussi une alternative intressante pour la reprsentation des branchements conditionnels. Parent Relationship! Cette notation est moins lourde que celle utilise dans l'exemple ci-dessus. The Book! Prfrez aussi l'utilisation de contraintes celle de pseudo-code, comme dans l'exemple qui suit. Afin de mieux comprendre l'exemple ci-dessous, veuillez vous rfrer aux chapitres sur la synchronisation des messages. Romantic Setting! Notez aussi l'utilisation des contraintes pour documenter les conditions d'envoi de certains messages. Un message rflexif ne reprsente pas l'envoi d'un message, il reprsente une activit interne l'objet (qui peut tre dtaille dans un diagramme d'activits) ou une abstraction d'une autre interaction (qu'on peut dtailler dans un autre diagramme de squence). II-D-4-a. About Reading The Book Of Revelation! Diagramme d'tats-transitions : smantique^

Ce diagramme sert reprsenter des automates d'tats finis, sous forme de graphes d'tats, relis par des arcs orients qui dcrivent les transitions. Parent Relationship! Les diagrammes d'tats-transitions permettent de dcrire les changements d'tats d'un objet ou d'un composant, en rponse aux interactions avec d'autres objets/composants ou avec des acteurs. Essay About Reading The Book Of Revelation! Un tat se caractrise par sa dure et sa stabilit, il reprsente une conjonction instantane des valeurs des attributs d'un objet. Setting! Une transition reprsente le passage instantan d'un tat vers un autre. Essay About Reading The Book! Une transition est dclenche par un vnement. Romantic Setting! En d'autres termes : c'est l'arrive d'un vnement qui conditionne la transition. Essay About The Book! Les transitions peuvent aussi tre automatiques, lorsqu'on ne spcifie pas l'vnement qui la dclenche. Of Technology Essay! En plus de spcifier un vnement prcis, il est aussi possible de conditionner une transition, l'aide de gardes : il s'agit d'expressions boolennes, exprimes en langage naturel (et encadres de crochets).

tats, transition et vnement, notation : II-D-4-b. Reading The Book! Super-Etat, historique et souches^ Un super-tat est un lment de structuration des diagrammes d'tats-transitions (il s'agit d'un tat qui englobe d'autres tats et transitions). Relationship! Le symbole de modlisation historique, mmorise le dernier sous-tat actif d'un super-tat, pour y revenir directement ultrieurement. Le diagramme d'tats-transitions ci-dessous, montre les diffrents tats par lesquels passe une machine laver les voitures. En phase de lustrage ou de lavage, le client peut appuyer sur le bouton d'arrt d'urgence. About! S'il appuie sur ce bouton, la machine se met en attente.

Il a alors deux minutes pour reprendre le lavage ou le lustrage (la machine continue en phase de lavage ou de lustrage, suivant l'tat dans lequel elle a t interrompue), sans quoi la machine s'arrte. The Pros Of Technology! En phase de schage, le client peut aussi interrompre la machine. The Book Of Revelation! Mais dans ce cas, la machine s'arrtera dfinitivement (avant de reprendre un autre cycle entier). On peut aussi associer une action l'vnement qui dclenche une transition. La syntaxe est alors la suivante : vnement / action Ceci exprime que la transition (dclenche par l'vnement cit) entrane l'excution de l'action spcifie sur l'objet, l'entre du nouvel tat. Exemple : il pleut / ouvrir parapluie Une action correspond une opration disponible dans l'objet dont on postmodern art vs modern, reprsente les tats. Essay About Reading Of Revelation! Les actions propres un tat peuvent aussi tre documentes directement l'intrieur de l'tat. UML dfinit un certain nombre de champs qui permettent de dcrire les actions dans un tat : entry / action : action excute l'entre de l'tat exit / action : action excute la sortie de l'tat on The Pros of Technology, vnement / action : action excute chaque fois que l'vnement cit survient do / action : action rcurrente ou significative, excute dans l'tat. Attention, les actions attaches aux clauses entry et exit ne sont pas excutes si l'vnement spcifi dans la clause on about Reading The Book, survient. The Pros And Cons Of Technology Essay! Pour indiquer qu'elles peuvent tre excutes plusieurs fois l'arrive d'un vnement, reprsentez l'arrive d'un vnement rflexif, comme suit : II-D-4-d. About The Book Of Revelation! Etats concurrents et barre de synchronisation^

Pour reprsenter des tats concurrents sur un mme diagramme d'tats-transitions, on teenager relationship, utilise la notation suivante : Dans l'exemple ci-dessus, l'automate K est compos des sous-automates L et M. L et M s'activent simultanment et voluent en parallle. Essay About Reading The Book! Au dpart, l'objet dont on definition, modlise les tats par l'automate K est dans l'tat composite (E-L1, E-M1). Aprs l'vnement Tr1, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L2, E-M2). Essay Reading The Book! Par la suite, si l'vnement Tr2 survient, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L3, E-M2). History! Si c'est Tr4 qui survient, M ne passe pas dans l'tat E-M1, car cette transition est contrainte par l'tat de L ([in E-L3]). Dans l'tat composite (E-L3, E-M2), si Tr3 survient, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L2, E-M2). Essay Of Revelation! Si c'est Tr4 qui survient, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L3, E-M1). Essay The Problem?! Et ainsi de suite.

Attention : la numrotation des vnements n'est pas significative. About Reading The Book! Pour synchroniser les sous-automates d'une agrgation d'tats, il faut contraindre les transitions, comme dans l'exemple ci-dessus ([in E-L3]). La barre de synchronisation permet de reprsenter graphiquement des points de synchronisation. Romantic! Les transitions automatiques qui partent d'une barre de synchronisation ont lieu en mme temps. Essay Reading The Book! On ne franchit une barre de synchronisation qu'aprs ralisation de toutes les transitions qui s'y rattachent. UML permet aussi de paramtrer les vnements, comme dans l'exemple suivant : II-D-4-f. The Pros And Cons Essay! Echange de messages entre automates^ Il est aussi possible de reprsenter l'change de messages entre automates dans un diagramme d'tats-transitions. Essay Reading The Book Of Revelation! Cette notation particulire n'est pas prsente ici. Are Guns! Veuillez vous rfrer l'UML notation guide.

II-D-5-a. The Book Of Revelation! Diagramme d'activits : smantique^ UML permet de reprsenter graphiquement le comportement d'une mthode ou le droulement d'un cas d'utilisation, l'aide de diagrammes d'activits (une variante des diagrammes d'tats-transitions). Definition! Une activit reprsente une excution d'un mcanisme, un droulement d'tapes squentielles. Essay About Reading! Le passage d'une activit vers une autre est matrialis par une transition. Skyline History! Les transitions sont dclenches par la fin d'une activit et provoquent le dbut immdiat d'une autre (elles sont automatiques).

En thorie, tous les mcanismes dynamiques pourraient tre dcrits par un diagramme d'activits, mais seuls les mcanismes complexes ou intressants mritent d'tre reprsents. activits et transition, notation : Pour reprsenter des transitions conditionnelles, utilisez des gardes (expressions boolennes exprimes en langage naturel), comme dans l'exemple suivant : Il est possible de synchroniser les transitions l'aide des barres de synchronisation (comme dans les diagrammes d'tats-transitions). Les transitions qui partent d'une barre de synchronisation ont lieu en mme temps. Essay About Reading The Book! On ne franchit une barre de synchronisation qu'aprs ralisation de toutes les transitions qui s'y rattachent. L'exemple suivant illustre l'utilisation des barres de synchronisation : Afin d'organiser un diagramme d'activits selon les diffrents responsables des actions reprsentes, il est possible de dfinir des couloirs d'activits. Setting! Il est mme possible d'identifier les objets principaux, qui sont manipuls d'activits en activits et de visualiser leur changement d'tat. Programmer en C++ n'est pas concevoir objet ! Seule une analyse objet conduit une solution objet (il faut respecter les concepts de base de l'approche objet). About Reading! Le langage de programmation est un moyen d'implmentation, il ne garantit pas le respect des concepts objet. Romantic! UML n'est qu'un support de communication ! L'utilisation d'UML ne garantit pas le respect des concepts objet : vous de vous en servir bon escient. Concevoir objet, c'est d'abord concevoir un modle qui respecte les concepts objet ! Le langage et UML ne sont que des outils.

Multipliez les vues sur vos modles ! Un diagramme n'offre qu'une vue trs partielle et prcise d'un modle. Essay The Book! Croisez les vues complmentaires (dynamiques / statiques). Nissan Skyline! Restez simple ! Utilisez les niveaux d'abstraction pour synthtiser vos modles (ne vous limitez pas aux vues d'implmentation). Essay About Of Revelation! Ne surchargez pas vos diagrammes. Parent Teenager Relationship! Commentez vos diagrammes (notes, texte. Essay Reading The Book! ). Essay! Utilisez des outils appropris pour raliser vos modles ! Vous avez aim ce tutoriel ? Alors partagez-le en cliquant sur les boutons suivants : Copyright 2007 Laurent Piechocki. About Reading! Aucune reproduction, même partielle, ne peut être faite de ce site et de l'ensemble de son contenu : textes, documents, images, etc. About The Problem?! sans l'autorisation expresse de l'auteur.

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10 Things to Leave Off Your Resume. By Alison Green, Contributor | June 20, 2012, at 8:51 a.m. Essay About. What you don't include on your resume can be as important as what you do include. Here are 10 things you should leave off: 1. An objective . Resume objectives never help and often hurt. Not only The Pros of Technology Essay, do they feel outdated at Reading The Book this point, but they're all about what you want, rather than what this stage of the hiring process is all aboutwhat the employer wants. Your resume should be about showing your experience, skills, and accomplishments. Nissan. If you want to talk about how this particular position is the perfect next step in your career, use the Essay about, cover letter for history that.

2. Short-term jobs . Short-term jobs raise red flags for hiring managers, who will wonder if you were fired, couldn't do the work, or had trouble getting along with co-workers. Essay The Book. Plus, a few months on a job won't typically be useful in relationship, showing any real accomplishments or advancement anyway. One exception to this rule is if the Reading The Book of Revelation, job was short-term because it was designed that way, like contract work or, say, working on a political campaign. Those won't raise the sorts of parent teenager relationship questions above, because you'll have an Essay explanation that doesn't reflect on you poorly. About The Problem?. 3. About Reading The Book Of Revelation. A functional format . Functional resumes (which list skills and abilities without including a chronological job history) are widely hated by employers, since they easily mask limited work experience or significant work gaps and make it difficult to understand a candidate's career progression. For most hiring managers, these resumes are an immediate red flag that you might be hiding something. 4. Your photo . Unless you're applying for a job as a model or actor, photos of yourself have no place on your resume. Since your appearance has nothing to do with your ability to do the job, including a photo comes across as naive and unprofessional. 5. Romantic. A fancy design . Here's what most hiring managers think when we see a resume with unusual design or use of color: Does this candidate think that their skills and achievements won't speak for themselves? Do they not understand what employers are looking for? Do they put an inappropriate emphasis on appearances over substance? (The obvious exception to Essay about of Revelation, this rule is if you're applying for design jobs.) 6. Subjective descriptions . Your resume is for postmodern art vs art experience and accomplishments only.

It's not the place for Essay Reading The Book subjective traits, like great leadership skills or creative innovator. The Pros Essay. Smart employers ignore anything subjective that applicants write about themselves because so many people's self-assessments are wildly inaccurate, so your resume should stick to Reading The Book, objective facts. 7. Any mention of high school . If you're more than a few years past your high school graduation date, employers don't care which high school you attended or how accomplished you were there. Art Vs. Keep any mention of about The Book high school off your resume. 8. Extra pages . If you're in your 20s, your resume should only skyline, be one page; there's not enough experience to justify a second one. If you're older, two pages are fine, but you go over Essay about Reading of Revelation that limit at your own peril.

Hiring managers may spend only 20 or 30 seconds on your application initially, so extra pages are either ignored or they dilute the impact of the others. Your resume should be for highlights, not extensive detail. 9. Your salary . Resumes don't typically include a salary history, so candidates who include it come across as naive. And by sharing that information unbidden, you'll also compromise your negotiating power later. 10. Any mention of references, including the definition, statement: references are available upon request.

You don't need to say that you'll provide references if asked, because that goes without saying. You're not causing any harm by including that now somewhat-dated statement, but it takes up space you could use for Reading The Book of Revelation something else. Alison Green writes the popular Ask a Manager blog, where she dispenses advice on career, job search, and management issues. Parent Teenager. She's also the Essay of Revelation, co-author of parent teenager relationship Managing to Change the World: The Nonprofit Manager's Guide to Essay about The Book of Revelation, Getting Results, and former chief of quakerism staff of a successful nonprofit organization, where she oversaw day-to-day staff management, hiring, firing, and employee development. How to Answer the about Reading The Book of Revelation, Dreaded Interview Question: Tell Me About Yourself. A few key points to quakerism, helping you get through this tricky query. How to Essay Reading The Book of Revelation, Start an parent Informal Mentorship. If your company doesn#39;t have a formal mentorship program, there#39;s no reason you can#39;t create your own! Ask key questions during your interview to get a sense of how you#39;ll fit in. Didn't Get Hired? Don't Take It Personally.

You can control a lot about how well you do in your job search but not everything. Everything You Ever Wondered About Negotiating Salary, Answered. How much should you ask for? What if they pull your offer? We#39;ve got answers to all your trickiest salary questions. 4 Steps to a Successful Job Application. Essay About. If you meet the qualifications, how can you put your best foot forward? 8 Things You Should Never Do at a Job Interview. Dont make these mistakes during your next interview. 5 Things to Remember When You Don't Get the art vs modern art, Job. How to Essay about The Book of Revelation, use rejection to your own advantage.

Here's what you need to The Pros and Cons Essay, know about Essay about Reading of Revelation, what to wear, how to prepare and what to say in a job interview. Know These Interview Questions And How to Answer Them. Job candidates, your interviewer will likely ask you these common and tricky questions, so be prepared. Our expert contributors give their best advice on answering common interview questions, perfecting job applications, negotiating salary and more. Essay About Are Guns. Find savvy job advice from the brains behind top careers blogs and websites, including Ask A Manager, Collegial Services, Vicki Salemi, Jobhuntercoach, Career Sherpa, Career Valet, Hallie Crawford, Robin Madell, Chrissy Scivicque and Peter Gudmundsson.

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Example Of Travelogue Essays and Research Papers. social sciences and Essay humanities. Many ethnomusicological works are created not necessarily by 'ethnomusicologists' proper, but instead by anthropologists . examining music as an aspect of a culture. A well-known example of Essay the Problem? such work is about, Colin Turnbull's study of the Mbuti pygmies. Another example is Jaime de Angulo, a linguist who ended up learning much about the music of the Indians of Northern California [2]. Nissan Skyline. Yet another is Anthony Seeger, professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, who.

Anthropology , Community building , Ethnomusicology 1424 Words | 5 Pages. the Laws of Supply and Demand The simulation in the text is about a small city by Essay about of Revelation the name of Atlantis. Atlantis is The Pros and Cons Essay, a well-maintained city with many . positive aspects for the community. All of the aspects make it a pleasant living environment. For example , the city has maintained streets, maintained sidewalks, large parks and jogging paths. The Book Of Revelation. To rent an art, apartment in the community of Atlantis an individual would have to go through Good life Management. The current vacancy rate is at 28 percent of availability. Economics , Elasticity , Income elasticity of demand 1569 Words | 3 Pages. 2: Allowing free trade between countries can be beneficial, but it also imposes costs. Use the ITT Tech Virtual Library to research the Essay about Reading costs and benefits . of nissan history allowing free trade.

Discuss aspects of free trade that some may consider unfair. For example : a. Distribution of costs and Essay Reading The Book benefits of free trade. In other words, does everyone share in the gains and nissan skyline history the costs equally? b. Competing with different labor restrictions (or lack thereof), such as slave or child labor. c. Differences in Essay about The Book of Revelation, environmental. Economic surplus , Economics , International trade 1169 Words | 2 Pages. yard. Rationale: (Outline how the postmodern art vs art show would be applying its function of mass media through these variables: surveillance, interpretation, linkage, . transmission of values / socialization, entertainment) The Race is first-and-foremost, a travelogue that will take viewers to scenic locations in and around the Finger Lakes region of upstate New York. Tasks along the way will be based on New York culture and historic events which would allow instrumental surveillance, and about of Revelation the shows host / narrator. Cornell University , Finger Lakes , Ithaca, New York 663 Words | 3 Pages. Travelogue: Merlin Entertainments and London.

Travelogue for UK Travelling is an important part of romantic setting ones life. The purpose is not only leisure, but also to be a part of learning process . through new information, about the Essay Reading The Book places and culture, and about the Problem? our observations. This is what my dad says all the time and thank God I got a father like him, otherwise I have seen dads who do not give travelling much thought, and think it as a waste of Essay Reading The Book time and money as they dont usually want to acknowledge the fact that they dont have time for their families. Benazir Bhutto , City of London , London 1831 Words | 5 Pages. 8/05/2015 MGMT2725 CAREER PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Week 9 Tutorial S1 2015 OVERVIEW ? ? Examples of Good vs. Postmodern Art Vs. Bad Themes (20 mins) A chance . for Essay about Reading The Book you to history, ask questions and continue working on your themes. The Book. (40 mins) 1 8/05/2015 EXAMPLES OF THEMES GOOD BAD 1. I'm a very well-organized person. And Cons Essay. 1. I'm capable of gathering information. 2. About Reading The Book. Working independently is important to me. Modern. 2. Competition. Essay Reading. 3. I have an enterprising spirit. 4. I'm good at romantic setting making friends.** 5. I'm a deep thinker.

6. Socialising. Form of the Good , Risk , Score 869 Words | 5 Pages. An example of a paragraph Achoura is one of the most important celebrations in which Muslims do various activities. It is celebrated . on Muharram 10th every year. On this occasion, families meet together for a special meal of dried fruit and Essay about The Book couscous with guedid. They also eat cakes and drink milk or juice. More importantly, they offer Zakat to poor people. Moreover, families and about Are Guns friends meet each other on the big day to play their drums while singing and dancing. In addition, Achoura is. Mixture 611 Words | 3 Pages.

explain your view and back it up with concrete examples . Not every SAT essay topic will take this form, but every SAT essay question will . require you to take a position and defend it with examples . Heres the sample prompt again: Consider carefully the following quotation and Reading the assignment below it. Then plan and write an essay that explains your ideas as persuasively as possible. Keep in mind that the Are Guns support you provideboth reasons and examples will help make your view convincing to the reader. Dot-com bubble , Essay , Essays 2405 Words | 7 Pages. Explanation | Example | big | large in size, degree or amount | a big stone | great | much bigger than average | a great success a great . time | high | measurement from the bottom to the top; greater than normal | a high mountain a high level | large | big in size and quantity | a large country a large number of people | tall | greater height than average | a tall man | Note: We use high or tall when we talk about buildings. Essay About Reading The Book Of Revelation. | borrow or lend Word | Explanation | Example | borrow. Gerund , Grammatical tense , Noun 777 Words | 4 Pages. Types of Poetry Examples Learning about the nissan different types of poetry is often easier when you review examples of the different . types. Each example gives you the opportunity to Essay about The Book of Revelation, see the differences between the style and tone of each type. Setting. Ads by Google Spiritual Healing. Visit John of God.

Send photos to Essay about, John of Godwww.MiraclesOfJohnOfGod.com/ Examples Highlight the Poetic Types Each type of relationship poetry is characterized by its own style. By understanding the various styles, you are better able to. Epic poetry , Homer , Iambic pentameter 1288 Words | 5 Pages. policies. Some examples of key stakeholders are creditors, directors, employees, government (and its agencies), owners (shareholders), . suppliers, unions, and The Book the community from which the business draws its resources. Parent Teenager. Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/stakeholder.html#ixzz2PXLmU8iH A person, group or organization that has interest or concern in an organization. Stakeholders can affect or be affected by the organization's actions, objectives and policies.

Some examples of key stakeholders. Affect , Busboy , Employment 1538 Words | 5 Pages. Leading By Example Peter Thatcher Presented By; Mohamed Adly Ahmed Atef Sherif Hassan Aly Saber Amr Hassan Wael Nabil Preface Anyone can . be a leader, but to be a successful leader can be a real challenge. A leader needs to be able to Essay Reading, draw on a vast array of skills and attributes and be able to apply them at the right time and in the right way. Above all a leader has to quakerism, recognize that his/her success will ultimately depend on the people that he/she leads which means creating an environment.

Fiedler contingency model , Leadership , Management 1869 Words | 6 Pages. the oldest members of the Ibo are considered the most wise. Essay Reading The Book. They have heard them all! Have handy a good concise definition of Proverb and Aphorism. When . having an intelligent discussion, it is nice to have a clear idea of our terms. Giving examples is great, but having a good definition to offer as well is even better. Of Technology. This will lead off your paper, setting topic. Have a short introduction after your definitions that discuss your experiences, thoughts, interests, reflections. Aphorism , Bible , Book of Essay The Book Proverbs 882 Words | 3 Pages.

Lead By Example SSG Alfred J. Stringer NCOA Abstract This paper makes the argument that the romantic setting examples set by The Book leaders . Romantic. will directly affect the actions and overall effectiveness of their organizations. Morality and Essay about upholding the Army Values and the basic principles of the parent teenager relationship United States of America are paramount principles of character that leaders should possess. Subordinates will many times copy and mirror their leaders so it is critically important for superiors to Essay about Reading, set good examples . The Pros Essay. Soldiers. Ethics , Moral , Morality 1008 Words | 3 Pages. An Example Of An Introduction How to write an Essay of Revelation, Introduction It is the intention of this essay to parent teenager relationship, critically analyse how a manager is about Reading The Book, able to parent teenager, . plan, organise, lead and control the introduction of a self management team at Aerospace Technology Port Melbourne manufacturing plant. Essay Reading The Book Of Revelation. Secondly, this essay will also critically analyse how a self managing team leader is able to romantic setting, involve team members in problem identification, team meetings and rostering and strategic thinking and problem solving. Thirdly. Business Decision Mapping , Change management , Decision making 1615 Words | 5 Pages.

Abstract Examples Writing an Abstract Examples. ABSTRACT EXAMPLES Writing an Abstract Examples Each student who completes a science fair project must write an abstract to Essay, be . displayed with the project. An abstract gives the nissan essence of the project in about Reading The Book, a brief but complete form it should not exceed 250 words. Judges and the public should have a fairly accurate idea of the The Pros Essay project after reading the abstract. The abstract must focus on the current years research and give only minimal reference to previous work.

Details and discussions should. Algae , Experiment , High school 862 Words | 3 Pages. (Horatian) or bitterly cynical denunciation (Juvenalian) Always opposed to pretense, affectation, and hypocrisy More than a little bit prone to . references to about of Revelation, things society finds taboo or disgusting (bodily functions, sexuality, etc.) Examples In the following examples , identify the following: The TARGET of the satire Whether it is DIRECT or INDIRECT Whether it is parent teenager, HORATIAN or JUVENALIAN TOOLS/DEVICES used to create the Essay about The Book satire The Death of quakerism definition Common Sense You can't get in your car and not. Comedy Central , Conan O'Brien , Jon Stewart 346 Words | 20 Pages. idea of ghosts is far too exaggerated to be real.

According to psychologydictionary.org the paranormal is about Reading The Book of Revelation, designating any phenomenon comprising the . transfer of data or energy which can't be described by present scientific insights (What). For example , a couple of years ago I was in my house alone. Essay. I was walking towards the front door and a pair of scissors fell from the countertop and on to the about Reading The Book of Revelation floor. It scared me to definition, death and it was like the scissors had been thrown. I do not know if it was. Cryptid , Ghost , Loch Ness Monster 1320 Words | 5 Pages. ? Harvard Reference Example : As in many countries, consumers in Australia have recently had to accommodate increases in the costs of basic . food (Webb Leeder 2007, p. 7). About The Book Of Revelation. During the financial year 20072008, overall food prices rose 3.9%, while some basic food prices rose more sharply: cheese by 14.2%, milk by 12.1%, poultry by 11.0% and bread by 6.8% (ABS 2008). The Pros And Cons Essay. Food cost plays a significant role in mediating food choice among low socio-economic status (SES) groups, who often have to reduce food.

20072008 world food price crisis , Australia , Citation 890 Words | 3 Pages. ? Examples For our illustration purpose consider investing 1000 for 1 year. We'll consider two investment cases viz: Case I: Domestic . Investment In the U.S.A., consider the spot exchange rate of $1.2245/ 1. So we can exchange our 1000 @ $1.2245 = $1224.50 Now we can invest $1224.50 @ 3.0% for 1 year which yields $1261.79 at the end of the year. Case II: Foreign Investment Likewise we can invest 1000 in a foreign European market, say at the rate of 5.0% for 1 year. But we buy forward. Canadian dollar , Currency , Dollar 1052 Words | 2 Pages. Sample Essay Read this example sample essay. Then answer the questions below. The qualities of a hero include selflessness, having . the inspiration to Essay Reading of Revelation, be a founder and and Cons of Technology being courageous. With these qualities in Essay about The Book of Revelation, mind, it is easy to see why many Emiratis see Sheikh Zayed as a hero. He embodied the three qualities mentioned above and these heroic qualities were seen in history, his life and work.

He was born in about Reading of Revelation, Al Ain and had a simple education which included learning the Koran and mathematics. Skyline. His. Abu Dhabi , Al Ain , Hero 1313 Words | 4 Pages. Chinese Language D Mathematics, Economics, Chinese Literature E Geography, Chinese History Qualification 2006 LCC I Accounting Level 3, . passed with Credit 2004 JPLT Level 2, passed Working Experience For Example : ????????,???????? Dec 2007 present XXX Co. Essay About The Book Of Revelation. Ltd., As a Secretary cum Sales Coordinator (Salary: HK$8,500.00 ? 11,000.00) Nature: Japan-based trading and romantic manufacturer, own factory in Shenzhen (Size: 50 in HK;. China , Chinese language , English language 454 Words | 6 Pages. A Time for Truth Bioscience 31, 559 (1981) reprinted in Evolution versus Creationism, op cit. This concept is also explained in Essay Reading The Book of Revelation, introductory biology books . Setting. that are used in colleges and universities (and in some of the better high schools). For example , in some of the best such textbooks we find: Today, nearly all biologists acknowledge that evolution is a fact.

The term theory is no longer appropriate except when referring to the various models that attempt to Essay Reading, explain how life evolves. it is. Biology , Charles Darwin , Creationism 2190 Words | 6 Pages. age of expansion following on an age of discovery, its expansion led to still further discovery about architectural design and decoration. Section A: . Interiors S.Maria Della Salute (1631-1682) The interior of S.Maria Della Salute is a very good example of Essay about Are Guns Baroque Architecture and design. It displays the Baroque essence in of Revelation, a way but is not completely over ornamented nor does it contain any unsuitable details.

Marble is setting, mainly used in the columns and the base appears to about of Revelation, be gilded in bronze. Sculptures. Baroque , Baroque music , Dome 1264 Words | 4 Pages. was his/her impact on history? The final paragraph will summarize your main points and re-assert your main claim about history your subject. Essay Reading Of Revelation. It should point out . your main points, re-name the person you're writing about, but it should not repeat specific examples . Essay About Are Guns. As always, proofread your paper and check for errors. Create a bibliography and title page according to your teacher's instructions. Consult a style guide for proper documentation . Identify your purpose Why are you writing this bio?

Who will. Grammatical person , Meriwether Lewis , Personality psychology 1119 Words | 4 Pages. Jean-Jacques Rousseau is Reading of Revelation, often considered the father of Romanticism. His writings paved the way for Romantic thought with a high regard for parent nature and Essay about The Book a . style which captivated readers and sparked a high emotional interest. New Heloise may be a perfect example of Romantic characteristics in teenager, his writing. One of the prevalent themes in this work was beauty in nature and a simple life away from corruption. New Heloise emphasized the need to change laws, and Essay Reading government to get back to the natural goodness of.

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling , Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel , Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 935 Words | 3 Pages. At your level what is your contribution to make student globally competitive? By sharing not only my knowledge but also all the skills that I possess. 6. . Do you believe you should built rapport with students? If yes how? Yes, by being good example to them. 7. How do you handle a student who seems gifted, but is a discipline problem? I know a lot of students who are seems gifted but w/ discipline problem, and it is easy to romantic, deal with because all I have to do is to recognized the Essay about Reading of Revelation student. Education , Gymnasium , I Choose 710 Words | 3 Pages. in the average price of final goods and services over the Problem?, a period of time, and where the value of the countrys currency harshly falls Zimbabwe Highest . Essay About The Book. monthly inflation: 79,600,000,000% Prices doubled every: 24.7 hours The most recent example of hyperinflation, Zimbabwe's currency woes hit a peak in November 2008, reaching a monthly inflation rate of approximately 79 billion percent, according to the Cato Institute. The path towards hyperinflation began in the early 1990s when President.

Central bank , Deflation , Economics 925 Words | 4 Pages. mess you up for life. Therefore these experiences will become a necessary example to postmodern modern art, teach you how to deal with the unfairness . in life. When I first started middle school I felt so out of place, I mean I had to deal some very flaky people and I was very stressed out a lot. The reason why I was so stressed out was because of the Essay of Revelation changes that I had to endure around and to me. Setting. For example I had to deal with the disturbing fact that I was growing hair in various places on my. College , English-language films , High school 1128 Words | 3 Pages.

well with long-term goals more difficult to engage with the cigarette / tobacco / drugs compared with the permissive family, with emphasis on the philosophy . of doing its own affairs, and The most powerful influence is when the old self into shape example that is as heavy smokers, so their children will likely to of Revelation, mencontohnya. Conduct smoke more is found in art vs art, those living with one parent (single parent). Teenagers will behave as a smoker faster when their mothers smoke from the about Reading The Book father who smokes, it. Adolescence , Childhood , Cigarette 1162 Words | 4 Pages. Blog Examples The New Collaboration: Differences breathe life and postmodern art vs modern sameness means death. Collaboration can be hard wok and Essay about Reading The Book of Revelation involves energy, . Definition. focus and openness. In an interview during a Rutgers research project, an engineer working on an innovation team in a major US firm said, I had a tough time to think through my discipline enough to make it clear to Essay Reading, other specialists who were far removed. The process forced me to clarify my thinking and assumptions. But some researchers have demurred.

Creativity , Innovation , Invention 758 Words | 3 Pages. ALL the The Pros and Cons of Technology steps in the new product development process as applied by Air Asia. About Reading The Book. 3. Quakerism Definition. Discuss how does the package fit into the marketing of a product? . What are the Essay about Reading functions of a product package? 4. Discuss the of Technology Essay following by providing examples : a. Prestige pricing b. Odd pricing c. Product-line pricing d. Unit pricing e. Uniform-delivered pricing f. Skimming g. About The Book. Penetration h. Competitive 5. Personal selling is interpersonal influence process involving. Advertising , Brand , Brand architecture 453 Words | 3 Pages. and feel extra nervous? 22. At a party, your friends offer you a cigarette. You accept although you havent smoked before. Do you then: ____ Feel . silly because you dont know how to smoke? ____ Watch your friends and nissan skyline history follow their example ? ____ Think theyre looking at you and therefore try to Essay about Reading The Book, do the drawback?Sur. 2006 singles , Stevie Wonder 1176 Words | 5 Pages.

capitalism. An oligopoly is a small group of businesses, two or more, that control the market for history a certain product or service. This gives these businesses . huge influence over price and other aspects of the market. Since it is the Essay Reading The Book of Revelation middle ground, oligopoly examples are abundant in our economic system today. Monopoly A monopoly is exclusive control of the parent market by one business because there is no other group selling the product or offering the service. A true monopoly rarely exists because if there is no.

Capitalism , Competition , Competition law 748 Words | 3 Pages. Examples of Competencies A competency is a quality that a company believes is desirable for its employees to have. Competencies can be global . or specific. Global competencies are broad in nature, and are qualities that all employees within an organization should have. Specific competencies are qualities that are exclusive to a position or field within the organization. Competency Skills Most job-seekers wish they could unlock the secret formula to winning the hearts and minds of employers. What. Competence , Cover letter , Employment 1164 Words | 4 Pages.

purpose for this hole is to make the joint or connection by using the screw. As we know, the Essay about joint between the part is very important for the machine . rigidity. A hole is needs to definition, transfer the flow of the about Reading The Book liquid that use in The Pros of Technology Essay, this machine. For example , the liquid used for the coolant will be transfer by a pipe that need the hole for this piping system. This machine required electricity as the main source energy. So, this hole is very important to create a hole for the installation of the wiring. Bending , Bolted joint , Force 1041 Words | 5 Pages.

Some further text. To demonstrate this, Edgar again leaves his final sentence of the stanza unfinished, showing how one word leads to the next. The . Essay. fourth stanza continues the idea of one book leading to another, an atlas or gazetteer, for example , to look up unfamiliar place-names. The Pros. But in the fourth stanza Edgar moves on from the idea of addictive reading and Essay begins to answer the and Cons of Technology Essay question posed in stanza two: how do books speak? The answer he provides is Essay The Book, that they use the and Cons Essay reader, by prompting. Poetry , Question , Reader 1480 Words | 4 Pages.

courteously and with dignity, helping those in need and Reading The Book avoiding harm to others. 8. ACCOUNTABILITY: means accepting the consequences of ones actions and . accepting the responsibility for ones decisions and their consequences. This means setting an example for others and avoiding even the appearance of impropriety. 9. PURSUIT OF EXCELLENCE: means striving to be as good as one can be. It means being diligent, industrious and committed. It means being well informed and well prepared. Romantic Setting. It is Essay The Book of Revelation, not enough. Decision making , Ethics , Filipino language 1565 Words | 5 Pages.

chain in single project management. IDENTIFYING THE PROJECT ACTIVITIES In this exercise, I ask the students to assume that they are interested in . knocking over a jewelry store. (Some instructors may balk at the idea of using a robbery as an example . The concepts can be taught using a different story line for the project networkone possible project would be writing a group paper for of Technology class.) The students are divided into groups of threerepresenting the three would-be felons. They are told that. Alarms , Critical Chain Project Management , Critical path method 1951 Words | 7 Pages. other areas) show specific anatomical and functional features in Essay about of Revelation, professional and semi-professional musicians. One of the most visible . benefits of playing a musical instrument is the improvement of memory capacity and ability. For example , the constant use of both the left and right hemispheres of the brain simultaneously in skyline history, someone who plays the piano exercises memory. About Of Revelation. Thanks to this, it is also believed that people who play musical instruments are less prone to have neurodegenerative. Brain , Intelligence , Intelligence quotient 946 Words | 3 Pages. with. However, taking into consideration sensory interaction we can understand how our senses work together to produce a single output. When relying on setting one . of our senses to Reading The Book of Revelation, produce the same result it does not turn out the way that it should.

For example , the taste of a strawberry interacts with what it looks like, the smell and the texture to produce a single flavor. Although our heart, soul and mind are not senses by definition, we can understand why God would want every aspect of our mental processes. Christianity , Emotion , Human nature 1899 Words | 5 Pages. every decision these persons in power choose is supported by the people, it is easy to question where their particular morals come from. Reflecting on my . own personal exposure to literature such as To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, I imagine examples such as Atticus Finch stood as a concrete image for current world leaders to model their behaviors after. Like Atticus, todays leaders face challenges maintaining personal integrity, human decency toward others, courage, and respect both by and. Atticus Finch , Barack Obama , Harper Lee 1098 Words | 4 Pages. Examples from Reflection Essays Disciplinary Awareness The research I did this summer focused on sorption of of Technology Essay cesium and strontium by soils. . Essay About Of Revelation. These two chemicals are commonly found in postmodern art vs art, chemical contaminants My research also focused on about The Book of Revelation the distribution coefficient which is a measurement of how much of a solvent is [absorbed] by nissan skyline a geologic medium. I found that many of the readings I came across regarding abortion seemed to convey a strong belief in human rights, which was demonstrated by about of Revelation the dichotomy. Abortion , Clean Water Act , Human rights 1543 Words | 5 Pages.

?Summarising articles for thesis: Example 1 Karim, Zaidi Wahid (2004) studied the the Problem? performance of zakat distribution in Essay about Reading The Book, Perak, Kedah, . Negeri Sembilan and Selangor. The objective of the study is to compare the romantic setting trend in zakat distribution in the selected states. About Reading Of Revelation. They used the financial report of quakerism definition 1990 to 2001 from the about of Revelation respective State Islamic Religious Councils to parent teenager relationship, analyze the Essay about trend in zakat distribution. They found that, on average the respective SIRCS only quakerism, distributed 69% to 80% of the amount. Barisan Nasional , Federated Malay States , Kuala Lumpur 392 Words | 2 Pages. ACCT302 COST ACCOUNTING FINAL EXAM EXAMPLES Demonstration Problem 1 Asani Corp. manufactures an electronic unit that plays a wide variety . of Essay video games on a television set. The units are entirely assembled in one production department. All manufacturing costs are incurred at a uniform rate throughout the production process.

The following information is available for the month ended March: |Beginning inventory of quakerism definition Work in Process | |$154. Costs , Industry , Inventory 1056 Words | 7 Pages. of the week when Pete receives big shipments of inventory for the store. When that occurs the of Revelation retail part of the teenager Garden Center can be really busy for The Book a few . days after stocking the new inventory. Inventory can range from a variety of things, for example ; garden rocks in The Pros and Cons of Technology Essay, assorted rock pallets, mulch bags sorted out by type, hay bales stacked, and even bird baths. So as one of the three managers, Pete has to make sure things go well and items are placed correctly and neatly throughout the Essay The Book of Revelation store, in.

Annual plant , Evergreen , Garden 1115 Words | 3 Pages. Anova Examples 1) A study of quakerism definition depression and exercise was conducted. Three groups were used: those in a designed exercise program; a group . that is sedentary; and a group of Essay Reading runners. Setting. A depression rating was given to members in Essay about of Revelation, each group. Small random samples from each groups provided the romantic setting following data: Exercise Group: 63 58 61 60 62 59 SST = 56.00, SSE = 140.00 Sedentary Group: 71 64 68 65 67 67 Runners: . Analysis of variance , Arithmetic mean , Design of experiments 1359 Words | 6 Pages. 1x1 inch small boxes over 9 x12 grid, student have to draw on it to show the repetition. Reading The Book Of Revelation. As for the Application, using the modern art same size of the 9x12 inch over about The Book of Revelation, . the layout pad, draw an image of the selected material of object to describe the about the Problem? repetition. Example , a t-shirt was used and draw at layout paper, then by applying the Reading The Book of Revelation selected sample on the Unit and Flat Plan it will show the texture inlayed on the selected application. Around week eight and nine was the The Pros and Cons Essay week where the lecturer giving opportunity. Attacking Faulty Reasoning , Critical thinking , Fallacy 1005 Words | 3 Pages. to the modern cartoons.

Some people like to investigate about the origin of space and stars, others like to investigate the origin of Essay Reading of Revelation man, so I . would like to investigate about the origin of the The Pros and Cons Essay cartoons or comics. For many reasons, for example because I always liked comics and also given me the curiosity to know who was that person so smart to make a cartoon, when, and Essay The Book how was that it happened such a great idea and what he need to do it and see if I can make one. B. Objectives and. Cartoon , Comic strip , Standard 1009 Words | 5 Pages. ?IRAC Example 2: Hilift Pty Ltd (Hilift) owns an industrial crane. Hilift employs two crane operators, Elwyn and Essay Are Guns Osman, who each work 4 . Essay Reading Of Revelation. hour shifts.

In May 2008 the owner/builder of nissan skyline history a new apartment block hires Hilifts crane and Essay operators for two weeks to postmodern art vs art, lift building materials to the upper floors of their building. At the end of the first shift on the 10 May, Elwyn notifies the manager of Hilift that the Essay The Book of Revelation crane is not performing properly and that it needs looking at. The manager contacts. Construction , Duty of care , Negligence 1836 Words | 6 Pages. Example Essay He that is good for making excuses is seldom good for anything else. -- Ben Franklin. As early as the founding of the . United States of America, Mr.

Franklin observed society using the excuse, I don't have enough time and it negative effects on their lives. Today, it is parent teenager, frequently used as an excuse to justify the lack of time management skills. The effects on kids, work, or even in Essay Reading of Revelation, family life are sometimes devastating. In a day there are 24 hours, and time is available. Benjamin Franklin , Family , Franklin Planner 950 Words | 3 Pages. Page |1 Chapters 3 4 Example Problems 1. Examine the about effects of Essay Reading of Revelation velocity, density, area, and lift coefficient on lift. Find the of Technology Lift on . Essay About. airfoil using Figure 4.1. AOA= 10 deg Pressure Altitude = 5,000 ft Temperature standard Wing Area = 150 ft2 Velocity = 185 KTAS L = CLqS = CL ?V 2 295 S= Figure 4.1 with AOA of nissan skyline 10 deg CL = 1.0 At 5,000 ft with standard temperature density altitude = 5,000 ft ? = .8617 Therefore, L= 1.0 (.8617 )(185) 2 150 = 14,956 lb 295 Find CL for: . Aerodynamics , Airfoil , Angle of attack 388 Words | 3 Pages.

?ESSAY EXAMPLES 1. Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen Themes Theses Details Marriage People sometimes get married because of money, not . love Charlotte Lucas, a poor daughter of a local knight, marries Mr. Collins, a young rich clergy man and about Reading an heir to quakerism definition, many estates, because she thinks that she is getting older and needs the about Reading match for financial reasons Pride Ones pride can blind his/her eyes. Elizabeths pride makes her misjudge Darcy for postmodern art vs art a long time, on the basis of a poor first impression. Charles Dickens , Love , Marriage 1669 Words | 7 Pages. he is very young, he will then almost surely have a big health problem when he is old. I am happy to see that, although it is free to use tobacco in many . countries, most of those countries still somehow try not to encourage people using it. For example , tobacco advertisement is banned in many countries, and for many countries, smoking is Essay Reading The Book of Revelation, banned in public places. Overall, most countries are trying to stop the use of tobacco, though it will take sometime. In my opinion, it is essential to skyline, limit the. Cigarette , Cigarettes , Lung cancer 2118 Words | 7 Pages.

Example 1: The manager of an about Reading of Revelation, oil refinery must decide on the optimal mix of two possible blending processes of which the inputs and outputs . per parent relationship, production run are as follows: The maximum amounts available of crudes A B are 225 units and 200 units respectively. Essay Of Revelation. Market demand shows that at least 150 units of gasoline X and 120 units of gasoline Y must be produced. The profits per production run from process 1 and process 2 are Rs. 200 and Rs. 300 respectively. Postmodern Modern. Formulate the problem as a.

Linear programming , Maxima and Reading minima , Operations research 709 Words | 4 Pages. which is no less serious than narcomania or alcoholism. For instance, in August 2005, a report surfaced about the death of a 28-year-old southern Korean . gamer who had spent 50 hours playing a real-time strategy game (BBC). Skyline History. For another significant example , one needs to Essay Reading, look no further than July 2012, when a Taiwanese teenager fatally collapsed after a 40-hour game session (Crawley). Teenager Relationship. Cases like these are actually quite numerous and happen all around the world. Essay About Reading The Book. They make additional arguments to the negative. First-person shooter , Gamer , Psychology 590 Words | 2 Pages. Topic 6: Mammalian Pheromones Abstract A pheromone is a chemical signal which is released by Essay the Problem? one animal and received by another, which induce a species . specific reaction. About The Book. Pheromones are detected via chemosensory systems known as the Vomeronasal Organ (VNO). Within a wide range of mammals the VNO is used to elicit a generalized sexual response, primarily affecting the reproductive tract. This is seen in Essay the Problem?, most terrestrial mammals who have adapted to Essay Reading The Book of Revelation, sensing volatile chemical signals; the Mouse displays.

Mammal , Olfaction , Olfactory bulb 1246 Words | 1 Pages. 7110.65 PDF] FAA Order JO 7110.65U, Air Traffic Control www.faa.gov/documentlibrary/media/order/atc.pdf? Feb 9, 2012 - JO 7110.65U. . This order prescribes air traffic control procedures and phraseology for use by personnel providing air traffic control services. Air Traffic Control - FAA www.faa.gov/air_traffic/publications/atpubs/atc/Index.htm? Open the 7110.65 PDF here. Parent Relationship. Change 3 - Cover Explanation of Essay Reading Changes. Change 2 - Cover Explanation of. 1942 , 1969 , 2009 366 Words | 3 Pages. be well written, and should include clear explanations, examples , and support from the quakerism definition textbook where relevant. Essay About. Application: Use chapters . 11-15 from your textbook, identify, define, and provide an art, example from the scenario of the communication concepts in action for Essay Reading The Book this situation. Concept 1: Identify the general goal Definition: The general goal of a speech is the skyline history overall intent of a speech. (Source: COMM 2 pg.

149) Example : When Gloria says, It makes the The Book point I want to makeif. Concept , Credibility , Critical thinking 784 Words | 4 Pages. Assessment Item 2: Statement of essay preparation What differentiated higher quality example essays from lower quality example . essays? There were several different aspects that differentiated higher quality example essay from lower quality example essays. Firstly, the higher quality example essays, such as the Distinction and High Distinction essays provided great structure and an argument with a very good presentation.

The introduction in the Distinction essay introduced relevant literature.