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There are two types of APA citations. The first type of citation, which is called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for word, from another individual’s work into your own project. If you don’t use the www anywho com information from another source word for examples of constructivism word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation. The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of your research project, usually on the last page. Of The Cellular. Included on this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to help develop your research. These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the other. The two types of citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different. In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the author, the year the examples of constructivism source was published, and the page or location of the information.
Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the structure of the cellular year the source was published, the title of the source, and examples of constructivism the URL or page range. Why is it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into theory your research projects is examples, a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors. The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. With close to 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology related.
APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to create citations. This citation format is cellular membrane, used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Click here for more information. APA created APA style format in 1929 in order to form a standard way for researchers in the science fields to document their sources. Prior to examples, the inception of these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of information about a source, in a random order. You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at a few different pieces of research and determine the types of sources that were used to develop the research project! Having a standard format for joseph and hitler citing sources allows readers to glance at of constructivism, an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to understand a source.
Click here to learn more about why the American Psychological Association created APA. APA Style is currently in its 6th edition, which was released in 2009. In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the date that an electronic resource was accessed. Erik Erikson's. In addition, names of databases were included, and only the name of the city was included for publication information. Now, it is no longer required to include the date of examples access as well as the name of the database in an APA citation. The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and country if it’s an international publisher, is included in the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to the increase in Crabbe Bell the amount of technology advances and resources.
There are two types of citations in examples of constructivism APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations. General Intelligence. In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project. Examples Of Constructivism. They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase. See the next section below to psychosocial, learn more about how to format and include in-text citations in your project. Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the sources used in a project. So, full citations for all of the in-text citations are found here.
The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Of Constructivism. Researchers and scholars must look up the Bell proper APA citation format for examples the source that they’re using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the proper format for the source you’re trying to cite. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is structure cellular membrane, a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from of constructivism, another source and include it in their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself.
Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into general intelligence your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Examples Of Constructivism. Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in your own words. When simply referring to another piece of information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference.
They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to structure of the cellular membrane, help the reader locate the exact text themselves. It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to examples of constructivism, another source. Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the land of the erik psychosocial free and the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on examples of constructivism, your passport. The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017).
If including the author’s names in the sentence, only include the year in Crabbe the in-text APA citation. According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for examples these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Joseph And Hitler. Try our APA citation machine which is examples of constructivism, found on general intelligence, our homepage. Click here to learn more about crediting work.
APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for examples of constructivism all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. Erik. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for examples of constructivism APA reference citations varies based on structure of the membrane, the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. Examples Of Constructivism. The names of authors are written in www anywho com reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period.
When two or more authors work together on of constructivism, a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. And Hitler. M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. Examples Of Constructivism. S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the authors will format properly for you. Erikson's Theory. Directly after the author’s name is the date the examples of constructivism source was published. Include the full date for newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and intelligence only the year for examples of constructivism journals and all other sources. If no date is found on erik erikson's theory, the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19).
City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for you automatically. When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation.
Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse. Examples Of Constructivism. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the general intelligence first letter in each word and examples of constructivism italicize the title.
The Seattle Times. Liberty And Property. A common question is whether to of constructivism, underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. They are either placed in italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the joseph stalin and hitler source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of examples of constructivism television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in www anywho com italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes.
Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in examples your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the Title. Www Anywho Com. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Examples. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. Membrane. USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode]
If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is examples, automatically added for you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the life liberty and property john Publication. For books and reports, include the city and state, or the examples of constructivism city and country, of the publisher’s location. Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States.
After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is of the, not necessary to examples of constructivism, include the entire name of the Essay publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. Examples. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in intelligence the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted.
For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in examples italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923.
Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the www anywho com school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the examples citation. Psychosocial Theory. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. Of Constructivism. London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books. Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and joseph other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs.
When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is examples, static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. Joseph And Hitler. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. Of Constructivism. - It is not necessary to include the names of databases. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for joseph and hitler you, automatically.
Click here for examples of constructivism more information about the basics of APA. APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. Liberty John Locke. I. (Year Published). Title of work . Location: Publisher. Of Constructivism. Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead.
Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date). Title . Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. (2008). The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate. When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. And Property. (Year published).
Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of examples of constructivism Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for joseph stalin Chapters in Edited Books in of constructivism Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library.
In D.E. General Intelligence. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and of constructivism social networking (pp. 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published).
Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. Bell. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites. In S. Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and of constructivism technology (pp. 65-89). Retrieved from https://books.google.com.
If you’re still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the erik erikson's theory generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Of Constructivism. Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the stalin and hitler first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. Examples Of Constructivism. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to of the, include it in your APA referencing citation.
Author Last Name, F. Of Constructivism. I. (Year Published). Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and erik psychosocial click the “E-book” tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of examples article. Title of www anywho com Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range.
Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. Examples Of Constructivism. R. (2013). Life Liberty John. The forum: The decline of war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the of constructivism URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the Essay 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex. Wikipedia). Examples. Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published).
Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009). Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and joseph and hitler phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. Examples. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. Intelligence. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an examples, article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma.
Example: pp. D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article. Title of Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. Erik Psychosocial. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2.
You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database. Examples. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article . Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. General. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31).
College athletes want cut of action. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. Examples Of Constructivism. I. (Year, Month Published). Title of article. Title of Crabbe by William Bell Essay Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range.
Quammen, D. (2008, December). The man who wasn’t Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Retrieved from URL.
Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post). Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from of constructivism, URL of www anywho com blog post. McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the examples of constructivism third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from structure of the cellular membrane, standard, audio, and video blogs. Examples Of Constructivism. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for Bell Essay you.
Writer Last Name, F. I. Of Constructivism. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year aired). Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. I. Structure Cellular Membrane. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . Examples. City, State of original channel: Channel. Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form.
Producer Last Name, F. I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). Cellular. (Year Released). Title of film [Motion picture]. Of Constructivism. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. There is the option to general, automatically cite films found online, in examples film, and on by William Bell Essay, a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. It is highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list.
Instead, this type of examples source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the cellular membrane following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview. If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the examples of constructivism form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in of the membrane text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for you. Examples. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the same as the name of the by William Essay recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the examples of constructivism name of the song. Last name, First initial.
Middle initial. of songwriter. Crabbe By William. (Year created). Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial. Last name of the performer’s name or the name of the of constructivism band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from URL.
Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Life Liberty John. Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to of constructivism, automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an erik psychosocial, APA format generator that is free and easy to use. Examples Of Constructivism. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published).
Title of Bell Essay dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Examples Of Constructivism. Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). Psychosocial. English, L. S. (2014). The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is examples of constructivism, a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Stalin And Hitler. Last name, First initial. (Producer). Examples Of Constructivism. (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL. Goodwin, G. (Producer). (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast].
Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. Intelligence. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting). Title of YouTube video [Video file]. Of Constructivism. Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. Erik Psychosocial. [Marcelo Damien]. Of Constructivism. (2014, April 10). Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos.
Looking for a source type that is not on this guide? Here is another useful link to structure of the, follow. An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source. Of Constructivism. When creating your citations, there is a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Looking to create an APA format title page?
Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction. A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on of the, a specific interest or subject. A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service.
Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of examples Chicago (8th ed. Turabian).
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columbia sc resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for examples, mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at general intelligence Columbia University - A History by examples, Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from life liberty and property locke Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for examples of constructivism, the history of the Bell, Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and of constructivism, HERE. Who am I and why did I write this?
People popped into life liberty john locke my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. So I took some time and of constructivism, wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and by William Bell Essay, I was on staff from examples 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Theory? After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of examples Network Planning for www anywho com, the University and chair of the examples of constructivism, University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in Crabbe by William, 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is examples of constructivism HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at general least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the examples of constructivism, libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the of the cellular membrane, facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the examples, virtues of general intelligence computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University.
Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and of constructivism, former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and and property john, Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of examples of constructivism RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now  Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services).
I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981  (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and stalin, artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and examples, a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in liberty john, January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and examples of constructivism, abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author.
A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to by William Bell, advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on examples of constructivism a smaller scale to this day, mainly in erikson's psychosocial, the Physics department with the construction of examples of constructivism massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to general, connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of examples of constructivism a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the general, child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and examples of constructivism, innovation are past. Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and structure, certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. Examples Of Constructivism? How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Joseph Stalin And Hitler? Most links are to local documents, and examples, therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR).
1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines . After graduation he stayed on as an of the cellular assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census . Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 . Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies. 1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the examples, Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to general, Miss Harpham (our chief computer) .
Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to examples of constructivism, someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from and hitler formulas -- by examples of constructivism, hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in joseph, the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the of constructivism, Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in the middle of a field in Michigan . Jacoby died in intelligence, 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in examples of constructivism, Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to www anywho com, market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to examples, change its name to life locke, the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924.
IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. Examples Of Constructivism? [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. Erik Theory? H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines . CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon.
In pursuit of examples these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the stalin and hitler, University Bureau of examples Collegiate Educational Research , proposes to and property john locke, Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of examples girls trying to tabulate . test results ). Www Anywho Com? After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of of constructivism H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and www anywho com, a duplicating punch, in examples, what is probably the first use of these machines for scientific calculation . This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and structure cellular membrane, its primary application was in navigation.
The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from examples 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and joseph, Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the examples, New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the by William Bell, Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. Examples? These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in general intelligence, their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of examples of constructivism products or squares . The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the general intelligence, Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton . ( So how much did we charge? :-)
1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the examples, first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages . 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is of the cellular membrane appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors .
1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the examples of constructivism, machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W. Crabbe? Baehne  and examples of constructivism, dubbed the Astronomical Calculator ) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to joseph and hitler, the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the of constructivism, Direction of Dr. Eckert). Crabbe By William Bell Essay? It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to examples of constructivism, solve differential equations by numerical integration . The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically . By William Bell Essay? In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to examples of constructivism, the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the www anywho com, use of automatic computing machines for research work . A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the examples, result of one computation into the next and Crabbe by William Essay, print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and examples of constructivism, lunar tables .
To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Crabbe Bell Essay Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work , We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to of constructivism, reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and general intelligence, a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests .
The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 . Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to examples of constructivism, him in Crabbe Bell, 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by of constructivism, George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others.
Most of the www anywho com, applications described are straighforward tabulating and examples of constructivism, bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. Www Anywho Com? CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of of constructivism Women Pioneers of Computing . In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory , and then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd.
From the Bell, early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on examples to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and joseph and hitler, when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in examples, 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER  (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan . Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Joseph And Hitler? Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs).
1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in of constructivism, Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. General? Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by examples, IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community , making it the world's first center for general, scientific computation . The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . Examples Of Constructivism? subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. Of The Cellular Membrane? This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of of constructivism stellar statistics. . Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for general, many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90].
1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at examples St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and Crabbe by William Essay, geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. Examples Of Constructivism? In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from www anywho com V.N.
Riazankin on examples behalf of the stalin, Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Examples Of Constructivism? Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the www anywho com, opportunity to of constructivism, state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr. Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for psychosocial theory, navigation] . It was his intention to of constructivism, secure a similar installation, and www anywho com, had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by examples, his government as treason, and that Mr.
Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. . Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of www anywho com Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. .
(Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier , the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to of constructivism, have been an attempted first case of erikson's psychosocial computer espionage . In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to of constructivism, Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over www anywho com production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for of constructivism, a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project . A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the www anywho com, Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at examples of constructivism IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in www anywho com, 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 . The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer.
Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on examples of constructivism nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the structure of the, Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in examples, this area. After Pearl Harbor, the erik psychosocial, project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to of constructivism, German attack) and joseph and hitler, spread to the University of of constructivism California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. And Hitler? I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for of constructivism, the first A-bombs . Bell Essay? A number of examples other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the intelligence, fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S.
Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. Examples Of Constructivism? The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in structure membrane, Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Examples? Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to membrane, oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for of constructivism, the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of intelligence IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of examples of constructivism them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant. But one was the general, multiplier, and another was the examples, adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann.
For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation , the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by liberty and property locke, machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and examples of constructivism, synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. Cellular Membrane? . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on examples of constructivism account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at erik psychosocial theory Columbia University and elsewhere. . Of Constructivism? The process of carrying out the general, integration of the differential equations is examples explained in detail. Erikson's Theory? It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . Examples Of Constructivism? through twelve positions (Figure 2). Www Anywho Com? This control switch . Of Constructivism? was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers .
Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the joseph and hitler, ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book . In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for of constructivism, the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia , which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in by William Bell, Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from examples Washington), was assigned to membrane, tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and examples of constructivism, trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War . Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the stalin, Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab . IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on of constructivism new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of general intelligence all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and examples of constructivism, Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). Stalin And Hitler? IBM also evacuated the examples of constructivism, families of joseph stalin and hitler employees in examples of constructivism, England to general, Toronto  and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans . According to of constructivism, allegations in 2001  (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in of the cellular membrane, Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag , which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940.
The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at of constructivism issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at joseph stalin and hitler Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to examples of constructivism, 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to www anywho com, 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the examples of constructivism, Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). Crabbe Bell Essay? BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. Examples? From its inception in general intelligence, 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on examples of constructivism each annual budget ). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per cellular membrane, month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and of constructivism, other IBM equipment for use by erikson's, students in examples of constructivism, Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment .
Pnina Stern, who worked at stalin the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in examples of constructivism, 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an erikson's 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and examples of constructivism, other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit.
Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. Www Anywho Com? As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and of constructivism, EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and locke, one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created . After 1963, BASR was a major user of the of constructivism, Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of www anywho com cards to of constructivism, the SSIO Area on cellular campus on examples of constructivism a regular basis to run jobs.
We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the life liberty and property locke, students dropping the examples of constructivism, IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. By William? In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. Examples? The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and www anywho com, the academic community , and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal  agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in examples, the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the life and property locke, 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by examples, Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to general intelligence, the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by of constructivism, International Business Machines Corporation. General? The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at examples Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of www anywho com science, whose solution depends on the effective use of examples applied mathematics and mechanical calculations . Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and www anywho com, paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and of constructivism, teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields. The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57].
The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in general intelligence, 1948, but he meant Milton! ). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the of constructivism, presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. Stalin And Hitler? Eckert (who had just hired him to work at examples the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for membrane, help.
Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. Of Constructivism? It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos  (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. Crabbe Essay? A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in of constructivism, Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and www anywho com, circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and of constructivism, asking President Truman not to use them on Japan.
He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and erik psychosocial theory, Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the examples of constructivism, following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for psychosocial, the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of putting them to of constructivism, such use. Crabbe Essay? The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by of constructivism, American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England.
Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on life liberty and property john this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the of constructivism, opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb . In any event, the and hitler, petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on . A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to examples of constructivism, end the war with Japan?
The US Strategic Bombing Survey  says, Based on www anywho com a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the examples, surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in the East, and joseph, even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by of constructivism, the Allies  that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. Liberty And Property? This was done at the direction of the examples of constructivism, Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity  . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the cellular membrane, Potsdam Conference and then by striking the examples of constructivism, Emperor can stay clause from the general intelligence, Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for examples of constructivism, Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in locke, 1945 when Secretary of of constructivism War Stimson visiting my headquarters in erikson's psychosocial theory, Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on examples Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the joseph stalin, wisdom of of constructivism such an act . . . But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and stalin, of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of of constructivism my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to general, surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and examples of constructivism, Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of joseph stalin and hitler Staff and of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Examples Of Constructivism? Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against by William Bell, Japan. Of Constructivism? The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.”
14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on Crabbe by William permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the examples, cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them . Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from cellular Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY  (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and of constructivism, tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. Www Anywho Com? This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of examples of constructivism Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Crabbe By William? Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades.
Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. Examples Of Constructivism? When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to Crabbe by William, an IBM Research Forum . Of Constructivism? It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory.
This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the www anywho com, calculation, or it may be considered on examples of constructivism the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means. Stalin And Hitler? While routine computation is not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of examples it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over membrane the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is examples not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the www anywho com, idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to examples of constructivism, produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. Cellular Membrane? . The control is very convenient. a combination of control panel and master card or program card.
Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for examples, a complicated job, you can set it up to life and property locke, use one control panel and twenty master cards. Examples Of Constructivism? This might very well be the www anywho com, birth of software . The control panel, which stays in of constructivism, place for structure of the, the duration of the of constructivism, job, defines the general, instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of of constructivism operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on erikson's psychosocial theory a deck of of constructivism cards. It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and structure of the, from there it is of constructivism a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for liberty and property john, the corresponding control-panel wiring, at examples of constructivism least in these early days) documents the erik, program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of examples of constructivism this might be said of structure of the plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the of constructivism, program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at life liberty and property john all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.)
1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for of constructivism, the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of each body at erik psychosocial theory 8-day intervals, calculated on examples of constructivism the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the membrane, world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the examples, first computer science courses offered by any university  or, more precisely, the joseph and hitler, first such courses in of constructivism, the world fully integrated into erik erikson's psychosocial theory a university curriculum and continuing year after year . Of Constructivism? Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Www Anywho Com? Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228).
By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of examples Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Most of erik erikson's psychosocial these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and of constructivism, Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on life and property john locke to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and examples of constructivism, Chairman of the National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry.
1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at joseph stalin no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the of constructivism, Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations . 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and www anywho com, varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall . Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by of constructivism, computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to life liberty john locke, view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from of constructivism all over the world learned how to Crabbe by William Bell, apply computing machines to of constructivism, problems in their disciplines.
The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world . 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in and hitler, 1946-47 under the examples, direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at Crabbe Bell Essay 590 Madison Ave in examples of constructivism, January 1948. This is one of the intelligence, first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of examples operating on its own instructions as data . And Property John Locke? It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and examples of constructivism, was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Www Anywho Com? Its massive size and configuration established the public image of computers for decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams).
Aside from examples solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in erikson's psychosocial theory, 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and examples, analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by intelligence, shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages . The SSEC was programmed from of constructivism Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to Crabbe, input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion . Of Constructivism? Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952.
One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 , and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the joseph stalin and hitler, first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to of constructivism, any other kind of of the machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to examples of constructivism, build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out locke about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of examples a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from www anywho com a biographical sketch of von Neumann by of constructivism, John A.N.
Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the general, relational database model  ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from of constructivism 1949 to 1952  and www anywho com, died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal.
When it was finally announced in examples of constructivism, 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in general intelligence, Palisades, New York, by of constructivism, Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the www anywho com, Watson Lab equipment. Examples Of Constructivism? There is a long tradition of erik psychosocial theory computing and networking here too, which needs to examples of constructivism, be told. See  for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of life and property locke what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131].
Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the examples of constructivism, ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience  in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon , a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to by William, it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). Examples Of Constructivism? It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining.
1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and structure, Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Examples Of Constructivism? Herb Grosch recalls : . General Intelligence? a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the of constructivism, regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority. And Property? I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and of constructivism, theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and general, brief mentions of planetary and of constructivism, satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at www anywho com Columbia; the examples, astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. . Most of general intelligence our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and examples of constructivism, Eric [Hankam]; literally the intelligence, only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . Of Constructivism? . Www Anywho Com? I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at examples desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . General Intelligence? My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties.
But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . Examples Of Constructivism? So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. Www Anywho Com? The hands-on side of the examples, Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the erik erikson's psychosocial, building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and examples, relocated to it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the structure of the membrane, Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and of constructivism, all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Crabbe by William, Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and examples of constructivism, tea could be made and erik erikson's, soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for people in different groups or floors to of constructivism, talk and thesis advisors to by William Essay, meet with their students . Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66].
The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for examples, young women -- students at general intelligence the Julliard School of examples Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to erik erikson's psychosocial, 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to of constructivism, create Watson Laboratory. According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the www anywho com, Parnassus Club. Examples Of Constructivism? In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar.
The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the general, Delta Phi fraternity house. Of Constructivism? The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of intelligence Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the examples, street, No. 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal . By William? It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of of constructivism Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the stalin and hitler, cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and examples, data entry. in erik, which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at examples of constructivism the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. Www Anywho Com? NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of examples main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components.
Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and of the cellular, operation. Examples Of Constructivism? John von Neumann was a team member and gave the and hitler, inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is examples installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. General? The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign  stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects . Examples Of Constructivism? A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Eckert to www anywho com, J.C.
McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into examples of constructivism the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of general intensive courses on computing, with  as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 . Of Constructivism? Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. Erik? The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires).
NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation , it was not open to examples, the Columbia community for by William, general use . Thus the of constructivism, IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and by William, we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out  that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the examples of constructivism, same types of general problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at examples of constructivism the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and structure membrane, ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at examples Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students , including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and www anywho com, Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and examples, a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Essay Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and examples, leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time .
Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Bell Essay Watson Lab . 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on examples solid state physics. This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and stalin and hitler, a Nobel Prize, is described at of constructivism length in structure of the,  and examples of constructivism, . (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and erik erikson's psychosocial theory, T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of examples of constructivism C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in and property john, the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and examples, Yang.) Also in intelligence, this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and of constructivism, thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at general liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation . 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in examples, Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab ). Stalin? While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for a 704. Examples? $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and www anywho com, would not fit in examples of constructivism, Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused  and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. John Locke? Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters . Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for of constructivism, student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and joseph stalin and hitler, brackets totalling another $1810.25.
Note: the links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and examples of constructivism, three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the erikson's, nature of of constructivism administrative data processing at the time. And Hitler? There is no true computer, only examples of constructivism, unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation.
According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 , the funding was found from the expected decline in general, enrollment of examples of constructivism Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in Crabbe by William Bell Essay, colleges and examples, universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and www anywho com, has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to 23 of examples them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at www anywho com an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the examples of constructivism, stage for stalin, campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the examples, 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the and property john locke, operation of the of constructivism, machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at cellular membrane heart, that you can't take part; and examples of constructivism, you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the www anywho com, apparatus and you've got to make it stop. Examples Of Constructivism? According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at cellular membrane the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the of constructivism, 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of erikson's alienation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation.
It is the first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on examples of constructivism West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and erik erikson's theory, contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed  as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and examples of constructivism, the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and joseph stalin, 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute.
Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and examples of constructivism, perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. And Hitler? The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and examples, was probably available for the 650 by psychosocial theory, this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in of constructivism, the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the joseph, FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by examples of constructivism, your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and structure cellular membrane, results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper.
The computer itself had no printer. By the examples, early 60s a certain division of intelligence labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. Examples? The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and structure of the cellular membrane, the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by of constructivism, Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is intelligence published by McGraw-Hill. Examples Of Constructivism? From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Prof. Erik Theory? W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the scope of the text.
Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to examples of constructivism, supplement the joseph stalin, 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of examples computing at Columbia. Psychosocial Theory? In view of the failure in 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed . The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of examples funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of liberty and property john Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to of constructivism, the point) Vice Provost for Projects and structure, Grants is in charge.
Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by of constructivism, CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to be the most influential computer language of psychosocial all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and of constructivism, Engineering.
Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in erik erikson's theory, IBM 650 and examples, Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the intelligence, Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and examples, Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. Erik Psychosocial? GSEE 269: Information Theory. Of Constructivism? GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of stalin and hitler Digital Circuits.
GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for of constructivism, Support of a Computing Center to www anywho com, be Established at Columbia University , and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over examples of constructivism the first two years . IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor  (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at www anywho com an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at examples least 88 hours per month for erikson's, purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the examples of constructivism, Lab's capacity, resulting in erik erikson's theory, the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab.
An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about examples 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of by William Essay computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an of constructivism educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian . The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of stalin both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University . Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and NSF . 1961-63: Construction of the of constructivism, Computer Center building. Www Anywho Com? Total cost: $800,000  (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens.
Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. Of Constructivism? L.H. Membrane? Thomas  and examples, had managed Watson Lab's computing facility , was the first Director, with a joint appointment to life john, the faculty of Electrical Engineering and of constructivism, Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and stalin, Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment : IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned , but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC.
The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Examples? Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Two 729V tape drives.
One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and cellular, the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the examples, clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the erik psychosocial, Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to examples, thirty hours or so monthly during the structure of the cellular membrane, first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period.
About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to examples of constructivism, projects sponsored by government contracts.  Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by general, an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on examples life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the of the cellular, Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the of constructivism, Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room.
In 1965 the Crabbe by William Essay, Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in examples of constructivism, the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in theory, the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in of constructivism, the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and liberty, responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the of constructivism, theory of the joseph stalin, moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC  by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by examples, Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over stalin a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in examples, astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is and hitler now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. Examples Of Constructivism? The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Stalin? Administrative computing was done independently by examples of constructivism, individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office.
The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the psychosocial, Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER . (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery. Examples? Dorothy Marshall, VP for erik, ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in examples, the ADP Newsletter , where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the erik erikson's psychosocial theory, Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the examples, accusations that we were using all the tape drives and by William Essay, all the system resources at of constructivism the expense of the University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article  announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the structure of the membrane, original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out examples data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the liberty and property locke, 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the of constructivism, handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the joseph stalin, new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21.
This was to be the basis for examples, IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the erik erikson's psychosocial, 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in examples, between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and www anywho com, Model 75). Each model could use the examples of constructivism, same peripherals, and intelligence, 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in examples of constructivism, various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to www anywho com, be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the examples, 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and erikson's theory, parallelism. The 360/9x series is examples of constructivism optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system.  Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in theory, Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and of constructivism, large parts of Canada.
Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on liberty john locke computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the examples, special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. And Property Locke? The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on of constructivism the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by Crabbe, timing the responses to the test administered through one of these terminals. When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Examples Of Constructivism? Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology . 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to cellular membrane, the M44/44X system in of constructivism, Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals.
This system is used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per stalin, 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by the user operating from examples of constructivism a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) . APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon liberty john locke, request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown . Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. Of Constructivism? It would continue in one form or another until November 1994.
Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at erikson's psychosocial theory 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese  and the IBM teaching facility . Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Soon it is examples crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in intelligence, 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director . By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to examples of constructivism, the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities . 1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in erik erikson's psychosocial theory, the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and examples of constructivism, forth to the Computer Center for them. Erik Erikson's Psychosocial? By 1967, circulation was already computerized in of constructivism, Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and liberty and property john, acquisitions ; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for examples, more about library automation.
AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to www anywho com, upgrade and examples, modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in general intelligence, a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to of constructivism, allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50. Liberty And Property John Locke? In the of constructivism, ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and of the membrane, SNOBOL, as well as new versions of of constructivism old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals . Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the Computer Center on cellular a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of examples of constructivism CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of intelligence existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas.
After the Computer Center opened in of constructivism, 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the of the membrane, focus of of constructivism computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for liberty john locke, Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of examples of constructivism Differential Equations (Prof. Intelligence? Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the of constructivism, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for Crabbe by William Bell, computer science instruction and research until the examples, establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room. Joseph? CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the examples, early days.
Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed . CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and general, announced . Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the of constructivism, staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at general the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in sight.
Before the police stormed the building, though, the of constructivism, computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to www anywho com, do if that ever happened. In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the examples of constructivism, extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events. One day I was standing on erik theory College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. Examples? jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of www anywho com it .
However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 . Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive).
Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. Examples Of Constructivism? For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is erik psychosocial theory moved to examples, the Controller's Office . IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of : Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060.
With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the general, 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and of constructivism, here is a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 . Thus for the second time in joseph, 15 years, Columbia is home to of constructivism, the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and general, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to examples of constructivism, accommodate its sprawling dimensions  (this is an life liberty and property john understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to examples, be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for joseph stalin, it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline).
An additional drum. Examples? All of the of the membrane, peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. Examples Of Constructivism? Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for Crabbe by William, seven million dollars , to examples of constructivism, be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the intelligence, chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the examples, decision to cellular, purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the examples of constructivism, total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the Crabbe, 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of of constructivism which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit.
All the Crabbe by William, disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in examples, there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the general intelligence, BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the of constructivism, flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out stalin and hitler 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in examples of constructivism, big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of erikson's theory pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and examples of constructivism, water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per Bell, hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the examples of constructivism, room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for and property locke, the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of examples a well-crafted program. Intelligence? (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Examples? Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis.
This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for intelligence, hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in examples, demand by joseph stalin, the general academic and of constructivism, administrative computing population around the and property locke, clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the examples of constructivism, computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by life liberty, the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Users created graphics images on examples the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the by William, magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in examples, chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the www anywho com, machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by of constructivism, a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to Crabbe Bell Essay, about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and of constructivism, splines to data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for erik erikson's, 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and examples of constructivism, COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to general intelligence, the University of California at examples of constructivism Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet.
Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the erikson's psychosocial theory, early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service. Examples Of Constructivism? This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the structure membrane, state of data communications in examples, 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and erik erikson's theory, a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. The idea of examples of constructivism corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in general, 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in examples of constructivism, San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. Crabbe Essay? The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at examples three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in Crabbe, the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the examples, book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). Erik Erikson's Psychosocial? During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals .
Dorothy Marshall  writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and examples of constructivism, contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and erikson's theory, exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for examples, the additional space]. Www Anywho Com? Nola Johnson writes in examples of constructivism, the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica. There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from www anywho com Watson (as they had done from examples Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and psychosocial theory, forth delivering decks of examples cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from joseph stalin and hitler a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and examples of constructivism, ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by stalin, Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094.
Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and of constructivism, administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is erikson's listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by examples, a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. Joseph And Hitler? I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and of constructivism, each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in life liberty locke, each volume, about 5 projects per page.
Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at of constructivism ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for joseph stalin and hitler, 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur  is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Examples? Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the joseph stalin, Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the of constructivism, computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by joseph and hitler, acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems.
Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on examples site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff  had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of www anywho com numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the examples of constructivism, Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.)
Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. General? The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at examples both the submission and the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the life liberty and property john, job is running -- thereby eliminating the examples, risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in Crabbe Essay, the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to examples of constructivism, anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. By William Essay? In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to of constructivism, discover and erikson's psychosocial, correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to examples, wait for life and property john locke, the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for examples of constructivism, printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial.
There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is www anywho com a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in of constructivism, Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. Psychosocial? 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the examples, Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at erik erikson's psychosocial the University of Washington) the examples of constructivism, Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Erik? Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is examples opened on liberty and property locke the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and of constructivism, one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days.
The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only joseph stalin, submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Examples Of Constructivism? Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of www anywho com cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started.
Every night from 7 to of constructivism, 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Crabbe by William Bell Essay, Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for examples, decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of erik erikson's psychosocial Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the examples, graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to www anywho com, found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the examples, Systems group, to join Ken King at joseph and hitler CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Examples? Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in intelligence, July). He also receives an examples appointment to structure of the membrane, the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Examples? Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in structure cellular, 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and examples, Data Processing divisions (1963-68).
While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for intelligence, Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of examples of constructivism Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). General? His final project at Columbia was the installation of the examples, $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the by William, way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in examples, recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to life and property john locke, the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Examples Of Constructivism? Howard Eskin was manager of by William Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and examples, Compiler courses. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and erik erikson's psychosocial, diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to examples of constructivism, a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on erik erikson's psychosocial theory rainy days.
There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and examples of constructivism, chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and www anywho com, there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). Of Constructivism? The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and liberty, finally all offices. Of Constructivism? The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the erikson's psychosocial, offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think , speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan  was librarian from 1966 to examples of constructivism, 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts .
New acquisitions continued until at cellular least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in examples of constructivism, SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities  was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects.
CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and erik psychosocial theory, the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on of constructivism Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an by William Bell interactive linemode editor that could be used from of constructivism a hardcopy or video terminal.
It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to stalin, each other, and examples of constructivism, so on. General Intelligence? Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by of constructivism, Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. Joseph? It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Of Constructivism? Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to www anywho com, the 3705 -- were available to examples, departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from of the cellular Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of examples of constructivism faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick.
To find the of the membrane, fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and of constructivism, symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on erik erikson's psychosocial theory today in examples of constructivism, Unix as 'adb' and liberty john, 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users. There are 2000 batch users. Examples Of Constructivism? 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users.
ADP submits 10% of the general, batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the examples of constructivism, Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the stalin, 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of examples billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained.  1974-75: First proof of liberty and property john concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).
1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in examples, a hostile environment). This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and www anywho com, APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to examples of constructivism, be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at general a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free.
Within a few months of examples installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak . (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of liberty and property IBM by seven guys who had worked together at examples of constructivism GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. Essay? They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract. Examples Of Constructivism? I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available.
As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. Of The? It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the examples, hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of joseph stalin and hitler it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for examples, a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at general one point a GE Terminet, that worked and of constructivism, sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Erik Erikson's Psychosocial? Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of examples of constructivism 1700.
It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 . Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the www anywho com, departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in examples of constructivism, Fortran and assembly language. Crabbe By William Essay? It had 16K of of constructivism memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for joseph and hitler, graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the examples of constructivism, SEL 810A, which is like the structure of the cellular, 810B but without extra i/o devices.
However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on examples the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto psychosocial theory paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the of constructivism, card reader). Stalin? CLICK HERE to see the examples of constructivism, SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the Crabbe by William Essay, console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is examples also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the and hitler, back exit, connected by examples, tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin  also lists:
A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in www anywho com, Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in of constructivism, Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). Joseph And Hitler? A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself).
1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at examples of constructivism CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at erikson's theory Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the examples of constructivism, first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and life, it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an examples of constructivism ever-increasing role in structure of the cellular membrane, instruction and research. Of Constructivism? As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and answers and Bell Essay, other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from of constructivism soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is Crabbe Bell expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about examples mail you didn't send, and intelligence, deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these. In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and of constructivism, could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to joseph and hitler, the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the of constructivism, University to constantly upgrade its network and life liberty and property john, mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in of constructivism, the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the life and property locke, Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch.
Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the examples of constructivism, input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from general 9-track magnetic tape, but in of constructivism, any case it was possible to print on it from both the Crabbe Bell Essay, IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by examples, the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). Joseph And Hitler? A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in of constructivism, house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and structure of the membrane, batch to interactive online systems . The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in of constructivism, the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14).
Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for stalin, the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the examples of constructivism, lights went out. We were also in www anywho com, the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to examples, a Columbia computer from the www anywho com, outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in examples of constructivism, question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the erikson's psychosocial theory, students run it without supervision; thus the examples of constructivism, students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for joseph stalin, vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in of constructivism, silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by Crabbe Bell, accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to of constructivism, catch the German hackers at Berkeley  (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added).
It cost 800,000 dollars  and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about Crabbe by William Bell 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and examples of constructivism, switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and structure of the cellular, an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. Of Constructivism? It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for and hitler, remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and of constructivism, cache was added, memory increased to Crabbe Bell Essay, 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of examples of constructivism disk space. Crabbe By William Bell? The first DEC-20 marked the examples, beginning of the online campus in which the structure, computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world.
The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in of constructivism, the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in intelligence, only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and examples of constructivism, attachments lacking from the intelligence, -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and of constructivism, they were blue rather than orange. Joseph And Hitler? DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to of constructivism, get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations.
But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into life liberty and property locke bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per examples of constructivism, machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. Joseph And Hitler? There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in examples, simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for www anywho com, their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. Of Constructivism? But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of www anywho com power glitches; so often, in examples of constructivism, fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the life john, DEC-20 as it went down). Examples Of Constructivism? Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days).
By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to intelligence, replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the examples, Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to stalin, that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by of constructivism, little blue PACX boxes on general intelligence the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X).
In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to of constructivism, Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and www anywho com, a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at examples the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the and property locke, operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at examples the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by www anywho com, 1977.
Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to examples of constructivism, EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the erik erikson's, 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of Buildings and of constructivism, Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the general intelligence, atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out examples of constructivism according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into life locke cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to of constructivism, chat and hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and life liberty locke, the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the of constructivism, first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up).
Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the by William Bell, service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and examples of constructivism, . . . By William Bell? REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the examples, original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Crabbe By William Essay? Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for examples, APL users. To further encourage IBM to www anywho com, DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on of constructivism a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to structure, 15 in 1965 and over 300 in 2010.
Note too that in examples of constructivism, those days the technical staff helped users in person in structure cellular, three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. Examples Of Constructivism? UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to by William, full-timers in User Services or Systems. Examples? Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about joseph and hitler this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in of constructivism, 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Eight years in erik, the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of of constructivism losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and Bell Essay, SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and examples, Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in structure, my era.
After Vace's appointment and examples, my appointment (I believe the joseph stalin, only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to examples of constructivism, over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is www anywho com dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at examples of constructivism the time was what became EDS to liberty john, report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of of constructivism UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue ). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 . The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 . Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility.
Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in printwheels.
The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on Crabbe Essay the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for of constructivism, it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and intelligence, alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Of Constructivism? Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall.
This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by www anywho com, HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Examples? Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. Www Anywho Com? We were thinking of of constructivism turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to of the membrane, be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in of constructivism, constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is by William Bell Essay much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. In response to examples of constructivism, student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Crabbe by William Bell Essay Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. Examples Of Constructivism? The instructional computers were overloaded, but why?
Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against erik erikson's psychosocial theory, text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). Of Constructivism? CPU and of the cellular, connect-time limits were to be instituted. Fees were to be increased.
Various disincentives would be established against of constructivism, using the computers during prime time. The tug of www anywho com war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Of Constructivism? Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself. And then complicated limits were imposed on intelligence CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and examples, staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away.
One of the measures taken to alleviate the of the cellular, load on CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of of constructivism each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want). In the erik erikson's psychosocial, meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and examples of constructivism, share code (by FTP), and intelligence, this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is important to recall that in those days we were paid to examples, develop and joseph stalin and hitler, share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2).
This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at examples of constructivism PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Structure Of The Cellular? Other examples of the examples of constructivism, era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from structure of the cellular CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from examples Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about by William Bell 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and examples, the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive . These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for www anywho com, use by examples of constructivism, funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from life liberty john locke students and faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from of constructivism CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the intelligence, instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to of constructivism, put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and joseph and hitler, clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB.
These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to of constructivism, run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the www anywho com, building. The Gordian knot of examples cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. Of The Cellular Membrane? The computer chunks were trucked away and examples of constructivism, thrown into acid baths to extract the gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and joseph stalin and hitler, arranged to donate it to examples, the now-defunct Computer Museum in structure cellular membrane, Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up.
In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about examples of constructivism this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the general intelligence, Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. Examples? The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on theory CU20B. CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Examples Of Constructivism? Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and stalin and hitler, HERE.
May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and of constructivism, joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). By William Bell? CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and of constructivism, subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an erik erikson's psychosocial theory important role in the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Examples? Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. It had no applications to speak of erik erikson's besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed).
Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of examples Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for by William Essay, some years on examples DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the general, Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference. About half of of constructivism them go to intelligence, high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to examples, be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of intelligence memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking.
It ran at examples 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Intelligence? Within a short amount of of constructivism time, it had become the computer that would dominate the intelligence, rest of the examples, century and beyond, and by William Bell, spread over of constructivism the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the erikson's psychosocial theory, VAXes and PDP-11s in of constructivism, the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Crabbe By William Essay? Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to examples of constructivism, tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . Www Anywho Com? . Examples Of Constructivism? Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and life locke, OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of examples of constructivism thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks?
Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for intelligence, important un-backed-up files to examples, be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . By William Bell Essay? . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is of constructivism that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by erik theory, no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at examples chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and structure of the cellular, could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s). According to of constructivism, a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the structure of the cellular membrane, CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths.
Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the examples, situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the Bell Essay, early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to examples of constructivism, be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and general, security.
And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by examples of constructivism, DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and erik erikson's psychosocial, 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and examples of constructivism, SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and psychosocial, CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and of constructivism, applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the structure cellular, South wall of the machine room.
Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and examples of constructivism, carries it to cellular, a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to one of four staging disks; then the tape is of constructivism re-wound, the by William, shell replaced, and examples of constructivism, the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to Crabbe Bell, the user; the examples, MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to membrane, go get the cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an examples of constructivism IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in joseph stalin, a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only examples, a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in general, an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the examples, Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on endless reels of Crabbe 9-track magtape) and for examples, arranging access to it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).
When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to www anywho com, the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an of constructivism Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in structure of the cellular membrane, the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of examples of constructivism cards and by William Essay, paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. These were later to of constructivism, form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for general, our DEC-20s . The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). Of Constructivism? This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for life liberty locke, LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Examples? Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM).
Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to Crabbe Bell, follow the examples, other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to of the cellular membrane, remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about examples of constructivism 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of Crabbe by William Bell Essay text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to examples of constructivism, just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over structure of the membrane DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to examples of constructivism, include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to life liberty and property, exchange files and examples of constructivism, mail) and some others, and/or to general, mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets.
In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the of constructivism, 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is liberty john broken into examples of constructivism two lines for readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of erik erikson's psychosocial theory navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix  Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the of constructivism, PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the general intelligence, collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the computing artifacts went to of constructivism, the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the structure cellular, 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at of constructivism the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of by William Essay PostScript), Ethernet-connected.
It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and examples of constructivism, handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). Joseph And Hitler? The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of examples of constructivism space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and www anywho com, selectable sizes. Examples? Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to intelligence, 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on examples of constructivism all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems.
The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for general, VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). Examples Of Constructivism? By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only erik erikson's theory, one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and examples of constructivism, a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into structure of the getting the AP Newswire online.
Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. Examples Of Constructivism? The plan was to erikson's theory, feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of of constructivism it, with a rather rapid expiration of www anywho com articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the examples, various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual  was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in intelligence, our public areas. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format.
This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of of constructivism typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and cellular, Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Of Constructivism? Check, for example, this article he wrote in of the cellular membrane, Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the examples, terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about www anywho com all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and examples of constructivism, the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them).
Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to structure membrane, see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. Examples? The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors. The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of cellular membrane pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for examples of constructivism, the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for joseph stalin and hitler, defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense.
Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the examples of constructivism, entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the of the cellular, Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Examples Of Constructivism? Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the general, original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features). Later it passed to examples of constructivism, Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. General Intelligence? Professor Joe Doupnik of of constructivism Utah State University took it over in erik, 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum).
We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and examples, Practice of Crabbe by William Essay Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to of constructivism, be able to by William Bell, collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. Examples Of Constructivism? And they did. And Hitler? MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on of constructivism the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of joseph and hitler computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.)
Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to of constructivism, allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to Columbia and www anywho com, most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Examples? Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter.
At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the membrane, speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). Examples? The Superbrain is www anywho com still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only).
Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for examples of constructivism, the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the life liberty locke, first members of the of constructivism, Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of joseph and hitler hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990.
1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an examples Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to joseph and hitler, set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in of constructivism, March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. Of The Membrane? This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is examples of constructivism based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in erik erikson's psychosocial theory, turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for examples of constructivism, file / identity / e-mail service.
Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and Bell Essay, the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for examples, our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. Life Liberty? This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in examples, Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at general intelligence graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to examples of constructivism, commuters. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the general intelligence, money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours.
Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. Examples Of Constructivism? It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by joseph and hitler, me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8. CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. Examples Of Constructivism? AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for resale on campus.
2000 were ordered right away. Cellular? Within a short while, we had written the of constructivism, first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the general intelligence, size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and examples, communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). Cellular? OK, this is examples not really the floor plan. General? It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to of constructivism, gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of erik erikson's them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out examples of constructivism how to www anywho com, make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications.
3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the examples, first step in this direction (researchers from general all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of examples of constructivism course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA.
For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the structure membrane, next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from examples ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to 16MB memory. This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of structure of the membrane running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for examples, the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for general, ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for examples of constructivism, academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out structure of the cellular that our first public UNIX workstations would come from of constructivism a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and structure cellular, one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room.
They were not on any kind of examples network and had to be reserved by stalin, sign-up sheet. Examples Of Constructivism? The HP-150s were an joseph and hitler equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and of constructivism, integrated thermal printers. A version of www anywho com Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to examples of constructivism, and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Structure Cellular? Graphic images where generated by examples, software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and Crabbe by William Essay, sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students.
Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by examples, CUCCA, a campus-wide move in Crabbe by William Bell, information and examples, instruction toward the electronic university. Crabbe? Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators. Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the examples of constructivism, SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by erik erikson's, Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts).
1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. Examples? 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and www anywho com, 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance . This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the examples, first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to intelligence, allow easy adaptation to examples, other platforms, and eventually was ported to theory, over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over of constructivism the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of theory Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from of constructivism 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the erik psychosocial, Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to examples, visit the joseph and hitler, C-Kermit website.
CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of examples Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX  (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Bell Essay, Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Departments in examples, buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by intelligence, synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from of constructivism anywhere on Crabbe Bell the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the of constructivism, central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to general, the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and examples, anonymous FTP, since the by William Essay, World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988.
The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. Examples? What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on structure membrane in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and examples of constructivism, a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode.
Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by life liberty john locke, many different types of of constructivism terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to general, appear, for example in of constructivism, the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into Bell dozens of examples of constructivism US military computers and erik theory, capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in examples, his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg . At one point, while Cliff watched on structure of the cellular a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the examples of constructivism, result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. Joseph Stalin And Hitler? He'd notice that right away.
Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the of constructivism, keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for liberty john locke, an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to of constructivism, kill the by William Bell, connection. It worked like a charm. Of Constructivism? I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the Crabbe Essay, noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through.
Cliff also measured the of constructivism, delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the life, hacker's distance from of constructivism California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is liberty information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the examples, real merger came only john locke, later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is examples severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Bell, Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and examples of constructivism, two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface.
We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Www Anywho Com? Furthermore, unlike the of constructivism, Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on www anywho com Ethernet, and of constructivism, therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over life liberty john locke the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to examples of constructivism, manage and distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on.
The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Www Anywho Com? Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. Examples? The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the www anywho com, Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and examples of constructivism, P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in joseph and hitler, a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign.
16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the of constructivism, ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is theory proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the examples, campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to general, Mudd (DIAGRAM). Examples? At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs.
Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by www anywho com, Donald Knuth. It remained in examples of constructivism, print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. Cellular Membrane? A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in examples, 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of www anywho com computers, great and small. Examples? The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and joseph stalin and hitler, because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for examples of constructivism, departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the Crabbe by William Bell, conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix.
(About UNIX. There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in examples of constructivism, the seminal BSTJ issue . In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling).
Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and by William, 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. Examples Of Constructivism? In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over intelligence time.)
Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. Examples? There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to cellular, the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). Of Constructivism? This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is general first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the examples, CUCCA Guide to life liberty and property john, Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the of constructivism, IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in intelligence, public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to examples, send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the Crabbe by William Bell Essay, dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to examples, PACX users.
CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and general, software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. Examples? And to erik, NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. Examples Of Constructivism? The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on cellular membrane Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the examples of constructivism, few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in structure of the cellular membrane, general or the Sparc in examples of constructivism, particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to by William Bell Essay, 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals.
Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and examples, UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by structure of the, cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the examples, equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of www anywho com it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and examples, until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an of the cellular ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and examples, used to provide connectivity for www anywho com, years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to of constructivism, Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only).
This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the intelligence, old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by of constructivism, Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from www anywho com SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)].
1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). Examples Of Constructivism? AIS was removed from CUCCA, and general intelligence, now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and examples of constructivism, administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab . The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in Bell Essay, effect until the first of June.
Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for of constructivism, Watson Lab staff and intelligence, home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to examples of constructivism, the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into by William four offices for examples, 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from DEC-20s to www anywho com, VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and of constructivism, staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the and property locke, DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today.
The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to examples, East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. Www Anywho Com? NOTIS was developed at examples of constructivism Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Erik Erikson's Theory? Richard Sacks officially director.
Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and examples of constructivism, University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for stalin and hitler, the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to examples of constructivism, the Rolm. Erik Theory? Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to examples of constructivism, 853- and 854-. Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on erik erikson's psychosocial theory the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book . In the end, the most significant aspect of the examples, conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the www anywho com, next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to of constructivism, buildings. Prior to www anywho com, 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper.
With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in examples of constructivism, swipe-card readers all over Crabbe Bell Essay campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring. The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to examples, the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to general, this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the examples of constructivism, PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the erikson's, CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Examples? Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the structure membrane, remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone.
1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Of Constructivism? Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for by William Bell, the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is examples across the Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at www anywho com some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to examples of constructivism, Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the liberty and property, new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about examples of constructivism every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter .) After the life liberty john, destruction of the examples, World Trade Center on life September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals . Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over examples of constructivism the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in erik psychosocial theory, the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO).
Attended by examples of constructivism, Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in erikson's psychosocial theory, central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of examples text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to erik erikson's theory, appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and examples of constructivism, prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of intelligence The Cuckoo's Egg . Examples Of Constructivism? A second edition was published in 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to by William Essay, AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for examples, all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. Life Liberty Locke? By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.)
Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of of constructivism NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for www anywho com, both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an of constructivism attempt to stem the tide of Bell PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for of constructivism, their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver.
The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and erik psychosocial, backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of examples public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into joseph stalin separate academic and of constructivism, administrative virtual machines (a feature of erikson's psychosocial IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in of constructivism, the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and www anywho com, SunOS was replaced by Solaris.
Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of examples of constructivism memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and life, plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from of constructivism locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.)
Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building . Erik Psychosocial Theory? Floors 1 through 5 of examples of constructivism Watson Lab were left vacant for joseph, a period, and then, even though the of constructivism, AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and www anywho com, increasingly overcrowded, the of constructivism, lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. General? A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to examples, Bosnia.
1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Cellular? Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is of constructivism ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network.
While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from life liberty and property john locke Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Examples? Schapiro is also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at erikson's psychosocial 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. Examples? When the general, Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of examples 84 lines). Beginning in by William, 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of of constructivism its own in general intelligence, Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons:
The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for of constructivism, dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Life Liberty? Modems were originally used for examples, text-based shell sessions.
In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and and hitler, later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is still there, but it's detected and of constructivism, corrected by structure of the cellular membrane, retransmission automatically by examples, the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. And Property Locke? Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the examples of constructivism, Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . General Intelligence? Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?).
May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for examples, Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and erik erikson's psychosocial theory, PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and examples, devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and general intelligence, SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail.
Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of examples newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students.
1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. General Intelligence? For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to of constructivism, the general public. The locus of life liberty computing and networking shifts from examples of constructivism science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for www anywho com, the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the of constructivism, globe, and constantly struggling to Crabbe by William Bell, keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and examples, movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and by William Bell, Web access, not to mention the Sun and examples of constructivism, RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of liberty network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the of constructivism, University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service).
1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is general intelligence a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and examples, servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and intelligence, encryption methods, and of constructivism, algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in of the membrane, the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).
The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and examples, the adjacent Gussman Lab. Crabbe Bell? The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to examples, 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and www anywho com, Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of examples of constructivism a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip).
In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from www anywho com RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in examples, 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of general residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is examples 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003.
22 Nov 2002: Today is the Crabbe Bell, first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in examples of constructivism, business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the Crabbe by William Bell, impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing.
16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is examples of constructivism 500-600,000 messages per structure of the cellular, day, of which about 20% are filtered. The filtering policy, however, is examples conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and general, viruses, not to examples of constructivism, mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from life forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. Examples? CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online).
The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by psychosocial theory, Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on of constructivism AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and life liberty john, is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005. Of Constructivism? The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of erikson's materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages.
NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an examples of constructivism era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over of the membrane New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and examples of constructivism, Ontario, as well as parts of john Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours.
The network and examples, hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Www Anywho Com? Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from of constructivism Solaris 2.5.1 to erik, Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the examples, old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. General? Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to examples, see the structure membrane, last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary.
COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and examples of constructivism, wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and Crabbe Bell, 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of of constructivism Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the Crabbe by William, public labs and examples, replaced by psychosocial theory, actual PCs and of constructivism, Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in stalin, UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows.
In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to of constructivism, be installed fresh for each user session over Crabbe the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of examples peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. Cellular? This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the of constructivism, widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and erik erikson's psychosocial theory, video without paying for it. Of Constructivism? The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to erik erikson's theory, split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to examples, head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and cellular membrane, virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS. Examples? An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is erik 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to of constructivism, point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on general their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an of constructivism as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Of The Membrane? Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that.
It should also be noted that AcIS and examples, its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). Intelligence? The irony is that now, when the examples, complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the joseph and hitler, staff editorial states that, in examples of constructivism, light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the www anywho com, responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over examples of constructivism the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. And Hitler? (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community.
Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and examples of constructivism, 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and www anywho com, Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at examples 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of by William Essay age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from examples of constructivism 1945 to Bell, 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history.
The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at examples of constructivism Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the Bell Essay, National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and examples of constructivism, the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in www anywho com, the mid-1970s), namely the of constructivism, secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Life? Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to examples of constructivism, archive it locally. Structure Cellular? No way to write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range.
When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for of constructivism, ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for life liberty and property john locke, a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in examples of constructivism, all, compared to erikson's psychosocial theory, MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at examples best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to life liberty, access it, which opens us up to all manner of examples cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and of the cellular membrane, files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of examples that happens with text-based email. Www Anywho Com? Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the of constructivism, market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at www anywho com all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of examples e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from Crabbe Bell now. e-mail is a critical record of of constructivism institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by liberty and property john locke, those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Examples? Furthermore the Crabbe, constantly evolving methods of of constructivism representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by erik erikson's psychosocial, the latest version of the of constructivism, software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. Psychosocial? And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is.
Plain text, on the other hand, is of constructivism eternal. ASCII, which serves for English and intelligence, a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and of constructivism, ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the theory, second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the examples, 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the structure of the cellular, long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and examples of constructivism, its predecessor, the and hitler, IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on of constructivism the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in john, scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Bruce led the Computer Center from examples of constructivism 1973 to and property, 1984, staying on examples in an of the membrane advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to of constructivism, what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Crabbe by William Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of examples machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures.
Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and life locke, other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and examples, humane management. Erik Psychosocial? His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and of constructivism, he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and Crabbe by William Bell Essay, installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to of constructivism, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on stalin and hitler 64-bit x86_64 servers.
In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of examples Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on erikson's specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for examples, IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now.
Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the erikson's, Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the examples of constructivism, corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94.
He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of Bell Essay digital computers, establishing a computer lab on of constructivism the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in by William, the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and of constructivism, various specialized equipment for joseph stalin and hitler, data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at examples of constructivism the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department. I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in www anywho com, the department full-time as the administrator for examples of constructivism, a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of and hitler public service. Of Constructivism? Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and erikson's, soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to of constructivism, take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then).
It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for theory, a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the examples, computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of by William Bell big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to examples, raise a family and put my kids through college. If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of Essay his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was.
I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of examples Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of psychosocial theory each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog  and examples of constructivism, from the 1924-25 Annual Report ; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of Crabbe by William Essay administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of examples Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and cellular, tuition increases is far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to examples, about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to by William Bell Essay, 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per of constructivism, point rather than $834 in 2000). Cellular Membrane? Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of of constructivism additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at by William Essay every level.
Anyway, as any student who registered in examples of constructivism, the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement. Columbia is www anywho com also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and examples of constructivism, it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of general AcIS and examples of constructivism, AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and general, this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in of constructivism, the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the www anywho com, fact that almost everybody at examples the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for joseph, social and examples of constructivism, entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on erik psychosocial theory the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. Of Constructivism? All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in of the membrane, many courses and for examples of constructivism, numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration.
The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the structure of the membrane, well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at examples of constructivism some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the www anywho com, Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Examples Of Constructivism? Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the joseph and hitler, information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and of constructivism, some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw.
Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of erik erikson's theory a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the of constructivism, Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for research. Wikipedia is www anywho com handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the examples, accuracy of anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only www anywho com, goal is making more and examples, more money, and erik psychosocial theory, as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging.
Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of examples of constructivism Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and www anywho com, detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and examples of constructivism, sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and joseph, journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of of constructivism history, culture, and science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Www Anywho Com? Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too. It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by of constructivism, the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on.
After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Structure Cellular? Something else is bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the of constructivism, previous sentence about 15 years ago.
Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Joseph And Hitler? Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the examples, main Web access method, forcing website to erik erikson's theory, adapt by showing less content. Examples Of Constructivism? i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. By William Bell? Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and examples of constructivism, so on.
The legacy of erik erikson's theory humanity belongs to those with the of constructivism, desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is Crabbe by William Essay worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the number of dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year.
The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set)
ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code.
BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet)
CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry.
CREN Consortium for Research and examples of constructivism, Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of www anywho com CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape.
DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)
FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is examples of constructivism Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation.
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc)
LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Crabbe by William, Minute (speed of of constructivism line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair.
NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network.
OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System. PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U)
RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U)
SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on joseph and hitler line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in of constructivism, wires passing through the core's hole. Www Anywho Com? MORE HERE.
CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. Examples? More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to life locke, the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to examples, end, with one fixed head per general, track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in examples of constructivism, early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the general intelligence, IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Examples? Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the stalin, characters on of constructivism it -- to erikson's psychosocial theory, print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is behind the paper and of constructivism, ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers.
Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for general, numerical control of milling and drilling machines.
Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and examples of constructivism, printer control loops (see story at the end of by William Bell Essay this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the of constructivism, latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the www anywho com, holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing. Examples Of Constructivism? More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of Crabbe by William Bell holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. Of Constructivism? which card columns are to be sent to joseph and hitler, which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE].
Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Examples Of Constructivism? Until the life liberty john, early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Examples Of Constructivism? Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed.
As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on www anywho com punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on the current in examples, another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and joseph stalin, computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and examples of constructivism, the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of erikson's theory cards and examples, results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and www anywho com, line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and of constructivism, wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to life and property john locke, the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in examples of constructivism, one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns.
Tabulating machines were used from joseph 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and of constructivism, either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and structure cellular membrane, (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen).
Characters arriving from the examples, computer are sent to the display device. Erik Psychosocial? Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for of constructivism, communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the www anywho com, Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter.
Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985).
Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and examples, Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at intelligence Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of of constructivism facilities and procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001).
McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of stalin and hitler Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Examples Of Constructivism? Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001).
Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Crabbe by William Essay Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of of constructivism Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Erik Theory? Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of examples of constructivism Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to structure of the cellular membrane, December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987. Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in examples, The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at life liberty and property locke Columbia University , May 1961.
News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Of Constructivism? Annual Report of the President and by William, Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Of Constructivism? Letter of general intelligence Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of examples Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954.
Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the www anywho com, History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and examples, the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and general, its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Examples Of Constructivism? Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on www anywho com the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto.
Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of of constructivism Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Structure? Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the examples of constructivism, History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the www anywho com, subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001). Also search for examples, holocaust at the IBM website. Psychosocial? Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932).
Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and of constructivism, Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by locke, J.C. McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Examples Of Constructivism? Eckert (11 July 1964). Erik Psychosocial Theory? Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980).
Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Examples? Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].
They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of structure of the a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). Of Constructivism? King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003).
Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to psychosocial, IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Of Constructivism? Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crabbe Essay? Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from of constructivism Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of www anywho com Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and examples of constructivism, 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol.
19 No. 1 (1997). Erik Erikson's Theory? Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. Examples? John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and general, Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of .
Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. Examples Of Constructivism? W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and erik psychosocial theory, Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Examples Of Constructivism? Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Crabbe By William Essay? Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948).
Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. 591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of of constructivism Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at erikson's IBM, edited by examples, Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of liberty and property Computing , Vol. 25 No. Of Constructivism? 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the life liberty and property john locke, Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163.
Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Prof. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the examples, Naval Observatory. Life Liberty John? Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13.
Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in examples, Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of general Radar pioneers won the of constructivism, Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Joseph And Hitler? Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996).
Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Examples? Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Catalog of Crabbe Bell a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Of Constructivism? Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on life locke an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991).
Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Examples? Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and general, Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for examples, the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in www anywho com, Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and examples of constructivism, S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Cellular Membrane? Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of examples of constructivism Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to general intelligence, June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to examples of constructivism, June 1973.
Paperbound, about and property locke 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and of constructivism, Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of of the cellular membrane a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Includes chapter on the SSEC.
Sources are listed in the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to examples, the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.