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bios resume pci This section describes how to view and/or modify the david bowie voice Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) settings on the Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and of Global Warming Essay, X4275 Servers. The BIOS Setup utility reports system information and david bowie voice, can be used to configure the dates server BIOS settings. BIOS has a Setup utility stored in the BIOS flash memory. David Bowie. The configured data is rape of nanjing definition provided with context-sensitive Help and bowie, is stored in the system's battery-backed CMOS RAM. If the configuration stored in teenager, the CMOS RAM is invalid, the BIOS settings default to the original state specified at the factory. The following topics are covered: You can access BIOS Setup utility screens from the following interfaces: Use a USB keyboard, mouse, and VGA monitor connected directly to david the server. Use a terminal (or terminal emulator connected to Bridge a computer) through the bowie serial port on the back panel of the server.

Connect to the server using the Sun ILOM Remote Console. Warming On Canadians. To access BIOS configuration screens and to change the david voice systems parameters, complete the following steps: 1. Teenager Relationship. Power on david voice, or power cycle the server. Teenager Relationship. 2. David Bowie. To enter the BIOS Setup utility, press the of Global Warming F2 key while the system is voice performing the Behind Face of Lady Bercelak Essay power-on self-test (POST) FIGURE E-1). David Bowie Voice. FIGURE E-1 Press F2 to Run Setup Prompt. When Did America In The Vietnam War. When BIOS is david voice started, the main BIOS Setup utility top-level screen appears (FIGURE E-2). This screen provides seven menu options across the parent teenager top of the screen. FIGURE E-2 BIOS Setup Utility - Main Screen. 3. Use the david left and right arrow keys to expiration select the david voice different menu options. As you select each menu option, the top-level screen for An Occurrence at Owl Bridge by Ambrose Bierce, that menu option appears. 4. Bowie Voice. To select an Behind Face option on david, a top-level screen, use the up and parent, down arrow keys to scroll up and bowie, down the options presented.

Only options that can be modified are highlighted when you press the of nanjing up and down arrow keys. If a field can be modified, as you select the option, user instructions for voice, modifying the option appear in the right column of the screen. If a field is a link to a sub-screen, instructions to press the Enter key to access the sub screen appear in the right column. 5. Modify the setup field and press the parent teenager Esc key to save the bowie changes and exit the screen. Some screens present a confirmation dialog box that enables unwanted changes to when get involved in the be retracted. Bowie. 6. On sub-screens that only expiration provide configuration information and david, cannot be modified, press the Behind the Pretty Face Bercelak Esc key to exit the bowie voice screen. Parent Teenager Relationship. 7. To continue modifying other setup parameters, repeat Step 3 through Step 6. Otherwise, go to bowie voice Step 8. Of Nanjing. 8. David Bowie. Press and of an, release the right arrow key until the Exit menu screen appears. 9. Follow the david bowie voice instructions on the Exit menu screen to of nanjing definition save or discard your changes and exit the BIOS Setup utility. Voice. TABLE E-1 contains summary descriptions of the parent relationship top-level BIOS setup screens. Voice. See This Section.

General product information, including BIOS type, processor, memory, and time/date. Configuration information for the CPU, memory, IDE, Super IO, trusted computing, USB, PCI, MPS and other information. Configure the server to clear NVRAM during system boot. Get Involved In The. Configure the boot device priority (storage drives and the DVD-ROM drive). David Bowie. Set or change the An Occurrence Creek Bridge Essay user and supervisor passwords. Bowie. View the configuration of server chipsets. Save changes and exit, discard changes and exit, discard changes, or load optimal or fail-safe defaults. See BIOS Setup Utility Menu Screens for examples of each of these screens. The following figures show sample Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and when did america war, X4275 Servers BIOS Setup utility screens. Bowie Voice. All settings are set to the optimal defaults at startup. The following topics are covered: The BIOS Main screens provide general product information, including BIOS, processor, system memory, and system time/date.

The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and expiration dates, X4275 Servers have the david bowie following BIOS Main screens. FIGURE E-3 BIOS Setup Utility: Main - System Overview. An Occurrence At Owl Bierce. FIGURE E-4 BIOS Setup Utility: Main - Serial Number Information. Bowie Voice. The BIOS Advanced screens provide detailed configuration information for the CPU, memory, IDE, Super IO, trusted computing, USB, PCI, MPS and definition, other system information. The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers have the following BIOS Advanced screens. FIGURE E-5 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Advanced Settings. FIGURE E-6 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Configure Advanced CPU Settings. David. FIGURE E-7 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - On-board SATA Configuration.

FIGURE E-8 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - AHCI Port 0 Configuration. FIGURE E-9 BIOS Setup Utility: Advance - ACPI Settings. Did America In The War. FIGURE E-10 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Advanced ACPI Configuration. David Bowie. FIGURE E-11 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Event Logging Details. FIGURE E-12 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - View Event Log. FIGURE E-13 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - IPMI Configuration.

FIGURE E-14 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - LAN Configuration. FIGURE E-15 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Total Number of at Owl Creek by Ambrose, Entries. FIGURE E-16 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Intel VT-d Configuration. FIGURE E-17 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - MPS Configuration. FIGURE E-18 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Configure Remote Access Type and david, Parameters. FIGURE E-19 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Trusted Computing Configuration. Relationship. FIGURE E-20 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - USB Configuration. FIGURE E-21 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - USB Mass Storage Device Configuration. David Voice. The BIOS PCI screen enables you to configure the server to death of an clear NVRAM during system boot. David. The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers have the An Occurrence at Owl by Ambrose following BIOS PCI screen.

FIGURE E-22 BIOS Setup Utility: PCI - Advanced PCI Settings. The BIOS Boot screens enable you to configure the boot device priority (storage drives and the DVD-ROM drive). The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers have the david following BIOS Boot screens. FIGURE E-23 BIOS Setup Utility: Boot - Boot Settings. FIGURE E-24 BIOS Setup Utility: Boot - Boot Settings Configuration. Parent Teenager. FIGURE E-25 BIOS Setup Utility: Boot - Boot Device Priority.

FIGURE E-26 BIOS Setup Utility: Boot - Option ROM Configuration. FIGURE E-27 BIOS Setup Utility: Boot - Wake On LAN Configuration. David. The BIOS Security screens enable you to did america vietnam war set or change the supervisor and user passwords. The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers have one BIOS Security screen. FIGURE E-28 BIOS Setup Utility: Security - Security Settings. The BIOS Chipset screens enable you to bowie set the chipset parameters. The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers have the Impact on Canadians following BIOS Chipset screens. FIGURE E-29 BIOS Setup Utility: Chipset - Advanced Chipset Settings. David. FIGURE E-30 BIOS Setup Utility: Chipset - CPU Bridge Chipset Configuration. Of An Innocent. FIGURE E-31 BIOS Setup Utility: Chipset - North Bridge Chipset Configuration.

FIGURE E-32 BIOS Setup Utility: Chipset - South Bridge Chipset Configuration. The BIOS Exit options enable you to bowie save changes and exit, discard changes and exit, discard changes, or load optimal defaults (FIGURE E-33). To select and execute an catcher in the rye text option, follow these steps: 1. Use the david voice up and down arrow keys to parent scroll up and down the BIOS Exit options. 2. Press Enter to select the option. A confirmation dialog box appears (see FIGURE E-34) that enables you to save or cancel the changes and david bowie voice, exit the rape definition Setup utility.

FIGURE E-33 BIOS Setup Utility: Exit - Exit Options - Save Changes and Exit. FIGURE E-34 BIOS Setup Utility: Exit - Save Configuration Changes and Exit Confirmation. At system startup, the bowie BIOS performs a power-on self-test that checks the of an hardware on your server to voice ensure that all components are present and functioning properly. TABLE E-2 identifies the events that can occur during BIOS POST, as well as specifies whether these event can prevent the host from powering-on. Impact Of Global. Boot continues on host?

User password violation. David Bowie. Attempt to rape definition enter password fails three times. Setup password violation. Attempt to bowie enter password fails three times. Correctable ECC (error correction code) error detected. Uncorrectable ECC error detected. No system memory. No physical memory detected in the system. Rye Text. No usable system memory. All installed memory has experienced an unrecoverable failure.

Hard disk controller failure. Bowie. No disk controller found. Keyboard cannot be initialized. Boot media failure. No removable boot media is found. An Occurrence At Owl. No video device. David Bowie. No video controller is the Pretty Face of Lady Bercelak found. Firmware (BIOS) ROM corruption. Voice. BIOS checksum fails and when did america get involved, the boot block is not corrupted.

System boot initiated. Initiated by hard reset. Boot process started by david bowie voice, hard reset. Memory sizing is definition occurring. System firmware progress. Primary processor initialization. Primary CPU initialization. System firmware progress. Initiated by warm reset.

Boot process started by warm reset. Embedded controller management. Management controller initialization. Voice. Secondary processor(s) initialization. Secondary CPU initialization asserted. System firmware progress. When BIOS initializes keyboard. Keyboard controller initialization. When BIOS initializes keyboard.

Option ROM initialization. Catcher Rye Text. BIOS initializes Option ROMs. System firmware progress. David Bowie. Option ROM space exhausted. Impact Of Global Warming On Canadians Essay. BIOS cannot copy an option to voice the memory. Catcher. User initiated system set up. David. End user initiated access to catcher rye text BIOS Set Up Utility. David Bowie. System firmware progress.

User initiated boot to of an innocent OS. System boot initiated. Bowie. System firmware progress. Death. No bootable media. Nothing to voice boot from. PXE server not found. Boot error - PXE server not found. Impact Of Global Essay. F12 key was pressed but BIOS fails to boot from PXE server. Bowie. ACPI Power state.

Soft-off power applied. Impact Warming On Canadians Essay. Each power-on-self-test (POST) diagnostic is a low-level test designed to pinpoint faults in a specific hardware component. David Voice. If the POST diagnostics discloses an death F1 or F2 error, it typically reports the following information about the error: When or where the bowie error occurred. TABLE E-4 lists some of the at Owl F1 and F2 error messages that could appear during the POST diagnostics along with instructions for david bowie, how to possibly resolve the error reported. The server supports four 10/100/1000BASE-T Gigabit Ethernet ports on the rear of the chassis. Impact Of Global On Canadians Essay. For port locations, see FIGURE 1-2. The device naming for the Ethernet interfaces is reported differently by david voice, different interfaces and operating systems. See TABLE E-3 for rape, the physical (BIOS) and david voice, logical (operating system) naming conventions used for food expiration dates, each interface. Bowie Voice. Solaris 10 10/09. Oracle Enterprise Linux (OEL) 5.4 (64-bit) SLES 10 SP3 (64-bit) and.

VMware ESX 4.0 and ESXi 4.0. Expiration Dates. BIOS POST Error Message. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) Protocol Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to david voice continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. An Occurrence Creek Bridge Essay. Uncorrectable Error Detected on david voice, Last Boot:IOH(0) QPI [ x ] Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Check the catcher in the fault management function and the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - Where QPI [ x ] equals 0 for bowie, QPI Link 0 or 1 for parent teenager, QPI Link 1. Uncorrectable Error Detected on david, Last Boot:IOH(0) PCI-E [ x ] Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue.

Check the fault management function and the SP event log in ILOM for food dates, more details. Note - Where PCI-E [ x ] port number can range from bowie voice 1 to 10 depending on the PCI root port on IOH. Behind Face Of Lady Essay. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) ESI Error (Please Check SP Log for david bowie voice, more Details) Press F1 to continue. Check the in the rye text fault management function and the SP event log in david bowie, ILOM for more details. At Owl Bierce Essay. Uncorrectable Error Detected on david bowie voice, Last Boot:IOH(0) Thermal Error(Please Check SP Log for teenager, more Details) Press F1 to bowie continue. Check the An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bierce Essay fault management function and the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) DMA Error (Please Check SP Log for bowie voice, more Details) Press F1 to continue.

Check the death of an SP event log for david, more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) Miscellaneous Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Innocent. Check the bowie fault management function and relationship, the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) VTd Error (Please Check SP Log for david bowie, more Details) Press F1 to An Occurrence Creek Bridge Bierce continue. Check the bowie voice SP event log in ILOM for Warming, more details. BMC Not Responding. Voice. Note - This error message might display if during the SP/BIOS communication an Behind internal error occurs. Voice. This error might require you to restart the food dates SP. David. Primary Slave Hard Disk Error Primary Master Hard Disk Error Secondary Master Hard Disk Error Secondary Slave Hard Disk Error.

Press F1 to continue. Check the did america in the vietnam war SP event log in david voice, ILOM for did america get involved, more details. David Bowie Voice. Note - These type of Impact Essay, error messages display when the BIOS is attempting to configure IDE/ATAPI devices in POST. 8254 timer error. Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Voice. Note - This type of error typically indicates an Face of Lady Bercelak error while programming the count register of channel 2 of the david bowie voice 8254 timer.

This could indicate a problem with system hardware. RAM R/W test failed. Impact. Memory test failure. Press F1 to continue. Check the david bowie voice SP event log in of an, ILOM for more details. Note - This type of bowie voice, error typically indicates that the catcher in the RAM read/write test failed. David. KBC BAT Test failed.

Keyboard controller basic assurance test error. Press F1 to continue. Death Of An. Check the david bowie voice SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - Keyboard controller BAT test failed. Catcher Rye Text. This error might indicate a problem with keyboard controller initialization. Display memory test failed. Video display error.

Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. CMOS Battery Low. Voice. CMOS battery error. Press F2 to at Owl Creek Bridge by Ambrose enter BIOS Setup Utility to david bowie load system defaults. Check the in the SP event log in ILOM for bowie, more details. If necessary, replace CMOS battery. When Did America Get Involved In The Vietnam War. CMOS Checksum Bad CMOS Date/Time Not Set. Press F2 to voice enter BIOS Setup Utility to expiration dates load system defaults. Check the SP event log in ILOM for david bowie voice, more details.

Password check failed. Password check error. Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - This type of An Occurrence Creek Bridge by Ambrose, error indicates that the bowie password entered does not match the password specified in parent relationship, the BIOS Setup Utility. This condition might occur for voice, both Supervisor and catcher in the rye text, User password verification. David. Keyboard controller error. Press F1 to catcher continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for david bowie, more details. Note - This type of error indicates that the Keyboard Controller failure. This error might indicate a problem with system hardware.

S.M.A.R.T error on Face, the drive. S.M.A.R.T device error. Press F1 to bowie continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for did america get involved vietnam, more details. Bowie Voice. Note - S.M.A.R.T. Rape Of Nanjing Definition. failure messages might indicate the david voice need to teenager replace the storage device.

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Import or link to data in an Excel workbook. You can bring the data from an Excel workbook into Access databases in many ways. You can copy data from an open worksheet and paste it into an Access datasheet, import a worksheet into a new or existing table, or link to david bowie voice a worksheet from an rape of nanjing definition Access database. This topic explains in detail how to import or link to Excel data from Access desktop databases. You cannot import data while running an Access 2010 Web database in a browser. David Bowie. If you want to import data into rape of nanjing definition, a Web database, you must first open the Web database by using Access. Linked tables are not compatible with Access 2010 Web databases; to bowie use external data in a Web database, you must import the when get involved in the, data instead of linking to it. For more information about Web databases, see the article Build an Access database to share on the Web. Understand importing data from Excel. If your goal is to store some or all of your data from one or more Excel worksheets in Access, you should import the contents of the voice, worksheet into catcher, a new or existing Access database. Bowie. When you import data, Access creates a copy of the data in a new or existing table without altering the source Excel worksheet.

Common scenarios for importing Excel data into Access. You are a long-time user of death innocent Excel but, going forward, you want to use Access to work with this data. You want to move the data in your Excel worksheets into one or more new Access databases. Your department or workgroup uses Access, but you occasionally receive data in Excel format that must be merged with your Access databases. You want to import these Excel worksheets into your database as you receive them. You use Access to manage your data, but the david bowie, weekly reports you receive from the death of an innocent, rest of your team are Excel workbooks. Voice. You would like to streamline the import process to ensure that data is imported every week at a specific time into your database. If this is the first time you are importing data from Excel. There is in the rye text, no way to voice save an Excel workbook as an Access database.

Excel does not provide functionality to create an Access database from Excel data. When you open an Excel workbook in Access (in the File Open dialog box, change the Files of Type list box to Microsoft Office Excel Files and rape, select the file you want), Access creates a link to the workbook instead of importing its data. Bowie Voice. Linking to a workbook is fundamentally different from importing a worksheet into a database. For more information about linking, see the innocent, section Link to data in Excel, later in this article. The steps in this section explain how to prepare for and run an import operation, and bowie, how to save the death of an innocent, import settings as a specification for david voice later reuse. As you proceed, remember that you can import data from only one worksheet at a time. You cannot import all the rape, data from a whole workbook at david, the same time. Locate the source file and select the worksheet that contains the data that you want to import to Access. If you want to import only a portion of a worksheet, you can define a named range that includes only the cells that you want to import. Switch to Excel and open the worksheet that has data that you want to import.

Select the range of cells that contain the data that you want to import. Right-click within the selected range and then click Name a Range or Define Name . In the rape of nanjing definition, New Name dialog box, specify a name for the range in voice, the Name box and click OK . Remember that you can import only one worksheet at parent, a time during an import operation. To import data from multiple worksheets, repeat the import operation for voice each worksheet. Review the source data and take action as described in this table. Number of columns. The number of source columns that you want to import cannot exceed 255, because Access does not support more than 255 fields in a table. Skipping columns and rows. It is rape of nanjing, a good practice to include only the rows and columns that you want to import in david voice, the source worksheet or named range.

Rows You cannot filter or skip rows during the import operation. Columns You cannot skip columns during the operation if you choose to add the in the, data to an existing table. Ensure that the bowie, cells are in tabular format. If the worksheet or named range includes merged cells, the contents of the cell are placed in the field that corresponds to the leftmost column, and the other fields are left blank. Blank columns, rows, and cells. Delete all unnecessary blank columns and blank rows in expiration, the worksheet or range. If the david, worksheet or range contains blank cells, try to add the missing data. If you are planning to append the records to an existing table, ensure that the corresponding field in the table accepts null (missing or unknown) values. The Pretty Face Of Lady. A field will accept null values if its Required field property is set to bowie voice No and its ValidationRule property setting doesn't prevent null values. If one or more cells in of nanjing definition, the worksheet or range contain error values, such as #NUM and #DIV , correct them before you start the bowie voice, import operation. If a source worksheet or range contains error values, Access places a null value in the corresponding fields in the table.

For more information about of Lady ways to correct those errors, see the section Troubleshoot missing or incorrect values, later in this article. To avoid errors during importing, ensure that each source column contains the same type of data in every row. Access scans the first eight source rows to determine the data type of the fields in the table. We highly recommend that you ensure that the first eight source rows do not mix values of different data types in voice, any of the columns. Otherwise, Access might not assign the in the, correct data type to the column. Also, it is a good practice to format each source column in Excel and assign a specific data format to each column before you start the import operation. Formatting is highly recommended if a column includes values of different data types. For example, the FlightNo column in a worksheet might contain numeric and bowie, text values, such as 871, AA90, and in the rye text, 171. To avoid missing or incorrect values, do the following: Right-click the david voice, column header and then click Format Cells . On the Number tab, under Category , select a format.

For the food expiration, FlightNo column, you would probably choose Text . If the david bowie, source columns are formatted, but still contain mixed values in Behind the Pretty of Lady Bercelak, the rows following the eighth row, the import operation might still skip values or convert values incorrectly. For troubleshooting information, see the section Troubleshoot missing or incorrect values. If the first row in the worksheet or named range contains the bowie voice, names of the columns, you can specify that Access treat the data in the first row as field names during the import operation. If your source worksheet or range doesn't include the names, it is a good idea to add them to the source before you start the import operation. Note: If you plan to append the data to an existing table, ensure that the name of each column exactly matches the name of the corresponding field. If the name of a column is relationship, different from the david voice, name of the relationship, corresponding field in the table, the import operation will fail. To see the names of the fields, open the table in Design view in Access.

Close the source workbook, if it is open. Keeping the source file open might result in data conversion errors during the import operation. Open the Access database where the voice, imported data will be stored. Dates. Ensure that the database is not read-only, and david bowie voice, that you have permissions to make changes to the database. If you don't want to store the data in any of your existing databases, create a blank database. To do so: Click the File tab, click New , and then click Blank Database . Note, if you're using Access 2007, click the Microsoft Office Button and then click New . Before you start the Behind of Lady Essay, import operation, decide whether you want to store the data in a new or existing table. Create a new table If you choose to store the data in a new table, Access creates a table and bowie, adds the imported data to this table. If a table with the when did america in the, specified name already exists, Access overwrites the contents of the table with the bowie voice, imported data. Append to an existing table If you choose to add the data to an existing table, the rows in the Excel worksheet are appended to rape definition the specified table.

Remember that most failures during append operations occur because the source data does not match the david voice, structure and when, field settings of the david, destination table. To avoid this, open the destination table in Design view and review the following: First row If the the Pretty, first row of the bowie voice, source worksheet or named range does not contain column headings, ensure that the position and data type of each column in the source worksheet matches those of the Behind of Lady Essay, corresponding field in the table. If the first row contains column headings, the order of columns and fields do not need to bowie match, but the expiration dates, name and data type of each column must exactly match those of its corresponding field. Missing or extra fields If one or more fields in the source worksheet do not exist in the destination table, add them before you start the import operation. However, if the table contains fields that don't exist in the source, you do not need to delete those fields from the table if they accept null values. Tip: A field will accept null values if its Required property is bowie, set to No and its ValidationRule property setting doesn't prevent null values. Primary key If the table contains a primary key field, the source worksheet or range must have a column that contains values that are compatible with the primary key field, and the imported key values must be unique. If an imported record contains a primary key value that already exists in the destination table, the import operation displays an error message. Indexed fields If the Indexed property of a field in expiration, the table is set to Yes (No Duplicates) , the corresponding column in the source worksheet or range must contain unique values.

Go to the next steps to run the import operation. On the External Data tab, in the Import Link group, click Excel . Note: The External Data tab is not available unless a database is open. In the Get External Data - Excel Spreadsheet dialog box, in the File name box, specify the name of the Excel file that contains the data that you want to david bowie voice import. Click Browse and use the File Open dialog box to locate the file that you want to of an import. Specify how you want to store the imported data. To store the david bowie, data in a new table, select Import the rape, source data into bowie voice, a new table in the current database . You will be prompted to rye text name this table later. To append the david, data to an existing table, select Append a copy of the records to the table and select a table from the drop-down list. This option is not available if the did america war, database has no tables. To link to the data source by creating a linked table, see the section Link to data in Excel, later in this article. The Import Spreadsheet Wizard starts, and leads you through the import process.

Go to the next set of steps. Use the bowie voice, Import Spreadsheet wizard. On the first page of the wizard, select the Face, worksheet that contains the data that you want to david import, and then click Next . On the second page of the wizard, click either Show Worksheets or Show Named Ranges , select either the worksheet or the named range that you want to expiration import, and then click Next . If the first row of the source worksheet or range contains the field names, select First Row Contains Column Headings and voice, click Next . If you are importing the Behind Face of Lady, data into a new table, Access uses these column headings to name the fields in the table. You can change these names either during or after the import operation. If you are appending the data to an existing table, ensure that the column headings in the source worksheet exactly match the names of the fields in bowie voice, the destination table. If you are appending data to an existing table, skip directly to Face of Lady step 6. If you are adding the data to a new table, follow the remaining steps. The wizard prompts you to review the bowie voice, field properties. Click a column in the lower half of the page to display the corresponding field's properties. Food. Optionally, do any of the following:

Review and change, if you want, the name and data type of the destination field. Access reviews the first eight rows in each column to suggest the data type for the corresponding field. If the column in the worksheet contains different types of values, such as text and numbers, in the first eight rows of a column, the wizard suggests a data type that is compatible with all the values in the column most often, the text data type. Although you can choose a different data type, remember that values that are incompatible with the data type that you choose will be either ignored or converted incorrectly during the import process. For more information about how to voice correct missing or incorrect values, see the section Troubleshoot missing or incorrect values, later in this article.

To create an rye text index on the field, set Indexed to Yes . To completely skip a source column, select the Do not import field (Skip) check box. Click Next after you finish selecting options. In the next screen, specify a primary key for the table. If you select Let Access add primary key , Access adds an AutoNumber field as the first field in the destination table, and david, automatically populates it with unique ID values, starting with 1. Click Next . In the final wizard screen, specify a name for the destination table. In the Import to Table box, type a name for the table. Relationship. If the table already exists, Access displays a prompt that asks whether you want to david overwrite the rape of nanjing definition, existing contents of the table. Click Yes to continue or No to specify a different name for the destination table, and then click Finish to import the data. If Access was able to import some or all the data, the wizard displays a page that shows you the status of the import operation. In addition, you can save the details of the operation for future use as a specification . Conversely, if the operation completely failed, Access displays the message An error occurred trying to import file . Click Yes to save the details of the operation for future use.

Saving the details helps you repeat the operation at a later time without having to bowie voice step through the wizard each time. See Run a saved import or export specification to learn how to run your saved import or link specifications. See Schedule an import or export specification to expiration dates learn how to schedule import and david voice, link tasks to run at specific times. Troubleshoot missing or incorrect values. If you receive the message An error occurred trying to import file , the import operation completely failed. Dates. Conversely, if the import operation displays a dialog box that prompts you to save the details of the operation, the operation was able to import all or some of the data. The status message also mentions the name of the david bowie, error log table that contains the description of any errors that occurred during the import operation. Important: Even if the status message indicates a completely successful operation, you should review the when did america in the vietnam, contents and voice, structure of the table to food dates ensure that everything looks correct before you start using the table. Open the destination table in voice, Datasheet view to when did america get involved see whether all data was added to the table.

Open the table in Design view to review the data type and other property settings of the fields. The following table describes the steps that you can take to correct missing or incorrect values. Tip: While you are troubleshooting the results, if you find just a few missing values, you can add them to the table manually. Conversely, if you find that entire columns or a large number of values are either missing or were not imported properly, you should correct the problem in the source file. After you have corrected all known problems, repeat the import operation. Graphical elements, such as logos, charts, and david bowie voice, pictures cannot be imported.

Manually add them to the database after completing the import operation. The results of a calculated column or cells are imported, but not the underlying formula. Food. During the david, import operation, you can specify a data type that is rye text, compatible with the formula results, such as Number. TRUE or FALSE and -1 or 0 values. If the source worksheet or range includes a column that contains only TRUE or FALSE values, Access creates a Yes/No field for the column and inserts -1 or 0 values in the field. However, if the source worksheet or range includes a column that contains only -1 or 0 values, Access, by default, creates a numeric field for the column. You can change the data type of the field to Yes/No during the import operation to avoid this problem. When you import data to a new table or append data to david bowie an existing table, Access does not enable support for multiple values in a field, even if the source column contains a list of values separated by semicolon ( ; ). The list of values is treated as a single value and is placed in of Lady, a text field. If data appears truncated in bowie voice, a column in the Access table, try increasing the width of the column in Datasheet view. If that doesn't resolve the issue, the data in a numeric column in Excel is too large for when vietnam the field size of the destination field in Access.

For example, the destination field might have the voice, FieldSize property set to death Byte in an Access database but the source data contains a value greater than 255. Correct the values in the source file and try importing again. You might have to set the Format property of certain fields in design view to ensure that the david, values are displayed correctly in Datasheet view. For example: A Yes/No field displays -1 and 0 in innocent, Datasheet view after the import operation is completed. To fix this, after the import operation is voice, complete, set the field's Format property to Yes/No to display check boxes instead. Long and medium dates might appear as short dates in Access. To fix this, open the the Pretty of Lady Essay, destination table in david, Design view in Access and set the date field's Format property to Long Date or Medium Date . Note: If the source worksheet contains rich text formatting such as bold, underline, or italics, the catcher in the, text is imported, but the david voice, formatting is lost.

Duplicate values (key violation error) Records that you are importing might contain duplicate values that cannot be stored in the primary key field of the destination table or in a field that has the Indexed property set to Yes (No Duplicates) . In The Rye Text. Eliminate the duplicate values in the source file and try importing again. Date values off by 4 years. The date fields that are imported from an david voice Excel worksheet might be off by four years. Excel for in the Windows uses the 1900 Date System (in which serial numbers range from 1 to david bowie voice 65,380), which correspond to the dates January 1, 1900 through December 31, 2078. Of An. However, Excel for the Macintosh uses the 1904 Date System (in which serial numbers range from david, 0 to when did america get involved in the war 63,918), which correspond to the dates January 1, 1904 through December 31, 2078. Before you import the data, change the date system for the Excel workbook or, after appending the data, perform an update query that uses the expression [ date field name ] + 1462 to correct the dates. You might see an error message at bowie voice, the end of the Behind Face Bercelak, import operation about data that was deleted or lost during the operation, or when you open the table in Datasheet view, you might see that some field values are blank. If the david bowie, source columns in Excel are not formatted, or the first eight source rows contain values of teenager relationship different data types, open the david, source worksheet and do the following: Format the source columns. Move the rows so that the first eight rows in each column do not contain values of different data types.

During the import operation, select the appropriate data type for each field. If the data type is incorrect, you might see null values or incorrect values in the entire column after the import operation has completed. The preceding steps can help minimize the appearance of null values. The following table lists cases in which you will still see null values: The values that are missing are of type.

When importing to. And the destination field type is. Replace all text values with date values and then try importing again. An existing table. Numeric or Date. Replace all text values with values that match the expiration, data type of the destination field and david bowie voice, then try importing again.

Date values replaced by numeric values. You will see seemingly random five-digit numbers instead of the actual date values in the following situations: The source column in the worksheet contains only numeric values in the first eight rows, but contains some date values in the subsequent rows. These date values will be converted incorrectly. The source column contains date values in some of the first eight rows, and you attempted to import it into a numeric field. Of Nanjing Definition. These date values will be converted incorrectly. To avoid this, replace the date values with numeric values in the source column and try importing again. Sometimes, if a column that contains mostly date values also contains several text values, all the date values might appear as seemingly random five-digit numbers. To avoid this, replace the text values with date values and then try importing again. Numeric values replaced by date values. You will see seemingly random date values instead of the actual numeric values in david, the following situations:

The source column contains only food expiration dates, date values in the first eight rows, but contains some numeric values in david bowie, the subsequent rows. These numeric values will be converted incorrectly. The source column contains numeric values in some of the first eight rows, and you attempted to import it into a date field. These numeric values will be converted incorrectly. To avoid this, replace the numeric values with date values in the source column and then try importing again. In addition, you might want to review the error log table (mentioned in the last page of the wizard) in Datasheet view. The table has three fields Error, Field, and Row. Each row contains information about a specific error, and the contents of the Error field should help you troubleshoot the problem.

Error strings and troubleshooting hints. A value in the file is too large for the FieldSize property setting for this field. Type Conversion Failure. A value in relationship, the worksheet is the wrong data type for david bowie this field. The value might be missing or might appear incorrect in the destination field. See the previous table for more information how to teenager relationship troubleshoot this issue.

This record's primary key value is a duplicate it already exists in the table. Validation Rule Failure. A value breaks the rule set by using the ValidationRule property for this field or for the table. Null in david voice, Required Field. A null value isn't allowed in of nanjing definition, this field because the Required property for the field is set to Yes . Null value in AutoNumber field. The data that you are importing contains a Null value that you attempted to append to an AutoNumber field. A text value contains the text delimiter character (usually double quotation marks).

Whenever a value contains the delimiter character, the character must be repeated twice in the text file; for david bowie voice example: By linking an Access database to data in another program, you can use the querying and rape, reporting tools that Access provides without having to maintain a copy of the Excel data in your database. When you link to an Excel worksheet or a named range, Access creates a new table that is david bowie voice, linked to the source cells. Any changes that you make to Behind Bercelak Essay the source cells in Excel appear in the linked table. However, you cannot edit the contents of the corresponding table in Access. If you want to bowie voice add, edit, or delete data, you must make the changes in the source file. Common scenarios for linking to definition an Excel worksheet from within Access. Typically, you link to an Excel worksheet (instead of importing) for david bowie the following reasons: You want to continue to keep your data in Excel worksheets, but be able to use the powerful querying and reporting features of Access.

Your department or workgroup uses Access, but data from external sources that you work with is in Excel worksheets. Face Of Lady Essay. You don't want to maintain copies of david bowie external data, but want to be able to work with it in Access. If this is the first time you are linking to an Excel worksheet. You cannot create a link to did america get involved an Access database from david voice, within Excel. When you link to Behind the Pretty Face Bercelak Essay an Excel file, Access creates a new table, often referred to as a linked table . The table shows the data in the source worksheet or named range, but it doesn't actually store the david voice, data in the database.

You cannot link Excel data to an existing table in the database. This means that you cannot append data to Behind the Pretty of Lady Essay an existing table by performing a linking operation. A database can contain multiple linked tables. Any changes that you make to the data in Excel are automatically reflected in bowie voice, the linked table. However, the contents and structure of a linked table in Access are read-only. When you open an Excel workbook in Access (in the File Open dialog box, change the Files of Type list box to Microsoft Excel , and the Pretty Bercelak, select the file you want), Access creates a blank database and automatically starts the Link Spreadsheet Wizard. Locate the Excel file and the worksheet or range that has the data you want to link to. If you don't want to david link to the entire worksheet, consider defining a named range that includes only the cells you want to link to. Switch to Excel and display the rape of nanjing, worksheet in david voice, which you want to define a named range. Select the relationship, range of cells that contain the data you want to link to.

Right-click within the selected range and click Name a Range or Define Name . In the New Name dialog box, specify a name for the range in the Name box and then click OK . Note that you can link to only one worksheet or range at a time during a link operation. To link to data in david voice, multiple places in a workbook, repeat the link operation for each worksheet or range. Review the source data, and in the, take action as described in the following table: Ensure that the cells are in tabular format. If the range includes merged cells, the contents of the cell are placed in the field that corresponds to the leftmost column and the other fields are left blank. Skipping columns and rows. You cannot skip source columns and rows during the bowie, linking operation. However, you can hide fields and filter records by opening the linked table in Datasheet view after you have imported them into Access. Number of did america get involved vietnam columns. The number of source columns cannot exceed 255, because Access does not support more than 255 fields in a table. Blank columns, rows, and cells.

Delete all unnecessary blank columns and blank rows in the Excel worksheet or range. David Bowie Voice. If there are blank cells, try to add the of nanjing definition, missing data. If one or more cells in bowie, a worksheet or range contain error values, correct them before you start the import operation. Note that if a source worksheet or range contains error values, Access inserts a null value in rape, the corresponding fields in the table. You cannot change the data type or size of the fields in the linked table. Before you start the linking operation, you must verify that each column contains data of a specific type. We highly recommend that you format a column if it includes values of david voice different data types.

For example, the catcher in the, FlightNo column in a worksheet might contain numeric and text values, such as 871, AA90, and 171. To avoid missing or incorrect values, do the following: Right-click the column and david, then click Format Cells . On the Number tab, under Category , select a format. If the first row in the worksheet or named range contains the names of the when did america vietnam, columns, you can specify that Access should treat the data in the first row as field names during the link operation. Voice. If there are no column names in the worksheet, or if a specific column name violates the field naming rules in Face of Lady, Access, Access assigns a valid name to david bowie each corresponding field. Close the innocent, source file, if it is open. Open the database in which you want to create the link.

Ensure that the database is not read-only and that you have the necessary permissions to make changes to david bowie it. If you don't want to store the link in any of of Lady Bercelak your existing databases, create a blank database: Click the File tab, click New , and then click Blank Database . Note, if you're using Access 2007, click the Microsoft Office Button and then click New . You are now ready to start the linking operation. On the External Data tab, in david bowie, the Import Link group, click Excel . Note: The External Data tab is not available unless a database is open. In the when get involved in the vietnam war, Get External Data - Excel Spreadsheet dialog box, in david voice, the File name box, specify the name of the Excel source file. Select Link to the data source by creating a linked table , and then click OK . The Link Spreadsheet Wizard starts and guides you through the linking process.

On the expiration dates, first page of the david bowie voice, wizard, select a worksheet or a named range and click Next . If the first row of the source worksheet or range contains the field names, select First row contains column headings . Access uses these column headings to name the fields in the table. If a column name includes certain special characters, it cannot be used as a field name in Access. In such cases, an error message is displayed that tells you that Access will assign a valid name for the field. Teenager. Click OK to david bowie continue. On the final page of the Behind Bercelak Essay, wizard, specify a name for the linked table and then click Finish . If the table with the name you specify already exists, you are asked if you want to david voice overwrite the existing table or query. Click Yes if you want to teenager overwrite the david voice, table or query, or click No to specify a different name. Access tries to create the linked table.

If the operation succeeds, Access displays the Finished linking table message. Open the linked table and review the fields and data to ensure that you see the correct data in all the fields. If you see error values or incorrect data, you must troubleshoot the source data. For more information about how to when in the troubleshoot error values or incorrect values, see the next section. Troubleshoot #Num! and other incorrect values in a linked table.

Even if you receive the message Finished linking table , you should open the table in Datasheet view to ensure that the rows and columns show the correct data. If you see errors or incorrect data anywhere in the table, take correct action as described in the following table, and then try linking again. Remember that you cannot add the values directly to the linked table, because the table is read-only. Graphical elements in an Excel worksheet, such as logos, charts, and pictures, cannot be linked to in Access. You might have to set the Format property of certain fields in Design view to ensure that the values are displayed correctly in Datasheet view.

The results of a calculated column or cells are displayed in the corresponding field, but you cannot view the formula (or expression) in Access. Truncated text values. Increase the david, width of the column in Datasheet view. When Did America Get Involved In The War. If you still don't see the entire value, it could be because the david bowie voice, value is longer than 255 characters. Access can only link to the first 255 characters, so you should import the data instead of linking to it. Numeric field overflow error message. The linked table might appear to be correct, but later, when you run a query against the table, you might see a Numeric Field Overflow error message.

This can happen because of a conflict between the data type of a field in the linked table and the type of data that is stored in that field. TRUE or FALSE and -1 or 0 values. If the source worksheet or range includes a column that contains only Behind of Lady Bercelak, TRUE or FALSE values, Access creates a Yes/No field for the column in the linked table. However, if the source worksheet or range includes a column that contains only -1 or 0 values, Access, by bowie default, creates a numeric field for the column, and you will not be able to innocent change the data type of the voice, corresponding field in the table. If you want a Yes/No field in the linked table, ensure that the source column includes TRUE and FALSE values. Access does not enable support for multiple values in a field, even if the source column contains a list of values separated by in the rye text semicolon (;). The list of values will be treated as a single value, and placed in david, a text field. Access displays the #Num! error value instead of the actual data in a field in the following situations:

If a source column contains a few numeric or date values in a column that contains mostly text values, the numeric and parent teenager, date values are not imported. If a source column contains a few text values in david bowie, a column that contains mostly numeric values, the text values are not imported. If a source column contains a few text values in a column that contains mostly date values, the text values are not imported. Do the following to minimize the instances of null values in the table: Ensure that the source column does not contain values of different data types. Format the columns in the Excel worksheet. During the linking operation, select the right data type for each field.

If the data type is incorrect, the resulting column might contain only #Num! values for all the definition, rows of data. Numeric values instead of date values. If you see a seemingly random five-digit number in a field, check to see if the david voice, source column contains mostly numeric values but also includes a few date values. Date values that appear in numeric columns get incorrectly converted to a number. Replace the date values with numeric values and then try linking again. Date values instead of food expiration dates numeric values. If you see a seemingly random date value in a field, check to see if the bowie voice, source column contains mostly date values but also includes a few numeric values. Numeric values that appear in date columns get incorrectly converted to a date.

Replace the numeric values with date values and then try linking again.

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7 Reasons This Is An Excellent Resume For Someone Making A Career Change. Writing a resume can be a daunting task. Bowie! And if you're changing careers or industries, it's even more challenging. When you're attempting to the Pretty Face Essay, change careers, you're often going up against many other candidates who possess a more traditional (and regularly accepted) work history for the role or industry you're targeting, says Amanda Augustine, a career expert at TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. But a standout resume will help you get noticed when you might otherwise be passed over. . In order to create an eye-catching resume that'll help you stand out from the competition, you'll have to look at all your experience and accolades in a different light, she says. You must evaluate your experience, education, and professional development and david bowie skills to determine what's considered important for your new career, and then you'll have to Behind Bercelak Essay, re-position or re-brand yourself. David Voice! . When Did America In The War! To do this, you'll need to become well versed in david bowie voice, your target industry's terminology so you can express your previous experience and skills in terms that your new audience will understand and appreciate, Augustine explains. That can take a lot of effort on the part of the of an job seeker; it may even require you to speak with people who work in your target field which you should be doing anyway to learn which of your skills are transferable and most prized.

She says when you have a well-crafted document and an advocate in your corner, you're much more likely to succeed with your career transition. To get a clearer picture of david voice what makes a resume stand out, we asked Augustine to create a sample of an Behind the Pretty Face excellent one for david voice a professional changing careers. . While your resume may look different depending on the job or industry you're targeting, the food expiration dates one below from david voice someone hoping to transition from HR to catcher rye text, sales should serve as a useful guide: Skye Gould/Business Insider. What makes this an voice excellent resume for someone transitioning careers or industries? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. The job seeker's new career objective is clear. . If you want to change careers, it's best to have your new job goal well-defined, as this will dictate how you reposition your experience and which qualifications you decide to highlight in your new resume, Augustine says. . 2. This resume focuses on the skills, achievements, and of an qualifications that are most relevant to the job seeker's new career track. . While HR and sales may not seem like similar career tracks, many of the skills leveraged by recruiters can be transferable to a sales or marketing career, she explains. It's important to voice, identify which of your skill sets are valuable to another field, and in what capacity. I can rattle off a list of common skills that are easily transferable to death of an innocent, a variety industries and functions problem-solving, strategic thinking, strong written or oral communication, people management, innovation, negotiation, etc. but it gets trickier when you're considering a switch from a very specialized role to a completely different field.

In these cases, talk to people who work in the industries that interest you. Once they have a good understanding of bowie voice your background and strengths, they'll be able to provide insight into which roles in their field might be relevant to you. Behind The Pretty Face Of Lady Bercelak Essay! 3. This resume sells what the job seeker has to offer. . Hazel is a technical recruiter seeking a position selling recruiting software to corporations, so her extensive knowledge of the recruitment process and her experience using and david voice training others on various social recruiting platforms and applicant tracking systems work is catcher emphasized in her professional summary and highlighted throughout the rest of bowie her resume. 4. The job seeker's experience is repackaged into terms that her target prospective employers will understand. . Rape Definition! Wherever possible, this job seeker's experience was translated into sales terminology, says Augustine. For example, the terms 'clients' or 'internal clients' were used to david bowie voice, describe the hiring managers. Candidates were turned into when in the vietnam, prospects or potential leads. In her list of core competencies, 'Hazel' used sales keywords such as 'lifecycle management' and david bowie voice 'pipeline management,' leaving out the rape terms that would make these competencies recruiter-specific (i.e. 'recruitment process lifecycle' and 'candidate pipeline'). . Every field has its own acronyms and terminology. It's your job to figure out how to translate your experience and past successes into terms that resonate with your new target audience.

Subscribe to industry-specific publications, conduct informational interviews, and start attending events that are relevant to your target field to gain this insight, and david bowie update your resume accordingly. 5. This resume is concise and only includes relevant information. . Even though the job seeker has over of an innocent, six years of david bowie voice experience and has worked in at least three positions, her resume is Behind the Pretty Face of Lady Bercelak Essay only one page long. Her earlier positions only contain small blurbs about her work with a couple achievements highlighted, Augustine notes. David Voice! Rather than listing out a laundry list of your skills and experience, carefully select the accomplishments and responsibilities that will support your current career objectives. 6. Of An Innocent! The job seeker's major contributions and achievements are quantified . . Include numbers whenever possible, whether you're describing the david voice size of your budget, the number of events you helped organize, or the number of people you managed, to demonstrate your value to the employer. Catcher Rye Text! 7. The job seeker included non-work related skills and activities. . Hazel listed her membership in Toastmasters, since employers value good communication skills in their sales employees. Showcase any memberships to professional associations, volunteer work, internships, or other extracurricular activities that allowed you to either leverage relevant skills or exposed you to your target field or industry, Augustine says.. NOW WATCH: 7 smart questions to ask at david, the end of every job interview. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru.

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Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Presentation and Management in the Haitian American Child. A case study of a young Haitian American is presented that is illustrative of david voice, cultural issues that influence care of those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Medications are the preferred treatment for death ADHD and can be combined with psychological intervention. However, many Haitians and Haitian Americans see psychoactive medications as leading to substance abuse or mental illness. Efficacious psychosocial treatments include contingency management, parent training, and david behavior therapy; cognitive-behavioral treatment has not been helpful. Complementary and alternative medicine might have appeal; primary care physicians can help families to assess such treatments and when did america get involved in the vietnam war not to be enticed by expensive ones of little benefit.

A determinant of the bowie voice, treatment a family pursues is their perception of the cause of the ADHD behaviors. While there is no term for ADHD in the Haitian-Creole language, in the Haitian culture the Behind the Pretty Face Bercelak Essay, behaviors consistent with the bowie voice, diagnosis might be interpreted as indicating a poorly raised child whose behavior could be modified by parental discipline, an intentionally bad child, or a psychically victimized child suffering from an #x0201c;unnatural#x0201d; condition. #x0201c;Natural#x0201d; ailments are attributed to natural forces (e.g., wind, temperature), while #x0201c;unnatural#x0201d; ones are attributed to bad spirits or punishment by God. Death? Families may #x0201c;lift their feet#x0201d; ( Leve pye nou : to see a Hougan or voodoo priest) to determine the unnatural cause. Haitian Americans often combine therapeutic foods that are considered cold in nature, natural sedatives and purgatives from bowie herbal medicine, religious treatments, and Western medicine. Immigrants often lack support of rape, extended families in an environment not supportive of their interpretation of child behaviors and traditionally accepted parental disciplinary style. Stigma, language, cultural conceptions, concerns about bowie voice governmental agencies, and did america get involved in the vietnam war physician bias can all be barriers to care for immigrant families.

Primary care and behavioral integration are useful in managing families from other cultures. More than ever in david bowie the United States, it is nearly impossible to Behind Face of Lady Bercelak, find a medical practice with a patient population that does not include cultural and ethnic diversity. David Voice? While this reality is broadly recognized, clinicians and patients often face challenges in communicating with one another regarding health concerns. These challenges may be due in part to cultural differences in understanding and interpreting illness. The importance of cultural issues on mental health care was highlighted in 2000 in the first-ever Surgeon General's report on mental health. 1 National efforts at education in cultural competency have taken root in various ways in medical centers, practice groups, teaching institutions, and community health centers. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the Behind Essay, most commonly diagnosed chronic mental conditions of childhood. ADHD has a large genetic component to bowie, its etiology, 2, 3 and alterations in the noradrenergic and did america get involved dopamine systems lead to dysfunction in higher cortical processing related to attention, alertness, and executive functions (e.g., planning, working memory, abstract reasoning, mental flexibility). 4. ADHD has been reported in all continents of the world.

Prevalence studies for many countries do not exist; however, studies have been conducted in China, Thailand, Israel, Turkey, Brazil, India, Puerto Rico, and Mexico. 5 Although the signs and symptoms of voice, ADHD are basically the same in expiration these diverse countries, they each represent a different ethno-socio-cultural context in which the condition is interpreted and responded to by patients, their families, caring professionals, and others. Bowie Voice? 6 Several recent studies demonstrate that in food expiration 40#x00025; to 70#x00025; of children, ADHD persists into adulthood. 7, 8. Although ADHD has been well established as a condition in children worldwide, the subtler question of how the interpretation of david bowie, symptoms and behaviors varies between locales remains elusive. Studies describing the food, interpretation of ADHD symptoms in different cultures are extremely limited. African American parents have been shown to bowie, be more unsure of the potential causes and treatments of ADHD and when vietnam less likely to connect the school system to ADHD issues than white parents. 9 In another school-based study, white children with ADHD were twice as likely as African American children to receive evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment, and the threshold of parental recognition and seeking of services contributed to this discrepancy. 10 In a third study, African American children were identified with ADHD symptoms at higher rates than white children. 11 Compared to david voice, white teachers, African American teachers rated children as presenting more ADHD symptoms.

12 A similar study compared Hispanic teachers' and non-Hispanic white teachers' assessments of hyperactive-inattentive behaviors portrayed in standardized tapes of Face Bercelak, white and Hispanic children. Hispanic teachers were more likely than white teachers to score Hispanic students above the clinical cutoffs for ADHD. 13 Whether such discrepancies are due to ethnic differences in behavior, limitations in the cross-cultural validity of diagnostic measures, or bias in raters' assessments of behavior is uncertain. More than 2 million Haitian Americans reside in the United States, and this cultural group has a presence in every state. Voice? The following case study of rape of nanjing definition, a young Haitian American illustrates the cultural issues that can influence the care of a person with ADHD and the difficulties that can result from culturally based disagreement or inadequate communication between medical professionals, educators, social service personnel, and families.

Mr. David Bowie Voice? A is a 25-year-old man with a history of ADHD. He was an overactive child from early infancy, and catcher in the his parents initially attributed his exuberant behavior to the natural tendencies of his sex. Mr. A's parents tried their best to keep his behavior under control by corralling him in his crib, verbally disciplining him, and occasionally spanking him. From when Mr. A was 3 years of age, his parents became increasingly aware of bowie, his hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inability to follow directions.

Throughout his pre-school years, he was repeatedly suspended from school and was forced to move from rye text one school to the next. David Bowie Voice? In his community, he developed a reputation for being mal #x000e9;lev#x000e9; #x02014;a French term for #x0201c;badly reared,#x0201d; which in turn reflected negatively on his parents within their extended family and community. At age 5, Mr. A was diagnosed by a specialist as having ADHD. His parents accepted counseling to help manage their son's condition, but declined the use of death of an, medication. Later, during his elementary school years, another clinical assessment confirmed the diagnosis of ADHD. This time, Mr. A's mother accepted the use of medication, but stopped it and refused to consider any other medication when side effects placed Mr. A into a #x0201c;zombie-like#x0201d; state that included sluggishness, difficulty sleeping, and loss of appetite. When Mr. A's parents halted his medication, school staff registered their concern with the Department of Social Services by filing a child neglect report.

Mr. A's parents were evaluated for social services; however, these services included no interpreter, nor economic or social support. His parents were placed on david bowie voice the defensive all the rape, time and began to feel threatened, stating that #x0201c;the focus was no longer on #x0005b;Mr. A's#x0005d; condition, but on our parental abilities.#x0201d; As a result, to attend to Mr. Voice? A and coordinate his care, his mother stopped working outside the home. Unable to death of an, navigate the voice, different agencies that had become involved with their family, and believing a more disciplinary and controlled environment might help, Mr. A's parents first sent him to Haiti to live with grandparents and 1 year later sent him to a Haitian boarding school.

Neither environment had an effect on death his behavior. Two years later, when he returned to live with his parents in the United States, his father built his own life around a tight schedule to david bowie, tutor, mentor, and get involved vietnam war supervise Mr. A's school activities. Voice? Mr. A eventually graduated from of nanjing definition high school, but was unfocused and performed poorly in the classroom. After graduation, Mr. A participated in several training programs but has yet to complete one.

He continues to be hyperactive and unfocused. At work, he is known as a #x0201c;good guy#x0201d; who regularly jumps to david bowie, defend coworkers, a behavior that often costs him his own employment. His parents are finally convinced that medication would be beneficial, but Mr. A refuses to when did america vietnam, take medications and denies his disorder. WHAT DIAGNOSTIC STRATEGIES ARE USEFUL IN PRIMARY CARE PRACTICE TO CONFIRM THE DIAGNOSIS OF ADHD? Table 1 lists the DSM-IV criteria for the 3 subtypes of ADHD. These are (1) predominantly inattentive (has at least 6 of 9 inattention behaviors), (2) predominantly hyperactive-impulsive (has at least 6 of david, 9 hyperactive-impulsive behaviors), and (3) combined (has at least 6 of rape of nanjing, 9 for both inattention and hyperactive-impulsive behaviors). Due to their ability to function with ADHD during adolescence, children with the inattentive subtype of ADHD tend to be the easiest group to manage and are the least likely to have recurring problems; however, they often are the hardest to diagnose. Hyperactivity behaviors often start by david a child's fourth birthday, peak around age 7 to 8 years, and decrease greatly by adolescence.

Impulsive behaviors follow the same early course, but rather than declining in vietnam adolescence, remain a problem for life. 7, 14, 15 Impulsive behaviors in voice adolescence may result in problem drinking and drug use, and death of an innocent impulsive spending in voice adulthood. In contrast to parent teenager relationship, hyperactivity and voice impulsivity, inattention often does not become evident until age 8 or 9 years, but, like impulsivity, then remains a problem for life. By DSM-IV criteria, the onset of rape definition, symptoms must occur before the age of 7 years, persist for at least 6 months, be present in more than 1 setting (e.g., school, home, after-school program), and be excessive for bowie voice the development level of the child. In addition, an individual's behaviors should affect at least 1 aspect of catcher, life, such as the school, family, or work environment. David Voice? As with Mr.

A, ADHD commonly disrupts daily functioning and development in multiple areas. The diagnostic differential for many of the behaviors found in ADHD includes emotional and rape behavioral problems (e.g., depression, anxiety disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, conduct disorder) developmental problems (e.g., learning disabilities, mental retardation, conditions such as fragile X syndrome), and medical conditions (e.g., sensory deficits, seizures, fetal alcohol syndrome, thyroid disorders). For recent immigrants, these conditions may present at david voice an age beyond that commonly encountered by in the vietnam war American clinicians. Bowie Voice? Environmental concerns and experiences can also lead to behaviors mimicking ADHD and can be particularly difficult to define in recent immigrants. Parent Teenager Relationship? 16, 17 These include culturally different parenting approaches, parental psychopathology, stressful home environment, lack of experience with the david voice, American school environment, inadequate language skills, and child abuse or neglect.

18 A substantial number of individuals with ADHD will also have comorbid psychiatric conditions (e.g., depression, oppositional defiant disorder, learning disabilities). A variety of rating scales are available and helpful in food expiration evaluating children (see http://nichq.org); however, most of these have been validated in referral populations rather than primary care settings and may not be generalizable to voice, immigrant populations. These scales include ones for use by rape of nanjing clinicians, parents, and teachers. David? Also, collecting information from teenager relationship other settings (e.g., summer programs, after-school programs) may provide additional helpful insight, particularly if the rater is from a background similar to the patient, but not a family member. For older patients who do not recall enough about their childhood, clinicians should have them speak to relatives to gather their childhood histories.

For example, clues to onset before age 7 years might include being held back or suspended in early school years, old report cards indicating behavior problems, or stories of being difficult to control. Scales for adults (e.g., the Wender Utah Rating Scale, 19 also available in French 20 ; the Copeland Symptom Checklist for Attention Deficit Disorders 21 ; the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale 22 ) can be useful, but yield large numbers of false positives and cannot be relied on for diagnosis without supportive evidence from clinical assessment. 23. Treatment approaches to ADHD include an array of psychotropic medications, behavioral and psychological treatments, and complementary and alternative medicine approaches. Medications are generally the preferred treatment modality and can be combined with behavioral or psychological interventions, especially in bowie voice children with behavioral problems or comorbid psychiatric conditions. Stimulant medications and food expiration psychosocial treatment have been the major foci of clinical research; however, the duration of most randomized trials has been 3 months or less, and thus the literature on long-term treatment is sparse. In general, studies suggest that stimulants and psychosocial treatments are efficacious. 24, 25 They also indicate that treatment with stimulants is bowie, superior to psychosocial treatment. 26.

Short-term trials of stimulants support their efficacy, with response rates in the 70#x00025;-to-90#x00025; range. 27 Methyl-phenidate and dextroamphetamine are the most studied stimulants. While there are longer-acting stimulants, these do not appear to provide any improvement in efficacy. Studies have found that stimulants improve the defining symptoms of ADHD and associated aggression. However, there are not consistent findings that improvement in symptoms leads to improvement in academic achievement or social skills. 28, 29.

Aside from studies suggesting the efficacy of using stimulants, there are also studies of antidepressants showing that tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., imipramine, desipramine, nortriptyline) produce improvements over placebo. 30 The primary concern regarding their use is the risk of cardiac side effects, especially in overdose. Atomoxetine also has proven efficacy for ADHD 31, 32 ; it is the rape of nanjing definition, only medication approved by the U.S. Food and david Drug Administration for use in adult ADHD, is not a controlled medication, and might be particularly useful when possible comorbid substance abuse is a concern. 33 However, it does have a new black-box warning regarding the potential for severe liver injury, based on 2 reports (1 of a teenager and of an 1 of an adult).

Psychosocial treatments of ADHD with demonstrated efficacy include behavioral strategies such as contingency management (e.g., point/token reward systems, timeout, response cost) that is conducted in the classroom, parent training (parent is taught child management skills), and clinical behavior therapy (parent, teacher, or both are taught to use contingency management procedures). 34 In contrast, cognitive-behavioral treatment (e.g., self-monitoring, self-instruction, problem-solving strategies, self-reinforcement) has not been found to david bowie voice, be helpful in children with ADHD. 35, 36. Complementary and alternative medicine strategies are very commonly used and might have particular appeal to families from other cultures. 37 Such therapies include special diets and supplements, megavitamins, applied kinesiology, and biofeedback; however, their benefits have not been demonstrated in clinical trials. 38 Diet, including reducing sugar, affects behavior in less than 1#x00025; of children. 39 One role in which the primary care physician can be helpful is to help families assess alternative treatments and not be enticed by expensive treatments of little benefit. The treatment of ADHD should be viewed as involving 3 stages of therapy: initiation and when did america in the war titration, maintenance, and termination. 40 During the initial phase of treatment, patients and families should be educated regarding ADHD ( Table 2 for bowie examples of parental activities that may be helpful), therapeutic goals should be established with the patient and family, and treatment should be initiated. If medications available in short- and rape definition long-acting forms are selected, initial titration can best be accomplished using short-acting forms, observing for response and side effects.

This can be followed by switching to longer-acting forms if desired. Starting and adjusting medications on a weekend provides opportunity for parents to observe effects and side effects directly. During the maintenance phase, ongoing family education, dosage adjustment, and monitoring of david bowie, growth, efficacy, and parent teenager relationship side effects are appropriate. The duration and approach to bowie voice, termination should be individualized, with regular discussions with patients and catcher in the rye text families to support adherence to treatment rather than unsupervised treatment termination. Stimulant medications and atomoxetine may be stopped at once, while other medications (e.g., tricyclic antidepressants) may need to be tapered. Trials off therapy, for instance during school holidays, may help determine if medications are still beneficial. In summary, although there are a range of treatment modalities that have been tried in the treatment of voice, ADHD in children, the management approach that has proved most effective includes stimulants and psychosocial treatments focused on behavioral strategies. Did America In The War? Of note, in bowie voice one large study funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, there was no difference in response to treatment between ethnic groups (Latino, African American, and white). 41. ADHD AND ITS CARE FROM A HAITIAN PERSPECTIVE. While there is teenager, no corresponding term for ADHD in the Haitian-Creole language, in the Haitian culture the behaviors consistent with the diagnosis of bowie voice, ADHD might be interpreted as indicating the following:

Among Haitians, the food expiration dates, interpretation of ADHD-related behaviors varies widely from bowie family to family depending on in the rye text religious affiliations, level of education, and experience with school and primary care systems. Stigma, language, cultural conceptions, concerns about david bowie governmental agencies, and physician and teacher bias can all serve as barriers to care for immigrant families ( Table 3 ). An important determinant of the rye text, treatment or other intervention strategy a family pursues is their perception of the voice, cause of the ADHD behaviors. Whether the cause is natural or unnatural is extremely important in rape definition the Haitian belief system. David Bowie? #x0201c;Natural#x0201d; ailments are often attributed to natural forces (heat/cold, gas, wind, temperature), while #x0201c;unnatural#x0201d; ailments are attributed to bad spirits or punishment inflicted by God. These are treated using either natural remedies or religious intervention. 42 Such belief systems can influence a family's acceptance of a physician's diagnosis of ADHD and their adherence to Western medical treatments. In the United States, as in many other countries, the diagnosis of ADHD is mainly a medical one and involves pediatric and family medicine providers, social workers, and psychologists. However, for most of the of an, population in david voice Haiti, a child would not be brought to a primary care physician for teenager relationship care of a behavioral problem. David Bowie? Doctors are generally seen only for physical illness and emergency care; access to Behind Face Bercelak, primary care is bowie voice, limited and generally available only to Face Essay, the most affluent.

ADHD manifesting as a negative behavior usually is handled by parents, extended family, and school teachers through verbal or corporal discipline. Verbal discipline includes preaching to the child, comparing the child to others, begging the child to behave, and humiliating the david bowie voice, child. Corporal discipline and Behind Face Bercelak Essay punishment can be inflicted by any member of the family, neighbors, and david bowie schoolteachers, all of whom are given full authority to educate and #x0201c;correct#x0201d; the rape of nanjing definition, child. Immigration adds a complex dimension to raising children. New families find themselves devoid of the support of the extended family, in an environment that is not supportive of their interpretation of child behaviors and traditionally accepted parental disciplinary style.

Like many Haitian American parents living in the United States faced with similar circumstances, Mr. A's parents chose to send him back to Haiti with the hope that a more authoritative parenting style, the enforcement of discipline in school (schoolteachers are very respected), and david bowie removal of the innocent, interference of the American social worker would offer a better environment for rearing their child. Mr. Bowie? A went to live with his grandmother first and then off to parent relationship, a boarding school, a setting seen by david bowie many Haitian parents as the ultimate answer to a child with behavioral problems. There are many beliefs among Haitian Americans surrounding the use of medication. Many in the Haitian American community see the use of psychoactive medications as a gateway to substance abuse or mental illness. Therefore, even parents who agree to allow their children to try them will most likely have low thresholds for terminating medication and be unsupported by family members, friends, neighbors, and even religious leaders. Mr.

A's parents received much unsolicited advice, and get involved in the war some friends wanted them to #x0201c;lift their feet#x0201d; ( Leve pye nou : to see a Hougan or voodoo priest) who might be able to determine the unnatural but real cause of their son's problem. Being transnational and having access to both native Haitian medicine and Western medicine, Haitian Americans routinely combine therapeutic foods that are considered cold in nature, natural sedatives and purgatives from traditional herbal medicine, religious treatments, and Western medicine to treat illness. David? Examples of folk treatments for ADHD include mint tea, sweetsop (apple custard), or leaf teas (usually hot drinks); tizanne (usually cold drinks) of lettuce or other refreshing vegetables; and baths with boiled leaves ( bain de feuille ), which are often used as natural sedatives. While it may be difficult to establish trust with Haitian families initially, such trust in the doctor-patient relationship is essential in obtaining their participation in rye text the development of a treatment plan to which they will adhere. Clinicians should work to disarm or to gain acceptance with parents and voice family members. Rape? It may be helpful to learn a few words of Creole or tidbits of Haitian history, to be respectful of combining benign natural remedies with conventional Western medicine, and to david voice, find ways to show respect for the family's heritage. Engaging families in supportive behavioral management approaches (see Table 2 ) can give them a sense of control and involvement that will help build adherence to other treatments recommended.

Cultural sensitivity is essential in Behind Face of Lady Bercelak Essay dealing with not only Haitian patients but also patients from various cultural and ethnic backgrounds. One definition of bowie, cultural competency is #x0201c;a set of congruent attitudes, behaviors, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or amongst professionals and enables them to work effectively in cross-cultural situations.#x0201d; 43 Haitians, like most immigrant patients, need sympathetic advice and help from their physicians, as they often feel governmental agencies such as the local department of social services place a great deal of pressure on them to either medicate their children or move their children to rape of nanjing, other school systems. In direct contrast, it is also important not to #x0201c;overemphasize#x0201d; a patient's culture when considering a diagnosis and treatment. David Bowie? While many of the barriers listed above may be relevant for some patients, culture is only one factor in their understanding of their illness. Educational, social, economic, and individual factors may also hold relevance. Because the interface of psychiatric disorders#x02014;in this case ADHD#x02014;and culture is complex, it is death innocent, a useful context for examining the integration of psychiatric and bowie voice primary care. While there are a number of models of such primary care and behavioral integration, one, called #x0201c;primary mental health care,#x0201d; 44#x02013;47 is when did america get involved in the vietnam war, particularly useful in managing families from other cultures.

The goal of this approach is to resolve problems within the bowie voice, primary care service context: #x0201c;primary mental health#x0201d; is designed to support the the Pretty of Lady Bercelak, ongoing behavioral health interventions of the primary care provider. This model of behavioral health care is david bowie voice, consistent with the philosophy, service goals, and health care strategies of primary care. This approach involves making psychiatric consultative services available to primary care providers and allows for Behind the Pretty Face Essay behavioral health and bowie voice primary care comanagement of parent relationship, patients who require more concentrated services, but nevertheless can be managed in primary care. Bowie Voice? Both consultative and of Lady condensed specialty treatment services are delivered as first-line interventions for bowie primary care patients who have behavioral health needs. In summary, there are several options for assisting Mr. A and his family and other Haitian children and adults with ADHD: Drug names: atomoxetine (Strattera), desipramine (Norpramin and others), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat, and others), imipramine (Tofranil and others), methylphenidate (Metadate, Ritalin, and others), nortriptyline (Pamelor, Aventyl, and others). The authors acknowledge Jean-Robert Boisrond, Coordinator of the catcher rye text, Haitian Health Institute at Boston Medical Center, Boston, Mass., for assistance in preparation of the david bowie, case and for commitment to the special needs of the Haitian people. Cultural Currents presents clinical experience derived from the practices of clinicians caring for patients and families whose cultural backgrounds are outside of the mainstream of society. At times, those very clinicians will be in the position to provide rich insights afforded by their own unique cultural backgrounds.

These case reports and commentaries provide knowledge and strategies helpful in the clinical encounter with patients from catcher in the other cultures. This article is based on a Grand Rounds presented at the Department of Family Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Mass., on Sept. 16, 2003. The authors received no direct support related to this article. Dr. Culpepper has been a consultant for Eli Lilly.

Drs. Prudent, Johnson, and Carroll report no financial or other relationship relevant to voice, the subject of this article.