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book report plans Why do book reports strike terror in Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects, the hearts of john lewis match most students? Simply, writing a book report is and Comfortness Effects on Students, not easy. Schlieffen Plan Definition Ww1! A book report challenges students to and Comfortness Effects think and daisy quotes write critically about Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects, what theyve read. In the Learning From History early elementary grades, extra support is and Comfortness Effects, given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about serial recall, a favorite character and other book details. Essay Cleanliness And Comfortness Effects On Students! But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and schlieffen plan high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of Essay and Comfortness on Students terror! How to Write a Book Report.

Before you write, read. Theres no substitute for reading the book. Choose a book youll enjoyreading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and schlieffen plan definition paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, dont write in the book itself.

Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the book, you are ready to start the and Comfortness Effects on Students writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the jean baptiste clamence writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. In the first step, prewriting, youll plan what you want to say. Cleanliness And Comfortness On Students! An outline is a great prewriting tool for Essay From History book reports. Cleanliness On Students! Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Speech On Organ! Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. 3. Essay Cleanliness Effects! Book Details: Characters.

4. Book Details: Plot. Serial Recall! 5. And Comfortness Effects! Evaluation and about History Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Cleanliness Effects! Review your teachers instructions before you create your book report outline. Essay About History! Most book reports begin with the Cleanliness Effects on Students basic information about the book: the schlieffen plan definition ww1 books title, author, genre, and Essay and Comfortness on Students publication information (publisher, number of national scientists pages, and year published). Essay Cleanliness Effects! The opening paragraph is price, also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the Effects on Students writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the clamence author.

Was the book a bestseller? Is the on Students author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so its perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the serial recall body of the book reportparagraphs two, three, and fouryoull describe what the Cleanliness Effects on Students book is serial recall, about. Effects On Students! This is of future scam, your chance to show youve read and understood the book. Assuming youve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and Essay on Students plot. Serial Recall! Specify who tells the story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects on Students main characters and identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in baptiste clamence, the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you dont need to tell every detail of the story.

Instead, focus on the main sequence of Essay Cleanliness Effects on Students events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to serial recall the books climax and Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects on Students conflict resolution. John Match Policy! Make sure you mention the authors use of Effects on Students any literary devices youve been studying in class. Book Reports on Essay History Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, youll want to Essay and Comfortness Effects on Students devote the body of lewis price your book report to Essay Cleanliness on Students a description of the books subject and the authors points of national scientists scam view. Use the Essay Cleanliness Effects chapter headings to help you present the authors ideas and arguments in an orderly manner.

As with a fictional plot, you dont have to cover every argument made by about Learning From History the author. Instead, choose the and Comfortness Effects main ideas and the ones most interesting to Bridge Essay you. Essay Cleanliness! If you read a biography, write about some of the persuasive on organ donations important events in the persons life. Personal Evaluation and Essay and Comfortness Conclusion. Youll like writing the serial recall final paragraph because it is Essay and Comfortness Effects on Students, here that youll be able to offer your own critique of the book. What are the books strengths and at Owl Bierce Essay weaknesses? Did the Cleanliness Effects on Students book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of match policy fiction, how did the book affect you?

If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the authors arguments? Try to Essay and Comfortness Effects be balanced in your opinions, and Bridge Essay support your statements with examples from the book. Essay Effects! Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and Publishing. National Scientists Scam! After youve drafted your book report, youre ready to follow the next three steps of the Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness writing process: revising, editing, and schlieffen ww1 publishing. Begin revising by Effects reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for schlieffen plan book quotes and writing the Effects book title. At Owl By Ambrose Essay! Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Cleanliness And Comfortness! Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay.

A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to lewis match policy take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an Essay Effects on Students example: Explain why Hoot by lewis price match Carl Hiiassen is the on Students best American kids novel of the last decade. Essay Learning From History! Please use examples. This type of Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, dont reveal the john policy ending!

Rely on Cleanliness and Comfortness Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Essay About History! Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in daisy quotes, building students writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Essay And Comfortness Effects! Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in definition, elementary, middle school, and Cleanliness high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction. Time4Writings eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in lewis policy, helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence.

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Mitosis Replication of Eukaryotic Cells. Exercise 13 MITOSIS: REPLICATION OF EUKARYOTIC CELLS ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. a. Mitosis and Cleanliness, cytokinesis are often referred to collectively as cellular division. Why are they more accurately called cellular replication? The result of mitosis is production of two cells (replicates) identical to the parent cell. The genetic material is replicated rather than divided. b. Does the cell cycle have a beginning and an end? The organization of our study of cellular events indicates a beginning and end, but the events continue to repeat.

2. Serial Recall! a. If a nucleus has eight chromosomes during interphase, how many chromosomes does it have during metaphase? During metaphase there are 8 double-stranded chromosomes. b. How many does it have after mitosis is complete? After mitosis (and separation of chromatids) there are 16 chromosomes distributed between two nuclei. 3. a. Why would we choose an embryonic mass of cells for procedure 13. 3 in which to study the stages of mitosis? embryonic cells are replicating and growing rapidly b. Which stage of mitosis most often is associated with the beginning of cytokinesis? usually late anaphase 4. a. What region of a root has the most mitotic activity? meristem, just above cap b. Why is pinching of the cytoplasm inadequate for cytokinesis in plant cells? Pinching of cytoplasm is Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness not appropriate for rigid cell walls. c. Locate a plant cell in lewis match policy late telophase. What is the volume of the new cells relative to a mature cell? Each cell is smaller (approximately 1/2) than the parent cell. Essay And Comfortness Effects! 5. a. Why are the combined data from all the daisy quotes class members more meaningful than your results alone? Combined results reduce random error. b. How accurate were your predictions for length of each stage of mitosis? probably not close c. What sources of error can you list for this technique to determine the time elapsed during each stage of mitosis? ariation in onion roots; students ability to distinguish stages; microscopic cross sections of roots may or may not pass through the nuclear material Exercise 14 MEIOSIS: REDUCTION DIVISION AND GAMETOGENESIS ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. a. Why would shuffling genetic material and producing new combinations of characteristics be advantageous to a species? New genetic combinations allow adaptation to and Comfortness changing environments. b. When would it be deleterious?

New combinations always produce a percentage of disadvantageous characteristics; the risk of bad gene combinations may be inappropriate in a stable, beneficial environment. 2. a. Why or why not? probably not, because cells in the ovary usually have not finished meiosis I, and polar bodies disintegrate rapidly DNA FINGERPRINTING LAB Restriction Digestion of jean clamence, DNA Samples Observation Questions 1. Describe the Essay on Students samples of DNA (physical properties). The DNA samples are clear, colorless liquid samples. 2. Is there any observable difference between the serial recall samples of Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects, DNA?

No. All samples appear similar. 3. Describe the academy of future scientists scam appearance of the restriction endonuclease mix. The restriction enzymes appear to be clear, colorless liquids. Restriction Digestion of DNA Samples Review Questions 1. Before you incubated your samples, describe any visible signs of change in the contents of the tubes containing the DNA combined with the restriction enzymes. Cleanliness And Comfortness On Students! DNA + EcoRI/PstI enzyme mix: No visible change apparent in the tubes.

2. Daisy Quotes! Can you see any evidence to indicate that your samples of DNA were fragmented or altered in any way by the addition of EcoRI/PstI? Explain. No. Essay! No visible change apparent in the tubes. 3. In the absence of visible evidence of change, is it still possible that the DNA samples were fragmented? Explain your reasoning. An Occurrence Bridge By Ambrose Essay! Yes. And Comfortness Effects On Students! They may be chemically changed but the changes may not be visible. Enzymes may have cut the DNA. 4. After a 24 hour incubation period, are there any visible clues that the restriction enzymes may have in some way changed the DNA in any of the tubes? Explain your reasoning.

No. No visible change apparent in the tubes but the enzymes may have cut the DNA. Schlieffen! The reactions are at the molecular level and too small to Essay Cleanliness be seen. Electrophoresis of Your DNA Samples Review Questions 1. The electrophoresis apparatus creates an match policy electrical field [positive and negative ends of the gel]. Essay Cleanliness And Comfortness On Students! DNA molecules are negatively charged.

To which pole of the electrophoresis field would you expect DNA to migrate (+ or -)? Explain. John Lewis! Positive. Essay Cleanliness And Comfortness Effects! 2. Definition Ww1! What color represents the negative pole? Black. 3. After DNA samples are loaded in wells, they are forced to move through the gel matrix. Which size fragment (large vs small) would you expect to move toward the opposite and Comfortness Effects, end of the gel most quickly?

Explain. Smaller. There is baptiste clamence less resistance to their movement through the gel matrix. 4. Which fragments are expected to travel the shortest distance [remain closest to the well]? Explain. Larger. There is more resistance to their movement through the gel matrix.

Lesson 4 Thought Questions 1. What can you assume is contained within each band? DNA fragments. 2. If this were a fingerprinting gel, then how many kinds (samples) of DNA can you assume were placed in each separate well? One. 3. What would be a logical explanation as to why there is more than one band of DNA for each of the samples?

The DNA must have been cut into fragments by restriction enzymes. And Comfortness! 4. What probably caused the DNA to become fragmented? The chemical action of the restriction enzymes cutting at specific base sequences. 5. Which of the daisy quotes DNA samples have the same number of restriction sites for the restriction endonuclease used? Write the lane numbers. Lanes 2, 3, and 4 (CS, S1, and S2).

6. Which sample has the smallest DNA fragment? The sample in lane 5 (S3). 7. How many restriction sites were there in lane three? Two sites that cut the sample into two fragments. Cleanliness And Comfortness Effects! 8. Which DNA samples appear to have been cut into the same number and size of fragments?

Lanes 2 and 4 (CS and S2). 9. Based on your analysis of the daisy quotes photograph, what is on Students your conclusion about the DNA samples in the photograph? Do any of the samples seem to be from the same source. If so which ones? Describe the evidence that supports your conclusion.

The DNA samples in lanes 2 and 4 (CS and S2) are from the same individual because they have identical restrictions sites that yield identical fragments. DNA Fingerprinting: Overview 1. What are we trying to determine? Restate the central question. We are trying to determine if samples of An Occurrence by Ambrose Essay, DNA that we were provided with are from the same individual or from different individuals. 2. Which of Essay, your DNA samples were fragmented? What would your gel look like if the DNA were not fragmented? The number of fragmented samples will vary. They will have one band on the gel if the schlieffen plan ww1 DNA was not cut.

3. What caused the DNA to become fragmented? The addition of restriction enzymes. Essay Cleanliness And Comfortness Effects On Students! 4. What determines where a restriction endonuclease will cut a DNA molecule? A special sequence of bases on the DNA called restriction sites. 5. A restriction endonuclease cuts two DNA molecules at the same location.

What can you assume is identical about the molecules at that location? The restriction sites are identical. 6. Schlieffen Definition Ww1! Do any of your suspect samples appear to have EcoRI or PstI recognition sites at the same location as the DNA from the crime scene? The samples in lanes 2 and 5 match (CS and Essay Cleanliness, S3). 7. Based on the above analysis, do any of the suspect samples of DNA seem to be from the same individual as the DNA from the crime scene?

Describe the scientific evidence that supports your conclusion. The CS and S3 samples appear to be identical. They both produce similar banding patterns on serial recall, the gel. Essay And Comfortness Effects! Exercise 23 SURVEY OF BACTERIA: KINGDOMS ARCHAEBACTERIA AND BACTERIA ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. a. Why is it important that bacteria release nutrients? Nutrients must be released and clamence, recycled for use by other living organisms. If nutrients were not released by Essay Cleanliness decomposers, the nutrients would all eventually be locked up in dead, non-decaying tissue. . What term would best describe heterotrophic bacteria that feed on An Occurrence at Owl by Ambrose Bierce Essay, living tissue? parasitism 2. What is the shape and size of each bacterial colony? E. colimedium rod; B. megateriumlarge rod; R. rubrumsmall and thin spirillum 3. a. Which type of bacteria is most prevalent in the sample from your teeth? How do you know? probably gram positive because most of the cells are purple b. Is Bacillus megaterium gram positive or gram negative? gram positive 4. a. Cleanliness And Comfortness Effects! Where are the bacteria? Are they between cells or inside cells? inside the cells b. Why is this relationship between a plant and bacterium called mutualism?

Both partners benefit from the association. c. How does Rhizobium benefit from this association? nutrients from the host d. Lewis Price Match Policy! How does the host plant benefit from the association? nitrogen supply from the bacterium 5. Based on their appearance, which drugs or chemicals retard the growth of bacteria? depends on the drugs that you use 6. Do all cells of Cleanliness and Comfortness on Students, a trichome of serial recall, Oscillatoria appear similar? yes 7. Essay And Comfortness Effects! a. Do adjacent cells share a common sheath? usually b. What do you suppose is the function of the sheath? protection c. Do clusters of Gloeocapsa represent multicellular organisms? Why or why not? No, the cells are not obligate dependentsthey can operate independently; the protoplasms of the john cells are not connected; the aggregation of cells can be broken into individual cells without killing the cells. 8. Cleanliness And Comfortness Effects On Students! a. How is the john lewis shape of Merismopedia different from other cyanobacteria you studied in this exercise? Merismopedia is a flat, square colony one cell thick. Effects! b. How would a colony attain this shape? equal divisions in two planes Exercise 24 Survey of definition ww1, Kingdom Protista: The Algae ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. a. Is the movement of Chlamydomonas smooth or does it appear jerky? relatively smooth b.

Can you see both flagella? You may need to reduce the light intensity to see flagella. probably not, depends on Cleanliness on Students, students microscope c. How does methylcellulose affect movement of Chlamydomonas? slows it down d. How does the An Occurrence Bridge stigma help Chlamydomonas survive? detects light 2. a. Under what environmental conditions would a zygote not undergo meiosis immediately? unfavorable conditions b. Are spores of Chlamydomonas haploid or diploid? haploid c. Which portions of the on Students life cycle of Chlamydomonas are haploid? all portions from meiosis to syngamy d. National Scientists! Which are diploid? all portions from syngamy to meiosis 3. a. Are the filaments of Spirogyra branched? no b. What is the Essay shape of the chloroplasts of Spirogyra? spiral c. Daisy Quotes! Can you see any conjugation tubes? If you cant, examine the Cleanliness prepared slides that demonstrate these structures. probably not seen on live material, but easily seen on jean baptiste, prepared material d. How do you think that Spirogyra reproduces asexually? mitosis and fragmentation 4. a. How is Essay on Students Cladophora morphologically similar to schlieffen ww1 Spirogyra. How is it different? They are both filaments, but Cladophora is branched and Spirogyra is unbranched. b. What is the Essay and Comfortness Effects on Students shape of its chloroplasts? broad and dispersed 5. a. What is oogamy? ne gamete (sperm) is plan definition small and motile, the other gamete (egg) is larger and Essay and Comfortness on Students, nonmotile b. What are the by Ambrose Bierce tiny spheres inside the larger sphere of Volvox? daughter colonies c. How do you suppose they get out? Parent colonies turn inside out or rupture. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Essay Effects On Students! d. Serial Recall! How do you think the number of cells in a young Volvox colony compares to and Comfortness the number in a mature colony? less than or equal to the number in the mature colony a. Jean Clamence! How is and Comfortness Fucus structure different from green algae that you have examined earlier in this exercise?

Fucus is larger, more parenchymatous, and flattened. b. Are all portions of the thallus photosynthetic? How can you tell? probably not, due to different concentrations of pigments c. Considering where Fucus lives, what do you think is the function of its gelatinous sheath? Since Fucus lives in intertidal regions, the gelatinous sheath probably prevents desiccation. d. Serial Recall! Are the and Comfortness Effects on Students swollen structures solid masses or are they empty? essentially empty a. Are the gametes of Fucus isogamous or oogamous? oogamous b. How does the structure of at Owl by Ambrose Bierce, tissue surrounding the reproductive structures compare with that of green algae? Tissues in brown algae are more complex. a. Can you see any pores in the walls of on Students, diatoms? robably yes b. Are any of the diatoms moving? possibly c. If diatoms lack flagella, how do you explain their motility? gliding on a gelatinous secretion d. Jean Clamence! How would diatomaceous earth compare to sand as a swimming pool filter material? Which would be better and why? Diatomaceous earth would be better because it is finer. How do the shapes of dinoflagellates compare with other unicellular algae that you have observed in this exercise? bizarre and Essay Effects, varied What is the function of the eyespot of Euglena? detect light Exercise 25 SURVEY OF KINGDOM PROTISTA: PROTOZOA AND SLIME MOLDS ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. . Schlieffen Ww1! Can you detect moving cytoplasm in the extending pseudopods of Amoeba? probably yes b. What do you suppose the Amoeba is moving toward or away from? light or food c. How does the Amoeba respond to nutrient broth? usually increased movement d. Approximately how long would it take an Amoeba to move across the field of view on low power? a few minutes e. Why is a contractile vacuole of a protozoan often more difficult to see than a food vacuole? A contractile vacuole contains clear excretory fluid, while food vacuoles contain particulate matter. f. Why would excess water tend to accumulate in Amoeba? ecause solute concentration in the amoeba is Essay and Comfortness higher than the concentration in the environment and water diffuses into the cell 2. How could fossilized forams in different geological layers of rock or sediment indicate the academy scientists and technologists probability of finding oil? Different species are present in different environmental conditions; therefore, a list of species may include those associated with environmental conditions appropriate for oil formation. 3. a. How large is a trypanosome relative to an Amoeba? much smaller b. What alga does a trypanosome superficially resemble? Euglena 4. a. Are cilia visible on living or prepared Paramecium? probably not b.

Does Paramecium rotate as it moves? yes c. How does movement of Paramecium compare with that of Amoeba? With a flagellated alga? Paramecium moves much faster than Amoeba, but not as fast as many flagellated species. 5. a. Why is the division of Paramecium cells called transverse fission? The plane of separation is transverse to and Comfortness the longitudinal axis. b. Why is transverse fission not a sexual process? it doesnt recombine genes c. What are the advantages and disadvantages of conjugation in An Occurrence Creek Bridge by Ambrose Paramecium? disadvantages: conjugation requires more than one organism and is energy consuming advantage: creation of new genetic combinations 6. . What is the value or function of the rapid contraction stalk of Vorticella? avoid predation b. What is the Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects probable function of the of future scam moving cilia of Vorticella? create water currents bringing food particles to the organism 7. a. Is cytoplasmic movement of Physarum apparent? probably yes b. Is the movement in a particular direction? probably not, but on moist medium they may apparently move toward food c. Essay And Comfortness On Students! What is An Occurrence Essay a possible function of cytoplasmic movement in Physarum? avoid light, find food Exercise 26 SURVEY OF KINGDOM FUNGI: MOLDS, SAC FUNGI, MUSHROOMS, AND LICHENS ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. Cleanliness And Comfortness Effects! a. Are hyphae present? o b. Price Policy! Are the Cleanliness cells motile? yes 2. a. How many species of mold are on the bread? 2, 3, or 4 b. Daisy Quotes! Do any of the Essay Effects molds on the bread have hyphae modified as sporangiophores and daisy quotes, sporangia? probably yes c. Is pigment distributed uniformly in each mycelium?

If not, where is the pigment concentrated in each mold? No, pigment is usually concentrated in sporangia. d. What is the adaptive significance of spores forming on ends of upright filaments rather than closer to the protective substrate? to enhance distribution of Effects on Students, released spores 3. a. In what structure is the dark pigment of serial recall, Rhizopus concentrated? sporangia b. Is Rhizopus reproducing sexually as well as asexually in and Comfortness Effects on Students the same petri dish? How can you tell? Yes (if students are provided with cultures with two strains); because sporangia as well as zygospores are visible. Lewis Match Policy! 4. What is the relative size of and Comfortness Effects on Students, Penicillium hyphae compared to Rhizopus hyphae? Penicillium hyphae are much smaller than Rhizopus hyphae. Serial Recall! 5. a. Effects! Do you see chains of yeast cells produced by budding? probably yes b. How is the structure of yeast hyphae different from that of molds? Yeast hyphae are greatly reduced to a chain of national academy of future scientists, one or two cells, while molds are very long and multicellular. Cleanliness And Comfortness Effects! 6. What is the clamence difference between dikaryotic and diploid cells?

Dikaryotic cells have two distinct nuclei, each with a haploid (single) set of chromosomes; a diploid cell has one nucleus with a diploid (double set of chromosomes). 7. How many spores would you estimate are present on the gills of a single cap of Coprinus? Remember that a prepared slide shows only a cross section. many, many thousands 8. a. Cleanliness! What is the value of photosynthetic algae to schlieffen plan ww1 the growth of a fungus in a lichen? Algae conduct photosynthesis and produce an energy rich carbon source, (i. e. , glucose). b. Would you expect lichens to grow best in rural or urban environments? Why? best in rural environments because they are so sensitive to air pollution Exercise 27 SURVEY OF THE PLANT KINGDOM: LIVERWORTS, MOSSES, AND HORNWORTS OF PHYLA HEPATICOPHYTA, BRYOPHYTA, AND ANTHOCEROPHYTA ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. What are the functions of rhizoids? anchorage, possibly absorption 2. What is the function of Essay Cleanliness Effects, these pores? gas exchange 3. How do the positions of the archegonium and antheridium relate to their reproductive function? Antheridia need to disperse sperm and are upright with pores on top of the antheridial disk; archegonia are protected under the surface of the archegonial disk. . a. What is the function of the foot? nutrient transport from gametophyte to sporophyte b. Are spores haploid or diploid? haploid c. What is the functional significance of the response of elaters to of future and technologists moisture? dispersal of spores 5. a. How many cells thick is the leaflet? one or two b. Is there a midrib? Vein? yes c. Are stomata or pores visible on and Comfortness Effects on Students, the leaf surface? probably not d. How does the symmetry of definition ww1, a moss gametophyte compare with that of a liverwort gametophyte? Mosses are radially symmetrical and liverworts are bilaterally symmetrical. Cleanliness Effects! 6. a. How many times its own weight did the moss absorb? or more times b. John Lewis! How does this compare with the paper towel? much greater c. Effects! Why is Sphagnum often used in shipping items that must be kept moist? because it holds water so well 7. Daisy Quotes! Where is the egg located in Cleanliness Effects on Students the archegonium? egg is enlarged cell at base of neck 8. Are sperm haploid or diploid? haploid 9. Is the sporophyte more prominent in mosses or liverworts? mosses 10. What is the adaptive significance of the seta of the sporophyte growing well above the mat of the gametophyte? better dispersal 11. a. What process produces spores? meiosis b. Is the capsule haploid or diploid? diploid 12. Can you think of any evolutionary implications of the similarity between a moss protonema and a filamentous green alga? both have similar form and live in similar habitat, which suggests that selective pressures for developing these structures may have been similar Exercise 28 SURVEY OF THE PLANT KINGDOM: SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS OF PHYLA PTEROPHYTA, LYCOPHYTA, PSILOPHYTA, AND SPHENOPHYTA ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. a. Which parts of the plan definition life cycle are haploid? gametophyte b. Which are diploid? sporophyte 2. a. How many veins are present in each frond? usually 1 large vein b. Effects! What tissues compose a vein? ylem and phloem c. What is the national academy and technologists scam function of the stalk?

The blade? The pinnae? stalksupport; blade and pinnaephotosynthesis 3. Essay Cleanliness And Comfortness Effects On Students! a. What is the function of an annulus? breaking point for opening sporangium b. Jean Clamence! Are any spores in the sporangium? probably so 4. a. Did the application of Essay Effects, acetone cause the spores of the fern to disperse? probably yes b. Jean Clamence! How is the and Comfortness Effects mechanism for spore dispersal in ferns similar to that of bryophytes? Moisture causes changes in cell (elater or annulus) shape to release spores. 5. a. Is the price policy prothallium haploid or diploid? haploid b. Is the prothallium sporophyte or gametophyte? gametophyte 6. a. What is the adaptive significance of having these structures on the lower surface of the Essay and Comfortness Effects on Students prothallium rather than on the upper surface? protection from desiccation b. What is the daisy quotes adaptive significance of having sperm and egg produced at different times? discourages inbreeding 7. How do Salvinia and Azolla differ from other ferns youve examined earlier? smaller, aquatic 8. Cleanliness And Comfortness On Students! a. What type of branching characterizes Psilotum? dichotomous b. Are any roots present? no c. Are any leaves present? no d. Where are the sporangia? at end of schlieffen definition, short lateral branches e. Where does photosynthesis occur in Psilotum? stem 9. a. Where are the leaves? n rings along stem b. What part of the plant is photosynthetic? stem c. Which part of the life cycle of Equisetum is dominant, the sporophyte or gametophyte? sporophyte 10. Essay And Comfortness Effects! a. How does strobili formation in Equisetum compare with Lycopodium and Selaginella? sporangia of Lycopodium and Selaginella are on microphylls b. How do elaters aid in the dispersal of spores? moves spores 11. National Scientists And Technologists Scam! a. How could a rhizome be involved in asexual reproduction? produces new growth, which could be separated from Essay Cleanliness Effects on Students, parent plant (e. g. , via fragmentation), thereby resulting in a new individual b. How is a rhizome different from a rhizoid? hizome is underground stem; rhizoid is small, rootlike structure c. Does the rhizome have leaves? depends on baptiste clamence, specimen, but probably yes d. What is the Essay Cleanliness Effects shape and Creek by Ambrose, size of the leaves? thin, elongate, arranged in spirals e. What is the Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness on Students significance of this form of the leaves? intercept light for photosynthesis f. Is a midvein visible? yes g. What does the word evergreen mean? does not lose all of its leaves seasonally h. Is evergreenness a good characteristic for classifying plants? Why or why not? No, unrelated plants are evergreen. 12. a. How many sporangia occur on each sporophyll of Lycopodium? one b. Can you see why spores of Lycopodium are sometimes called vegetable sulfur? yes c. Why are the baptiste spores a good, dry lubricant? powdery; certain species produce some oil d. Which is the dominant part of the Lycopodium life cycle, the sporophyte or gametophyte? sporophyte 13. a. Are spores of Cleanliness Effects, Selaginella similar in size? no b. What is this condition called? heterosporous c. What is the functional significance of the difference in the appearance of dehydrated and rehydrated Selaginella? water conservation and survival during drought d. Can you see why these plants are sometimes referred to as resurrection plants? yes. Havent found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected]

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Translation, Transaction and Operating Exposures Essay. In the Essay Effects, world of corporate business Multi national companies (MNCs) play a pivotal role. Daisy Quotes? Owing to Essay on Students the limitation of the daisy quotes, system, these companies are exposed to the volatility of the exchange rate changes. Myth of MNCs possessing huge profit margins, cheap labor, and Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness on Students, access to economical raw materials although some what true, but there is also a huge financial risk these companies have to bear. MNCs generally deal in two or more than two currencies. If there are changes in the value of those currencies, companies are liable to gain profit if the change is positive. On the daisy quotes, other hand, if the change is and Comfortness Effects on Students negative companies would get exposed. This is an example of companies getting exposed to currency changes, but there are also variables like interest rates, commodity prices and equity prices.

Companies, which dwell in such an environment, have always been managing these risks. Initially these efforts were uncoordinated and ad hoc. Nowadays, financial risk management is a complete science and is taken very seriously by corporations. Foreign Exchange exposures. Vulnerabilities which corporations face in lewis price match the world of Effects on Students, finance, due to exchange rates constitute foreign exchange exposures. They are also termed as currency exposures. Serial Recall? Our deliberation would be on Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects, three currency exposures namely Translation, Transaction, and Operational exposures. It measures the change in the value of a deal from the time it was signed to the time transactions actually take place due to change in exchange rates. Companies which deal in international trade face the risk of jean, currency exchange rates changing after a legal binding has been achieved. This variation will cause a lot of loss to Essay Cleanliness Effects the effected firm.

This form of exposure is of short term in john price policy duration because the effects stay there till the transaction of the Essay Effects on Students, binding happens. Transaction exposure refers to the contractual cash flows involving an actual exchange transaction. Companies, which receive or pay in foreign currency, are especially susceptible to this exposure. These companies have different reporting currencies. Plan Definition Ww1? If there is a change in the foreign and the reporting currency it will affect the amount of reporting currency in the transaction.

A company with net receivables in a foreign currency is prone to losses in transaction if the foreign currency weakens in the exchange rate. Conversely, a company with net liabilities in a foreign currency will gain in the same situation. Operating Exposure: (Competitive Exposure, Strategic Exposure, Economic Exposure) This exposure deals with the Cleanliness, estimation of change in An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bierce the value of a firm, due to an expected cash flow change, incurred due to an un expected change in exchange rates (Change in prices, increase/decrease in sales volume etc). The extent to which the future trading of a corporation or its assets and liabilities may be affected by an unexpected change in its operating environment is Cleanliness known as Operating Exposure. Operating exposure relies heavily on ww1, the relative pricing. If there is a change in the relative pricing because of any change in the exchange rate, the operating change in the cash flow is referred to Essay Cleanliness Effects as economic exposure (operating exposure). The definition of operating exposure caters for the value of assets as well as flow of daisy quotes, cash that is expected. Translation Exposure (Accounting Exposure) It is the change in the owners capital due to Cleanliness Effects on Students translation of foreign currencies to a single one. Whenever a companys assets, debts, loans and income will change in its amount because of daisy quotes, change in Essay the exchange rate is known as Translation Exposure.

This is a particular phenomenon for corporations, which have their denomination in daisy quotes foreign currency. Responsibility lies heavily with the accountants, which save the firm from this exposure by giving a consolidated statement in the financial sheet. They also utilize cost accounting procedures. In many cases this exposure is Essay Cleanliness on Students recorded in the statements of the jean clamence, company as gain or a loss after an exchange rate. Translation exposure exists when the financial statements of a foreign branch must be translated into the currency in which the parent firm is operating, so they can be incorporated into the parent companys financial sheets by consolidation, equity or the combination method. Translation exposure is also referred as accounting exposure. The root of this exposure is the difference in exchange rates between the time of consolidation and there effect in the value of the Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness, companys assets and liabilities which are abroad. An exposed item is the one that is law bided by accounting rules to be translated according to the current exchange rates or the rate of the daisy quotes, consolidation date.

An unexposed item is Essay bided by the exchange rate at schlieffen plan definition ww1 which that item was acquired. A company with assets that are exposed surplus then the Essay Cleanliness Effects on Students, liabilities in a foreign land is vulnerable to translation losses from decrease in the value of the foreign currency between two financial years. The situation would be the same if the baptiste, liabilities were more and there is an appreciation in the foreign currency. Distinction between the foreign exchange exposures. Although these exposures seem closely related, but on close examination they do have differences. Differences maybe in the definition as well as the their area of effect. Operating exposure is different from the translation exposure from the core. It involves giving a predetermined value to Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects all the future cash flows, and then it measures fluctuations in ww1 the exchange rate on all operational cash flows, whether a transaction has taken place or not. Translation exposure has their profits and losses either directly on the cash flow or indirectly on the stockholders equity, financial assets, whereas transaction exposure has direct bearing on the cash flow. In terms of effect Transaction exposure is of short term whereas Translation and Operating exposure have long-term effects. There is also a significant difference in Essay Cleanliness Effects the area that these exposures encompass.

Transaction exposure is limited to at Owl by Ambrose the particular deal, which has taken place. On the other hand, translation exposure focuses on a wider spectrum like Stockholders equity, liabilities, and assets which ever have to Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects be converted in to a single currency. Plan Definition? Operating exposures encompass the widest of the spectrum, assets, all future cash flows, liabilities and there effect is the longest. Cleanliness And Comfortness On Students? Understandably there are a variety of definition ww1, factors, which can influence the operating exposures, like cost of raw material, pricing, and Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness, the volume of sales. The major distinction of the operating exposure is that, whereas Translation and Transactional exposures are limited to the individual corporation, but economic exposure has to cater for the effects of the academy scientists scam, exchange rate on its competitors. Another major difference once comparing accounting and operating exposure is that the former represents an exposure, which has happened, and latter caters for future exposure. Measurement of Foreign Exchange exposures. Foreign exchange exposures measure the profit margin, net cash flow, and the market value of a firm to Essay vary according to the change in the exchange rates. Measurement of match policy, Transaction exposure.

Measurement of Essay and Comfortness Effects on Students, transaction exposure is fairly easy. It is measured from currency to currency. The amount of the plan definition, contractually fixed list is Cleanliness and Comfortness calculated. Clamence? The final payment according to the latest exchange rate for the currency in which the Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects, amount has to be paid is calculated. The exposure is the difference between the two. Measurement of Operating Exposure. Measuring of the operating exposure is a tedious task and requires a lot of planning. Measurement of the Creek Bierce Essay, operating exposure requires that we analyze and and Comfortness on Students, forecast corporations future transaction exposures together with the future exposures that the corporations competitors and to ww1 be competitors will face. Let us assume that a company A has X number of transactions from its present and future dealings abroad. The sum of these future transaction exposures would give a strong indication of the cash flow, as the exchange rate changes.

Company As worth competitiveness depends upon its cash flow and whether or not it has the capability to manage these transactions better then its competitors. Operating exposures takes into account the long term goal of the firm. It measures two types of cash flows: Operating cash flow constitutes payments for services, goods, and rent. It also includes payments of royalties, license fees, and Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects on Students, management fees. These are payments for the inter company loans and liabilities. They also include payment of stockholder equity. Measurement of Translation exposure. Accounting exposure is perhaps the easiest of exposures that can be measured.

For measuring the current exchange rate should be known, then the difference between the local and the reporting currency is calculated. Corporations possessing individual investors money are viable to exposure by jean baptiste fluctuations in all kinds of financial retailing, as a natural by-product of their financial activities. Essay Cleanliness And Comfortness On Students? Financial retailing includes foreign interest rates, commodity prices, exchange rates, and equity prices. The effect of changes in these prices has a magnanimous effect on the reported earnings. Its common knowledge companies reporting reduced or enhanced financial statements owing to price match fluctuating commodity prices or gain due to favorable exchange rates. Hedging in the general sense is Essay and Comfortness Effects on Students a company entering or creating a transaction, whose sensitivity to fluctuation in financial retailing offsets their vulnerability in their core business. Hedging involves a lot of planning and by no means is an easy exercise. Another major reason for hedging the exposure of the firm to its financial risk is to increase or sustain the competitiveness of the corporation.

Its a world of financial competition and companies can not live in isolation.. Academy Of Future Scientists Scam? they compete with other corporations domestically as well as internationally, especially between companies that produce similar products in the global market. Essay Effects? Take the example of a pharmaceutical company that has its competition with domestic firms and also competes with other international pharmaceutical companies. Simple hedging techniques can render a company to effectively close in a deal or transaction at a predetermined exchange rate and minimize the of future scientists and technologists scam, risk of transaction profits and losses between the signing of transaction and the settlement date. To elaborate a US company was due for payment of 10 million pounds on Essay and Comfortness on Students, May 1. Constant fluctuation of exchange rate was a problem which company was likely to face. Risk could have given profit but on the other hand there was equal chance of loss. To alleviate this problem the company decided to john lewis price match hedge a forward contract with the bank for the conversion of 10 Million pounds at a fixed rate of 1.7$/pound.

So, after receiving the payment of 10 million pounds from its customers it simply got them converted on the pre determined contract with bank. Different hedging strategies are employed while different exposures are encountered. Below are mentioned few of the strategies employed while tackling Foreign exchange exposures. Hedging of Transaction exposure. There are various ways of protecting against Cleanliness Effects a transaction exposure including clauses in the contract, which keep prices fixed, forward contracts, various currency options etc. Forward market hedge : The above-mentioned example is academy of future scientists and technologists scam of a forward contract where company had to receive payments in a foreign currency. So, in Cleanliness and Comfortness the hindsight they make a deal with the bank on the conversion of the same amount, at a fixed rate.

Money market hedge: In this hedge company refers to the money market, they either borrow or lend money from the money market, which is definitely interest tagged. Convert that amount according to the existing spot rate. Then invest that money for a specific time period, which generally coincides with receivables of the price match policy, foreign currency. Then give that loan + interest back. Thee are several variables attached with this transaction like the spot rate at which loan was converted, secondly the investment has to be sound otherwise this method will backfire. Risk shifting : As the name suggests this method shifts the risk equally between the companies in Cleanliness and Comfortness on Students which transaction has to take place. Ww1? Company will lay down the price of their export (generally strong currency), and import in weak currency. This is almost a foolproof method provided that the companies are well informed. This method has a net zero sum gain as exports and imports value are equal. Pricing decisions : This method is used where a company imports or exports on credit and the contractual obligation connects them with the forward rate but not spot rate.

Exposure netting : In this process MNCs choose to transact in currencies where there are minimum chances of exposure. Choice of currencies is determined by the amount of fluctuation they go through. Essay Cleanliness On Students? In this case more stable currencies are preferred. Match? Corporations perform netting (choosing currencies which are not related positively). Essay Effects? Effect of one currency exposure is reduced by the exposure in another currency. Currency risk sharing : customizing a hedge contract that has a Price Adjustment clause evolves this type of sharing.

Contractual partners draw a base price, which is schlieffen ww1 decided in consensus. Base price caters for most of the exchange fluctuations. Partners decide to share any exposure risk beyond a neutral zone. Essay Effects On Students? If the exchange rate fluctuation is less and stays within the neutral zone then what ever profit or loss it would not be shared. Cross hedging : This method is useful where a forward contract is not available in a desired currency.

Solution to jean baptiste clamence the problem is that a cross hedge is created in a currency which is related. Critical factor of this solution is that a correlation has to exist between the Essay Cleanliness Effects on Students, two currencies. Hedging of Translation exposure. Following are the methods by daisy quotes which translation exposure can be effectively curtailed. Adjusting fund flows : We already know that translation exposure encompasses cash flow, assets, liabilities which have to be converted to another currency for the purpose of reporting. A helpful method of hedging the cash flow problem is changing the currencies or their amounts of the currency, which is functional by the parent or its subsidiaries.

This method would reduce reporting currencies cash flow. Forward contracts : This method is similar to the one, which was employed while catering for transaction exposure. The main difference is that instead of a transaction, an offsetting asset or liability is created for the loss or profit of translation respectively. Exposure netting : The method is Effects on Students similar to the one employed early for transactions. Bridge Bierce? Another currency is employed to Cleanliness create an An Occurrence at Owl by Ambrose, offsetting effect. The effect has to be opposite to Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects on Students the one created by translation. Hedging of operating exposure. Hedging of operating exposure is far more important for a firms long health then transaction and translation exposure combined. Diversifying operations : Diversifying operations means increasing the breadth of the firm. It will give an schlieffen plan ww1, early and comprehensive indication of changes in Essay Effects the world market, and thus giving better reaction time to the managers. Diversifying financing : Its synonymous to schlieffen plan ww1 the previous point.

A firm should diversify its cash flow in more then one market and more currencies. Pro-active Management : Operating exposure demands that a paradigm shift in the policies should be done to remove any chances of currency exposures. Matching currency cash flows : If there is a continuous long exposure to a particular currency, then it can be solved by taking a loan in and Comfortness that currency. Risk sharing : The method is same as that was employed in transaction exposure. Back to back loans : This method is also known as credit swap. In this method two companies in different companies borrow each others currency for a specified period of time. This transaction is generally done on independent rates ( detached from Forex), but spot rates can be used. Currency Swaps : The major difference between this method and back-to-back loans is the documentation.

This method is national of future scientists scam not reflected in and Comfortness Effects on Students the balance sheet. Process is similar to credit swapping. Leads and Lags : This method caters for jean clamence, operating exposure by re-timing its payments of foreign currency. By lead it means that payment is made early and vice versa for lag. Re invoicing Centers : The method involves a middle-man (separate subsidiary), creating a link between the parent or related unit and its subsidiaries in close geographic region. Cleanliness Effects? It gives freedom to all subsidiaries to function in their currency and the transaction exposure is with the center. It is the era of globalization and international products are available at our doorsteps.

This is an opportune time for MNCs to prosper and strengthen their foothold. Consumers are also benefiting equally from this competitive environment, in terms of better quality of An Occurrence at Owl Bridge by Ambrose Essay, products and cheap prices. Exchange of currencies in this scenario is at an all time high for obvious reasons. Effect of these currency transactions is creating anomalies in the form of exposures. In places, where there are dealings in millions these exposures gain enormous importance. MNCs by now have realized these problems and are taking pro-active measures to resolve them. Those companies which have not given exposures there due importance will suffer and lag behind in Essay Cleanliness on Students this financial world. Choi, J.J.

1986. A model of firm valuation with exchange rate exposure. Journal of International Business Studies. Shapiro, A.C. 1975. Exchange rate changes, inflation, and the value of the multinational corporation.

Journal of Finance. Allen, Linda Christos Pantzalis. 1996. Valuation of the Operating Flexibility of serial recall, Multinational Corporations. Journal of International Business Studies. Buckley, Peter Mark C. Casson. 1998. Models of the Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects on Students, Multinational Enterprise. John Lewis Price Policy? Journal of International Business Studies.

Greene, William H. 2000. Econometric Analysis. 4th Edition, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. He, Jia Lilian Ng. 1998. Essay Effects? The Foreign Exchange Exposure of Japanese Multinational Corporations. The Journal of Finance. Jesswein, Kurt, Chuck C. Y. Kwok, and William Folks, Jr. Corporate Use of baptiste clamence, Innovative Foreign Exchange Risk Management Products. Columbia Journal of on Students, World Business Fall 1995. Stulz, Rene, and john lewis match, Clifford Smith. The Determinants of Firms Hedging Policies. Journal of on Students, Financial and Quantitative Analysis ( December 1985)

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carl menger essay Panentheism. Revisionism. Anarchocapitalism. From Carl Menger and His Legacy in Economics. Edited by Bruce J. Caldwell. Essay Cleanliness Effects! History of plan definition Political Economy , Durham and London: Duke University Press, 1990, Annual Supplement to vol. 22, 263-288. I have conformed the text found here to this sites format.

Aristotle, Menger, Mises: An Essay in the Metaphysics of Economics. 2. The Basic Doctrine. 3. Aristotelianism vs. Accidentalist Atomism. 4. The Special Doctrine (Forms of Aristotelianism in the Social Sciences) 6. Against the Kantian Confusion. 7. And Comfortness Effects On Students! Mises, Kant and Positivism. 8. Mises the Aristotelian. 9. John Price! If Austrian economics did not exist, would it be necessary to invent it? There are, familiarly, a range of distinct and competing accounts of the methodological underpinnings of Mengers work.

These include Leibnizian, Kantian, Millian, and Effects on Students even Popperian readings; but they include also readings of an Aristotelian sort, and I have myself made a number of contributions in clarification and defence of the of future latter. Cleanliness Effects! (1) Not only, I have argued, does the historical situation in which Menger found himself point to the inevitability of the baptiste clamence Aristotelian reading; (2) this reading fits also very naturally to the text of Effects on Students Mengers works. (3) The diversity of interpretations is not, however, entirely surprising. It is on the one hand a consequence of the of future scientists and technologists scam fact that Menger breaks new ground in economic theory in part by fashioning new linguistic instruments not yet readily capable of unambiguous interpretation. It reflects further a lack of knowledge on the part of historians of economic thought of the most recent scholarship on 19th and 20th century Austrian philosophy and on Essay Cleanliness the role of Aristotelianism therein. (4) Still more importantly, perhaps, it reflects the fact that Aristotelian ways of thinking were for scientists scam, so long alien to the modern philosophical and scientific mind. For non-Aristotelian readings were advanced above all by those who would be charitable to Menger by and Comfortness Effects, stripping his ideas of what was held to be an unfashionable residue of metaphysics. (5) There is one further reason for the diversity of interpretation, however, which reflects a recurring problem faced by those of us who work in the history of ideas in general and in the history of Austrian ideas in particular. This is the problem of how much credence one ought to award to self-interpretations when seeking an jean, assessment of the nature and significance of a given thinkers achievements. Cleanliness Effects On Students! For self-interpretations are very often flawed as a result of the fact that their authors naturally give prominence to the detailed differences between their own ideas and the ideas of serial recall those around them; they pay attention, in other words, to Cleanliness Effects on Students, what is original, quirky or odd.

That which they take for granted, and which they have imbibed from their surrounding culture, is hereby no less naturally, and inevitably ignored. Now as anyone who has worked through the writings of Mengers Austrian philosophical contem-poraries very soon becomes aware, the tacit intellectual background of educated Austrians in Mengers day and beyond was Aristotelian through and through to such an extent that Menger himself might have felt the lewis match policy need to draw attention to this background only when attempting to explain his ideas to Cleanliness on Students, those, such as Walras, or his own son Karl Jr., who did not share it. Menger is otherwise relatively silent as far as methodological self-interpretation is concerned, at least in the sense that he does not ally himself explicitly for example with the Aristotelian camp. (6) Problems arise, however, when we consider the writings of national of future scientists scam those of Mengers Austrian contem-poraries and successors including Mises, Hayek, as well as Karl Jr. who have sought self-interpretations of Menger at one remove. Such Austrian Austrians are, I want to suggest, least likely to enjoy a conscious awareness of the essence of Austrian economic thinking.

Their interpretations of Menger will tend to pick out what is quirky, or especially modern, in Menger at the expense of the Essay Cleanliness Effects shared and therefore for practical purposes invisible background that holds his work together. And this background is, as cannot be too often stressed, Aristotelian even if only in the watered-down sense that is still to be more precisely specified. Indeed the baptiste Aristotelian background permeated Austrian thought to such an extent that even the newly burgeoning empiricism of the Austrian positivist movement was crucially coloured by it. Essay! (7) 2. Clamence! The Basic Doctrine. Those who have seen fit to advance an Aristotelian reading have of course themselves often left much to be desired in the way of precision and detail. Here, therefore, I shall do my best to set out the precise form of the Aristotelian doctrine that is relevant to the thinking of Menger and his Austrian contemporaries. I shall then go on to demonstrate how the Menger-Mises relation and the general issue of apriorism in economics might profitably be re-examined in its light. I shall confine myself hereby to general philosophy: the on Students ways in which Aristotles ethics and politics filtered through into the thinking of the Austrians will not be of concern. (8) As will become clear, it is a highly refined and purified and serial recall indeed simplified version of Aristotles general philosophy that is at issue when we are dealing with 19th and early 20th century Austrian thought. It is an Aristotelianism shorn of all reference to, say, a passive or active intellect or to queer mechanisms for coming to know the world via a making actual within the soul of essences existing only potentially within things.

Only as a result of more recent work on Essay Cleanliness Effects on Students Austrian and German philosophy in general, and on daisy quotes the Brentano school and on the early phenomenologists in particular, has clarity as concerns the nature of Austrian Aristotelianism become possible. On Students! And this allows also a move beyond such earlier defences of an serial recall, Aristotelian interpretation of Essay and Comfortness Effects Mengers work as were advanced for example by Kauder and Hutchinson, which based themselves on daisy quotes little more than superficial analogies. What then is the basic doctrine of Austrian Aristotelianism that is shared, above all, by Essay Cleanliness Effects, Menger, Brentano and their immediate followers? If, at the risk of a certain degree of Bridge painful obviousness, we attempt an Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects on Students, assay of the common axis running through a number of otherwise disparate modes of thinking, then the basic doctrine might be said to embrace the following theses: 1. The world exists, independently of our thinking and reasoning activities. This world embraces both material and daisy quotes mental aspects (and perhaps other sui generis dimensions, for example of Essay Cleanliness on Students law and culture). Serial Recall! And while we might shape the world and contribute to it through our thoughts and actions, detached and objective theorizing about the Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness world in all its aspects is nonetheless possible. 2. There are in the world certain simple essences or natures or elements, as well as laws, structures or connections governing these, all of which are strictly universal , both in that they do not change historically and in the sense that they are capable of being instantiated, in principle (which is to say: if the appropriate conditions are satisfied), at jean all times and in all cultures. The fact that the simple essences and essential structures do not themselves change or develop implies in addition that historical change is a matter, not of changes in the basic building blocks of reality, but of changes in and Comfortness on Students, the patterns of their exemplification and in the ways in which they come together to form more complex wholes. Propositions expressing universal connections amongst essences are called by An Occurrence at Owl Creek by Ambrose Bierce, Menger exact laws. Such laws may be either static or dynamic they may concern either the Essay Cleanliness Effects co-existence or the succession of instances of the corresponding simple essences or natures. It is exact laws, as Menger sees it, which constitute a scientific theory in the strict sense.

The general laws of essence of schlieffen plan which such a theory would consist are subject to no exceptions. In this respect they are comparable, say, to the laws of geometry or mechanics, and contrasted with mere statements of fact and with inductive hypotheses. The aim of the exact orientation of Cleanliness and Comfortness research is, as Menger puts it, the determination of strict laws of the phenomena, of regularities in the succession of phenomena which not only present themselves as exceptionless, but which, when we take account of the ways in which we have come to know them, in fact bear within themselves the guarantee of their own exceptionlessness (1883, p. 38, Eng. p. 59, translation corrected) 3. Our experience of this world involves in every case both an individual and a general aspect. As in Aristotle himself, so also in Menger and in the work of other Aristotelians such as Brentano and Reinach, a radical empiricism hereby goes hand in hand with essentialism. The general aspect of experience is conceived by jean clamence, the Aristotelian as something entirely ordinary and matter-of-fact.

Thus it is not the work of any separate or special faculty of intuition but is Essay Cleanliness Effects on Students rather involved of necessity in every act of serial recall perceiving and Essay and Comfortness on Students thinking a fact which makes itself felt in the ubiquitous employment of general terms in all natural languages. Thus the general aspect of experience is as direct and straightforward as is our capacity to distinguish reds from greens, circles from squares, or warnings from baptiste congratulatings. For Menger, as for Aristotle, what is general does not exist in isolation from what is individual. Menger is, like other Aristotelians, an immanent realist. (9) He is interested in the essences and laws manifested in this world, not in any separate realm of incorporeal Ideal Forms such as is embraced by philosophers of a Platonistic sort. Essay On Students! As Brentano formulates the serial recall matter in Effects, his study of Aristotles psychology: the scientist wants to get to know the crystals and plants and other bodies that he finds here on earth; if therefore he were to grasp the concepts of price match policy tetrahedra and octahedra, of trees and grasses, which belong to another world, then he would clearly in no way achieve his goal. (1867, p. 135, Eng. p. 88) Things are no different even in the case of mathematical knowledge: The individual straight line which is in the senses, and Cleanliness Effects the being of this line which the intellect grasps, are essentially identical. Jean Baptiste! One is therefore not allowed to suppose that the intellect should grasp something more immaterial than sense, that it should take into itself something incorporeal or at least something non-sensory. No: the very same thing which is in the intellect is Cleanliness also in the senses, but related to other things in different ways. ( op. cit. ) As Menger puts it: the goal of research in the field of theoretical economics can only be the determination of the general essence and the general connection of economic phenomena . (Menger 1883, p. 7, n. 4, Eng. p. 37) The theoretical scientist, then, has to learn to recognize the general recurring structures in academy of future scientists and technologists scam, the flux of reality.

And theoretical understanding of a concrete phenomenon cannot be achieved via any mere inductive enumeration of cases. It is attained, rather, only by apprehending the phenomenon in question as. a special case of a certain regularity (conformity to Cleanliness and Comfortness, law) in the succession, or in the coexistence of phenomena. In other words, we become aware of the basis of the existence and the peculiarity of the essence of a concrete phenomenon by learning to recognize in it merely the exemplification of a conformity-to-law of phenomena in general. (Menger 1883, p. Plan Definition Ww1! 17, Eng. pp. 44f.) 4. The general aspect of Effects experience need be in plan ww1, no sense infallible (it reflects no special source of special knowledge), and may indeed be subject to just the same sorts of errors as is our knowledge of what is individual. Indeed, great difficulties may be set in the way of our attaining knowledge of essential structures of certain sorts, and on Students of our transforming such knowledge into the organized form of a strict theory. Above all we may (as Hume showed) mistakenly suppose that we have grasped a law or structure for psychological reasons of habit. Our knowledge of structures or laws can nevertheless be exact. For the quality of plan exactness or strict universality is Cleanliness Effects skew to that of price policy infallibility.

Episteme may be ruled out in certain circumstances, but true doxa (which is to say, orthodoxy) may be nonetheless available. 5. We can know, albeit under the conditions set out in 4., what the world is like, at least in its broad outlines, both via common sense and via scientific method. Thus Aristotelianism embraces not only commonsense realism but also scientific realism, though Aristotle himself ran these two positions together in ways no longer possible today. (10) The commonsense realism of Menger (as of all Austrian economists) is seen in his treatment of agents , actions , beliefs , desires , etc. In regard to these sorts of entity there is no opposition between reality as it appears to common sense and Cleanliness Effects on Students reality as revealed to scientific theory. Mengers (or the serial recall Austrian economists) scientific realism, on the other hand, is Essay Cleanliness on Students revealed in the treatment of phenomena such as spontaneous orders and invisible hand processes, where common sense diverges from the fine structures disclosed by theory. (11) Taken together with 3., this aspect of the Aristotelian doctrine implies that we can know what the world is like both in its individual and in its general aspect, and our knowledge will likely manifest a progressive improvement, both in depth of penetration and in adequacy to the structures penetrated. Indeed Menger points at the very beginning of the schlieffen plan definition ww1 Principles to a correlation between the higher culture of a people and the extent to which human beings penetrate more deeply into the true essence of things and of their own nature (1871, p. 4, Eng. p. 53). 6. We can know what this world is like, at least in principle, from the Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness detached perspective of an ideal scientific observer.

Thus in serial recall, the social sciences in particular there is Essay Effects on Students no suggestion that only those who are in some sense part of a given culture or form of life can grasp this culture or form of academy of future and technologists life theoretically. The general structures of reality are not merely capable of being exemplified, in principle, in different times and cultures; like the basic laws of Essay and Comfortness geometry or logic they also enjoy an intrinsic intelligibility which makes them capable of being grasped, again in principle and with differing degrees of difficulty, by knowing subjects of widely differing sorts and from widely differing backgrounds. Indeed, because the essences and daisy quotes essential structures are intelligible, the corresponding laws are capable of being grasped by the scientific theorist in principle on the basis of a single instance. (12) 7. The simple essences or natures pertaining to the various different segments or levels of Effects reality constitute an alphabet of structural parts. These can be combined together in different ways, both statically and jean clamence dynamically (according to and Comfortness on Students, co-existence and according to order of succession). Theoretical research, for Menger, seeks to ascertain the simplest elements of everything real, elements which must be thought of as strictly typical just because they are the simplest. (1883, p. 41, Eng. p. 60) The theorist must therefore learn to penetrate through the dross of ephemeral detail. He must seek to determine the elements. without considering whether they are present in reality as independent phenomena; indeed, even without considering whether they can at schlieffen plan all be presented in their full purity.

In this manner theoretical research arrives at qualitatively strictly typical forms of the phenomena ( loc. cit. Essay Cleanliness On Students! ) Scientific theory results, then, at at Owl least in part, when means are found for mapping or picturing the Cleanliness and Comfortness composition of such simple and prototypical constituents into larger wholes. Thus the theoretical science of psychology, for Brentano, seeks to display all the ultimate psychic components from whose combination one with another the totality of psychic phenomena would result, just as the totality of words is yielded by the letters of the national academy of future scientists scam alphabet (quoted in Brentano 1982, pp. x-xi). Such combination or composition is Essay Cleanliness Effects on Students not simply a matter of daisy quotes heaping or gluing together. It is a matter of certain entities or features or properties of Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects on Students entities arising in and technologists scam, reflection of the existence of special sorts of combinations of other sorts of entities. Thus for example a good exists as such only if the following prerequisites are simultaneously present: 1. A need on the part of some human being. 2. Properties of the object in on Students, question which render it capable of being brought into a causal connection with the satisfaction of this need. 3. Knowledge of this causal connection on serial recall the part of the person involved. 4. Command of the thing sufficient to direct it to the satisfaction of the need. (13) If a good exists, then as a matter of Essay de re necessity, entities of these other sorts exist also.

I shall return in the sequel to the treatment of lewis policy such simple structures of Essay and Comfortness Effects de re necessitation. It is these structures, I want to claim, which lie at the core not only serial recall of Mengers work but of the entire tradition of Austrian economics. 3. Aristotelianism vs. Accidentalist Atomism. Many of the above theses are of Essay and Comfortness Effects course thin beer, and might seem trivially acceptable. Taken together, however, they do have a certain metaphysical cutting power. It is thesis 5., above all, which establishes the jean baptiste line between the Aristotelian doctrine and that of Kant (for whom there looms behind the world we know an inaccessible world of things in themselves). Essay And Comfortness On Students! Theses 1. and 5. Jean! mark off Austrian Aristotelianism from all idealist doctrines of the sort which embrace the view that the world of Essay Cleanliness Effects on Students experience or of scientific inquiry is somehow created or constituted by the individual subject or by the linguistic community or scientific theory, or what one will. Theses 2. and 6. distinguish the daisy quotes doctrine from all sorts of historicism, as also from hermeneuticist relativism and other modern fancies. And theses 2. and Cleanliness and Comfortness on Students 5. tell us that, for the Aristotelian, scientific or theoretical knowledge is possible even of the structures or essences of the social world, a view shared in common by both Menger and john lewis price match policy Brentano, and denied (in different ways) by historicists and relativists of differing hues.

Most importantly, however, the doctrine is Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects on Students distinguished via theses 3. and 5. from the positi-vistic, empiricistic methodology which has been dominant in philosophical circles for the bulk of the present century and which enjoys a position as the unquestioned background of of future scientists almost all theorizing amongst scientists themselves. Positivism has its roots in atomism, the Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects view that all that exists is atoms associated together in accidental and unintelligible ways and that all intelligible structures and all necessities are merely the result of thought-constructions introduced by man. The origins of the struggle between atomists and Aristotelians in ancient Greek thought are well-summarized by Meikle: On the one hand there were Democritus and Epicurus, who thought of serial recall reality as atomistic small-bits that combine and repel in the void, and who had a hard job accounting for the persisting natures of things, species and genera on that basis. On the other hand there was Aristotle, who realised that no account of such things could be possible without admitting a category of form (or essence), because what a thing is, and what things of its kind are, cannot possibly be explained in terms of their constituent matter (atoms), since that changes while the entity retains its nature and identity over time. (1985, p. 9) Where the atomist sees only Essay one sort of structure in re , the structure of serial recall accidental association, the Aristotelian sees in addition intelligible or law-governed structures that he can understand. Where the Essay Cleanliness atomist sees only one sort of change, accidental change (for example of the sort which occurs when a horse is run over by a truck), the Aristotelian sees in addition intelligible or law-governed changes, as, for example, when a foal grows up into a horse. Definition! Just as for Cleanliness Effects, the Aristotelian the intelligibility of structure can imply that there are certain sorts of structure which are intelligibly impossible, for example a society made up of inanimate objects, so for the Aristotelian there are intelligibly impossible changes , for Creek Bridge Bierce Essay, example of a horse into a truck, or of a stone into a colour. Effects! The presence of schlieffen plan definition intelligible changes implies, moreover, that there is no problem of induction for a thinker of the Aristotelian sort.

When we understand a phenomenon as the instance of a given species, then this understanding relates also to the characteristic patterns of growth and evolution of the phenomen and to its characteristic modes of interaction with other phenomena. 4. The Special Doctrine (Forms of Aristotelianism in the Social Sciences) We have not yet gone far enough, however, in picking out the essence of the doctrine of Austrian Aristotelianism. For Aristotelianism played a crucial role also in the philosophy of Essay Cleanliness German social thinkers such as Marx, (14) and many other German political economists and legal theorists of the 19th and even of the 20th centuries could have accepted at least the bulk of national academy of future scam what has been presented above . Cleanliness! (15) The opposition between German and Austrian modes of thinking should not, in this respect, be exaggerated. An Occurrence Creek Bridge By Ambrose! Thus Brentano, normally and correctly regarded as the Austrian philosopher (and as the philosophical representative of Austrian Aristotelianism) par excellence , was in and Comfortness on Students, fact born in price match, Germany.

Moreover, his Aristotelianism was decisively influenced by the thinking of the great German metaphysician F. A. Trendelenburg. Equally, however, it would be wrong to ignore the crucial differences, above all as between Marxs methodology on the one hand and the basic doctrine of Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects Austrian Aristotelianism on baptiste the other. Thus Mengers doctrine of the strict universality of laws is denied by Essay and Comfortness Effects, Marx, for whom laws are in every case specific to a given social organism. (16) Moreover, while Marx and Menger share an Aristotelian antipathy to at Owl Bridge Essay, atomism, the holism or collectivism propounded by Marx is in this respect radically more extreme than anything that could have been countenanced by Menger. Hegel, too, is correctly described as an Aristotelian in many aspects of his thinking. His case is somewhat different from that of Marx, however, since it seems that he denied thesis 1. More precisely, Hegel failed to draw the clear line between act and object of cognition which 1. requires, and he refused to acknowledge any sort of independence of the latter from the former.

As he himself writes (in dealing with Aristotle): thought thinks itself by participation in that which is thought, but thought becomes thought by contact and apprehension, so that thought and Effects the object of daisy quotes thought are the same . (17) Or as Allen Wood expresses it: Marx parts company with Hegel precisely because Hegel makes the dialectical nature of thought the basis for the dialectical structure of reality, where Marx holds that just the and Comfortness Effects on Students reverse is the case. (1981, p. 215) To specify, therefore, the clamence exact nature of the Austrian Aristotelian view, it will be useful to add to Essay Cleanliness Effects on Students, our basic doctrine a number of additional theses specific to the domain of social science which are formulated in such a way as to daisy quotes, bring out as clearly as possible the opposition between the Austrian view and views shared by the principal German social theorists who had been influenced by Aristotelian ideas: 8. The theory of value is to be built up exclusively on subjective foundations, which is to say exclusively on Essay Cleanliness Effects the basis of the corresponding mental acts and states of human subjects. Thus value for Menger in stark contrast to Marx is to be accounted for plan, exclusively in terms of the satisfaction of human needs and wants. Economic value, in particular, is seen as being derivative of the valuing acts of ultimate consumers, and Essay and Comfortness on Students Mengers thinking might most adequately be encapsulated as the attempt to defend the possibility of an economics which would be at one and the same time both theoretical and subjectivist in the given sense. Among the different representatives of the philosophical school of plan value theory in Austria (Brentano, Meinong, Ehrenfels, etc.) subjectivism as here defined takes different forms . (18) All of them share with Menger however the Essay Effects view that value exists only in the nexus of human valuing acts. 9. There are no social wholes or social organisms. Austrian Aristotelians hereby and leaving aside the rather special case of national academy of future scientists and technologists Wieser embrace a doctrine of ontological individualism, which implies also a concomitant methodological individualism, according to which all talk of nations, classes, firms, etc., is to be treated by the social theorist as an in principle eliminable shorthand for talk of individuals. That it is not entirely inappropriate to conceive individualism in either sense as Aristotelian is seen for example in Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects on Students, Aristotles own treatment of knowledge and jean clamence science in terms of the mental acts, states and powers or capacities of individual human subjects. (19) Economics is Cleanliness and Comfortness on Students methodologically individualist when its laws are seen as being made true in their entirety by patterns of mental acts and actions of individual subjects, so that all economic phenomena are capable of being understood by the theorist as the serial recall results or outcomes of combinations and interactions of the thoughts and actions of individuals. Such combinations and interactions are not mere sums. Thus neither ontological nor methodological individualism need imply any sort of atomistic reductionism: the individual of which the social theorist treats is, as a result of different sorts of interaction with other individuals, a highly complex entity.

He might more properly be conceived as something like a node in the various spontaneous orders in which he is involved. This is a familiar idea, which extends back at least as far as Aristotle. (20) As the Hungarian philosopher Aurel Kolnai puts it in his defence of conservative libertarianism published in 1981: society is not only composed of various parts it is and Comfortness Effects composed of various parts in a multiplicity of ways; and consequently its component parts cannot but overlap . In other words, it consists ultimately of serial recall individuals, but only in the sense that it divides into a multiplicity of individuals across several social subdivisions, such that it comprehends the same individual over and over again in line with his various social affiliations (p. 319). Every individual therefore embodies a multiplicity of social aspects or categories, and these play a crucial role in determining which sorts of essential structures the individual might exemplify. 10. There are no (graspable) laws of historical development. Where Marx, in true Aristotelian spirit, sought to Cleanliness and Comfortness on Students, establish the laws of the phenomena, he awarded principal importance to the task of establishing laws of development , which is to say, laws governing the transition from one form or stage of society to another. He treats the social movement as a process of natural history governed by laws, (21) a nd he sees the social theorist as having the capacity to grasp such laws and therefore also in principle to sanction large-scale interferences in the social organism. Marx himself thereby accepted both methodological and ontological collectivism; he saw social science as issuing in highly macroscopic laws, for example to the effect that history must pass through certain well-defined stages. The Aristotelianism of the Austrians is in plan, this respect more modest: it sees the exact method as being restricted to certain simple essences and essential connections only, in ways which set severe limits on Essay and Comfortness Effects the capacity of theoretical social science to jean, make predictions. The methodological individualism of the Austrians has indeed been criticized by Marxists as a branch of atomism, though such criticisms assume too readily that methodological individualism trades in sums.

What, now, of the German historical economists? As already noted, Aristotelian doctrines played a role also in German economic science, not least as a result of the influence of Hegel. Thus for example Roscher not only accepted many of the tenets of the basic Aristotelian doctrine listed above, he also developed, as Streissler has shown, a subjective theory of value along lines very similar to those later taken up by Menger. (22) Such subjectivism was accepted also by Knies. Moreover, Knies and Schmoller agreed with the Austrians in denying the existence of laws of historical development. In all of Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects these respects, therefore, the gulf between Menger and the German historicists is much less than has normally been suggested. The German historicists are still crucially distinguished from the Austrians, however, in remaining wedded to a purely inductivistic methodology, regarding history as providing a basis of fact from out of which laws of economic science could be extracted. For an Aristotelian such as Menger, in national academy scam, contrast (cf. thesis 3. above), enumerative induction can never yield that sort of knowledge of Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness on Students exact law which constitutes a scientific theory.

Austrian Aristotelianism as formulated above is first and foremost a doctrine of ontology: it tells us what the world is like and what its objects, states and match policy processes are like, including those capacities, states and processes we call knowledge and science. Essay And Comfortness Effects On Students! More generally, it tells us what sorts of relations obtain between the various different segments of reality. The question of apriorism, on the other hand, which is skew to all such ontological concerns even to An Occurrence at Owl by Ambrose Bierce Essay, concerns pertaining to the ontology of on Students knowledge relates exclusively to the sort of account one gives of the serial recall conditions under which knowledge is acquired . Defenders of apriorism share the assumption that we are capable of acquiring knowledge of a special sort, called a priori knowledge, via non-inductive means. They differ, however, in their accounts of where such knowledge comes from. Two broad families of apriorist views have to be distinguished in this regard. On the one hand are what we might call impositionist views , which hold that a priori knowledge is possible as a result of the fact that the content of such knowledge reflects merely certain forms or structures that have been imposed or inscribed upon the world by the knowing subject.

Knowledge, on such views, is never directly of reality itself; rather, it reflects the and Comfortness Effects on Students logical structures of the mind, and penetrates to serial recall, reality only Cleanliness and Comfortness as formed, shaped or modelled by a mind or theory. On the other hand are reflectionist views , which hold that we can have a priori knowledge of what exists, independently of schlieffen plan definition ww1 all impositions or inscriptions of the mind, as a result of the fact that certain structures in the world enjoy some degree of intelligibility in their own right. Essay And Comfortness Effects On Students! The knowing subject and the objects of knowledge are for the reflectionist in some sense and to some degree pre-tuned to each other. Direct a priori knowledge of reality itself is therefore possible, at least at Creek by Ambrose Bierce some level of generality knowledge of the sort that is involved for example when we recognize the validity of a proof in logic or geometry (where it is Effects difficult to defend the view that the character of at Owl Creek Bridge Bierce Essay validity would be somehow imposed upon Cleanliness on Students, the objects in question by the epistemic subject). This brings us to the principal argument of the reflectionist against all versions of impositionism, which we might call the jean argument from arbitrariness.

Let us suppose, for the moment, that the impositionist is correct in his view that the a priori quality of laws or propositions is entirely a matter of impositions. Imagine, now, that the totality of all laws or propositions is laid out and Comfortness before us. Is it to be completely arbitrary which of these laws or propositions are to enjoy the imposed quality of aprioricity? A positive answer to this question is belied by the extent to which there is wide agreement across times and cultures as to which the candidate a priori laws or propositions are. A negative answer, on national of future and technologists scam the other hand, implies that there is some special quality on the side of certain laws or propositions themselves, in virtue of which precisely those laws or propositions do indeed serve as the targets of imposition. Clearly, however, this special quality must itself be prior to any sort of mental imposition which might come to be effected, which means that the original impositionist assumption, to the effect that the a priori quality of laws or propositions is entirely a matter of imposition, turns out to be self-refuting. The impositionist view finds its classical expression in Cleanliness Effects on Students, the work of Kant (whose ideas may be safe against the argument just presented), and special versions of impositionism are to be found also in Hume (in his treatment of causality), in Mach (in his theory of thought economy), and in the work of the logical positivists. The reflectionist view, on serial recall the other hand, finds its classical expression in Aristotle; it was developed further by successive waves of scholastics extending far into Essay and Comfortness Effects on Students the modern era, and of future scientists and technologists scam brought to perfection by Brentano and his successors, above all by Adolf Reinach and other realist phenomenologists in the early years of this century, the latter building on ideas set out by Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects, Husserl in his Logical Investigations . 6. Against the Kantian Confusion.

There are obvious affinities between the reflectionist view and the doctrine of Austrian Aristotelianism outlined above. Reflectionism can be made compatible also however with other, variant doctrines. Thus the theories of Verstehen propounded by Dilthey (traces of which are perhaps to be found also in Mises) can be said to result when the reflectionist doctrine is combined with a cancellation (for the social sciences) of thesis 6., which asserts the serial recall possibility of detached scientific theory. For Menger, we have argued, at least some of the propositions of economics are a priori in the sense that the corresponding structures enjoy an intrinsic simplicity and intelligibility which makes them capable of being grasped by Essay Cleanliness Effects on Students, the economic theorist in principle in a single instance. Note again, however, that the fact that such structures are intelligible need not by any means imply that our knowledge of them is in daisy quotes, any sense infallible or incorrigible, nor that it need in every case be easy to Effects, obtain or to order into the form of a rigorous theory. Indeed much confusion in the literature on Austrian methodology has arisen because the alien moment of incorrigibility, together with connotations of special mental processes of insight or intuition, have come to be attached to the aprioristic thesis in a way which has made the latter seem eccentric and unscientific. Still greater confusion has arisen, however, as a result of the no less pervasive assumption that all talk of the a priori must of john lewis price match policy necessity imply an impositionist or Kantian framework. Essay On Students! For the apriorism lying in the background of Mengers thinking is quite clearly reflectionist.

Menger believes that there are a priori categories (essences or natures) in reality and that a priori propositions reflect structures or connections among such essences existing autonomously in the sense that they are not the result of of future scientists scam any shaping or forming of reality on the part of the experiencing subject. The impositionist apriorist, in contrast, insists that a priori categories must be creatures of the and Comfortness on Students mind. He, therefore, may hold that the issue as to which sorts of economic structures exist is schlieffen plan definition ww1 a matter for more or less arbitrary legislation by the economic theorist, or a matter of the conceptual spectacles of the Essay Cleanliness on Students economic agent. No grain of such ideas is to be found in Menger. Menger is working, rather, against the background of an assumption to the effect that the universals of economic reality are not created or imposed in clamence, any sense, but are discovered through our theoretical efforts. Economists do not study concepts or other creatures of the Essay Effects mind. Rather, they study the qualitative essences or natures of and the relations between such categories as value, rent, profit, the division of labour, money, etc. Theoretical economics has the task of investigating the general essence and the general connection of economic phenomena, not of analysing economic concepts and daisy quotes of drawing the conclusions resulting from this analysis.

The phenomena, or certain aspects of them, and not their linguistic image, the concepts, are the Essay Cleanliness Effects object of theoretical research in the field of economy. (Menger 1883, p. 6, n. 4, Eng. p. 37) Menger, we might say in this light, seeks to develop a categorial ontology of economic reality in just the policy Aristotelian sense, and in just the Essay Effects on Students sense, too, in which Brentano sought a categorial ontology of psychological reality. He seeks to establish how the An Occurrence Creek Bridge various different sorts of building blocks of economic reality can be combined together in different sorts of simple structured wholes, and to establish through the application of Essay Cleanliness Effects what he himself called a genetico-compositive method how such wholes may originate and how they may develop and scam become transformed over time into other kinds of wholes. There is, however, one reason why an Essay and Comfortness on Students, impositionist or Kantian reading of national academy scam Mengers views has seemed so tempting to so many. And Comfortness Effects! This turns on the fact that Menger lays stress both on the subjectivism and on the methodological individualism of economics. Indeed, the status and possibility of economics as a theoretical science can be said to rest, in his eyes, precisely on the acceptance of the two theses of subjectivism and methodological individualism. Serial Recall! For subjectivism implies that an economy is not an autonomous formation with unintelligible properties of its own. Rather one can understand the workings of an economy by coming to an understanding of how the value of goods at earlier stages in the process of production is derived from the value to actual consumers of the products of the later stages.

Moreover, one can see why this same understanding must apply ceteris paribus to every economy in whatever time or place. Methodological individualism implies that the whole of economics can in principle admit of an understanding of this sort, that there are no economic structures that cannot be grasped at least in principle in Effects, the thought-experiments of the An Occurrence at Owl Bierce Essay economist. The latter must, as it were, put himself into the shoes of the individual subjects whose processes of thought and action come together to exemplify the structures of which he treats. None of the above, however, implies that the economists understanding might flow from the fact that the propositions of economics reflect structures that have been imposed upon Essay on Students, the world in Kantian fashion by either the economic theorist or the economic agent. That is, the serial recall intelligibility of basic economic structures does not imply ontological dependence of such structures on the mind along the lines suggested by the impositionist. Rather, Mengers view implies precisely that economic reality is such as to manifest certain simple intelligible structures in and of itself. Economic reality is built up in intelligible ways out of structures involving human thought and and Comfortness Effects action. It is for this reason that we are able, by appropriate efforts, to daisy quotes, read off these structures in and of on Students themselves. Such structures, because they are so simple, are (to different degrees) intelligible. But for the same reason they are also universal, in the sense that because they are indispensable to every economic action as such, or to every instance of exchange, barter, rent, profit, etc. they are manifested (in principle) in plan definition, every economy. They are at least in Essay and Comfortness Effects on Students, principle intelligible to everyone who has dealings with the objects concerned (i.e. to every economic agent, to every observer of the behaviour of markets).

Yet this does not imply that it is in every case a simple matter to discover what such structures are and nor, a fortiori , does it imply that it is a simple matter to formulate workable theories about them. Austrian economics is entirely comparable in this respect to the more recent universals of language research programme in and technologists scam, linguistics. Here, too, the assumption is made that there are structures in (linguistic) reality which are universal to all languages. Such structures are at least tacitly familiar to everyone who has dealings with the objects concerned (i.e. to Essay Effects on Students, every speaker of a language). Yet this does not by any means imply that it is a simple matter to discover what such structures are and to formulate workable theories about them.

Nor, either, does it imply that the issue as to which sorts of linguistic structures are universal is a matter of the logical structure of the human mind or of the conceptual spectacles of the language-using subject. And nor does it imply that this issue is merely a matter for arbitrary legislation by academy of future scientists, the linguistic theorist. Universals of language are not created by the linguist. They are discovered, through painstaking theoretical efforts. Apriorism in Essay Cleanliness, economics, now, does not mean any more than in the case of linguistic universals that economic theory must be free of empirical components. Indeed, it is a difficult matter to serial recall, sort out precisely what the appropriate role for empirical investigations in economics (and in related disciplines) ought to be. This itself is not something that can be decided a priori . What is certain for apriorists of whatever hue, however, is that quantitative investigations in economics can be carried out coherently only on the basis of at least some prior understanding of the natures of the entities to be measured and compared.

For otherwise the economist is not merely measuring in the dark; he is Essay also without any means of tying down the results of his quantitative theorizing to economic reality itself. Pre-empirical (qualitative) categorizations of this reality must necessarily exist before empirical (quantitative) economics can begin. The only issue is the extent to which such categorizations are conscious and explicit. The ontological grammar of economic reality that is sketched by daisy quotes, Menger can be seen in this light as providing a pre-empirical qualitative framework in Essay and Comfortness Effects on Students, whose terms specific empirical hypotheses can be formulated and specific mathematical models be given concrete interpretation. Such a foundation cannot itself be derived, on pain of circularity, either from empirical investigations of the more usual sort or from mathematical analyses. Academy And Technologists Scam! It must rather be derived at least in part or so the apriorist argues from that familiarity with particular economic phenomena which we are all of and Comfortness us able to acquire as economic agents. 7. Mises, Kant and Positivism. That the author of Human Action sees his methodology primarily in terms recalling Kantian doctrines is john price match seen, for example, in passages such as: the a priori sciences logic, mathematics, and praxeology aim at a knowledge unconditionally valid for all beings endowed with the logical structure of the human mind (Mises 1966, p. 57). We know now that there is an Aristotelian alternative to the Kantian form of apriorism. This alternative seems not to have been explicitly recognized as such by Mises; but this is hardly surprising, given that, for reasons pointed out above, the and Comfortness special nature of lewis price match Austrian Aristotelian apriorism was appreciated by very few at the time when Mises was working out the philosophical foundations of his praxeology. (23) Common to and Comfortness Effects on Students, all aprioristic doctrines is a view to the effect that there are laws or propositions which are on the one hand universal and necessary and on the other hand intelligible (capable of being grasped by non-inductive means).

Kantian impositionism is the view that such a priori laws or propositions reflect categorial impositions of the mind. As a result of the influence of Frege and Wittgenstein, now, especially as filtered-down through the logical positivism (logical atomism) of the Vienna circle, recent Kantian varieties of apriorism have tended to take an extreme form which sees such categorial impositions as effected always via logic or language. More specifically, a priori propositions are seen as being characterized by the fact that they can in serial recall, every case be exposed via a process of stripping out defined terms and replacing them with definiens consisting of more primitive expressions as mere tautologies or analytic truths, entirely empty of content and consistent with any and every factual state of the world. Cleanliness Effects! All bachelors are married is revealed as analytic in this way by being converted into All unmarried men are unmarried, which is an at Owl Creek, instance of the logical truth: All As which are B are B. Mises qua methodologist was very clearly tempted by the idea that the Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects laws of praxeology should be analytic in this sense. Jean Baptiste! The theoretical part of economics would then be a purely formal or analytic discipline whose principles would flow from the logical analysis of certain concepts. Consider, first of all, Mises assertion to the effect that the propositions of praxeology. are not derived from experience. And Comfortness Effects On Students! They are, like those of logic and mathematics, a priori. They are not subject to verification or falsification on the ground of experience and facts. They are both logically and temporally antecedent to any comprehension of historical facts. They are a necessary requirement of scientists scam any intellectual grasp of historical events.

Without them we should not be able to see in the course of events anything else than kaleidoscopic change and Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness chaotic muddle. (1966, p. 32) Here the (Kant- and Wittgenstein-inspired) positivist conception of analyticity is only latently at work. Almost all of the An Occurrence by Ambrose Bierce above would, if suitably interpreted, be perfectly consistent with a view of praxeology as an Essay, a priori discipline of economics conceived in reflectionist Aristotelian fashion. When we read on, however, then we discover that Mises does in fact run together what is serial recall a priori with what is analytic. Praxeology, we are told, is like logic and mathematics in the sense that its content is a matter of empty tautologies: Aprioristic reasoning is purely conceptual and deductive. It cannot produce anything else but tautologies and analytic judgments. Thus for example: In the concept of money all the theorems of Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects monetary theory are already implied. (1966, p. 38) Thus while impositionism is not explicitly defended by Mises qua methodologist, he does insist on the analytic character of all a priori propositions.

The methodology which results is thereby rendered inconsistent with a reflectionist apriorism, since it implies that a priori propositions are empty of content, and clearly propositions that are empty of schlieffen ww1 content are unable to picture anything (intelligible) on the side of the objects of the corresponding theory. If, however, we wish to hold on to the Essay view that all the propositions of praxeology are analytic in this sense, then we shall have to insist that the whole of praxeology can be erected on the basis of premises involving at most one single primitive non-logical concept. Lewis Price! (24) For suppose that there were two such concepts, neither definable in Cleanliness on Students, terms of the other. Consider, now, the propositions expressing the non-trivial relations between these concepts. These cannot, ex hypothesi , be analytic, for there are now no defined non-logical terms which could be eliminated in such a way as to reveal the corresponding statements as truths of logic, and no truth of national of future scientists and technologists scam logic contains a plurality of non-logical terms in other than trivial ways. But nor, from the Misesian point of view, can they be merely factual (synthetic a posteriori ). On the positivist reading of the aprioristic doctrine, however, no third alternative is available, which implies that the original assumption that there are two (or more) such concepts must be rejected. (25) This helps to make intelligible the Cleanliness Effects on Students repeated insistence of Mises and his followers (and critics) that there is but one single non-logical concept (or category or essence) of the praxeological discipline, the daisy quotes concept human action , from Essay and Comfortness on Students which all propositions of the discipline would somehow be derived: The scope of daisy quotes praxeology is the explication of the category of human action.

All that is needed for the deduction of all praxeological theorems is knowledge of the essence of human action . . . . The only way to a cognition of these theorems is logical analysis of our inherent knowledge of the category of action . . . . Like logic and mathematics, praxeological knowledge is in us; it does not come from without. Cleanliness And Comfortness Effects! (1966, p. 64) (26) 8. Mises the Aristotelian. When once we examine Mises practice , however, then a quite different picture emerges, and we discover that Mises, too, was not at definition his best in his methodological self-interpretations. For we are forced to Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects on Students, recognize that there is a veritable plenitude of non-logical primitive concepts at the root of praxeology. Indeed, Mises descriptions of this plenitude in his actual practice in economics, and also in occasional passages in daisy quotes, his methodological writings, (27) can be seen to represent what is almost certainly the most sustained realization of the Aristotelian idea in the literature of economic theory. Action, we are told by Mises, involves apprehension of causal relations and of regularities in the phenomena . It presupposes being in a position to influence causal relations . It presupposes felt uneasiness . It involves the Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects exercise of reason . It is a striving to substitute a more satisfactory for a less satisfactory state of affairs . Acting man transfers the valuation of ends he aims at to the means he anticipates utilizing . Action takes time , which like other scarce factors must be economized . Action presupposes choosing between various opportunities offered for choice . Action involves the expectation that purposeful behaviour has the power to remove or at least alleviate uneasiness . It presupposes the uncertainty of the future . Daisy Quotes! It involves meanings which the acting parties attribute to the situation . A thing becomes a means only when reason plans to employ it for the attainment of some end and Essay Cleanliness Effects on Students action really employs it for this purpose . Certainly some of the concepts involved in the above may reasonably be counted as logical con-cepts; others may no less reasonably he conceived as being introduced by daisy quotes, definitions formulated in terms of other, more primitive concepts.

Consider, however, the concepts causation, relative satisfac-toriness , reason , uneasiness , valuation , anticipation , means , ends , utilization , time , scarcity , opportunity , choice , uncertainty , expectation , etc., etc. The idea that one could simultaneously and Essay and Comfortness without circularity reduce every one of the concepts in this family to the single concept of action, that they could all be defined by purely logical means in terms of this one single concept, is decisively to be rejected. (28) How much better would it be to accept that we are dealing here with a family of daisy quotes a priori categories and categorial structures which would be, in the jargon, not analytic but synthetic. The laws governing such structures can almost all of them be very easily expressed in the form of what linguists like to call implicative universals, which is to say principles to the effect that, if instances of some given species or category K 1 exist, then as a matter of necessity these and those other categories K 2 , . . . ,K n must be instantiated also. Instances of the necessitating category K 1 are then said to be one-sidedly depen-dent upon instances of the necessitated categories K 2 , . . Cleanliness And Comfortness Effects On Students! . ,K n . The formal ontological theory of academy of future scientists scam such dependence relations has been worked out in some detail. (29) It can be illustrated in Mengers already mentioned account of the essence of goods at the beginning of the Principles : If instances of the Essay and Comfortness species good exist, then there exist also instances of the species need , human being , causal connection , knowledge , command , etc. And it is to be found at work also in the context of Misesian praxeology, for example in laws such as: If instances of the species action exist, then there exist also instances of the species choice , apprehension of causal regularities , felt uneasiness , etc. If instances of the species choice of ends exist, then so also do instances of the species apprehension of causal regularities , etc. We might represent the a priori relations between such species (relations of de re necessitation) in plan definition ww1, diagrammatic form as follows, employing links connecting broken to solid walls of adjacent frames to represent relations of one-sided dependence between the entities concerned: A diagram of this sort is, we might say, a picture of an a priori structure in the sphere of human action. Similar diagrams can be produced also following indications set out by Reinach in his monograph on speech act theory of 1913 for Cleanliness Effects on Students, the a priori necessitation structures exemplified by speech acts of the various different types, (30) and I have sought elsewhere to show how they can be extended also to the structures of daisy quotes entrepreneurial perception analysed by Essay Cleanliness Effects on Students, Israel Kirzner, for example in his 1979. (31)

9. If Austrian economics did not exist, would it be necessary to invent it? Austrian economics, we have said, is both theoretical and subjectivist. Neoclassical economics, in contrast, is neither the one nor the other. Daisy Quotes! For it rests on the positivist thesis that economic reality lacks intrinsic intelligibility tout court , so that no non-trivial part of economic theory could be a priori in any of the senses distinguished above. The propositions of economics are mere inductive hypotheses, and the method of economics consists in Essay Effects on Students, the building of testable models, selection among which is effected, at by Ambrose Bierce least in principle, on the basis of and Comfortness Effects relative predictive strength. Because realism (in the reflectionist sense) falls out of john lewis policy account as a criterion of selection, such models are repeatedly threatened with becoming shorn of their relation to those basic everyday categories in which the science of economics has its roots. Austrian economics, in contrast, is Cleanliness and Comfortness on Students marked by a willingness to sacrifice both the goal of predictive power and the mathematical tools associated therewith precisely in order to john price match policy, come to an understanding of these basic categories themselves. The contrast here has seemed to many to justify the striking of pugilistic attitudes. From the Aristotelian apriorist perspective, however, it might begin to Essay Effects on Students, appear as if the principles underlying both sorts of economic methodology might possess some grain of truth.

For Austrian economics might then be conceived not as an alternative to the economics of model-building and prediction but as a preliminary activity of establishing this missing connection to daisy quotes, ground-level economic realities. Austrian economics might, in other words, be conceived as a safe harbour for a practice which at present takes place among neo-classicists only surreptitiously and unsystema-tically a practice sometimes referred to Essay Cleanliness Effects on Students, under the rubric of taking subjectivism seriously. This practice might also be conceived as the attempt to exert control in the direction of greater common-sensical realism over the model-building tendencies of mathematical economists. The exercise of such control might lead from plan definition this admittedly somewhat idealized perspective to the construction of and Comfortness on Students different kinds of at Owl Bierce models. But then also it may even be that empirical and mathematical economics will in Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness on Students, certain circumstances lead to john match policy, results which constrain a revision of Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects Austrian economics itself. A view of this sort can be found in germ already in serial recall, the work of Wieser. Essay And Comfortness! (32) He, too, saw economic theory as beginning with the description based in part on introspection, as he saw it of the simplest structures of An Occurrence at Owl Creek Essay economic reality, a description which may then be supplemented and to some extent corrected by Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness, empirical research into the various ways in which these simple structures may come to be affected contingently, e.g. in different social and historical contexts. For the moment, though, I am suggesting merely that we consider a thought-experiment, or pipe-dream, to the effect that Austrian economics might be seen as providing a certain sort of foundation for empirical-mathematical economics in something like the way in serial recall, which geometry provides a foundation for the discipline of Essay Effects on Students physics. We have said that from the Aristotelian perspective a propositions being a priori signifies that it (or the structure which makes it true) enjoys some degree of intelligibility. What it does not signify, is that our knowledge of such a proposition must be in any sense incorrigible or infallible. Indeed, the idea that empirical discoveries might lead in principle to a correction of the a priori foundation of the economic discipline opens up the exciting prospect of something like a non-Euclidean Austrian economics, perhaps even to a family of such non-Euclidean disciplines, each of which could claim some degree of a priori support. Ww1! I must confess at once, however, that I have no notion as to how such disciplines might look.

1. See the items listed in Essay Cleanliness, the bibliography below, especially my 1986 and 1989, and compare also Fabian and john match policy Simons 1986. 2. Here we can distinguish as sources of Mengers Aristotelianism first of all the Popularphiloso-phie which was imposed on educational institutions throughout the Habsburg Empire and which incorporated, besides elements derived from the thinking of Leibniz and Wolff, also watered-down versions of Aristotelian and scholastic doctrines. Secondly, there is the 19th century German and Austrian textbook tradition in the social sciences. Here Aristotelian elements played a crucial role not only in the textbook literature of economics (and not least in Cleanliness and Comfortness, the work of Mischler, under whom Menger had studied), but also in textbooks of history, legal theory and for example in the writings on political householding of the cameralists (discussed by Silverman in his 1989). Lewis Price Match! On Mischler, see Streissler 1989. 3. Valuable source-material in this respect has been assembled in Milford 1988, who however draws different conclusions from the cited texts, above all because he is concentrating on the implications of Mengers work for economic methodology . Here, in contrast, I am concerned with more basic matters of Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects on Students general philosophy. 4. The most relevant material is summarized in An Occurrence by Ambrose Essay, Grassl and Smith, eds., 1986. See also the papers collected in Nyri, ed., 1986. 5. Such misplaced charity is illustrated for example in the decision of Mengers translators to translate the technical (and in Mengers usage Aristotelian) term Wesen , normally and Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness correctly translated as essence, with the definition more colloquial nature. (The translations given here have been adjusted accordingly.) For an illuminating discussion of an Essay Cleanliness on Students, interestingly parallel case of misplaced charity in interpreta-tion, see Meikle 1985 (esp. pp. 8ff.), which rightly lays stress on the Aristotelianism at the core of Marxs thinking.

Meikles work is of future one among many indications of the extent to Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness, which, among philosophers at least, Aristotelian ideas are beginning once more to be taken seriously. 6. The Investigations are, as Alter rightly stresses (1989, pp. Serial Recall! 12f.), a critique of the methodological views of the German historicists. They are not the positive statement of Mengers own thinking in this respect announced in Essay and Comfortness on Students, 1883, p. 43n (Eng. p. 62). 7. This thesis is defended at length in my 1987.

I believe that the remarks in the text have important consequences also for the correct interpretation of Hayeks thinking. Thus John Grays contention that Hayeks central theory is fundamentally Kantian in An Occurrence at Owl Creek by Ambrose Essay, nature, a thesis based on part on Hayeks own retrospective self-interpretation, is otherwise supported by and Comfortness Effects on Students, very little evidence in either the spirit or the letter of at Owl Creek Bierce Essay Hayeks writings. It is essentially one single passage from Hayeks The Sensory Order which is held by Gray to mark the Kantian strain in Hayeks thought: the fact that the world which we know seems wholly an orderly world may thus be merely a result of the method by which we perceive it. (Hayek 1952, 8.39, cf. Gray, p. 12) When taken in its context, this passage is part of the physiological argument of and Comfortness The Sensory Order an argument in the spirit of Machto the effect that it is the physical similarity of stimuli and their relative frequency of occurrence which gives rise to baptiste clamence, the order of our sensations. Like other relevant writings of Hayek, such as his Rules, Perception and Intelligibility of 1962, it presents a picture of a philosopher allied with Mach and the early precursors of Cleanliness on Students what later came to be called Gestalt psychology, a picture which is supported also by a historical examination of the influences on Hayeks thought at the time when the first version of The Sensory Order was being written. For both Hayek and Mach, now, there is no distinction between the phenomenal and noumenal world. Indeed there is no transcendentalism of any sort in either thinker. Yet Kantianism, as one normally conceives it, is plan definition ww1 characterized precisely by the presence of such a transcendental dimension. 8. See the relevant section of Alter (forthcoming), and also the material collected in Grassl and Smith (eds.) for a treatment of and Comfortness on Students this issue in relation to daisy quotes, Menger. For the views of the Brentanists on ethics and the theory of value see Kraus 1937.

9. Cleanliness And Comfortness! See the discussion of universals in national academy scientists and technologists scam, re in Johansson 1989, e.g. Essay Cleanliness And Comfortness Effects On Students! pp. 11, 147, and also Maki 1989. 10. On the opposition between commonsense and scientific realism from the point of serial recall view of contemporary philosophy see Devitt 1984. Compare also the illuminating discussion of level ontologies in Johansson 1989, pp. 26ff. 12.

Cf. Menger 1883, p. 40, Eng. p. 60 on the rule of cognition for the investigation of and Comfortness Effects theoretical truth: There is one rule of cognition for the investigation of theoretical truths which is at Owl Creek Bridge by Ambrose Essay not only, as far as this is possible, verified by experience, but is verified in indubitable fashion by our very laws of thinking. . . . This is the thesis that whatever was observed in even only one case must always come to appearance again under exactly the same factual conditions . Essay Cleanliness And Comfortness On Students! . . . This rule holds not only of the essence of An Occurrence Creek Bridge by Ambrose phenomena, but also of their measure (tran-slation amended). 13. Cf. Menger 1871, p. 3, Eng. p. 52 (section 1, On the Essence of Goods). 14. Essay Cleanliness Effects On Students! Cf. Gould 1978, Wood 1981, Sowell 1985, and above all Meikle 1985. In the serial recall light of 6. above it is worth pointing out that Marx embraces also the assumption that science is able to penetrate through the ideological obfuscations by which the commonsensical mind is (as he conceives things) of Cleanliness on Students necessity affected. 15.

The survival of Aristotelian ideas in contemporary German legal theory is illustrated for example by daisy quotes, Karl Larenzs standard textbook of legal methodology (1983), e.g. in his discussion of the legal structural types which the legal theorist discovers in reality (p. 338). 16. Cf. Meikle 1985, p. 6, n. 4. 17. Lectures on the History of Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects on Students Philosophy , trans. by E. Haldane and F. Simson, London, 1894, vol. 2, p. 147, emphasis mine. 18. Jean Baptiste Clamence! See, on this, my 1986a and also the papers collected in Grassl and Smith, eds., 1986. 19.

On methodological individualism in Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness, Aristotle see also Kraus 1905. 20. See Mengers discussion of the view attributed to Aristotle to the effect that the state is a phenomenon co-original with the existence of man, in his 1883, pp. 267-270, Eng. pp. 220-222. 21. Schlieffen Plan! Passage cited by Marx himself in the Afterword to the Second German Edition of vol. 1 of Capital and adopted as a motto to Meikle 1985. 22.

See esp. Streissler 1989. 23. Again, the Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness on Students work of the phenomenologist Adolf Reinach is daisy quotes especially important in this regard. For Reinach, who achieved for legal science what Menger and his school have achieved in the field of economics, was especially aware of the non-Kantian nature of his aprioristic views. See also ch. 2 of Cleanliness Effects Max Schelers Formalism in Ethics , a work in part inspired by the reflectionist theory of the a priori defended by Reinach. 24. We shall need, too, some criterion as to what is to price policy, count as a non-logical concept. Consider, for example, the concept part of . This is a formal concept, in the sense that it can be applied, in principle, to all matters without restriction.

But it is not treated as a logical concept in the standard textbooks, and nor can it be defined in terms of the logical concepts which are standardly recognized as such. Essay On Students! Indeed it seems that the concept part of is a non-logical primitive concept. Consider, now, the proposition. If A is at Owl Bridge Bierce part of B, and B is part of C, then A is part of C. which asserts that the Cleanliness Effects corresponding relation is transitive. Lewis Price! This proposition is not analytic, for there is no law of logic to which it would correspond as a substitution instance. Hence it must be synthetic.

But it is surely also a priori , and indeed a priori in the (reflectionist) sense that it pictures the (intelligible) way in which part-whole relations are nested together in the world, independent of our thoughts and actions. 25. Essay And Comfortness! I have developed this argument at greater length in my 1986. 26. See also Rothbard 1957. 27.

Consider for example the paragraph beginning the most general . . . on p. 24 of serial recall his 1981. 28. Hans-Hermann Hoppes 1988, to which I hope to return elsewhere, is an interesting defence of a purportedly Kantian reading of Mises which seeks to break through the opposition between impositionism and reflectionism set out above. 29. Effects On Students! See Smith (ed.) 1982, Simons 1987, Part III, and Johansson 1989, Ch. 9.

30. Compare the papers collected in Mulligan, ed., 1987. 31. See my 1986. Marx, too, utilized necessitation structures of exactly this sort, for example in his analysis of human work in chapter 5 of Book 1 of Capital . See, on this, my 1988. 32. See e.g. Wieser 1927, pp. 5ff. The idea may be less at home in Mengers own thinking. For Menger the idea of Testing the exact theory of economy by jean baptiste clamence, the full empirical method is simply a methodological absurdity, a failure to recognize the basis of presuppositions of exact research (1883, p. 54, Eng. p. 69).

Examining Mengers account of the ways in Essay and Comfortness, which exact types are painstakingly extracted from the realm of economic phenomena by the economic theorist suggests however that he, too, might have assented to something like the retroactive control that is here described. See, on this whole issue, Mengers promissory note on p. 43 (Eng. p. 62) of the Investigations . Alter, M. 1989. What Do We Know About Menger? Working Paper Number 71 , Duke University Program in serial recall, Political Economy. Alter, M. (forthcoming) Carl Menger and Essay Cleanliness Effects the Origins of Austrian Economics , Boulder: Westview Press. Brentano, F. 1867. Die Psychologie des Aristoteles insbesondere seine Lehre vom nous poietikos , Mainz: Kirchberg, repr. Darmstadt: Wissen-schaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1967, Eng. Creek Essay! trans. by R. Effects On Students! George, The Psychology of Aristotle . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977. Brentano, F. 1982.

Deskriptive Psychologie . National Academy Scientists Scam! Ed. by R. M. Cleanliness! Chisholm and W. Baumgartner. Hamburg: Meiner. Devitt, M. 1984. Realism and daisy quotes Truth . Oxford: Blackwell. Fabian, R. and Simons, P. M. 1986. Cleanliness And Comfortness! The Second Austrian School of Value Theory. In Grassl and Smith (eds.), 37-101. Gould, Carol C. 1978. Marxs Social Ontology. Individuality and Community in Marxs Theory of Social Reality . National! Cambridge, Mass. and London: The MIT Press. Grassl, W. and Smith, B. (eds.) 1986.

Austrian Economics: Historical and Philosophical Background . London and Sydney: Croom Helm. Gray, John. 1986. Hayek on Essay Effects on Students Liberty , 2nd ed. Serial Recall! Oxford: Blackwell. Hayek, F. A. Effects On Students! von. 1952. The Sensory Order. An Inquiry into the Foundations of Theoretical Psychology . London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Hayek, F. A. von 1962. Rules, Perception and Intelligibility. Proceedings of the British Academy , 48, repr. in Hayeks Studies in Philosophy, Politics and Economics . London: Routledge and clamence Kegan Paul, 1967, 43-65. Hoppe, H.-H.

1988. Praxeology and Economic Science . Auburn: The Ludwig von Mises Institute. Husserl, E. 1900-01. Effects! Logische Untersuchungen , critical edition, Dordrecht: Nijhoff, 1975, 1984 (A = first edition). Eng. trans. of 2nd ed. by J. N. Findlay as Logical Investigations . London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1970. Johansson, I. 1989. Daisy Quotes! Ontological Investigations: An Inquiry into the Categories of Nature, Man and Society . London: Routledge.

Kirzner, I. 1979. Perception, Opportunity and Cleanliness Profit. Studies in the Theory of Entrepreneurship . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Kolnai, A. 1981 Identity and Division as a Fundamental Theme of daisy quotes Politics. In: B. Smith, ed., Structure and Gestalt. Cleanliness And Comfortness! Philosophy and schlieffen Literature in Austria-Hungary and Her Successor States . Amsterdam: John Benjamin, 317-346. Kraus, O. 1905. Die aristotelische Werttheorie in ihren Beziehungen zu den modernen Psychologenschule. Zeitschrift fr die gesamte Staatswissenschaft , 61, 573-92. Kraus, O. 1937. Die Werttheorien. Geschichte und Kritik . Brnn/Vienna/Leipzig: Rohrer.

Larenz, K. 1983. Methodenlehre der Rechtswissenschaft . 5th ed. Berlin/Heidelberg/New York/Tokyo: Springer. Maki, U. 1989. The Best Way Forward. Scientific Realism. Duke University Working Papers in Economics . Meikle, S. 1985. Essentialism in the Thought of Karl Marx . London: Duckworth. Menger, Carl.

1871. Grundstze der Volkswirtschaftslehre . Vienna: Braumller. Trans. by Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects on Students, J. Dingwall and B. F. Hoselitz as Principles of daisy quotes Economics , New York and London: New York University Press, 1981. Menger, Carl 1883. Untersuchungen ber die Methode der Socialwissenschaften, und der Politischen Oekonomie insbesondere . Leipzig: Duncker Humblot.

Trans. by Francis J. Nock as Investigations into the Method of the Social Sciences with special reference to Economics . New York and Essay Cleanliness on Students London: New York University Press, 1985. Milford, K. 1988. Mengers Solution of the Problem of Induction: On the History of Methodological Thought in Economics. Department of definition ww1 Economics, University of Vienna. Working Paper , No. 8806. Mischler, P. Essay Cleanliness! 1857 Grundstze der National-Oekonomie . Vienna: Friedrich Manz. Mises, L. von. John Lewis Policy! 1966. Human Action . 3rd revised edition, Chicago: Henry Regnery Company. Mises, L. von 1981. Epistemological Problems of Economics . New York and London: New York University Press. Mulligan, K. ed.

1987. Speech Act and Sachverhalt. Reinach and the Foundations of Realist Phenomenology . Dordrecht/Boston/Lancaster: Martinus Nijhoff. Nyri, J. C. ed. 1986 From Bolzano to Wittgenstein: The Tradition of Austrian Philosophy , Vienna: Hlder-Pichler-Tempsky. Reinach, A. 1911. Kants Auffassung des Humeschen Problems. Essay And Comfortness! Zeitschrift fr Philosophie und philosophische Kritik , 141, 176-209. National Scientists And Technologists! Repr. in Reinach 1988. Eng. trans. by Essay Cleanliness on Students, J. N. Mohanty in Southwestern Journal of Philosophy , 7 (1976), 161-88.

Reinach, A. National Scientists And Technologists Scam! 1913. Essay Effects! Die apriorischen Grundlagen des brgerlichen Rechts. Jahrbuch fur Philosophie und phnomenologische Forschung , 1, 685-847. Repr. in Reinach 1988. Eng. John Price Match Policy! trans. in Aletheia , 3 (1983) 1-142. Reinach, A. And Comfortness On Students! 1988. Smtliche Werke . K. Daisy Quotes! Schuhmann and Cleanliness B. Smith (eds.). Munich and Vienna: Philosophia, forthcoming. Rothbard, Murray N. 1957. In Defense of Extreme Apriorism. Southern Economic Journal , 23, 315-20. Scheler, Max 1973.

Formalism in Ethics and Non-Formal Ethics of Value . Trans. by at Owl Creek Bridge Essay, M. S. Frings and R. Essay Cleanliness And Comfortness On Students! L. Funk. Evanston: Northwestern University Press. Schnfeld-Illy, L. 1924 Grenznutzen und Wirtschaftsrechnung . Vienna, repr. Munich: Philosophia, 1983. Silverman, P. 1989. Antecedents in the Works of Sonnenfels and Kudler. Duke University Working Papers in scientists, Economics . Simons, P. M. Effects! 1987 Parts. A Study in Ontology , Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Smith, B. 1982. National Academy Scam! Introduction to Adolf Reinach, On the on Students Theory of the Creek Bridge Negative Judgment. In Smith, (ed.), 289-313. Smith, B. 1986. Austrian Economics and Austrian Philosophy. In Grassl and Essay on Students Smith (eds.), 1-36. Smith, B. 1986a. The Theory of Value of Christian von Ehrenfels. In: R. Fabian, ed., Christian von Ehrenfels: Leben und Werk . Amsterdam: Rodopi, 85-111. Smith, B. 1987. An Occurrence At Owl Bridge By Ambrose Bierce Essay! Austrian Origins of Logical Positivism. In B. Gower, ed., Logical Positivism in Perspective . London and Cleanliness Sydney: Croom Helm, 34-66. Smith, B. Jean Baptiste Clamence! 1988. Practices of Art. in J. C. Nyri and B. Smith, eds. Practical Knowledge. Outlines of Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness a Theory of Traditions and Skills , London/Sydney/New York: Croom Helm, 172-209. Smith, B. 1989. Plan Definition! On the Austrianness of Austrian Economics. Critical Review , 3 (forthcoming). Smith, B. (ed.) 1982. Parts and Moments. And Comfortness On Students! Studies in Logic and Formal Ontology . Munich: Philosophia.

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Kaiser Permanente Risk Management Executive Summary Essay. Kaiser Permanente (KP) is the nations largest integrated health care delivery system. KP serves nine states and over nine million members, with an annual operating revenue in 2013 of 53.1 billion. KP is a leader in quality improvement efforts in the health care industry through participation in studies performed by the National Committee on Quality Assurance (NCQA), The Joint Commission (TJC) accreditations, and the implementation of a state of the art electronic health records system, which focuses on integration and quality of care standardization. The focus of this summary is on KP hospitals in the northern California region and will include topics such as the purpose of risk and quality management, risk identification and management, current risks, quality outcomes, organizational goals, and the relationship between risk and quality management. Risk and Quality Management Purpose.

The purpose of risk management in health care is simply the Cleanliness Effects on Students, process of protecting the assets and minimizing financial losses to the organization (Singh Habeeb Ghatala, 2012). A comprehensive risk management strategy within a health care organization will include focus on continuous quality improvement (CQI). Serial Recall! The purpose of CQI in health care, according to Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects Sollecito and Johnson (2013), is to offer a structured organizational process for involving personnel in planning and daisy quotes, executing a continuous flow of improvements to and Comfortness on Students provide quality health care that meets or exceeds expectations (p. 4). Through linking the processes of risk management and quality improvement the success of both processes is serial recall more likely to be realized. Cleanliness And Comfortness Effects On Students! Kaiser Permanente. The key concepts for risk and quality management at KP are commitment to quality, patient safety, privacy protection, and fraud prevention. KP risk management and quality management programs are central to their mission, values, and culture. Methods currently utilized to support these concepts within KP are consumer surveys, the use of an integrated EHR with evidence based guidelines and clinical decision-making functionality, stringent patient privacy regulations and national of future and technologists, processes, continuous clinical and administrative staff training programs, and participation in studies focused on standardizing national quality measures (Kaiser Permanente, 2012). Risk Identification and Management.

While KP is a leader in Cleanliness and Comfortness on Students health care risk and quality management there are specific steps this consultant is at Owl Creek Bierce recommending on a continual basis that will improve risk identification and management within the organization. 1. Identify and analyze loss and exposure. While there are many methods utilized within the health care industry in Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness on Students the identification and analysis of loss and exposure, the recommended methods for KP are as follows: a) Incident-reporting analysis. b) Improvement on the current performance management process for employees to bring focus on daisy quotes, risk mitigation and quality improvement. Effects! c) Quantitative analysis of patient complaints and john, satisfaction surveys. Cleanliness Effects! d) Review of the organizations past professional liability and workers compensation reports. e) Review of surveys completed by daisy quotes, TJC and NCQA on other hospitals in order to identify risk areas that KP should focus on. (McCaffrey Hagg-Rickert, 2009) 2. Research and propose alternative risk techniques. To mitigate risks that are unavoidable at and Comfortness Effects on Students KP, a combination of alternative risk techniques will help reduce situations that might negatively affect the organization. A financial analysis and risk analysis should be performed in order to ascertain the likelihood of utilizing the exposure avoidance technique. This is not a likely option as the financial impact of eliminating services may out weigh the john lewis policy, risks involved with continuing them. A loss reduction approach is more likely to Cleanliness Effects be the national academy of future, technique chosen for this organization.

The core prevention activities that must be present in the loss reduction technique are as follows: a.) Ongoing staff education. b.) Current policy and Essay Effects on Students, procedure review and revision. c.) Updates to the organizations current EHR system to ensure the data present in An Occurrence Creek Bridge Bierce the clinical decision-making and evidence-based clinical guidelines technology is the most current data available. According to Cleanliness and Comfortness Chen, et al (2009), a growing body of literature confirms the value of electronic health records (EHRs) in improving patient safety, improving coordination of care, enhancing documentation, and facilitating clinical decision making and adherence to evidence-based clinical guidelines (p. 323). 3. Daisy Quotes! Risk management technique selection. This two-part process of risk management technique selection is accomplished through forecasting and application of an ongoing measurement process, which will allow KP to Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects on Students analyze the risk management technique with regard to outcome and cost effectiveness. Included in An Occurrence at Owl Bridge by Ambrose Bierce the measurement process both risk treatment and risk-financing techniques should be measured (McCaffrey Hagg-Rickert 2009). 4. Implement the selected techniques. Implementation of the chosen risk management techniques may include decisions on insurance coverage and Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects on Students, policy changes, overall department workflow changes to ensure compliance with state and federally mandated regulations and guidelines, and elimination of processes that impede or hinder patient safety.

5. Monitor and improve upon the implemented risk management program In order to continue improving upon the newly implemented risk management program a comprehensive monitoring strategy should be employed. Plan Definition Ww1! In fact, McCaffrey and Essay and Comfortness, Hagg-Rickert, (2009) stated, a multidisciplinary approach to jean evaluating the risk management program ensures that the impact of additional opportunities to Essay Cleanliness Effects on Students improve the risk management function are fully explored (p. 21). Jean Baptiste Clamence! a.) Prepare an annual risk management report. b.) Compare the new annual report against prior years risk management data (McCaffrey Hagg-Rickert 2009) Three risks that KP should take special care to avoid are rejection of newly implemented risk management and CQI procedures by employees, statute and. regulatory changes, and Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness on Students, health care associated infections (HAIs). 1. Rejection. Change implementation is never an easy task and without special care taken the rate of rejection to change by clinical and administrative employees is high. In order to achieve successful CQI changes the following guidelines and recommendations are presented. a.) Minimize employee rejection through easily implemented and followed CQI procedures. b.) Engage employees in planning to increase acceptance.

c.) Ensure lateral linkages within the daisy quotes, organization across specialty departments to improve communication (Sollecito and Johnson, 2013). 2. Statute and regulatory changes. With the ever-changing landscape in state and federal statutes and regulations surrounding the health care industry, special attention to this risk area must be taken. Essay Effects! In fact, Cohen (2009) stated that health care is one of the daisy quotes, most heavily regulated of Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects on Students, all sectors of commerce (p. 328). Failure to comply with state and federal statutes and regulations can bring about negative financial affects at KP, including but not limited to; fines, loss of accreditation and lewis match, credentialing, and an increase in malpractice lawsuits, not to mention a decrease in quality of Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects, care. a.) Risk management and quality improvement officers stay current and involved in statute and regulation changes. b.) Mandate educational goals for risk management and quality management officers with regard to state and federal regulations. c.) Implement a monthly employee newsletter within which the risk management officer and quality improvement officer outline regulation changes. Include processes that employees should expect to see implemented to daisy quotes maintain compliance.

Include a signature page with those editions that include changes to policy and and Comfortness, ensure all employees sign and return to baptiste clamence the human resources department. d.) Ongoing training for clinical and administrative employees with regards to Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects statute and regulation. The risk management and quality improvement officers will be responsible to work with the organizations education department to implement new workshops as needed. e.) Include these responsibilities in the performance monitoring strategy for the risk management and quality improvement officers. 3. HAIs. Health care associated infections are a serious risk in hospitals, as noted by Sydnor and of future scam, Perl (2011), in their statement HAIs are the most common complication seen in hospitalized patients (para. 20).

Improper prevention can lead to increased costs, lengthier hospital stays, and even patient death. Additionally, a Condition of Participation (CoP) (42 CFR 482.42) by CMS mandates hospital infection control programs to adhere to specific requirements. Recommendations are as follows. a.) Implement a house-keeping checklist to ensure proper sanitization of patient rooms. b.) Implement a sanitization checklist for clinical staff that will enforce hand washing before and Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects, after patient contact. c.) Develop a committee to review and and technologists, revise the KP infection prevention and control program. Revisions should focus on compliance with TJC and Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects on Students, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) regulations. Quality Outcomes. Internal and external. Three internal and external factors that influence quality outcomes are organization management of interpersonal relationships between physicians and patients, patient compliance, and continuity of care. Without proper management of interpersonal relationships between physicians and patients, the clamence, organization will face degradation in trust and openness. Patients should be involved in and Comfortness all treatment decisions, through proper education on their diagnosis and treatment options.

This will bring about patient engagement in this decision making process. While KP cannot force their patients to comply with treatment guidelines, the external influence of patient compliance is crucial to quality outcomes. Programs focused on thorough training and education of patients and family members will improve the rate of compliance, thus improving the daisy quotes, probability of Essay and Comfortness Effects, positive quality outcomes for patients. Lack of patient compliance will hinder the treatment process and lower the level of quality outcomes standards at KP. Continuity of care is another internal influence that can affect quality outcomes. Regular follow up with patients will also increase patient compliance. Without improving continuity of care, the KP organization will see a reduction in positive quality outcomes and an increased in daisy quotes undesired outcomes (DeHarnais, 2013, chp 5).

Goals. 1. Design new regulatory and Essay on Students, statute training programs for all clinical and national scientists, administrative employees. And Comfortness Effects! 2. Review and schlieffen ww1, revise the KP infection prevention and control program 3. Revise the performance management system to include CQI measurements and risk management procedures as performance metrics. 1. Increase adherence to state and Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects, federal regulations and statutes throughout the lewis price, KP organization. 2. Reduce HAIs by 10% throughout KP hospitals in the northern California region. 3. Improve CQI measurement and risk management policy adherence throughout the northern California region by 20% among clinical employees.

Risk and Essay and Comfortness, Quality Management. Risk management policies. 1. Plan Ww1! Quarterly peer review. The Health Care Quality Improvement Act (HCQIA) of 1986 encourages hospitals, state licensing boards, and Effects on Students, professional societies to identify and discipline physicians, dentists, and other health care providers who, after adequate, nondiscriminatory peer review, were found to daisy quotes have engaged in negligent or unprofessional conduct (Cohen, 2013 p. 333). Through ongoing screening of new and current clinicians, KP will take responsibility for offering their patients that highest quality of care and reducing the risk of employing negligent clinical employees. Essay On Students! 2. Zero tolerance adherence policy for all employees with regard to infection control procedures Part of the CMS CoP (42 CFR 482.42) regulation is the designation of an infection control officer and development of relevant policies that address the daisy quotes, identification and control of infections and communicable diseases. And Comfortness Effects On Students! Without full compliance with all CoPs, KP could face the loss of their Medicare provider agreement. 3. Vulnerability analysis chart and emergency plan policy. According to Rawson and Hammond (2009) by evaluating vulnerabilities and taking appropriate preventive action, loss can be minimized in An Occurrence Bridge Bierce an emergency (p. 506). Health care facilities should include prevention measures in their emergency plans that include the risk of terrorist attacks.

While terrorist attack risk cannot be completely mitigated, it is the responsibility of the health care facility to be prepared for such an emergency. Obtain additional information on including risk of terrorist attacks from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Quality management policies. 1. Adherence to evidence-based clinical guidelines. While it has been shown that clinicians have customarily enjoyed a great deal of autonomy in their practices (Argawal, 2010, para 3), it is imperative that clinicians follow evidence-based clinical guidelines. If exceptions should be made the details of, the patient diagnosis and variations should be presented for peer review prior to altering treatment plans.

2. Minimum score of 88% on customer satisfaction surveys. Clinicians must maintain an average score of no less than 88% on customer satisfaction surveys quarterly. In todays health care market, measurements of quality include consumer satisfaction. In fact, Bernard and Essay and Comfortness, Savitz (2009) state that in todays competitive health care environment, consumers want and expect better health care services and hospital systems are concerned about maintaining their overall image (p. 185). Relationship between risk and quality management.

In the past, risk management officers and quality improvement managers worked autonomously from one another, in fact they most often reported to different superiors. However, today healthcare organizations are realizing that in order to reach quality of care goals and maintain effective risk management programs these disciplines must work together closely. An example of how risk management efforts and quality improvement efforts complement one another is seen in the reduction of medical errors. The risk management plan must consider ways to reduce medical errors, while the quality improvement plan will offer solid steps toward minimizing medical errors (Sollecito and Johnson, 2013). Conclusion. This summary focused on serial recall, topics such as the purpose of risk and quality management, risk identification and and Comfortness, management, current risks, quality outcomes, organizational goals, and the relationship between risk and quality management. While KP is the nations largest integrated health care delivery systems and An Occurrence at Owl by Ambrose Bierce Essay, leader in CQI standardization, there is always room for improvements. This consultant understands the importance of improvement at KP, thus humbly presents this summary and and Comfortness Effects on Students, recommendations to the board of directors. Agarwal, R. (2010, May).

A Guideline for Quality Accreditation in Hospitals. Quality Digest, (), 1-4. Retrieved from Chen, C., Garrido, T., Chock, D., Okawa, G., Liang, L. (2009). The Kaiser Permanente electronic health record: Transforming and streamlining modalities of care. Health Affairs, 28(2), 323-33. Retrieved from Cohen, M. Clamence! (2009). Statutes, Standards, and Regulations (chp 10) in McCaffrey, J. J., Hagg-Rickert, S. Essay Cleanliness And Comfortness Effects! (2009) Risk Management Handbook (5th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. DesHarnais, S. I. (2013). John Lewis Price Match Policy! The outcome model of quality (chp 5) in Sollecito, W. A. and Essay Cleanliness and Comfortness Effects, Johnson, J. K. (2013). McLaughlin and Kaluznys Continuous Quality Improvement In Health Care (4th ed.).

Jones and national academy of future scientists and technologists scam, Bartlett Publishers. Emily R. M. Sydnor, Trish M. Perl (2011, January). Clin Microbiol, 24(1): 141173. Retrieved from Kaiser Permanente. (2014). Kaiser Permanente, Retrieved from McCaffrey, J. J., Hagg-Rickert, S. (2009, Chp 1) Developing of a Risk Management Program in Risk Management Handbook (5th ed.).

San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Rawson, M. Cleanliness And Comfortness Effects! L. and Hammond, H. Y,. (2009) Emergency Management in McCaffrey, J. J., Hagg-Rickert, S. (2009, Chp 7) Developing of a Risk Management Program in Risk Management Handbook (5th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Singh, B., Habeeb Ghatala, M. (2012, August). Risk Management in daisy quotes Hospitals. International Journal of Innovation, Management and. Technology, 3(4). Sollecito, W. A. and Johnson, J. And Comfortness! K. (2013). McLaughlin and schlieffen plan definition, Kaluznys Continuous Quality Improvement In Health Care (4th ed.). Cleanliness On Students! Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

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