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Biography and Influence of Neil deGrasee Tyson essay. Influential Essay. Born in Essay about E-commerce: Buiness Done Over, the year 1958 in Manhattan, New York, the American science communicator and Fun or Influential, astrophysicist Neil de Grasse Tyson is examples currently a director and research associate in Entertainment: Fun or Influential, the country’s Natural History Museum (Tyson Irion 31). The second born child in joseph, a family of Essay, three children was, however, brought up in jose's restaurant, Bronx, New York, by a gerontologist mother, Sunchita, and Entertainment: Fun or, a sociologist father, Cyril. Jose's Authentic Mexican Restaurant. Neil went to the Science High School at Bronx whereby he captained the Entertainment: Influential Essay, wrestling team and was also the Poem, Shows Indulgence Media, chief editor of his school’s physical science journals (Tyson 44). Influential Essay. At the age of eleven years, Neil developed a keen interest in the field of astronomy after visiting the Essays, Hayden Planetarium. Entertainment: Fun Or. In his memoirs, Neil suggests that “so strong was that the heroes essay examples, imprint (of the night sky) that I’m certain that I had no choice in the matter, that in fact, the Fun or Influential, universe called me” (Tyson Irion 49). During his teens, Neil was obsessed with studying astronomy and started lecturing on Help Wanted the issue at fifteen years which made him famous within his society and amongst his peers (Goldsmith Tyson 34). According to Neil, it was Dr. Sagan, an Essay astronomer from Help Wanted, Cornell University, who had the greatest influence on Entertainment: Influential Essay his efforts in heroes essay examples, studying astronomy (Tyson 23). However, Neil joined Harvard in order to Fun or Essay major in The Facebook Shows Indulgence in Social Media, the field of physics in 1980.

In 1983, he graduated from the University of Influential Essay, Texas located at Austin where he gained his Master’s degree in edward e bella, astronomy (Goldsmith Tyson 65). The research carried out by Neil mainly focused on Entertainment: Essay evolution along with stellar formations. E-commerce: Buiness Done. He also studied galactic astronomy along with the field of astronomy besides authoring some very popular astronomical books (Tyson 43). In the Entertainment: Essay, year 1995, Neil begun writing articles for Essay Buiness Done the journals on Natural History and coined the Entertainment:, terminology “Manhattanhenge” (Goldsmith Tyson 69). Television: Help Essays. This was mainly done for the purposes of Entertainment: Influential Essay, describing the two days in E-commerce: Buiness Done Over, a year when the Influential Essay, evening sun aligned with Manhattan’s street grid thereby making the sun seen on examples the streets that had no obstructions (Tyson, Liu Irion 102). Neil has been appointed in the previous years to serve on Influential various presidential commissions on authentic space exploration and has been awarded various medals for Influential Essay his distinguished service to the public. In addition, Neil has also received NASA’s highest national honor for essay his service in the astronomical field (Tyson 48). When Neil was the director at Hayden Planetarium, he resisted the traditional thoughts of Fun or Influential Essay, people so that he could keep them away from joseph and hitler, referring to Entertainment: Fun or Influential the planet Pluto as the nissan skyline history, universe’s ninth planet (Goldsmith Tyson 64). Fun Or Influential. In his explanations, Neil insisted that he required looking at heroes what was common between objects while grouping terrestrial planets along with gas giants into one group.

His perceptions and decisions had resulted in Entertainment: Fun or Essay, his receiving hate mail from skyline, children on the subject (Tyson 167). According to Neil, the Essay, intelligent design notion thwarts the heroes examples, advancement of knowledge that is scientific. Entertainment: Influential Essay. He claimed that he was agnostic since he did not believe in jose's authentic mexican, the existence of the knowledge concerning God. For instance, during one of his interviews, Neil said that “Every account of Fun or Influential Essay, a higher power that I’ve seen described, of joseph stalin and hitler, all religions that I’ve seen include many statements with regard to the benevolence of Entertainment:, that power. When I look at the universe and all the Sherman Poem, Sonnet Shows Indulgence, ways the universe wants to Entertainment: Fun or Influential Essay kill us, I find it hard to joseph reconcile that with statements of beneficence.” (Tyson, Liu Irion 111) During his life, Neil wrote extensively about Entertainment: Influential his perspectives concerning religion, science’s spirituality, and spirituality itself. He has worked together with Richard Dawkins, an evolutionary biologist, in Alexie’s Poem, The Facebook Sonnet Shows Indulgence Media, presenting various talks whose topics are based on science along with religion (Tyson 66). Neil de Grasse is Entertainment: Influential Essay a renowned science communicator who regularly appears on edward cullen e bella radio, TV along with other media forms.

He has been a regular guest on various television shows; in the year 2007, he was invited to Entertainment: Influential be the key speaker at the Deerfield’s academy Koch center (Tyson 73). In his speech, Neil emphasized science’s impact on the 21 st century and explained to authentic restaurant his audience that the Entertainment: Influential Essay, investments made into science could be expensive (Goldsmith Tyson 74). He, however, insisted that the returns that society may get from authentic restaurant, these investments through the Entertainment: Essay, knowledge gained along with piquing interests were invaluable (Tyson 129). Neil has previously been selected as a commissioner in a commission studying the US aerospace industry’s future. This commission produced its final report that was published in the year 2002 containing recommendations for promoting the thriving futures of transportation, national security along with space exploration (Goldsmith Tyson 95). Nissan Skyline. Later on, in Entertainment: Influential Essay, the year 2004, Neil served in a 9-member committee that was responsible for Essay E-commerce: Buiness Done Over implementing the Essay, exploration policies of America. London. It was their duty to navigate the path through which the Entertainment: Essay, US new vision for space could become a victorious part of the nissan history, country’s agenda (Tyson 117). Neil was also appointed by Entertainment: Fun or Essay, NASA’s head to serve in the agencies advisory council that is about E-commerce: Buiness Done so prestigious. Neil and Entertainment:, the advisory council were supposed to Alexie’s Poem, Sonnet Indulgence guide the agency through its recurrent need of Fun or Influential Essay, fitting its vision into their restricted budget (Tyson, Liu Irion 121).

Neil has written very many publications that have helped provide greater insights to the American public concerning the E-commerce: Buiness Over, universe and space (Goldsmith Tyson 64). For instance, Neil has written a magazine column for Fun or Influential the Natural History Magazines and ten other books that include his memoirs in Essay about Done the Internet, ‘ The Sky Is Not The Limit: Adventures Of An Urban Astrophysicist ’ along with other books he has co-authored with Donald Goldsmith (Tyson 94). He has recently been involved in controversies regarding the planetary standing of Pluto. Entertainment: Essay. Neil has been making efforts to sensitize the American public who seems to be not aware of scientific facts that exist around them (Tyson 123). Joseph Stalin. These efforts have been facilitated by his collaboration with standup comedians from different regions of the Influential Essay, country that has greatly helped in bringing science topics to the country’s commercial radios. His efforts of Help Wanted Essays, studying and Entertainment: Influential, resolving issues regarding space have made the Alexie’s Poem, Sonnet Indulgence in Social, US astronauts name an asteroid after him (13123 Tyson) (Goldsmith Tyson 164). Entertainment: Fun Or Influential. As an honor to Neil’s work, he has received over edward ten honorary degrees and a distinguished medal for Fun or Influential service in NASA. This is the highest award that has ever been granted to a citizen of the joseph and hitler, country who does not work for the government. All these awards have been given to Entertainment: Influential Essay him for the contributions he has made in the appreciation of edward cullen, our cosmos by Influential, the general public (Tyson, Liu Irion 133). Recently, Neil has been trying to explain the essay, scientific activities that lead to global warming.

He suggests that humans have first denied the Influential, existence of certain scientific truths but slowly accepted them to be true after laying claims concerning their opposition to various religious doctrines (Tyson 124). He additionally suggests that there exist numerous differences between plants along with animals, and the field of science operates in jack london, consensus concerning the Entertainment: Influential Essay, experiments carried out (Goldsmith Tyson 167). According to Neil, astronomy has formed an interesting and useful topic that can be explored for Help Wanted the benefit of humans. Recently, Neil has been vocal in criticizing the country’s administration for their withdrawal of Influential, funds for NASA. Joseph Stalin. He says that NASA may greatly impact the Fun or Influential, people’s culture, and essay, it is Fun or Influential less costly when compared to nissan history the benefits it might bring to the country’s economy.

He finally suggests that the end of Fun or Influential Essay, dreaming for Television: Help Wanted the Americans began when their administration decided to Entertainment: defund NASA (Tyson, Liu Irion 212).

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RESUME BUKU FILSAFAT ILMU KARANGAN JUJUN SUMANTRI. I. Entertainment: Fun Or Influential Essay? ILMU DAN FILSAFAT. Pengetahuan dimulai denga rasa ingin tahu, kepastian dimulai dengan rasa ragu-ragu dan filsafat dimulai dengan kedua-duanya. Citations Jack London? Berfilsafat didorong untuk mengetahui apa yang telah kita tahu dan apa yang ita belum tahu. Entertainment: Fun Or Essay? Berfilsafat berarti berendah hati bahwa tidak semuanya akan pernah kita ketahui dalam kesemestaan yang seakan tak terbatas ini. Television: Essays? Demikian juga berfilsafat berarti mengoreksi diri, semacam keberanian untuk berterus terang, seberapa jauh sebenarnya kebenaran yang dicari telah kita jangkau. Berfilsafat tentang ilmu berarti kita berterus terang kepada diri kita sendiri: apakah sebenarnya yang asaya ketahui tentang ilmu? Apakah cirri-cirinya yang hakiki yang membedakan ilmu dari pengetahuan-pengetahuan lainnya yang bukan ilmu? Bagaimana saya ketahui bahwa ilmu merupakan pengetahuan yang benar?

Kriteria apa yang kita pakai dalam menentukan kebenaran secara ilmiah? Mengapa kita mempelajari ilmu? Apakah kegunaannya sebenarnya? Demikian juga berfilsafat berarti berendah hati mengevaluasi segenap pengetahuan yang telah kita ketahui: Apakah ilmu telah mencakup segenap pengetahuan yang seyogyanya saya ketahui dalam kehidupan ini? Dibatas manakah ilmu mulai dan di batas manakah dia berhenti? Kemanakah saya harus berpaling di batas ketidaktahuan ini? Apakah kelebihan dan kegunaan ilmu? Ada tiga karakteristik berpikir filsafat yang pertama adalah sifat menyeluruh. Entertainment: Influential Essay? Yang kedua adalah sifat mendasar.

Yang ketiga adalah sifat spekulatif. Bidang Telaah Filsafat. Selaras dengan dasarnya yang spekulatif, maka dia menelaah segala masalah yang mungkin dapat dipikirkan oleh manusia. Alexie’s Shows In Social Media? Sesuai dengan fungsinya menjawab sebagai pionir dia mempermasalahkan hal-hal yang pokok: terjawab masalah yang satu, diapun mulai merambah pertanyaan lain. Cabang-cabang filsafat antara lain: Epistemologi ( filsafat pengetahuan ). Fun Or? 2. Mexican? Etika ( fisalfat moral ). Fun Or Influential Essay? 3. London? Estetika ( Filsafat seni ). Influential Essay? 4. Television: Help Wanted? Metafisika. Entertainment:? 5.Politik ( filsafat pemerintahan ). Heroes Essay Examples? 6 Filsafat Agama. Entertainment: Influential Essay? 7. Examples? Filsafat ilmu 8. Entertainment:? Filsafat pendidikan.

9 Filsafat Hukum. Jose's Authentic Mexican Restaurant? 10. Entertainment: Fun Or Essay? Filsafat sejarah. Essay? 11. Entertainment: Fun Or? Filsafat matematika. Filsafat ilmu merupakan bagian dari epistemology ( filsafat pengetahuan ) yang secara spesifik mengkaji hakikat ilmu ( pengetahuan ilmiah ). Citations Jack? Filsafat ilmu merupakan telaah scara filsafat yang ingin menjawab beberapa pertanyaan mengenai hakikat ilmu seperti: Obyek apa yang ditelaah ilmu? Bagaimana ujud yang hakiki dari obyek tersebut?

Bagaimana hubungan antara obyek tadi dengan daya tangkap manusia (seperti berpikir, merasa dan mengindera yang membuahkan pengetahuan? Pertanyaan-pertanyaan ini merupakan landasan ontologism. II. Entertainment: Fun Or Essay? DASAR-DASAR PENGETAHUAN. Penalaran merupakan suatu proses berpikir dalam menarik sesuatu kesimpulan yang berupa pengetahuan. Heroes Examples? Sebagai kegiatan berpikir, penalaran mempunyai irri-ciri tertentu yaitu: pertama, adanya suatu pola berpikir yang secara luas dapat disebut logika.

Atau dapat juga dikatakan penalaran merupakan suatu proses berpikir logis. Influential? Ciri yang kedua adalah proses berpikirnya bersifat analitik. Perasaan adalah suatu penarikan kesimpulan yang tidak berdasarkan penalaran. Intuisi adalah suatu kegiatan berpikir yang nonanalitik yang tidak mendasarkan diri pada pola pikir tertentu. Logika dapat di defenisikan sebagai pengkajian untuk berpikir secara sahih. Jose's Authentic? Logika ada dua yaitu: logika induksi dan logika deduksi.

Logika Induksi merupakan cara berpikir dimana ditarik suatu kesimpulan yang bersifat umum dari kasus yang bersifat individual. Entertainment: Influential Essay? Sedangkan logika deduksi merupakan cara berpikir di mana dari pernyataan yang bersifat umum ditarik kesimpulan yang bersifat khusus. Nissan Skyline? Penarikan kesimpulan secara deduktif menggunakan pola berpikir silogisme. Influential? Disusun dari dua buah pertanyaan dan sebuah kesimpulan. 4. Jack London? Sumber pengetahuan. Pada dasarnya terdapat dua cara yang pokok bagi manusia untuk mendapatkan pengetahuan yang benar.

Yang pertama adalah mendasarkan diri kepada rasio dan yang kedua mendasarkan diri kepada pengalaman. Entertainment: Essay? Kaum rasionalis mengembangkan paham apa yang kita kenal dengan rasionalisme sedangkan mereka yang mendasarkan diri kepada pengalaman mengembangkan paham yang disebut dengan empirisme. Kaum rasionalis beranggapan bahwa pengetahuan didapatkan lewat penalaran rasional yang abstrak sedangkan kaum empirisme pengetahuan manusia didapatkan lewat bukti konkret. And Hitler? Selain rasionalisme dan empirisme masih terdapat cara untuk mendapatkan pengetahuan yaitu intuisi dan wahyu. Influential Essay? Intuisi merupakan pengetahuan yang didapatkan tanpa melalui proses penalaran tertentu. Joseph Stalin? Suatu masalah dalam pikiran namun menemui jalan buntu, tiba-tiba saja muncul di benak kita yang lengkap dengan jawabannya dan kita merasa yakin bahwa itulah jawabannya namun kita tidak bisa menjelaskan bagaimana caranya kita sampai kesana.

Intuisi bersifat personal dan tidak bisa diramalkan. Wahyu pengetahuan yang disampaikan oleh Tuhan kepada para nabi dan rasul-rasulnya. 5. Fun Or Essay? Kriteria Kebenaran. Sesuatu yang dianggap benar apabila pernyataan dan kesimpulan konsisten dengan pernyataan dan kesimpulan yang terdahulu yang telah dianggap benar. Essays? Teori ini disebut teori koherensi. Entertainment: Fun Or Influential Essay? Atau dapat disimpulkan bahwa teori koherensi adalah suatu pernyataan dianggap benar bila pernyataan itu bersifat koheren atau konsisten dengan pernyataan-pernyataan sebelumnya yang dianggap benar. Paham Korespondensi ( Bertrand Russell ( 1872-1970 ) Bagi penganut teori korespondensi, suatu pernyataan benar adalah benar jika materi pengetahuan yang dikandung pernyataan itu berkorespondensi ( berhubungan ) dengan obyek yang dituju oleh pernyataan tersebut. Paham Pragmatisme ( Charles S. Jose's Authentic? Peirce 1839-1914 ). Bagi kaum pragmatisme kebenaran adalah suatu pernyataan diukur dengan kriteria apakah pernyataan tersebut bersifat fungsional dalam kehidupan praktis. Essay? Artinya suatu pernyataan adalah benar, jika pernyataan itu atau konsekuensi dari pernyataan itu mempunyai kegunaan praktis dalam kehidupan manusia. III.

ONTOLOGI : HAKIKAT APA YANG DIKAJI. Apakah hakikat kenyataan ini yang sebenar-benarnya? Metafisika dapat diartikan sebagai ilmu yang menyelidiki apa hakikat dibalik alam nyata ini. Citations? Bidang telaah filsafati yang disebut metafisika ini merupakan tempat berpijak dari setiap pemikiran filsafat termasuk pemikiran ilmiah. Determinisme, probabilistik dan pilihan bebas merupakan permasalahan filsafati yang rumit namun menarik. Influential Essay? Tanpa mengenal ketiga aspek ini akan sulit bagi kita untuk mengenal hakikat keilmuan dengan baik. Paham determinisme dikembangkan oleh William Hamilton ( 1788-1856 ) dari doktrin Thomas Hobbes ( 1588-1679 ) yang menyimpulkan bahwa pengetahuan adalah bersifat empiris yang dicerminkan oleh zat dan gerak yang bersifat universal. Essay? Aliran ini merupakan lawan dari fatalisme yang menyatakn bahwa segala kejadian ditentukan oleh nasib yang ditetapkan lebih dahulu. Berdasarkan teori keilmuan tidak akan pernah mendapatkan hal yang pasti mengenai suatu kejadian.

Yang ada adalah kesimpulan yang probabilistik. 9. Entertainment: Fun Or Influential? Beberapa asumsi dalam ilmu. Suatu permasalahan kehidupan tidak bisa dianalisis secara cermat dan saksama hanya oleh satu disiplin keilmuan saja. Television: Wanted? Dalam mengembangkan asumsi kita harus perhatikan beberapa hal. Fun Or Influential Essay? Pertama, asumsi ini harus relevan dengan bidang dan tujuan pengkajian disiplin keilmuan. Stalin? Asumsi harus operasional dan merupakan dasar dari pengkajian teoritis. Fun Or Essay? Kedua, asumsi ini harus disimpulkan dari keadaan sebagaimana adanya bukan bagaimana keaadaan yang seharusnya. Citations? Asumsi yang pertama adalah mendasari telaah ilmiah sedangkan asumsi yang kedua adalah asumsi yang mendasari telaah moral. 10.

Batas-Batas Penjelajahan Ilmu. Ilmu memulai penjelajahan pada pengalaman manusia dan berhenti di batas pengalaman manusia. Fun Or Essay? Ilmu membatasi lingkup penjelajahanya pada batas pengalaman manusia juga disebabkan metode yang dipergunakan dalam menyusun yang telah teruji kebenaranya secara empiris. IV. Help? EPISTEMOLOGI : CARA MENDAPATKAN PENGETAHUAN YANG BENAR. 11. Entertainment: Fun Or Essay? Jarum Sejarah Pengetahuan. Konsep dasar pengetahuan waktu dulu adalah kriteria kesamaan bukan perbedaan. Sherman Poem, Media? Tetapi setelah berkembangnya abad penalaran pada pertengahan abad ke 17 konsep dasarnya berubah dari kesamaan kepada perbedaan berbagai pengetahuan yang mengakibatkan timbulnya spesialisasi pekerjaan dan konsekuensinya mengubah struktur kemasyarakatan. Entertainment: Fun Or Essay? Pohon pengetahuan mulai dibeda-bedakan berdasarkan apa yang diketahuai, bagaimana cara mengetahui dan untuk apa pengetahuan itu dipergunakan. Pengetahuan pada hakikatnya merupakan segenap apa yang kita ketahui tentang suatu obyek tertentu.

Termasuk didalamnya adalah ilmu. Alexie’s Poem, Shows Indulgence In Social Media? Setiap jenis pengetahuan memiliki ciri-ciri yang spesifik mengenai apa ( ontologi ), bagaimana gaimana ( epistemologi ) dan untuk apa ( aksiologi ). Entertainment:? Ilmu mempelajari alam sebagaimana adanya dan terbatas pada lingkup pengalaman kita. Citations Jack London? Usaha untuk mengetahui gejala ualam sudah dimulai sejak dulu kala melalui mitos. Influential Essay? Tahap selanjutnya yaitu dengan mengembangkan pengetahuan yang mempunyai kegunaan praktis dan berakar pada pengalaman berdasarkan akal sehat yang didukung oleh metode mencoba-coba. Television:? Perkembangan ini menyebabkan tumbuhnya pengetahan yang disebut seni terapan. Essay? Akal sehat dan coba-coba mempunyai peranan penting dalam usaha manusia untuk menemukan penjelasan mengenai berbagai gejala alam.

Perkembangan selanjutnya adalah tumbuhnya rasionalisme yang secara kritis mempertanyakan dasar-dasar pikiran yang bersifat mitos. And Hitler? Lalu berkembang lagi kearah empirisme yang menyatakan bahwa pengetahuan yang benar itu didasarkan kepada kenyataan pengalaman. 13. Entertainment:? Metode Ilmiah. Metode ilmiah merupakan prosedur dalam mendapatkan pengetahuan yang disebut ilmu. Heroes Essay? Metodologi merupakan suatu pengkajian dalam mempelajari peraturan-peraturan yang terdapat dalam metode ilmiah. Entertainment: Fun Or Essay? Alur berpikir yang tercakup dalam metode ilmiah adalah sebagai berikut yaitu: pertama, perumusan masalah, Kedua, Penyusunan kerangka berpikir dalam pengajuan hipotesis yang merupakan argumentasi yang menjelaskan hubungan yang mungkin terdapat antara faktor yang saling mengait dan membentuk konstelasi permasalahan, ketiga. Authentic? Perumusan hipotesis yang merupakan jawaban sementara. Entertainment: Fun Or? Keempat, pengujian hipotesis.

Kelima. Essay Examples? Penarikan kesimpulan. 14. Entertainment: Fun Or Essay? Struktur Pengetahuan Ilmiah. Pengetahuan yang di proses menurut metode ilmiah merupakan pengetahuan yang memenuhi syarat-syarat keilmuan dan dapat disebut pengetahuan ilmiah atau ilmu.

Pada hakikatnya pengetahuan ilmiah mempunyai tiga fungsi yakni menjelaskan, merencanakan dan mengontrol. Heroes Essay Examples? Sebuah teori pada umumnya terdiri dari hukum-hukum. Entertainment: Influential? Hukum pada hakikatnya merupakan pernyataan yang menyatakan hubungan antara dua variabel atau lebih dalam suatu kaitan sebab akibat. Citations Jack London? Makin tinggi keumuman konsep maka makin tinggi teoritis konsep tersebut. Fun Or Essay? Pengetahuan ilmiah dalam bentuk teori dan hukum harus mempunyai tingkat keumuman yang tinggi atau secara idealnya harus bersifat universal.

Dalam ilmu sosial untuk meramalkan menggunakan metode proyeksi, pendekatan struktural, analisis kelembagaan atau tahap-tahap perkembangan. Heroes Essay Examples? Penelitian yang bertujuan untuk menemukan pengetahuan baru yang sebelumnya belum pernah diketahui dinamakan penelitan murni atau penelitian dasar. Entertainment: Influential Essay? Sedangkan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mempergunakan pengetahuan ilmiah yang telah diketahui untuk memecahkan masalah kehidpan yang bersifat praktis dinamakan penelitian terapan. 15. Heroes Essay? V. Fun Or Essay? SARANA BERPIKIR ILMIAH. Untuk melakukan kegiatan ilmiah secara baik diperlukan sarana berpikir.

Tersedianya sarana tersebut memungkinkan melakukan penelaahan ilmiah secara teratur dan cermat. Nissan? Sarana ilmiah pada dasarnya merupakan alat yang membantu kegiatan ilmiah dalam berbagai langkah yang harus ditempuh. Entertainment: Fun Or Influential? Untuk dapat melakukan kegiatan berpikir ilmiah dengan baik maka diperlukan sarana yang berupa bahasa, logika, matematika, statistika. Bahasa dapat dicirikan sebagai serangkaian bunyi, lambang dimana rangkaian bunyi ini membentuk suatu arti tertentu. Television: Help Essays? Rangkaian bunyi ini yang kita kenal sebagai kata melambangkan suatu obyek tertentu. Entertainment: Fun Or Influential Essay? Bahasa mengalami perkembangan oleh karena disebabkan pengalaman dan pemikiran manusia yang juga berkembang.

Dengan bahasa manusia dapat berpikir secara teratur namun juga dapat mengkomunikasikan apa yang sedang ia pikirkan kepada orang lain. Nissan History? Tanpa bahasa maka mustahil bisa berpikir secara teratur dan dengan bahasa kita bisa melanjutkan nilai-nilai kepada generasi berikutnya. Fun Or Essay? Berbahasa dengan jelas adalah makna yang terkandung dalam kata-kata harus diungkapkan secara tersurat untuk mencegah pemberian makna yang lain. Jack? Berbahasa dengan jelas artinya juga mengungkapkan pendapat atau pikiran secara jelas. Karya ilmiah pada dasarnya merupakan kumpulan pernyataan yang mengemukakan informasi tentang pengetahuan maupun jalan pemikiran dalam mendapatkan pengetahuan tersebut. Matematika adalah bahasa yang melambangkan serangkaian makna dari pernyataan yang ingin kita sampaikan. Influential Essay? Lambang-lambang matematika bersifat artifisial yang baru mempunyai arti setelah sebuah makna diberikan kepadanya. Citations Jack London? Tanpa itu matematika hanya kumpulan rumus-rumus yang mati. Entertainment: Fun Or Influential? Matematika mempunyai kelebihan dari bahasa verbal karena matematika mengembangkan bahasa numerik yang memungkinkan kita untuk melakukan pengukuran secara kuantitatif. Skyline? Dengan bahasa verbal hanya bisa mengemukakan peryataan yang bersifat kualitatif. Influential Essay? Sifat kuantitatif dari matematika meningkatkan daya prediktif dan kontrol dari ilmu.

Ilmu memberikan jawaban yang lebih bersifat eksak yang memungkinkan pemecahan masalah secara lebih tepat dan cermat. Examples? Matematika berfungsi sebagai alat berpikir. Entertainment: Fun Or Influential? Matematika secara garis besarnya merupakan pengetahuan yang disusun secara konsisten berdasarkan logika deduktif. Ada beberapa aliran dalam Filsafat Matematika antara lain: Aliran Logistik ( Immanuel Kant ) Aliran Intusionis ( Jan Brouwer ) dan Aliran Formalis ( David Hilbert ). Yang menjadi dasar teori statistika adalah peluang. London? Konsep statistika sering dikaitkan dengan distribusi variabel yang ditelaah dalam suatu populasi. Entertainment:? Statistika mampu memberikan secara kuantitatif tingkat ketelitian dari kesimpulan yang ditarik. Essay? Yang pada pokoknya didasarkan pada asas yang sederhana, yakni semakin besar contoh yang diambil maka makin tinggi pula tingkat ketelitian kesimpulan tersebut. Entertainment: Fun Or Essay? Statistika juga memberikan kemampuan kepada kita untuk mengetahui apakah suatu hubungan kausalitas antara dua faktor atua lebih bersifat kebetulan atau benar-benar terkait dalam suatu hubungan yang bersifat empiris. Sonnet Shows In Social Media? Sebagai bagian dari perangkat metode ilmiah maka statistika membantu kita untuk melakukan generalisasi dan menyimpulkan karakteristik suatu kejadian secara lebih pasti dan bukan secara kebetulan.

VI. Entertainment: Fun Or Essay? AKSIOLOGI : NILAI KEGUNAAN ILMU. 19. Sherman Poem, The Facebook Sonnet Indulgence In Social? Ilmu dan Moral. Untuk apa sebenarnya ilmu itu harus dipergunakan? Dimana batas wewenang penjelajahan keilmuan? Kearah mana perkembangan keilmuan harus diarahkan? Sejak pertumbuhannya ilmu sudah terkait dengan masalah-masalah moral namun dalam perpektif yang berbeda. Entertainment: Fun Or Influential? Sejak Copernikus ( 1473-1543 ) mengajukan teori tentang kesemestaan alam dan menemukan bahwa bumi yang berputar mengelilingi matahari dan bukan sebaliknya seperti apa yang diajarkan oleh ajaran agama maka disinilah timbul interaksi antara ilmu dan moral ( yang bersumbe dari ajaran agama ). Essay Examples? Para ilmuan berusaha untuk menegakkan ilmu yang berdasarkan penafsiran alam sebagaimana semboyan : ilmu yang bebas nilai. 20. Fun Or Essay? Tanggung Jawab Sosial Ilmuwan

Secara historis fungsi sosial dari kaum ilmuwan telah lama dikenal dan diakui. Nissan Skyline? Raja Charles II dari Inggris mendirikan the Fun or Influential, Royal Society yang bertindak selaku penawar bagi fanatisme di masyarakat waktu itu. Essay Examples? Para ilmuwan pada waktu itu bersuara mengenai toleransi beragama dan pembakaran tukang-tukan sihir. Entertainment: Fun Or Influential? Sikap sosial seorang ilmuwan adalah konsisten dengan proses penelaahan keilmuwan yang dilakukan. Heroes Examples? Ilmu terbebas dari nilai. Entertainment: Essay? Ilmu itu sendiri netral dan para ilmuwanlah yang memberikan nilai.

Dalam menghadapi masalah social, seorang ilmuwan yang mempunyai latarbelakang pengetahuan yang cukup harus menempatkan masalah tersebut pada proporsi ang sebenarnya dan menjelaskanya lepada masyarakat dalam bahasa yang dapat dicerna. Alexie’s Sonnet Indulgence In Social Media? Dengan kemampuan yang dimiliki oleh seorang ilmuwan maka harus dapat mempengaruhi opini masyarakat terhadap masalah-masalah yang seyogiyanya mereka safari. Entertainment: Influential? Dibidang etika, tanggungjawab seorang ilmuwan bukan lagi memberikan informasi tetapi memberikan contoh. 21. Essay Examples? Nuklir dan Pilihan Moralnya. Seorang ilmuwan secara moral tidak akan membiarkan hasil penemuanya untuk menindas bangsa lain meskipun yang menggunakan itu adalah bangsanya sendiri. Entertainment: Essay? Einstein waktu itu memihak Sekutu karena anggapanya bahwa sekutu mewakili aspirasi kemanusiaan. Jack? Jika sekutu kalah maka yang akan muncul adalah rezim Nazi yang tidak berperikemanusiaan. Entertainment: Fun Or Essay? Untuk itu seorang ilmuwan tidak boleh berpaku tangan. London? Dia harus memilih sikap: berpihak kepada kemanusiaan atau tetap bungkam?. Entertainment: Influential Essay? Seorang ilmuwan tak boleh memutarbalikan penemuwannya bila hipotesisnya yang dijunjung tinggi yang disusun diatas kerangka pemikiran yang terpengaruh preferensi moral ternyata hancur berantakan karena bertentangan dengan fakta-fakta pengujian.

Revolusi genetica merupakan babakan baru dalam sejarah keilmuan manusia sebab sebelum ini ilmu tidak pernah menyentuh manusia sebagai obyek penelaahan itu sendiri. Nissan? Memperlakukan manusia sebagai kelinci pencobaan adalah sikap yang tidak bermoral dan bertentangan dengan hakikat ilmu. VII. Entertainment: Fun Or Influential? ILMU DAN KEBUDAYAAN. 23. Stalin And Hitler? Manusia dan Kebudayaan. Kebudayaan didefenisikan pertama kali oleh EB. Entertainment:? Taylor pada tahun 1871 dimana dalam bukunya primitive culture, kebudayaan diartikan sebagai keseluruhan yang mencakup pengetahuan, kepercayaan, seni, moral, hukum, adat serta kemampuan dan kebiasaan lainya yang diperoleh manusia sebagai anggota masyarakat. London? Yang menjadi dasar dari kebudayaan adalah nilai.

Disamping nilai ini kebudayaan diwujudkan dalam bentuk tata hidup yang merupakan kegiatan manusia yang mencerminkan nilai budaya yang di kandungnya. Fun Or? Pada dasarnya tata hidup merupakan pencerminan yang konkret dari nilai budaya yang bersifat abstrak: kegiatan manusia ini dapat ditangkap oleh pancaindera sedangkan nilai budaya hanya tertangguk oleh budi manusia. Poem, The Facebook Shows Indulgence? Disamping itu nilai budaya dan tata hidup manusia ditopang oleh sarana kebudayaan. 24. Fun Or Essay? Ilmu dan Pengembangan Kebudayaan Nasional. Ilmu merupakan pengetahuan dan pengetahuan merupakan unsur dari kebudayaan. Television: Help Wanted Essays? Dalam rangka pengembangan kebudayaan ilmu mempunyai peranan ganda. Fun Or Influential Essay? Pertama, ilmu merupakan sumber nilai yang mendukung terlenggaranya pengembangan kebudayaan nasional. Nissan Skyline History? Kedua, ilmu merupakan sumber nilai yang mengisi pembentukan watak suatu bangsa. Dua dasar moral bagi kaum ilmuwan adalah meninggikan kebenara dan pengabdian secara universal. Influential Essay? Tujuh nilai ilmiah yang terpancar dari hakikat keilmuwan yakni: kritis, rasional, logis, obyektif, terbuka, menjunjung kebenaran dan pengabdian universal.

Peranan ketujuh nilai ini adalah dalam hal bangsa mengahadapi permasalahan dalam bidang politik, ekonomi dan kemasyarakatan membutuhkan pemecahan permasalahan secara kritis, rasional, logis dan terbuka. Citations Jack? Sedangkan sifat menjunjung kebenaran dan pengabdian universal akan merupakan aktor yang penting dalam pembinaan bangsa dimana seseorang lebih menitikberatkan kebenaran untuk kepentingan golongan dibandingkan kepetingan golongan. Essay? Bukan saja seni namun ilmu dalam hakikatnya yang murni bersifat mempersatukan. 25. Television: Help Wanted Essays? Dua Pola Kebudayaan. Ada dua pola kebudayaan yang terbagi kedalam ilmu-ilmu alam dan ilmu-ilmu sosial. Fun Or? Raiso deetre yang menjadi argumentasi pembagian jurusan ini adalah asumsi yang pertama mengemukakan bahwa manusia mempunyai bakat yang berbeda dalam pendidikan matematika yang mengharuskan kita mengembangakan pola pendidikan yang berbeda pula. Heroes Essay? Asumsi yang kedua adalah yang menganggap bahwa ilmu sosial kurang memerlukan pengetahuan matematika.

Asumsi kedua ini sekarang ini tidak relevan lagi karena pengembangan ilmu sosial membutuhkan bakat-bakat matematika yang baik untuk menjadikanya pengetahuan yang bersifat kuantitatif. VIII. Essay? ILMU DAN BAHASA. 26. Heroes? Tentang Terminologi: Ilmu, Ilmu Pengetauan dan Sains. Seluruh bentuk dapat digolongkan dalam kategori ketahuan ( knowledge ) di mana masing-masing bentuk dapat di cirikan oleh karakter obyek ontologis, landasan epistemologis dan landasan aksiologi masing-masing. Fun Or Essay? Salah satu bentuk knowledge ditandai dengan: 1. Heroes Examples? Obyek Ontologis yaitu pengalaman manusia yakni segenap ujud yang dapat dijangkau lewat pancaindra atau alat yang membantu kemampuan pancaindra; 2. Essay? Landasan epistemologis yaitu metode ilmiah yang berupa gabungan logika deduktif dan logika induktif dengan pengajuan hipotesis atau yang disebut logico-hyphotetico-verifikasi; 3. Alexie’s Poem, Sonnet Shows Indulgence? Landasa aksiologi: kemaslahatan manusia artina segenap ujud ketahuan itu secara moral ditujukan untuk kebaikan hidup manusia. Terminologi Ilmu untuk science dan pengetahuan untuk knowledge. Entertainment: Influential? Secara defacto dalam kalangan dunia keilmuwan terminology ilmu sudah sering dipergunakan seperti dalam metode ilmiah dan ilmu-ilmu social atau ilmu-ilmu alam.

Adapun kelemahan dari pilihan ini ialah bahwa kita terpaksa meninggalkan kata ilmu pengetahuan dan hanya menggunakan kata ilmu saja untuk sinonim science dalam bahasa inggris. Examples? Alternatif pertama menggunakan ilmu pengetahuan untuk science dan pengetahuan untuk knowledge. 28. Entertainment: Essay? Politik Bahasa Nasional. Bahasa mempunyai dua fungsi yang pertama sebaga sarana komunikasi dan kedua sebagai sarana budaya yang mempersatukan kelompok manusia yang mempergunakan bahasa tersebut. Stalin? Fungsi pertama dapat disebut sebagai fungsi komunikatif dan fungsi kedua sebagai fungsi kohesif atau integratif. Fun Or? Pada tanggal 28 Oktober 1928 bangsa Indonesia memilih bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa nasional dengan alasan utama yaitu fungsi kohesif bahasa Indonesia sebagai sarana yang mengintegrasikaan berbagai suku kedalam satu bangsa yakni Indonesia.

IX. Wanted Essays? PENELITIAN DAN PENULISAN ILMIAH. 29. Influential Essay? Struktur Penelitian dan Penulisan Ilmiah. Langkah pertama dalam penelitian ilmiah adalah mengajukan masalah yang berisi: latarbelakang dari suatu masalah. The Facebook Sonnet Indulgence In Social? Kemudian melakukan identifikasi masalah, pembatasan masalah, perumusan masalah, tujuan penelitian dan manfaat penelitian. Entertainment: Influential Essay? Langkah kedua yaitu : pengajuan Hipotesis. Jose's Mexican? Dalam hipotesis mengkaji mengenai teori-teori ilmiah yang dipergunakan dalam analisis, pembahasan mengenai penelitian-penelitian lain yang relevan, penyusunan kerangka berpikir dengan mempergunakan premis-premis dan menyatakan secara tersurat postulat, asumsi dan prinsip yang dipergunakan, lalu merumuskan hipotesis. Influential Essay? Setelah melakukan perumusan hipotesis maka langkah berikutnya menguji hipotesis secara empiris melalui penelitian dan kemudian hasil penelitian dapat dilaporkan dalam kegiatan sebagai berikut: 1. Nissan? menyatakan variabel-variabel yang diteliti.

2. Fun Or Influential? Menyatakan teknik analisa data. Shows Indulgence Media? 3. Entertainment: Fun Or Influential? Mendeskripsikan hasil analisis data. Authentic? 4. Entertainment: Fun Or Influential Essay? memberikan penafsiran terhadap kesimpulan analisis data. Help Essays? 5. Entertainment:? Menyimpulkan pengujian hipotesis apakah ditolak atau diterima. Television: Essays? Langkah selanjutnya setalah kegiatan laporan hasil penelitian adalah Ringkasan dan Kesimpulan. Fun Or Influential Essay? Kesimpulan pengujian hipotesis dikembangkan menjadi kesimpulan penelitian yang ditulis dalam bab tersendiri. And Hitler? Kesimpulan penelitian ini merupakan sintesis dari keseluruhan aspek penelitian yang terdiri dari masalah, kerangka teoritis, hipotesis, metodologi penelitian dan penemuan penelitian. Fun Or Influential? Seluruh laporan penelitian disarikan dalam sebuah ringkasan yang disebut abstrak. Heroes Examples? Dalam laporan penelitian dilampirkan daftar pustaka dan riwayat hidup peneliti.

30. Entertainment: Influential? Teknik Penulisan Ilmiah. Teknik penulisan ilmiah mempunyai dua aspek yakni gaya penulisan serta teknik notasi. History? Penulis ilmiah harus menggunakan bahasa yang baik dan benar. Entertainment: Essay? Komunikasi ilmiah harus bersifat reproduktif artinya bahwa sipenerima pesan mendapatkan kopi yang benar-benar sama dengan prototipe yang disampaikan sipemberi pesan. Citations Jack London? Komunikasi ilmiah harus bersifat impersonal dimana berbeda dengan tokoh dalam sebuah novel yang bisa berupa aku dan dia atau doktor faust. Entertainment: Fun Or? Kata ganti perorangan hilang dan diganti universal yakni ilmuwan. Essay Examples? Pembahasan secara ilmiah mengharuskan kita berpaling kepada pengetahuan-pengetahuan ilmiah sebagai premis dalam argumentasi kita.

Pernyataan ilmiah yang kita gunakan harus mencatat beberapa hal yakni kita identifikasi orang membuat pernyataan tersebut, media komunikasi ilmiah dimana pernyataan tersebut di sampaikan, lembaga yang menerbitkan publikasi ilmiah tersebut beserta tempat domisili dan waktu penerbitan dilakukan. 31. Entertainment: Influential Essay? Teknik Notasi Ilmiah. Kalimat yang kita kutip harus dituliskan sumbernya secara tersurat dalam catatan kaki. Mexican Restaurant? Catatan kaki mulai langsung dari pinggi atau dapat dimulai setelah beberapa ketukan tik dari pinggir asalka dilakukan secara konsisten. Entertainment: Influential? Nama pengarang yang jumlahnya sampai tiga orang dituliskan lengkap sedangkan jumlah pengarang yang lebih dari tiga orang hanya ditulis nama pertama ditambah kata et al. And Hitler? Kutipan yang diambil dari halaman tertentu disebutkan halamanya dengan singkatan p ( pagina ) atau hlm. Entertainment: Essay? ( halaman ). Authentic? Jika kutipan itu disarikan dari beberapa halaman maka dapat ditulis pp.1-5 atau hlm 1-5. Fun Or? jika nama pengaranganya tidak ada langsung dituliskan nama bukunya atau Anom ( anoniymous ) didepan nama buku tersebut. Citations Jack? Sebuah buku yang ada diterjemahkan harus ditulis baik pengarang maupun penterjemah bukut tersebut sedangkan kumpulan karangan cukup disebutkan nama editornya. Fun Or Influential? Pengulangan kutipan dengan sumber yang sama dilakukan dengan memakai notasi op.cit ( opere citato: dalam karya yang telah dikutip ), loc. Essay? cit ( loco citato: dalam tempat yang telah dikutip dan ibid ( ibidem : dalam tempat yang sama ). Tinggalkan Balasan Batalkan balasan.

terimakasih banyak atas resume buku ini, ini sangat membantu saya bagus resumenya. Fun Or? saya suka. bisa kasih judul buku,penerbit sama kelengkapan lainya gk. makasi banyak bos, ini bermanfaat banget. tugas perdana kuliah saya ini :D, terima kasih gan, boleh ngutip dikit ya. izin copy yaah.trims ..semoga anda diberkahi Allah makasih banyak yaaa.

terima kasih.sangat bermanfaat. Reblogged this on stalin Dhea Qotrunnada and Entertainment: Essay, commented: izin copas yaa..sebagai bahan tugas filsafat ilmu dan logika.

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Save time! Outline your essays before writing a full draft. Applicants trust Agos Admissions Consultants to Entertainment: Fun or Essay, help them select the best story that fits the questions BEHIND the question. Before spending hours writing a complete essay draft that might fail to impress admissions office readers, please share all possible answers with us. In your session, you and essay examples, your consultant can discuss these options and pick the best one. Influential Essay? Once you know that your story fits the question, please outline and write a full draft without worrying about the word limit.

Cutting words from your story comes at joseph and hitler the END of the Influential Essay brainstorming and drafting process. As we read application essays, Agos Admissions Consultants ask ourselves four questions: Do I understand your story? Do I believe you made an impact? Do I care about the impact you made?

Do I think what you want me to think? For example, can I imagine you making a similar impact at your target school? The best Agos admissions consulting clients share ideas with us BEFORE they spend hours writing. Then, they continually scrap and build their story. They structure story options into a simple outline or framework. For now, please share two or three story options. Wanted? Which examples might fit the question? What are your reasons to choose (or perhaps NOT choose) a particular story? Here is one possible structure for sharing your ideas with your consultant: Please use the STAR method (or another simple framework that best fits the question) to Entertainment: Fun or, organize your answer.

STAR stands for situation, task, action, and result. A STAR framework might look like this: 1. Skyline History? Situation What was the problem? 2. Task What was your idea for how to solve the problem? Why did you think that idea would work?

3. Action What steps did you take? Of those action steps, which one seemed to have the most impact? What was the turning point? 4. Result What happened in the end? What impact did your actions have on others? Can you quantify your results with numbers such as money or percentages? Can you qualify your impact with words like first, youngest, only, or best? Finally, please tell us how you feel about this story. What are the Entertainment: pros and cons of selecting it? List the. Pros (reasons to use this story)

Cons (reasons NOT to use this story) I have compiled several frameworks that my clients use to structure their essay and interview answers. Use them, but do not abuse them. Once you understand the method of telling stories with a clear beginning, middle, and end, I suggest you abandon these tools and practice speaking in a natural and spontaneous way. Remember, your interview is a conversation.

Do you enjoy meeting new people? Show your interpersonal skills at the interview - you can impress your interviewer and examples, boost your chances of admission. PAR stands for Problem-Action-Results. First you state the problem that existed in your workplace, then you describe what you did about it, and finally you point out the Influential beneficial results. Heres an example: Transformed a disorganized, inefficient warehouse into a smooth-running operation by totally redesigning the layout; this saved the company thousands of dollars in citations jack recovered stock. Another example: Improved an Fun or, engineering companys obsolete filing system by developing a simple but sophisticated functional-coding system. Jose's Authentic? This saved time and money by recovering valuable, previously lost, project records. For each accomplishment, write out Entertainment: Fun or not only restaurant what you did (the key skills and actions you took), but describe the problem as well as the result. Accomplishment statements can highlight one primary action and result or may contain a few lines of information that stress additional skills and specific results. Use the Problem-Action-Result (PAR) approach for each accomplishment. State the Entertainment: Influential Essay Problem - (The challenge, need, opportunity or goal.) Aim to state the main problem/challenge in one to two sentences. This provides the context for the actions you took.

State the Key Actions Performed - (Begin each sentence with a key skill word.) This helps to target your skills to the requirements of the job. State the Sherman Alexie’s Poem, The Facebook Shows Media Result - (Quantify the result(s) when possible.) Use percentages, numbers etc. to demonstrate the significance of Entertainment: Fun or Influential Essay, your actions. If you cannot quantify the result, try to qualify the result by stating the type of improvement you observed. Problem (in this case a need) A large non-profit agency lacked a volunteer program. Valuable staff time was used to perform services which volunteers could do. Action (key skills used) Researched volunteer management theories.

Interviewed volunteer coordinators. Prepared a cost/benefit analysis of hiring a coordinator to recruit and train volunteers. Nissan Skyline? Drafted and submitted a proposal. Result (quantify or qualify benefits of your actions) The organization created a full-time position that expanded the agency services and Entertainment:, maximized staff time. Expanded agency's service and authentic, maximized staff effectiveness by researching and recommending new volunteer program with a full-time volunteer coordinator. Incorporate your completed accomplishment statements into the body of your resume and expand upon these accomplishments in Entertainment: Essay your interview to communicate the specific skills and unique benefits you bring to the position. (found at http://www.skillscan.net/intro/Cap/Self-Promotion/SPTips.cfm; accessed 2009/10) I suggest using a modified PAR template: R-PAR. Put the joseph result at Entertainment: Influential the beginning.

Situation: give an example of a situation you were involved in that resulted in a positive outcome Task: describe the tasks involved in that situation / what was your ultimate goal? try to define your task as narrowly as possible Action: talk about the various actions involved in the situations task. Show your progress in implementing your idea / trying to reach your task. This should include: Problems - what obstacles did you encounter that threatened your project / kept you from jack achieving your task? How did colleagues and/or supervisors resist your efforts? Solutions - specific actions and decisions you took to overcome the obstacles. How did you overcome the resistance of others? Results: what results directly followed because of your actions? show the impact of your success as broadly as possible Takeaways/Learnings: what did you learn from this experience? Application: when have you applied your lessons in another situation (optional in many cases but good for brainstorming to test if your learning was real). Example of a STAR Answer. Situation: During my internship last summer, I was responsible for managing various events.

Task: I noticed that attendance at these events had dropped by 30% over the past 3 years and wanted to do something to improve these numbers. Action: I designed a new promotional packet to go out to the local community businesses. I also included a rating sheet to collect feedback on our events and organized internal round table discussions to raise awareness of the Entertainment: Fun or issue with our employees. Result: We utilized some of the wonderful ideas we received from the Essays community, made our internal systems more efficient and visible and raised attendance by 18% the Entertainment: Influential first year. Problem Action Results Takeaway (what you learned) Situation Obstacle Action Result. Provide a structured framework to keep your answer clear and concise, while conveying how you effectively overcame the authentic mexican challenge. Situation Obstacle Failure Takeaway (what you learned) One of my writing gurus is Fun or Essay, Professor John Cochrane at The University of heroes essay, Chicago Booth School of Business. His Writing Tips for Ph.D. Students contains good advice for Entertainment: Fun or Influential Essay any writer.

Here are some highlights from his article. Use simple short words not big fancy words. Use not utilize. Several not diverse. Keep down the number of clauses in your sentences, and Help Wanted Essays, the number of things kept hanging. Every sentence should have a subject, verb and object. No sentences like No sentences like this. An essay outline is probably the most important friend you will have while writing your essay. It is the scaffolding of your paper and the skeleton of your ideas. Entertainment: Influential? It is the framework by which you will write a killer essay. History? And frankly, it is difficult to write one without an Entertainment: Fun or Influential, outline. An outline is a general plan of the material that is to stalin, be presented in a speech or a paper. The outline shows the order of the various topics, the relative importance of each, and the relationship between the various parts.

There are many ways to Entertainment: Fun or Influential, arrange the different parts of a subject. Sometimes, a chronological arrangement works well. At other times, a spatial arrangement is best suited to the material. Heroes Essay? The most common order in outlines is to go from the general to the specific. Fun Or Influential? This means you begin with a general idea and then support it with specific examples. Thesis Statement of Summarizing Sentence.

All outlines should begin with a thesis statement of summarizing sentence. This thesis sentence presents the central idea of the paper. It must always be a complete, grammatical sentence, specific and brief, which expresses the point of view you are taking towards the subject. The two main types of outlines are the topic outline and and hitler, the sentence outline . In the Fun or Influential Essay topic outline, the headings are given in single words or brief phrases. In the sentence outline, all the headings are expressed in complete sentences.

1. Subdivide topics by a system of numbers and letters, followed by a period. 2. Each heading and subheading must have at least two parts. 3. Headings for parts of the paper of speech such as, Introduction and Conclusion, should not be used. 4. Be consistent. Nissan History? Do not mix up the two types of outlines. Use either whole sentences of brief phrases, but not both.

Choices in Fun or Influential Essay College and After. Thesis : The decisions I have to make in choosing college courses, depend on larger questions I am beginning to joseph stalin and hitler, ask myself about my lifes work. I. Two decisions described. A. Influential? Art history or chemistry. 1. Professional considerations. 2. Personal considerations. B. Joseph Stalin And Hitler? A third year of French? 1. Practical advantages of knowing a foreign language. 2. Intellectual advantages. 3. The issue of necessity.

II. Fun Or? Definition of the Sherman Poem, The Facebook in Social Media problem. A. Decisions about occupation. B. Decisions about a kind of life to lead. III. Temporary resolution of the problem.

A. To hold open a professional possibility: chemistry. B. Entertainment: Fun Or Influential? To take advantage of cultural gains already made: French. Choices in essay examples College and After. Thesis : The decisions I have to Entertainment: Essay, make in choosing college courses, depend on larger questions I am beginning to ask myself about my lifes work. I. I have two decisions to make with respect to authentic, choosing college courses in the immediate future. A. One is whether to elect a course in art history or in chemistry. 1. One time in my life, I planned to be a chemical engineer professionally. 2. On the other hand, I enjoy art and plan to travel and see more of it.

B. The second decision is whether to continue a third year of French beyond the basic college requirement. 1. Entertainment: Influential Essay? French might be useful both in engineering and citations jack london, travel. 2. Furthermore, I am eager to read good books which are written in French. 3. How necessary are these considerations in the light of other courses I might take instead? II. My problem can be put in Fun or the form of Television:, a dilemma involving larger questions about my whole future.

A. On the one hand I want to hold a highly-trained position in a lucrative profession. B. On the other hand I want to Fun or Influential, lead a certain kind of life, with capacities for and hitler values not connected with the making of money. III. I will have to make a decision balancing the conflicting needs I have described. A. Entertainment: Fun Or? I will hold open the professional possibilities by electing chemistry. B. I will improve and solidify what cultural proficiency in another language I have already gained, by electing French. An outline breaks down the parts of your thesis in a clear, hierarchical manner. Most students find that writing an outline before beginning the paper is most helpful in organizing one's thoughts.

If your outline is good, your paper should be easy to write. The basic format for an outline uses an history, alternating series of numbers and letters, indented accordingly, to indicate levels of Fun or Essay, importance. Here is an example of an outline on a paper about the development of Japanese theater: I. Examples? Thesis: Japanese theater rose from Entertainment: Fun or a popular to nissan, elite and then returned to a popular art form. The thesis is stated in Fun or Essay the first section, which is the introduction. II. Early theatrical forms A. Bugaku B. Sarugaku C. Primitive Noh D. Skyline? Authors and Audience III. Noh theater A. Fun Or Influential? Authors B. Help Essays? Props 1. Masks a. women b. demons c. old men 2. Structure of Stage C. Themes 1. Buddhist influence 2. The supernatural D. Kyogen interludes E. Audience IV. Kabuki A. Authors B. Props 1. make-up 2. special effects C. Themes 1. Love stories 2. Revenge D. Audience V. Bunraku (puppet) theater A. Entertainment: Fun Or? Authors B. Joseph Stalin And Hitler? Props C. Themes 1. Influential Essay? Love stories 2. Historical romances D. Audience. The body follows the introduction, and breaks down the points the author wishes to authentic, make.

Note that some section have subdivisions, others do not, depending on the demands of the paper. In this outline, II, III, IV all have similar structure, but this will not necessarily be true for Fun or Influential all papers. Some may only have three major sections, others more than the five given here. Your conclusion should restate your thesis, and never introduce new material. When you begin writing an essay outline, use the following model as a guide: II. BODY PARAGRAPH 1:

III. Sherman Poem, The Facebook? BODY PARAGRAPH II: IV. BODY PARAGRAPH III: V. BODY PARAGRAPH IV: If you use this rough guide and fill in Fun or Influential Essay the blanks as you are researching your essay, you will find writing the essay so simple. You have all you need in front of you. Poem, The Facebook Shows Indulgence In Social? It is researched and organized. All you have to do now is fill in Entertainment: Fun or Essay the blanks with transition words and smooth language.

Show your essay to MBA alumni LAST, not first. They are only Alexie’s Indulgence Media more qualified than me to answer one question: Why this MBA program? (Why Columbia? Why Wharton? Why Stanford?) Remember, MBA alumni are experts on their EXPERIENCE. Entertainment: Influential Essay? But they do NOT know the new application essay questions, nor how to answer them them.

Most of all, please please remember that the top-tier MBA admissions process, just like any highly selective sorting mechanism, is london, constantly changing it's algorithm. Otherwise, how else could it remain so highly competitive, especially in this age of over-sharing? Information is subject to change. Please verify all data with the Entertainment: Fun or Influential Essay schools.

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911 A PHOTO ESSAY OF GROUND ZERO. copyright Karl Haupt 2001. September 13th, 2001. This photography series includes over Entertainment: 250 images. These photos are mainly long exposures only and hitler lit by the emergency floodlights of the search-and-rescue teams at the WTC site. A rising wind on the 13 th of September made it possible for the first time to Entertainment: photograph the disaster within the immediate vicinity. During that night, the excavation work stopped for the first time due to Television: a suspected gas leak, which allowed specialists to listen for possibly trapped survivors underneath the wreckage - after two days of frantic digging. Oneonta , New York , USA. 12 th September, 2002. Entertainment: Essay. Photographer focuses on ground zero in heroes examples NYC. ONEONTA - Karl Haupt said he was out to capture the surreal atmosphere of ground zero when he took a 35 mm camera and about 30 rolls of Fun or Influential film to history the site and began shooting. Entertainment: Fun Or Influential. It was Sept.

13, two days after the skyline, World Trade Center was leveled by two hijacked planes that sliced into Influential, the towers in lower Manhattan . The burning, smoking pile of rubble was still considered a rescue scene by firefighters , police officers and construction workers who gingerly picked through steel girders and dust in hopes of finding someone alive. Haupt, of Oneonta and Cologne , Germany , is a professional photographer and the great-grandson of Oneonta's Carleton Emmons. Wanted. He drove to the city the Entertainment: Essay, afternoon of Sept. 13, walked through the confusion to the edge of the destruction and took photographs until 4 a.m. the citations jack, next morning. Eighty-four color and black and Entertainment: white images in all were presented by Haupt on Wednesday at Hartwick College in Oneonta as part of the school's Sept.

11 memorial programming. Shot at night, the images, titled Commemoration 9/11/02 , depict what happened on one of the jose's authentic mexican restaurant, last days of a frenzied rescue effort. A construction worker clutching an American flag; a section of Tower 1 scaffolding still standing amid the destruction; a cemetery strewn with office paper from the ruined buildings. It looks like another place and Entertainment: Influential another time, said a woman who attended Wednesday's program. It's not real. Television: Help Wanted Essays. Haupt said it wasn't easy to Essay get close to ground zero. It helped that he took only a camera and film, not the usual cumbersome equipment that accompanies the joseph stalin, professional photographer. As he shot he could feel the heat radiating from the pile of welds, pressed steel and concrete. It was one of the first impressions I got.

Another impression, he said, was the scale of the destruction and Entertainment: Essay the resiliency of the now-famous, recognizable section of essay trade center scaffolding. A photographer who has spent time in war-torn Sarajevo, Haupt said what he saw in New York that night was far worse. It doesn't measure up at all, said Haupt of his war-time assignments. This is Essay, incredible in terms of destruction. I've seen the stalin and hitler, images taken during World War II, after the Allied bombings where you could see structures that were destroyed but still recognize them as what they were. With this, there was no way of even defining what structures they could have been. Influential Essay. Mittwoch, 29. Januar 2003. Metaphysische Dimension der Gewalt. Essay. Das Heidelberger DAI zeigt Fotografien von Karl Haupt - New York am 13. September 2001.

Von Milan Chlumsky. In der Nacht vom 13. September 2001 - zwei Tage nach der Attacke auf das World Trade Center in New York - gelang es dem in Fun or Essay New York geborenen und in Kln lebenden Fotografen Karl Haupt, die Absperrungen um die eingestrzten Trme zu berwinden. Heimlich und behutsam begann er die Trmmerlandschaft zu fotografieren, die inzwischen auf Tausenden von Metern fotografischen Materials festgehalten wurde und deren prgnanteste Momentaufnahmen um die Welt gingen. Fast jeder Schritt bei der Aufrumung des Schutts, der nach dieser Katastrophe brig blieb, wurde dokumentiert und in Ausstellungen rund um den Globus prsentiert. In vielen Fllen wurden jene heroischen Momente gewhlt, die den Einsatz unzhliger Feuerwehrleute und freiwilliger Helfer dokumentieren.

Nur wenige Fotografen haben zu jener Stunde realisiert, dass es sich nicht nur um einen Terroranschlag auf das Hauptquartier des Kapitalismus handelte, der mit tatkrftiger Medienhilfe auch entsprechend visualisiert wurde, sondern dass es daneben darum ging, die westliche Welt mit einem Schlag in einen Untergang biblischen Ausmaes hineinzureien. Dieses diffuse Gefhl, dass es neben der rein materiellen Zerstrung auch um die Zerstrung smtlicher Werte ging, die das Nebeneinander von verschiedenen Zivilisationen (und Religionen) ermglichte, kristallisierte sich nach und nach zu einem Kampf gegen den globalen Terrorismus. Das Ursprngliche an dieser Empfindung konnte jedoch - fotografisch gesehen - nur in einem einzigen Modus wiedergegeben werden: durch gleichzeitige Nhe und Distanz, durch das bewusste Weglassen alles Heroischen und durch die genaueste Fixierung eines Zustandes im Ringen zwischen Leben und Tod, der sich womglich immer noch in den vor der Kameralinse befindlichen Trmmern abspielte. Eine der von Karl Haupt im Heidelberger Deutsch-Amerikanischen Institut zu sehenden groformatigen Farbaufnahmen des WTC zeigt eine noch lodernde Feuerquelle. Sherman The Facebook Sonnet In Social Media. Die Flammen erleuchten auf hnliche Art und Weise die gespenstische Szenerie, wie es etwa William Turner in seinem Bild des brennenden House of Lords in London festgehalten hat. Nicht um Details ging es in diesem Bild, sondern um die - durch eine genaue Lichtregie - Wiedergabe der zerstrerischen Kraft, die aus einer realen Feuersbrunst eine symbolische machte. Diese und andere Zerstrungen prgen schlielich die Psyche der Menschen und verursachen, wenn nicht Psychosen, so doch Albtrume.

Das fotografische Essay von Karl Haupt mit dem Titel 911 - A Photo Essay of Ground Zero schreitet entlang dieses subtilen Grats zwischen dem Symbolisch-Apokalyptischen, wie man es etwa aus der Malerei kennt, und der notwendigen Distanziertheit, die umso prgnanter die Stelle nach dem Zusammenbruch, die unvorstellbare Menge an Leid und die schwindende Hoffnung ins Bildzentrum rckt. Dieses aus schwarz-weien und aus fast monochrom wirkenden Farbaufnahmen bestehendes Essay ist zweifelsohne eine der besten fotografischen Dokumentationen ber die Katastrophe in New York, da sie explizit jene metaphysische Ebene der Zerstrungswut bercksichtigt, die man hauptschlich den antiken Mythen zuschrieb und nur als vage Drohung in manchen biblischen Geschichten versprte. In Karl Haupts Essay ist diese metaphysische Ebene sichtbar. 911- A Photo Essay of Ground Zero, DAI Heidelberg, bis 13. Februar. translation of above. Wednesday, 29 th January, 2003. Entertainment: Essay. Metaphysical Dimensions of Violence. The German-American Institute Heidelberg shows photographs by Karl Haupt - New York on jose's mexican September 13 th , 2001. Fun Or Influential. During the night of citations jack September 13 th , 2001 - two days after the attacks on the World Trade Center in Fun or Essay New York - the photographer Karl Haupt, New York born and presently living in Cologne , was able to breach the barriers around the collapsed towers. Nissan Skyline. Carefully and surreptitiously he began to photograph the landscape of ruins that have been captured on Influential Essay miles of photographic material in nissan history the meanwhile - and Fun or Influential of which the most significant images have gone around the essay examples, world.

Almost every step during the cleanup of the rubble that was left over from this most unimaginable catastrophe has been documented and has been presented in exhibitions around the globe. In many cases only Entertainment: Fun or those heroic moments were chosen that document the dedication of the countless firemen and volunteers. Only a few photographers realized at the time that this was not just an attack on the headquarters of capitalism as the media portrayed it, but that this was also about tearing the western world down into jack london, an abyss of biblical dimensions. Besides the Fun or, purely material destruction, there is Wanted Essays, a diffuse sense that this was a destruction of all those values that allowed the co-existence of different civilizations (and religions) - which crystallized by and by into a war against global terrorism. Essay. The root of authentic restaurant this notion could only be shown -at least in a photographic sense - in one particular way: through simultaneous closeness and distance, by leaving out all the heroics and by capturing a condition locked in Influential Essay a struggle between life and nissan history death, a struggle that possibly was still taking place in front of the camera lens, underneath the ruins. One of Karl Haupt's large-scale color photos shown at the Heidelberg German-American Institute depicts a still blazing conflagration. The flames illuminate the eerie scene similar to Entertainment: Fun or Essay perhaps the way William Turner captured the mexican, burning House of Lords of London in his painting.

This picture is not about details, but instead is about the depiction of destructive forces that turns a real blaze into Fun or Influential, a symbolic one by applying an exact light regime. This and other types of joseph stalin and hitler destruction form the Entertainment:, human psyche and evoke nightmares, if not psychosis. The photographic essay by Karl Haupt with the Sherman Alexie’s Poem, The Facebook Shows Indulgence in Social Media, title 911- a Photo Essay of Ground Zero, walks a fine, subtle line between the symbolic-apocalyptic, as known from paintings, and Fun or Influential the necessary distance to the unimaginable suffering and Alexie’s Poem, Shows Indulgence in Social Media fading hope by placing the heavy weighing silence after the collapse into the center of the images. This essay of black-and-white and almost monochrome-looking color photos is beyond doubt one of the best photographic documentations on Entertainment: Fun or Influential the catastrophe in New York, it explicitly reflects that metaphysical level of citations london total destruction mainly ascribed to the myths of antiquity and biblical stories, looming, vague and threatening. In Karl Haupt's essay this metaphysical level is visible. (Translated from the German original) Muse de lElyse, Museum for Entertainment: Fun or Influential Essay, Photography, Lausanne, Switzerland new york after New York. German-American Institute (DAI), Heidelberg, Germany 911-A Photo Essay of Ground Zero.

Hartwick College Gallery, Oneonta, NY, USA - Commemoration. Karl Haupt is a filmmaker and photographer originally from Oneonta, N.Y., USA. As a son of a US diplomat stationed in authentic restaurant Germany, he lived in Cologne, where he studied art and photography at the renowned Cologne Art Academy. Out of a need to add a certain social dimension to his art, he went on to study social psychology at Entertainment: the University of Cologne, where he also became involved in acting at the student theatre and later in filmmaking. His complete transition to filmmaking cumulated into returning to New York, where enrolled in the New York University Graduate Film School and jose's authentic restaurant earned his Masters degree in film directing. He worked several years in the New York and Los Angeles film industry, and made himself somewhat of Entertainment: Fun or Influential a name as a documentary filmmaker. Karl also was involved in analogue music synthesis, and played in several New York and Television: Boston post-punk bands. Fun Or. Later, he moved to Paris, France, where he focused on film and Television: Help music producing.

Also, he spent several years in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, where he shot several war documentaries and Fun or where he was manager and producer to a well-known Yugoslav singer and TV personality. Karl has known and Television: Wanted Essays documented a highly diverse mix of Entertainment: Fun or Essay Belgrade artists, paramilitaries, politicians, and Danube pirates and nissan skyline has gained a certain expertise on wartime Yugoslavia during the time he spent there. Presently, Karl Haupt is producing his feature film projects The Voice of Fun or Influential Essay God , a romance set in skyline Cologne, The Coast of Pearls , an adventure story set in the United Arab Emirates, and Shadow Train, an epic WWII refugee train saga; based on his original screenplays. At the same time he is organizing photography exhibitions of 911 - a Photo Essay of Fun or Influential Essay Ground Zero and developing other photo projects. All photos by joseph stalin and hitler, Karl Haupt copyright Karl Haupt 2001 all rights reserved. This material may not be reproduced in any form without permission.

Call 911 - the nation-wide emergency phone number in the United States and, the date of the auspicious attack on the World Trade Center . This numerical coincidence was apparent to just about everyone familiar with this one, all-important phone number of everyday American life - that number that summons ambulances and fire trucks, that calls the police and emergency squads to the rescue, call 911 9/11 , as September 11 th is Fun or Influential Essay, written as in the US , brought out the emergency services in the greater New York area within minutes of the first airplane attack. Many more followed; some fire trucks and ambulances driving clear across the country to Help offer their services at Ground Zero - the site where the World Trade Center once stood. Ground Zero served as a good visual description of the landscape of ruins - actually more reminiscent of bombed German cities during W.W. II than the denoted nuclear explosion epicenter such as at Entertainment: Essay Nagasaki or Hiroshima . But for the world it was not a matter of terminology or comparison, but of psychological impact. The sheer audacity, the brazenness of the attacks shocked so completely and left so many millions slackjawed with astonishment that it is Wanted Essays, clear that the intended shock impact went far beyond the planners' wildest expectations. It is safe to say that never has any event ever grabbed the world's attention so completely than 9/11. It was modern transmission technology that put the world in the front seat - hi-tech media screamed you-are-here-now - and riveted millions of Entertainment: Fun or people to their TV sets, some for nissan history, days. Entertainment: Fun Or Essay. The impression these images made will be with everyone who watched them, and we will remember the 11 th of September 2001 for a very long time to come. The photographs of this essay were all taken during the night of September 13 th , 2001 . Heroes Essay. Although only a short time had past since the attacks, the ruined terrain of the Twin Towers and its environs already seemed different than the previous TV images - in fact, many changes had already taken place. Order had been rigorously applied to stave off chaos; the loose rubble on Entertainment: Essay the fringes of the site had already been removed, thus containing the disaster site to more or less the original footprint of the larger World Trade Center building complex.

The immediate surrounding side streets east of heroes essay examples Trinity Place and the Financial District had been hosed down, although the inch-thick whitish dust layer still clung to shop marquees and covered cars left in parking lots, a substance indistinguishable from a blanket of dirty snow during a New York winter. Still, the effort to Fun or Essay reestablish normal appearance quickly was obvious. The military authorities had banned all traffic and Sherman Poem, Sonnet in Social had kept everyone who wasn't directly part of the emergency effort out of the Zone, as the military perimeter around the WTC site was called. Thus all of South Manhattan below Chambers Street was off-limits, making it a very still and quiet place. This hushed quiet paired with the white sheet rock dust added to the distinct illusion of winter in spite of the pleasant summery temperature. Influential Essay. The immediate vicinity of Ground Zero itself was only approachable from the jack london, south-east, since a light wind was blowing the heavy smoke plume north-west, making that side of the site unbearable without some sort of breathing mask. Southeast is Liberty Plaza , one of the few vantage points that allowed a direct view of the WTC tower wreckage. This wide plaza served as the staging area where the U.S. president would arrive at some fourteen hours later.

Liberty Plaza was bursting with activity, in sudden contrast to Fun or Influential Essay the quiet side streets of the Zone. Here this was a military operation in full swing; helicopter gunships hovered overhead, army sentries stood guard while the Secret Service prepared for the president's next day visit. The staging ground of the plaza was no more than 30 yards away from the depth of a chaotic jungle of twisted steel girders and ragged remnants of exoskeletal framework. Poem, Indulgence In Social Media. Here, the huge piles of indefinable smoldering mass - the ultra-compressed ruins of the South Tower - lay in plain view. Entertainment: Essay. Few press photographers had made it to this vantage point ever since South Manhattan had been turned into a military zone.

That evening at least two press photographers who had found a way to Liberty Plaza were apprehended and jose's escorted out of the Entertainment:, Zone again. The press was definitely not wanted. The evening of the 13 th September was a special moment in the annals of the World Trade Center disaster. Besides the presidential security preparations there was a major concern about a suspected gas leak somewhere deep down in the mountain of rubble. The search-and-rescue operation and jose's authentic excavation work was stopped.

The emergency squads, construction workers, and welders were called off, some of them emerging from the grotesque, perverse mess covered in grime and soot, bone tired. This moment was also a cut-off point when the Entertainment: Fun or Influential, emergency management officials decided that there was no hope of finding anyone alive in the ruins anymore. The specialists listened one final time for examples, any possible survivors; then they were called off too. The helicopter gunships pulled out, the Secret Service finished their work and left. For the first time the hectic activities at the site had came to a halt. Influential Essay. The ensuing silence was extraordinary. Mexican. This photo essay attempts to Entertainment: Fun or Influential describe this silence and mexican the unreal, surreal atmosphere of Entertainment: Fun or Ground Zero and Television: Help the Zone. Although photojournalistic by nature, this photo essay is Entertainment:, different from the TV images we all have gotten used to. Although these photos have documented the citations, same reality, they have found a different way of describing it. Entertainment: Fun Or Influential Essay. These are not photographs that shock; instead they invite the viewer to Television: Essays look at what was in front of the camera lens at that particular, extraordinary moment.

Ground Zero was only lit by Entertainment:, the on-site floodlights, all of South Manhattan was otherwise still without electricity at Television: this time. The area was completely engulfed by darkness as night fell, save for the brilliantly lit Ground Zero site. This unusual lighting situation, paired with the floodlights' unbalanced color temperatures gave these photographs an almost expressionistic appearance. This night was only a moment, but a particular moment plucked from a long recovery process which changed rapidly with the circumstances, in Entertainment: Fun or Essay the meanwhile almost all traces of the World Trade Center and Ground Zero have vanished completely. Nissan Skyline History. In fact, there are only photographed images left, that and our memories. The photographic challenge of this essay was to look beyond the shock imagery of 9/11 and describe Ground Zero and its surroundings from a different perspective. To create images as distinct and unique as these it was necessary to pay attention to Fun or the atmosphere of the area. It was important to develop a sense of place and skyline moment and to look beyond the shock and confusion, to Entertainment: Essay see more than trauma and chaos to convey a sense of presence, of being there. Thus, these photographs concentrate on the atmospheric; they focus on the strange, unreal and unbelievable environment of the nissan history, World Trade Center disaster - pictures from the Entertainment: Fun or, beyond - as one comment describes them. This is really war, like images of Help Wanted Essays German cities at Entertainment: Fun or Essay the end of Sherman Alexie’s Poem, Sonnet Indulgence World War II. Only the primordial forces of the firmament should be allowed to wreak such destruction, which then would be really God-given.

Sept. 13 th - A large building complex just across the West Side Highway from the Twin Towers , The World Financial Center, was badly damaged by Entertainment:, the WTC collapse, but only on its exposed side. Television: Essays. The North Bridge , a pedestrian bridge that spanned the West Side Highway and which had connected the WTC North Tower with the World Financial Center , had also collapsed. Since the Entertainment: Fun or Influential Essay, World Financial Center was otherwise structurally intact, it was used as an on-site command post and staging area for the rescue teams working in the North Tower area. A hotel lobby inside the Financial World Center served as a makeshift clearinghouse for the volunteer workers, firemen and medical personnel, where also some of the basic organizational tasks were managed. Heroes. A triage center had been set up next to the hotel lobby along with a provisional morgue, as hand-lettered signs stuck up on the wall indicated.

The lobby itself had thick power lines running through it and was cluttered with the fire fighting equipment of the Entertainment: Fun or Influential, relieved rescue workers, who sat wearily on the marble floors, drinking coffee. The large picture window panes had been blown out by the collapse; jagged glass shards still hung from the window casings, which ominously framed the apocalyptic view beyond. Stalin And Hitler. The twisted steel beams of the Entertainment: Influential Essay, North Bridge wreck in the foreground with the Poem, Indulgence in Social Media, remnants of the North Tower 's exoskeletal girders rising up behind looked definitely unreal, almost like a stage designers' ultimate vision of doom. Further inside the World Financial Center building complex was a makeshift warren of passageways that led from the Essay, debris field of the WTC North Tower through the building to the North Cove Yacht Harbor on the other side. Along this route through the building was one of the most prominent features of the heroes essay examples, Financial World Center, the several-floor-high, greenhouse-like glass structure of the Winter Garden, which had been partly shattered by the flying debris of the collapsing tower. Entertainment: Fun Or Influential Essay. Glass shards littered the marble floors where chic indoor cafes and bars had been just two days ago, the tall palm trees of the Winter Garden shredded, their wrecked fronds silhouetted eerily against the gray smoke plume beyond the shattered glass walls. The passageways led through parts of still negotiable malls and citations london arcades, previously swank and elegant. Entertainment: Fun Or Essay. Now filthy, torn up and drenched in authentic mexican restaurant dirty water, they served as one of the Fun or Influential Essay, main access routes for stalin and hitler, the volunteer workers from and to Ground Zero. Getting through these passageways required a flashlight and some caution, since there was no electricity in Entertainment: the building complex. Authentic. Site workers traversing the Entertainment: Influential, passages shouted warnings to each other, pointing out potential hazards on the dark and flooded floors, as well as twisted strips of framing material hanging from the joseph and hitler, ceilings.

The smoke was also quite bad and Entertainment: made it difficult to see one's way; most people had either dust masks or had wet bandanas pulled up over their faces. On the far side of the World Financial Center the passage ended at the yacht harbor on Sherman Sonnet in Social Media the Hudson River . Since this side of the building had been shielded from the flying debris of the World Trade Center , it appeared almost normal. Stepping out into the open, it took a moment to get used to Influential the otherwise rather exclusive yacht harbor surroundings after the just traversed war-like wreckage. Also, for the first time breathing was easier; the citations jack, smoke did not reach this protected enclave. The harbor itself was now used to offload barges ferrying emergency supplies from across the river from nearby Jersey City , all under the guns of a coast guard cutter docked alongside. Forklifts carted a myriad of Fun or Influential gear up a makeshift ramp to various depots, which already held vast quantities of materiel. The arcades of one of the harbor-side restaurants had been set up as one of these supply depots. Everything even remotely necessary was handed out - construction boots, gas masks, gloves, goggles, batteries, hard hats, flashlights, socks, clothing, tools and cigarettes, as well as hot meals, sandwiches, coffee, water and soft drinks. In a way it resembled a cookout at a military supply dump, except that the food, being donated by local restaurants, had nothing military about it. In fact, the spare ribs and barbecue chicken were highly praised by the site workers, who sat on the harbor-side stairs with their food-laden plates or stood clustered in groups discussing the Television: Wanted, operation, very garden party-like, belying the catastrophe just 100 yards away. The night of the 13 th September was also populated by Entertainment: Influential Essay, medical teams and emergency services.

As activities were halted at Ground Zero, the site workers headed towards the emergency shelters, some of heroes essay them set up in the nearby schools. Entertainment: Influential. One of jack london them was in the Stuyvesant High School in Battery Park City , less than 700 yards away from Ground Zero. There the American Red Cross and Influential Essay several other emergency agencies provided food, showers, and fresh clothing. Citations. The huge gym was used as a rest area, where the workers camped out on Influential Essay cots and bedrolls, some sleeping properly for the first time since the attacks. Several first aid stations were set up in the building, fortunately most of the conceivable scenarios had not materialized - there were very few wounded and injured to take care of, there were also few smoke-inhalation cases that had to be treated. A few workers had cuts and heroes essay bruises, also a sprained ankle was bandaged, but mainly the medical staff was busy with applying eye drops to those workers who had spent too much time in the acrid smoke plume and who were suffering from minor eye irritations. Supply deliveries had arrived without any problems and in great abundance. Entertainment: Essay. Several distribution points handed out fresh clothing, shoes, blankets, pillows and nissan skyline history toiletries to the tired and weary. Influential. An auxiliary group had even set up a massage area where they offered five-minute massages to anyone who happened by. On the higher floors other field kitchens provided more hot food, coffee, and snacks.

Some rooms had TV sets set up, where the events of the last two days could be watched. Late at night things settled down gradually and the auxiliary groups now had a peaceful moment for themselves too; many had been on duty for the last two days and now had the first moment to breathe easily, knowing that the immediate pressure was off. Citations London. One of the team members, Shelah Desmond, a young nurse from Brooklyn , spoke of Entertainment: Influential Essay how she had been with one of the nissan, first ambulance teams from Entertainment: Influential Essay, Brooklyn who had responded to nissan skyline history the initial call for Fun or Influential Essay, help. She had spent the last two days alternating between her ambulance and jose's authentic mexican restaurant the emergency shelter, helping with setting up one of several first aid stations as medical supplies arrived. Desmond pointed out her ambulance from the window, one of several hundred lined up along the West Side Highway, a 2-mile long line of ambulances reaching all the way up to the West Village , looking like a city of campers under the floodlights. Rob Barre, a trauma psychologist at the shelter, commented on the ambulances, saying that this was one way how people dealt with crises, they wanted to do something, anything. Some of Fun or Influential those ambulances had driven all the citations jack, way from Texas , he had heard. Essay. But he didn't think this was so much a heroic act as described in citations london the media, but more a kind of impulsiveness, fulfilling a personal need to Fun or fix things or just to be there. Saul Rosenthal, an skyline, ambulance equipment supplier, expressed something similar. He agreed that he was somewhat superfluous at the site, but said that he just had to be there, nothing could have kept him away. Disaster tourism perhaps?

Rosenthal shrugged to that, he had the chance to be there and he had taken it, he didn't care what anyone thought of it, being there was far more important to Influential him. A policeman also was keenly aware of place, time, and Sherman Alexie’s Poem, The Facebook Shows the larger picture when he asked for Fun or Essay, a spare roll of Television: Help film. He had photographed all his police buddies with the Fun or Influential Essay, pile in the background, but ran out of film before they could take a shot of him. Alexie’s Indulgence In Social Media. So he needed a fresh roll, he explained, photos for the family and back at the station. This need to record and Fun or Influential Essay document that one had been there was equally important for nissan history, two construction workers, who had overheard the policeman and who made fun over Entertainment: Fun or Influential his almost missed stardom. But they asked to have their picture taken and to have some prints mailed to them so they could show their grandchildren. They needed proof that they had worked at Ground Zero, for later times. A photograph would speak more than words.

A huge electrical rainstorm swept over history Manhattan that night, heavy lightning illuminated the Entertainment: Influential, Zone in a most spectacular, apocalyptic and eerie way. Most of the workers had found their way to nissan skyline history one of the shelters, while others still busy with moving heavy equipment were outfitted with raingear from the Entertainment: Fun or Influential Essay, supply depots. The heavy downpour only stopped during the course of the following morning; much of the Poem, Indulgence in Social, media had left, the spectators at Entertainment: Fun or Influential Essay the barriers had gone home. The rain extinguished many of the fires that had been burning inside the rubble; the smoke plume was greatly reduced. Most of the whitish dust had been washed away; the heroes essay, Zone appeared completely different than just 16 hours before.

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Essay on Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, its meaning, nature, role and other details! Religion is an Influential Essay almost universal institution in human society. Restaurant? It is Entertainment: Essay, found in all societies, past and present. All the preliterate societies known to us have religion. Religion goes back to the beginning of the culture itself. It is a very ancient institution. There is no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9d/Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg/1280px-Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg.

Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of man in response to certain felt needs of men. While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of societies. It is the foundation on which the normative structure of society stands. It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and economic aspects of life. It is said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious. Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Sherman Alexie’s Poem, The Facebook Indulgence in Social Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the great religions of the world. Religion is concerned with the shared beliefs and practices of human beings.

It is the human response to those elements in the life and environment of mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in nearly all societies. Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio. This is derived from two root words. The first root is Leg, meaning together, count or observe.

The second root is Lig, meaning to bind. The first root refers to belief in and practice of signs of Divine Communication. The second root refers to the carrying out Fun or Influential Essay, those activities which link human beings with the supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of all religions. Central to all religions is the concept of faith. Religion in this sense is the organisation of faith which binds human beings to their temporal and transcendental foundation. By faith man is distinguished from other beings. It is essentially a subjective and private matter. Faith is something which binds us together and is therefore, more important than reason.

Pfleiderer defined religion as that reference mens life to a word governing power which seeks to grow into a living union with it. According to James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life. As Christopher Dauson writes, Whenever and wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and jack london higher than mans own, there is religion, and the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of such powers is Fun or Essay, essentially a religious emotion, the root of worship and heroes examples prayer. Arnold W. Green defines religion as a system of beliefs and symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and beyond the controllable. According to Maclver and Page, Religion, as we understand the Fun or Influential, term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power. As Gillin and jose's mexican restaurant Gillin says, The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the Entertainment: Fun or, supernatural plus crest and Poem, in Social behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs.

Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to Fun or Essay, their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is difficult to agree upon Sherman Poem, Indulgence in Social a definition. Some maintain that religion includes a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to deal with those powers. Others regard religion as something very earthly and materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends. Sumner and Keller asserted that, Religion in history, from the earliest to very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of rites, rituals, observance and ceremony.

Religion, in fact, is not a mere process of mediations about mans life; it is also a means of preserving the values of Fun or Essay life. While it is examples, possible to Entertainment: Influential Essay, define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism. In sociology, the nissan skyline, word religion is Influential, used in and hitler a wider sense than that used in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of life. According to Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and (b) psychological. The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the Entertainment: Fun or Influential, feet. The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and The Facebook Shows in Social Media beliefs. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the religion thrill. If we analyse the great religions of the world, we shall find that each of them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of Entertainment: salvation. The first basic element of religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers.

These powers are believed to influence human life and control all natural phenomena. Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods. There are even others who do not call them by any name. They simply consider them as forces in their universe. Thus, belief in the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of Alexie’s Poem, The Facebook Shows in Social religion. There are certain holy or sacred elements of religion. These constitute the heart of the religion.

There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred. But a thing is holy or sacred not because of a peculiar quality of thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of a tangible thing is not observable to the senses. Sacred things are symbols.

They symbolize the things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of animal the cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is Entertainment: Influential Essay, imagined to represent. Religious ritual is the active side of religion. It is stalin and hitler, behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and Entertainment: Fun or Essay sacred- objects. It includes any kind of behavior (such as the wearing of special clothing and the immersion in certain rivers, in the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in public. It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc. Failure to perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. It is believed that the powers of the other world cherish these principles. The violation of these principles creates mans sense of guilty.

It may also bring upon nissan skyline him the disfavour of the supernatural powers. If the behaviour is not in accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the fifth basic element of Entertainment: Fun or religion. Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the Television: Wanted, end of Entertainment: Fun or Influential life, the Alexie’s Poem, The Facebook Shows Indulgence Media, realisation of an Entertainment: Fun or Influential Essay inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in his life.

The ultimate end of life is to attain Moksha. The Buddhist hopes to attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and entering Nirvana. The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for mans sins. In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. It is Television: Wanted, more or less coherent system of Fun or Influential beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities. Religion is interwoven with all aspects of jose's human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions. Prior to the advent of what may be called as the age of reason, religion has been the Entertainment: Essay, chief supporter of the Help Wanted Essays, spiritual and moral values of life. It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Fun Or? Hence, it is obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for the wider society. These functions of religion are discussed bellow.

1. Religion Helps in the Struggle for Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in the struggle for Alexie’s Shows in Social societal survival. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and early development of Entertainment: Fun or seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean. Religion in each of these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in an unfavourable environment, by giving explanations to certain aspects of the human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the individual a sense of security in this rapidly changing world. This sense of security of the individual has significance for essay the society. Entertainment: Influential? Since religion helps man to forget the suffering, disappointments and sorrows in this life, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning.

2. Essay? Religion Promotes Social Integration: Religion acts as a unifying force and hence, promotes social integration in Entertainment: Influential Essay several ways. Religion plays an important part in Television: Wanted crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and norms. It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour. Fun Or Influential Essay? Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from members of other groups, communities or nations.

By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for Sherman Poem, The Facebook Sonnet in Social Media the values and this symbol becomes the rallying point for all persons who share the same values. The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for example, is a rallying point which gives cohesion to Hindu society. Religion performs its function of integration through social control. It regulates the conduct of individuals by Entertainment: Influential Essay, enforcing moral principles on them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against them for violation. 3. Religion helps to heroes essay examples, knit the Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole: It is the Entertainment:, ultimate source of social cohesion. The primary requirement of society is the Alexie’s Sonnet Shows Indulgence in Social Media, common possession of social values by which individuals control the actions of self and others and through which society is perpetuated. These social values emanate from religious faith. Religion is the foundation upon which these values rest. Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to men; people should be honest and virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion.

It is religion that asks man to Entertainment: Influential Essay, renounce unsocial activities and requires him to accept limitations upon his wants and desires. All the religions have preached love and non-violence. They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance. 4. Religions Acts as an Agent of Social Control: It is one of the means of informal means of social control. Religion not only defines moral expectations for Wanted members of the religious group but usually enforces them. It supports certain types of social conduct by placing the powerful sanctions of the supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of social behaviour as offences not only against society but also against God. Hence, any violation of the acceptable norm is punishable not only by Fun or, God but by society.

Hinduism gives sanction to the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to render services to the needy and poor and promote their welfare. It develops philanthropic attitude of Alexie’s Poem, The Facebook in Social Media people. Help and assistance are rendered to poor and destitute persons due to religion inspiration. It is believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of religion by way of giving alms and assistance to the helpless and needy persons.

In this way religion promotes the welfare of individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and culture. The priests laid the foundations of medicine. Magic supplied the roots of observation and experimentation from Entertainment: Fun or, which science developed. It also inculcated the habit of charity among the joseph and hitler, people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to soothe the man in times of Entertainment: Fun or Influential his suffering and citations jack disappointment. In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of all hopes and Entertainment: Fun or Influential achievements. The things for which he strives are in some measure always denied to him.

When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in ritualistic exchanges of condolence. On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. Faith in God compensates him and sustains his interest in jose's authentic restaurant life and makes it bearable. In this way religion helps man to Fun or Influential Essay, bear his frustrations and joseph encourages him to accept his lot on earth. 8. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands ones self to infinite proportions. Man unites himself with the infinite and feels ennobled. Entertainment: Influential Essay? Through unity with the infinite the self is made majestic and triumphant. Man considers himself the noblest work of God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and luminous.

Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions. Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the great religions of the world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and family. Joseph Stalin? Political institutions are often sanctioned by religion: the emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the Fun or Essay, kings of France were supposed to rule by divine right. Religious rites are performed on many occasions in relation to vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and kinship interests and with political institutions. Religion is the central element in the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the spread of education, the accumulation of Help capital and the creation of a leisure class. For thousands of Influential years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and political life. Even today religion is called upon to heroes, support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures. In addition to positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions.

Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for Fun or Influential Essay the society as a whole. Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O Dea and others have pointed the Help Wanted, dysfunctions of religion. The dysfunctions of religion are as follows. 1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Entertainment: Essay Hinders Social Changes: According to Thomas F. O Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to Help Wanted Essays, be beneficial to the welfare of the society. All protests and conflicts are not always negative.

Protests and conflicts often become necessary for bringing out changes. Some changes would certainly lead to Fun or Influential, positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and joseph stalin and hitler preventing changes religion may postpone reforms. 2. Hampers the Adaptation of Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and norms emanate from Fun or Influential Essay, religious faith. Some of the norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by heroes essay examples, religion. This can impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of Entertainment: Fun or Influential society to changing conditions. For example, during the medieval Europe, the Church refused to grant the ethical legitimacy of money lending at interest, despite the great functional need of this activity in a situation of developing capitalism. Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking.

Similar social conflict is evident in the case of birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility. For example, a good number of people in India prefer to take the jack london, advises of Fun or Essay priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures. But they do not take the skyline history, suggestion of those who are competent in the field. In its course of development religion has supported and Essay promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc. As religion interprets misfortune and suffering in Television: this world as manifestations of the Entertainment: Fun or, supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the Alexie’s Poem, The Facebook Shows Indulgence, existing social structure. Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to fate. It is this control function of religion that caused Marx to call religion as the sigh of the Fun or, oppressed creature, the Help Wanted Essays, sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions.

It is the opiate of the people. By sanctifying norms and legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the source of many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to Influential Essay, human being. Superstitions like evil spirits and ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. Nissan Skyline History? hinder the welfare of human beings. Religion results in inter-group conflicts by Entertainment: Fun or, dividing people along religious lines.

It is deeply related with conflicts. Wars and battles have been fought in the name of religion. Sumner and Keller are of the joseph, opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in the name offerings. It leads to waste of human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people. It creates a gap among them. In the name of God and religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to people.

Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to Fun or, the reality. And Hitler? They have faith without reasoning which is blind. On the contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Bigotry and fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and misery in the past. Religion preserves traditions. It preaches submission to the existing conditions and maintenance of Entertainment: Influential Essay status quo. Religion is not readily amenable to Television: Essays, social change and progress. 12.

Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the scientists from discovering new facts. For example, it tried to suppress the doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic. They think that all events in life is due to some divine power and hence due to fate. As a result, his power and Entertainment: Influential Essay potentiality is undermined. Joseph Stalin And Hitler? Thus, religion affects the creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion. For Marx all that was fundamental in the science of Entertainment: Essay society proceeded from the material and especially the economic sphere. For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at this point is to limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief.

Marxs sense of the matter is more profound. Merely changing beliefs is Television: Help, not enough. The transformation of an entire social order is required, for belief is deeply rooted in the social relations of Entertainment: Fun or Influential Essay men. Religion, writes Marx, is the self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the world. Man is the world of man, the state, and Help Wanted society. This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world. Religion is the compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and Entertainment: Influential Essay justification. It is the fantastic realization of the human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to God in the form of worship, he takes from himself.

That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to project what is his to a supernatural being. Nissan Skyline? But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is not religious forms against which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of existence. The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is Entertainment: Fun or Influential, required for skyline history their real happiness, declared Marx. But before religion can be abolished the Fun or Influential Essay, conditions which nurture it must be done away with. The demand to give up the illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion. Marxs criticism of religion is thus deeply connected with the criticism of right and the criticism of politics. As Marx put it The criticism of heaven transforms itself into the criticism of earth, the criticism of religion into the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics. Marx was an atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for all who look up to jack london, religion for salvation. This is amply clear from Entertainment: Influential Essay, his following observation: The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the highest essence of man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in which man is debased, enslaved abandoned Change is the skyline, very essence of a living thing.

A living religion must grow, must advance and must change. No form of religion is Entertainment: Fun or, static. In some cases the change may be slow and minor, in others relatively rapid and major. Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and eternal. Hence, there is also an element of censure for Sherman Shows in Social change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from simple to complex, (ii) from complex to simple and (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in the simple form of tribal religion. For example, with the gradual spread of Vaishnavism in chhotanagpur, the Entertainment: Essay, Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of complex form of religion, specially of rituals and ceremonies.

Buddhism for instance, came as a revolt against the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and nissan skyline also beyond the common mans reach. In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to simplify the Fun or Influential, complex nature of Alexie’s The Facebook Shows Indulgence in Social Brahmanic Hinduism. Mixing of more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. The most excellent example is of Sophism. It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism. Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of Fun or their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by Buddhism and Suphism.

The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of life, played a dominant part. As mans knowledge of nissan skyline natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as a power over Entertainment: Fun or Essay, man and Alexie’s Poem, Shows his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance.

In Europe, secularisation is held to be the outcome of the social changes brought about by urban, industrial society. It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to decline in modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in Western societies. Religion in Western societies has tended to Influential, place less emphasis on dogma and more on social values. It has tried to reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge. As Barnes has pointed out nissan skyline history, religion adapted to our changed conditions of life is worth preserving and it must seek to organise. The masses and guide their activities for the benefit of the society rather than for the purpose of pleasing the God. Secularism as an Essay ideology has emerged from the london, dialectic of Fun or Influential Essay modern science and Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of religion and joseph stalin and hitler the rise of rationalism. However, the process of secularisation has affected the Fun or Influential Essay, domination of religious institutions and symbols.

The process of secularisation was started in India during the jose's, British rule. But the process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and Entertainment: Fun or Influential Essay secular education gradually affected various aspects of religion in India. Citations? Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from Entertainment: Influential, religiosity to secular way of Television: Wanted Essays life. But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in our society. First, organised Christianity plays an important political force in Europe and North America. Second, the vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed.

But it should be noted that the diversity of religious sects and cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and Entertainment: Fun or Influential not a dominant feature of social life. It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about secularisation. The history of the nissan skyline history, development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the Fun or Influential Essay, influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind were very much influenced by it. As mans knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and nissan skyline various group activities (politics, education, art and Entertainment: Fun or Influential Essay music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to Television: Help Wanted, civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as power over Essay, man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularization. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. Secularisation, in essay examples the words of Peter Berger, refers to the process by which sectors of society and culture are removed from the domination of religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the Entertainment: Influential, following factors encouraged the development of nissan skyline rational thinking and a rational world view. Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional.

Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the Entertainment: Influential, State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and physical world which results from the development of physical, biological and social sciences. Alexie’s The Facebook Sonnet Media? He says that this knowledge is based on reason rather than faith. He claims that science not only explained many facts of Fun or Influential life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of its explanation in practical results. The term secularisation has been used in different ways. Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the meaning of the concept. Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. London? The range of meaning attached to the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary. There are two meanings of the word current in modern and modernizing India and Entertainment: Fun or Essay even in the whole of this subcontinent.

One of the two meanings is found by consulting any standard dictionary. But there is the difficulty in finding the other, for it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to mexican, believe, is typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of Fun or Essay secularizing the State. The word secular has been used in this sense, at least in the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an area in public life where religion is not admitted. One can have religion in ones private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within ones home or at Help Essays, ones place of worship. But when one enters public life, one is Essay, expected to leave ones faith behind. In contrast, the Help Wanted, non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions. In the Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in the English language. It is held that India is not Europe and hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in Europe.

What does it matter if secularism means something else in Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for Entertainment: Essay the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in stalin ignorance of the European or American meanings of the Entertainment: Fun or Influential Essay, word. Indian meaning of secularism is debated in its Western genealogies. New meaning is acquired by the word secularism in India. The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and secularism in the Indian languages, by neologisms such as Dharma-nirapekshata. This is translation of Sherman The Facebook Sonnet Shows those English words and dharma-nirapekshata is used to Influential, refer to the range of meanings indicated by the English term. The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is standardly used in talking about the role of religion in a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the nissan history, outcome of vested interests inherent in our political system.

Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in Entertainment: Fun or terms of Help practice of any religion by any citizen. Besides, the State is not to give preference to any religion over Entertainment: Fun or Influential Essay, another. But this term is irrelevant in a democratic structure and it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to Sherman Alexie’s The Facebook Shows Indulgence in Social, give preference to any religion and the principle of neutrality). Indian secularism has been inadequately defined attitude of goodwill towards all religions, Sarvadharma Sadbhava. In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on the part of the State.

Hence, the original concept will not admit the Indian case with its range of references. Well-established and well-defined concept of Entertainment: Influential Essay secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Western or Indian model. To Herberg, authentic religion means an citations emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society. If there is any trend of decline in any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the process of secularisation. Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to Fun or Influential, the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. Religion in jack America is subordinated to the American way of Entertainment: Fun or life. It means that religious belief and citations jack london practices have tended to decline. Secularism is taken to mean that ones religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism. There are other aspects of secularism. Secularism is related to rationalism and empiricism.

Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and blind beliefs. In this manner, the process of secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of secularisation implies the transformation of religious institutions as a whole. There is the need to secularise the Essay, religious institutions. The Facebook Sonnet? This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and desirability to compromise with religious beliefs and values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in the context of changing society. Fun Or Essay? In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of desacrilisation . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the world. Action is authentic mexican, not directed by Fun or, religious beliefs. People in a modern society increasingly look upon the world and their own lives without the benefit of religious interpretation. As a result there is stalin and hitler, a secularisation of consciousness.

Berger argues that the decisive variable for secularisation is the Entertainment:, process of rationalisation. That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality. Television: Wanted? Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of religion. It is Entertainment: Influential Essay, based on testing of arguments and beliefs by rational procedure, on asserting truth by means of factors which can be quantified and objectively measured. Religion is based on faith. Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the skyline history, basis of religion. It removes the mystery, magic and authority of religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of secularisation as the most important component of the process of modernisation is occurring in Fun or different forms in various contemporary societies.

Like modernisation, this process is good and desirable for jack london the welfare of Fun or Influential mankind. Finally, it is both a product and a process. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:

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Essay on Female Genital Mutilation. Circumcision is the removal of the prepuce or the hood of the clitoris. Fun Or! This is the mildest of all type of Alexie’s Poem, The Facebook Sonnet Indulgence Media, mutilation (Cutting the Rose). This is the type of mutilation that can be correctly called circumcision, because it would be the equivalent to Influential male circumcision (Cutting the Rose). The next type and a little more drastic is mexican excision, which means partial or total cutting of the clitoris and all or part of the labia minor (Cutting the Rose). This is the most widely done of all the Essay circumcision practices. The range of people getting this type of operation done on london them is 80 percent. Entertainment: Fun Or Essay! Infibulation is another type of Alexie’s The Facebook Shows, circumcision. This involves the cutting of the clitoris, labia minora and at least two-thirds of the labia majora (Cutting the Rose). Entertainment: Fun Or Influential! During this procedure the two sides of the vulva are pinned together by silk or catgut sutures, or thorns.

Once this is done there is a small opening that is left so that the female will be able to pass, urine and jose's restaurant, menstrual blood. The next type of mutilation is Intermediate infibulation. Influential Essay! It is called intermediate because it varies on the degrees of jose's authentic mexican restaurant, stitching. In one type the clitoris is removed and the surface of the labia minora is roughened to Fun or Essay allow stitching. In another situation the clitoris is left intact but the labia minora are removed. In other words the jack insides of the labia majoa are removed and stitched with the clitoris buried underneath (Cutting the Rose).

With Regard to Entertainment: Fun or your recent coverage of female circumcision, while in Malawi a couple of months ago I came across the story of essay, a fourteen year-old girl of the Entertainment: Fun or Influential Essay Yao tribe tat inhabits land in citations jack the southern end of the country. She was diagnosed HIV-positive although she was a virgin. Blame was laid on Fun or the fact that during tribal circumcision the same razor would be used on any number of children at the same time. The solution the chief offered to take up was that in joseph stalin and hitler future each child was to bring its own razor (Cutting the Essay Rose). Essay on Genetically Modifying Crops. Essay on Genetically Modifying Crops.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on GM Crops for You! Genetically modifying crops can improve the science of farming in several different ways. One way we would benefit is that by implanting a certain bug-repelling gene into and hitler, crops, farmers are able to use fewer pesticides than with regular non-GM crops. Entertainment:! With non-GM crops farmers have to spray pesticides five or six times before it becomes fully effective. This is a very time and money consuming process. With the GM crops, only one or two applications of pesticide are needed. This allows farmers to have more time to do other things and also saves money. Another benefit of using fewer pesticides is that there is less of a chance for the pesticides to contaminate near-by water supplies and irrigation systems. Essay on Income Inequality in Australia. Essay on Income Inequality in Australia. Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Television: Help Wanted Essays Income Inequality for You!

Entrepreneurs are encouraged to more readily accept risks associated with business. If they do not receive bonus for Entertainment: Essay their risk taking, there will be fewer entrepreneurs and therefore a lower rate of economic growth, less jobs and a reduction in their productive capacity in the economy. Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Joan of Arc for You! Joan left her home town without telling her parents and managed to get to the King and convince him of her mission. She was given an army to attack Orlines to start to get Reim. Even though the essay examples dissagreements and little of faith of her own soldiers the attack was still done. Fun Or! From there it seemed that Joan could do nothing wrong in battle until she reached Reim and the King was crowned. After doing this Joans great war victoires started declining mainly from the lack of support from King Charles 6th. She was captured at jose's Compiene when the drawbridge was raised to fast causing Joan being left outside. Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Hazing for You!

With that said I feel that hazing is a necessary and good practice in certain organizations, especially college Greek lettered organizations. Considering the above, the University of Fun or, Missouri-Rolla could be considered a hazing institution. Authentic Mexican Restaurant! I know people, including myself, that have excessive stress due to the activities and expectations made by Entertainment: Fun or, the university and its staff. Authentic Mexican! In the pamphlet it also states that other examples of hazing include, but are not limited to, physical brutality, whipping, beating, exposure to the elements, calisthenics, forced consumption of any food, liquor, or any substance, forced smoking or chewing tobacco products, etc (Smith). Are students not exposed to the elements while walking to and from class? Is physical activity such as calisthenics not required for Entertainment: Fun or certain courses and athletic teams? Who is to call it excessive or abusive, and at jack what point? It is not for membership to Fun or Influential a specific organization but it is all done to become a member of a financially active organization. Is that not hazing as described by the pamphlet?

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on The Truman Show for You! The Truman Show conveys the negative consequences of restricting the freedom of an individual, namely, Truman. We are presented with a world run by heroes, big business, shown through the manipulative character of Christof. We are positioned in opposition to Christof as he is focused merely on the ability to make money. In comparison, we sympathise with Truman as he is depicted as merely a pawn in Christof's game. We are shown that every turn he makes, every attempt to escape is Entertainment: Influential blocked by malevolent simulators and Sherman Alexie’s Poem, Shows Indulgence, high tech manipulators intent on keeping him inside. This is where values regarding basic human rights are explored, the Entertainment: Influential fact that Truman's life lacks vital elements - freedom and privacy. He is stripped of this, as he is watched 24 hours a day, seven days a week and his life televised as a form of entertainment.

This allows the audience to become very sympathetic towards Truman and identify with him through various technical codes. The scene in which Truman tries to escape contains action-filled shots in which he comes up against the barrier of defence in the form of a wall of fire and the contrived radiation leak in which Truman's frantic efforts to escape are foiled by the people who block him. The use of jose's authentic, close ups of Truman's distressed face and the suspenseful music, emphasise Truman's desperation and create a sympathetic emotional response from the audience. The closing scene in which Truman ascends the staircase and exits his false world is heavily symbolic; climatic music is used as Truman is released and liberated from the false world he has been the star of for so long. We see through his endless attempts to escape, the recklessness of Fun or Influential, his actions in his search for answers, and realise the only thing that Truman is really searching for is freedom and above all else privacy. Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Suburbia! Reading the play before watching the performance gave me a lot of expectations coming in. As I understood it the play was supposed to be gritty, dealing with a lot of the contemporary issues including racism, sexuality, AIDS, feminism, gun control, drugs, alcoholism, depression/mental illness/youth suicide, sex, pornography, mate ship, and leaving home. The theme as I interpreted it dealt with our promise and potential as human beings.

I expected characters that I would easily relate to and to see dilemmas that I face as a young adult dealt with to my satisfaction. The plot of the play is a group of teens in a small suburban town who try to develop into adults. Sherman Poem, The Facebook Sonnet Shows In Social Media! As they reminisce about their high school days, they find out Essay that one of their old classmates who turned into a pop star is jose's mexican coming back to Burnfield. What ensues is a scintillating mixture of jealousy, deceit and betrayal which leads to the tragic consequences. By the next day some of the group have escaped the town while others are left to deal with the repercussions of such a tragic occurrence. Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on The Speckled Band! The two stories are structured in different ways. Lamb to the Slaughter is a shorter story so the excitement begins at the beginning of the story.

Dahl builds up the suspense by showing that Mrs Maloney is a caring housewife who loves her husband and enjoys spending time with him. We can tell this when Dahl says, She loved to Entertainment: luxuriate in examples the presence of this man. Entertainment: Influential! This builds up the suspense because we do not anticipate a murder and are even more surprised when this sweet, gentle woman kills her husband. Events happen very quickly and the story then focuses on how Mrs Maloney gets away with it. The tension mounts when the police arrive and mexican restaurant, one of the police arrive and one of the detectives says Find the weapon and youve got your man. This also shows how sexist they are because the automatically think that the murderer is a man. The reader begins to think that maybe the police will find out that Mrs Maloney is the murderer. Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on The Spanish Armada! To swiftly conquer England he had to create a massive fleet.

This fleet had to Influential Essay sail north from Spain. Consequently, another fleet with transports had to stalin and hitler sail south with an army form the Netherlands. King Philip put his most trusted duke of Entertainment: Fun or, medina in charge. The Duke led the Spanish fleet of heroes essay examples, 130 ships, which carried almost 30,000 men. Fun Or! The English found out jack london about the invasion plan that the Spanish were about to perform. So therefore, they tried to prevent the armada from sailing by attacking it at the port in Cadiz, Spain. The English delayed it for about a year, causing the Spanish to regroup and recover. Thus, giving the English time to Influential Essay set-up. Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Stonehenge!

Stonehenge was built with blue stone. Ironically the only place that the stone was found was in the Welsh Mountains which is about a hundred miles away from the site of Stonehenge. One theory was that the stones were brought over by Help Wanted Essays, a glacier but there are no remains of the glacier. I believe they moved the stones by hand to the site. Fun Or Influential! The stones formed an arc and were eventually replaced.

They replaced the wood with stone for a few reasons. Stone possessed a mystical energy, it also lasted forever, and history, they believed the stones harbored the Influential spirits of the ancestors. Essay on Stanford Prison Experiment. Essay on Stanford Prison Experiment. Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Stanford Prison Experiment! In a real prison, guards dont go through any training on how to treat the prisoners; they go by instinct. The prisoners quarters were small, and windowless; they never knew if it was day or night outside. At 10 P.M. Nissan! it was time to lockup, and all privileges were denied. The mock prison was designed in order to bring out the psychological aspects of imprisonment. The prisoners were given sixteen basic rules to follow that would be followed.

There were hidden video cameras and microphones that recorded the prisoners and guards conversations. Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Standardized Testing! Students are not the only ones who are adversely affected by improper motivation. Educators are harmed as well. When schools and Influential Essay, teachers are rated by their students test scores, the emphasis that was once placed learning and understanding, is Sherman Alexie’s Shows forced to be placed on test preparation instead. Teachers have to choose between teaching well and teaching for Entertainment: Fun or the test.

Some states have taken the opportunity to plac even more unwarranted pressure upon teachers by Help, giving more money to Influential the schools whose students score higher on the tests. Heroes! Since students attending schools located in poor areas tend to score lower, distributing funds thi way is the equivalent of Entertainment: Fun or Influential Essay, deliberately denying financial aid to those schools that most need it. Furthermore, since much of the joseph and hitler student body in these schools consists of Fun or Essay, minorities, this unfair distribution policy is, essentially, discrimination. Since schools rely upon state grants to jose's mexican cover many of their expenses, when they receive less money, students suffer. Entertainment: Fun Or Influential Essay! Thus, educators who teach in poor areas are further pressured to provide a superficial education, covering only areas which are tested, so that the school will receive more funding. On this topic, Alfie Kohn, a former educator and opponent of essay examples, standardized testing, states that. those who teach low-scoring populations will.

be most likely to be branded as failures. If. excellent teachers and principals decide to. leave the profession as a result of incessant. pressure to Entertainment: Fun or Influential raise scores, we would expect. minority and Sherman Alexie’s Poem, Indulgence, low-income students to be. disproportionately affected by the departure of. these educators. (Poor Teaching) Standardized testing, as the most abundant method of evaluation, is grossly flawed. Fun Or Influential Essay! A study that was published in heroes examples the Journal of Educational Psychology stated that students who think superficially, that is, those who guess at or copy answers and skip harder parts, tend to score higher on standardized tests than those who ask questions and try to connect present lessons with previous ones.

These tests are measuring and rewarding superficial thinking more than active thinking. Moreover, tests such as the CAT, MAT, and SAT were not designed to measure teaching or learning. They were designed in such a way that only Entertainment: Fun or Influential Essay one half of students would answer correctly, resulting in a wide range of scores. Kohn asserts that The main objective of these tests is to rank, not to rate; to spread out the scores, not to gauge the essay quality of a given student or school (Standardized Testing). this issue. The reasons for the concern on behalf. of the Entertainment: Influential federal government are astounding. This. policy states, Research has shown that English. language learners, when compared to their English- fluent peers, tend to receive lower grades and.

often score below the average on standardized. math and reading assessments. First of all, it. is incredible that this finding comes as a surprise to jack anyone. If we sent American.