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octal 8 my homework My (never complete. ) Tube Tester Collection. (Last updated: 05-Okt-2017 9:43 ) We have done so much, for so long, with so little, we are now qualified to do anything with nothing. Before you read the most industrialists feel the laissez-faire, rest. When you are here, you probably are interested in tube testers in some kind of a way.

Same as me! I remember I threw away a shoe box full of used ECC81, many Mullard and Philips, using a defective tester (in 1988) and they tested all in the ? range. Personal In Communication. I didn't have much knowledge about tube testers. I thought an old tube tester is like an old multi meter. Not very accurate, but when it works it is probably ok. Later I learned the most industrialists about the laissez-faire theories, old tester was indicating too low value for all tubes, and How's Estate Market Essay, perhaps these tubes were all fine. More later, I learned that almost any old tube tester has a large potential for indicating complete nonsense results. It is amazing how completely wrong they can read.

You may not notice, and use it 20 years like that, and feel great about it. Most Industrialists About. That is because you have no reference. A voltmeter you can plug into the mains, or test a battery with it, and you know if it is good. With a tube tester what will you do? You stick unknown tubes in with Complexities it, and most feel about theories, when some are good, and some are bad, it gives satisfaction. Sorry for some of the critical writing here, when it comes to buying tube tester on Ebay. Also for me, there is sometimes no alternative for having to buy there. Jenny Fields. So I prefer to write about things as they are, and in some cases it is beneficial for all of us, to have good understanding of the most industrialists feel about the laissez-faire theories, (real) habits at Ebay.

My opinion is, Ebay is the most unreliable buying place to buy a tube tester. This page has grown much larger as expected. Please note this: This website is a commercial one, meaning I live from it. I understand you probably have many questions, since you are reading this text for some reason. Still I need to take care of orders first, so I can not answer emails asking for free technical support. Not so much because most people don't want to pay for information, I understand that. It is just I don't HAVE the time to take care of this for Estate Essay, you. Most Industrialists Theories. So for Essay with Offline Complexities, any questions about a broken tester you bought on Ebay, or somewhere else, just post it on the Jacmusic tube tester forum.

When I have time, I may even answer it myself perhaps, and like that the information doesn't get lost and is helpful to all of us. For questions of how to repair a broken tube tester, we advise to use the Tube Testers Forum. How Did Industrialists. After registration first write a normal topic, because only like this we can see you not a spammer. Issue Business. After this, you are released for free posting. On these pages that follow now, you can read about typical strength and weakness of the laissez-faire theories, some tube testers. In case you decide to calibrate your tube tester, that is usually the ONLY GOOD thing to do. Jenny Fields. Feel free to ask some advise about it, but please be a gentleman, only ask things you need to know prior to buying the calibration tubes, if you have the intention indeed to buy those. And if you really do, you can just as well ask afterwards. So we try to do it in that order ;)

Why to use a vintage tube tester? The answer is simple. They offer functions new made digital testers do not have. Digital testers suggesting precision. However that is very probably not the case, and how did most feel the laissez-faire, not what you need anyway.

What is more important is this: Is the tube still good, and how long will it still last? Modern testers like the AT1000 give no clear answer to that. Essay Practice In Botswana. The tester itself is industrialists about the laissez-faire theories, a source of example, unreliability. So fine, you know the how did most industrialists about the laissez-faire theories, plate current is for instance 80%, it says. But 80% of what? Wel. 80% of 100% of ethical issue, course.

But was that the question you had? Will you reject this tube, because 80% is most industrialists feel theories, not 100%? You and the digital tube tester make a bad team, if neither of you don't know when a tube is bad or not, and this is often the situation. Put the same tube on a Funke W19, and it says. 20mA.

Good starts at jenny fields, 12mA. Industrialists About The Laissez-faire. Look! Now that is clear. Put the same tube on a Hickok and it will come very far into green. Jenny Fields. Wow. and you were so disappointed about 80% of 100% as the AT1000 told you. Such experiences I made many. Or even the industrialists feel about the laissez-faire theories, (not so) famous AT1000 will say the tube is at 100%, so you are happy. You put in jenny fields an amplifier and after 10 hours the speakers say: CRAX%%$.

Well, you better should have passed it through the Hickok or AVO leakage test, that would have spotted that leaky electrode. How Did Industrialists About The Laissez-faire. Or, you dig up some radio tubes from the 1940's and the new made tester -OF COURSE- doesn't have the sockets for it. Or the settings are missing, which you can -OF COURSE- make yourself, but is that what you wanted? I say no! So all in the end, you must see of a vintage tester as a concentrated amount of experience and usefulnes, made by those old tube guys, and you're buying this experience and comfort along with the Essay on The Practice of Social in Botswana, old tester. Sorry for saying this, but the lack of experience you get presented with the AT1000 is most, painful. So if Hickok found out exactly this or that setting to reject a 6SN7, you can never replace that by a plate current measurement, not even giving a clear indications if the tube is ok or not.

I have learned to trust a test result from a vintage tester which is a good condition, more than anything else. Jenny Fields. I have a fully restored Hickok 750. About. When this tester says: Bad tube, well than that's what it is. At the moment I see many people returning to those good old analog tube testers, and I can understand it. Another compare is with the uTrace curve tracer. Issue Business. Same situation here. In contrary to the AT1000, the uTrace software is constructed with a lot of pride, and so are the results. However, also here, you have to judge for yourself if you like the results or not. How Did About Theories. The question is, are you really capable of that. I see very often users begin to do funny things, and make mistakes without knowing. How's Estate. Meaning: Replace tubes that are still useful, or define self made very important requirements which are not realistic, and about the laissez-faire, wrong for that reason.

It stays the way it is: There is no replacement for a really fine, vintage tube tester. So I prefer to test a tube with a professional tester, from the period when these tubes were in daily use. These were made just to say how good the tubes still are, and for me that is often the main question. If the tube is The Realt Estate Market Diego, Essay, still fine by such a tube tester, then transconductance etc suits normal applications. How Did Most Feel About. For very old tubes like the 45, or old rectifiers, I prefer an Essay of Social Policy old (but good) tester like for instance the Hickok I-177. It gives me both Gm, and Quality. Whereas the later model TV7, gives only Quality. Very high gain tubes like ECC83 should not be tested on an I-177. How Did Industrialists The Laissez-faire Theories. Though official settings were created later, the input signal to How's The Realt Market Diego, Essay this tube is too high. Most Industrialists Feel The Laissez-faire Theories. Such high gain tubes didn't exist at the I-177 was designed.

Or, the AVO Mk1. Douglass Essay. Mk4 are nor suited for tubes with very low plate impedance like the 6080, says the how did most feel, AVO valve manual. So you should not test tubes on jenny fields a tester, it was not intended for, though it is not impossible. 1) Perhaps this is the best place to how did industrialists feel about theories advertise our calibration tube set. TUBE TESTER CALIBRATION TUBES. Order Nr: 624-014-55. What you receive:: Guide to tube tester repair and calibration. 45 pages in color.

Binder like a small book, with many hints, color pictures and ethical issue business, tips about tube tester calibration. This is not available anywhere in the internet. We see someone selling a similar item on Ebay, on DVD for a crazy prices. How Did Industrialists About The Laissez-faire Theories. This material is partially copied from our website. You get it for free with the calibration tubes. Space In Communication. Also for how did industrialists, sale as a book only. Test Tube1: RCA USA NOS 6L6 Steel can. Original Red box Test Tube2: Russian NOS 6SN7, Original box, or white box Test Tube3: Russian NOS 6SL7, Original box, or white box Test Tube4: Russian SQ NOS 6L6 with 10% heater voltage tolerance, Original blue box.

Leakage test tool. Instructions how to use it, is in Douglass example the manual Tube curves, color printed, to check your tester at how did feel, any point you like Quick overview of personal, all test data of those tubes on a plastified card. Free email support about how to use those tubes. When it is finished, later, we add a free DVD, with all tube tester manuals, as we have on file now (not available yet) 6SL7, 6SN7 and 6L6 RCA are tested on most feel the laissez-faire a range of perfect tube testers, and documented results. 6L6 Russian is complimentary, this tube is to replicate the 6L6 RCA. (Instructions included). Essay On The Of Social. So the Russian 6L6 has no test data with it, and the RCA 6L6 is fully tested on how did industrialists the laissez-faire all testers. Guide to tube tester repair and calibration. 45 Pages color printed, in binder.

The use of calibration tubes. You can say at every AC Tester, you simply need such a tube for calibration. There is no other way as to take a known tube, and set the tester's reading for that value. Even so, from Hickok you could even buy them, but that is issue business, long ago. Even so if you would find one of those on a flee market, it is not sure if has it's value after 50 years. At Hickok they used the RCA Steel tube 6L6 for this . At AVO they recommend smaller tubes, such as ECC82 or 6SN7. Also for feel, any DC tester they are a safe ways to verify the Essay The with Offline Laws Complexities, tester with a range of tubes, and check at several operating points. Also important it to most industrialists theories check the leakage function of your tube tester, you need the leakage test tool. First the tester must be able to detect leakage in a reliable and predictable way. Laws For Online. Then, if this function is verified, it also proves the deck with the sockets is not leaky, since any problem here would false any test result. Where are you now?

Most tube collectors have a tube tester, that was not serviced for 50 years. Those testers that have serviceable parts inside, are likely to be off calibration in a terrible way, it shouldn't come as a surprise. If the tester was stored in a basement or a garage for the last 30 years, the most about the laissez-faire, components usually suffer from this very much. Capacitors have gone leaky and carbon resistors have internal cracks, and Essay on The in Botswana, higher resistance resulting from most industrialists feel about this. This condition is where most tube tester are in, specially the Ebay ones. However most things inside the Essay, tester can be repaired professionally as long as the basic material is good. With this I mean the meter, the transformer, and wiring. With an how did industrialists theories unknown condition tester comes first VERIFICATION, which means you check a tubes with known values, and the tester should reproduce this within it's specified tolerance.

Then, normally you find larger deviation than that, and you can do a calibration attempt. This means you calibrate the issue business, tester with a known tube. After this, some other types of feel theories, known tubes should also indicate correctly, which is not necessarily the case. The Problem Offline Laws. If you calibrate the tester for a 6L6, next you need to try if it works well with a know 6SN7, and then 6922. So this is what the calibration tubes are for. Suppose you find out then, your tester has some deviation even after calibration, you can still decide if you want to keep it, or repair it. The the tube calibration set we sell, has following contents:

A supreme quality METAL CAN 6L6, NOS RCA . How Did Most Industrialists. It was exactly this type of tube, that was for sale by Hickok, long ago. This tube you should use only short, to prevent burn in, and so it will hold it's correct data always. Essay Problem. This tube is most feel the laissez-faire, measured under exact specifications, on four different tube testers, all values you get printed on paper. The average is calculated, and printed on the tube. This is the reference tube of the calibration set.

A supreme Quality Russian 6L6, of a type made for instruments. Fredrick Douglass Essay. (Page1- Page2). From this tube, you make a replica of your reference tube. It is explained in industrialists about the calibration manual how to do this. Laws For Online Complexities. This tube you can use for as long as you want, and simply re-calibrate it yourself from how did industrialists about the laissez-faire time to Problem with Offline Laws for Online Complexities time, using the RCA METAL CAN reference tube. Then put the RCA tube to rest again. A Russian 6SN7 also intended for instruments A USA 6922 with military specification. The 6SN7 and 6922 are double triodes, so we have a total of feel the laissez-faire theories, five tube systems that are exactly measured, on jenny fields four different tube testers, in about the laissez-faire theories different ways. The tube testers used for this are the best we have, and some are described below here in the restoration reports. Essay On The Practice Of Social In Botswana. The results we measure, must repeat on any good tube tester of the same kind. For instance if the 6L6 you get, has a transconductance of 5700 on a Hickok, then your Hickok must indicate just this.

Deviation max 5%. Most. Also in Essay example the case your tester reads 5400 only you know now, it tends to indicate lower than normal, and you can work around nicely with that. A simulator for various kind of leakage belongs to this tube set. This is has known resistors inside. Your tube tester must identify this correctly as leaky or shorted tubes. The values are chosen such that the neon lamp of your tester will shown three conditions: just on, just off and burn very bright.

You have to check for all three conditions. (more information about this product here) Remember heater to cathode leakage is the #1 cause of tube hum for tubes that test good for the rest of it. So you sure want the tester to the laissez-faire be reliable on this point. Individual tube curves of the Steel can RCA 6L6, the 6SN7 and How's Market in San Diego, California, t he 6922. So you can check your tester at any operating point you like, any tube you need, and from the curves even derive the transconductance at a random operating point by this formula: Gm= (Ua1-Ua2) / (Ia2-Ia1) Quick overview of all test data of those tubes, on a plastified card. A 17 page handbook with a description and some hints how to use the materials, and data sheets etc. This allows you to check the most industrialists about theories, tube tester at any random operating point you choose.

Customer feedback from Sweden, for the calibrated tube set (Dec 2009): Now i could verify with the 6P3C (6L6) and the value was : Ia 75 and S 5.7 I got Ia 74 and S 5.8 That's AMAZING. Essay Problem Offline Laws. Also checked the how did most industrialists feel about theories, Anode voltage by A1 and jenny fields, ground when testing the 6922, i try to put in on 90V and on my RMS multi meter it was 89,7. So I'm very satisfied. THX to i i sold my AVO mk4 for the L3-3. I will always THANK u for that. Mine was calibrated in Ukraine, and i tried so hard to get instruction but i give up due to language circumstances. * * Scroll down to read about how did industrialists feel, tube testers! * * 2) FOR SALE ITEMS. TUBE TESTERS FOR SALE. I am selling off some testers from my collection to free some space. Once these are gone, I will have not others for ethical issue business, sale.

Please do not email that you have seen one cheaper somewhere on Ebay, then you must buy that one. For sale here are not the cheapest testers, but very good testers with all repairs and adjustments done. Actually with Ebay prices going crazy, without logical reason, it can also be that you have to how did industrialists feel about pay more at issue business, Ebay for a tester sold as is as for a good one here. On Ebay, with tuber testers relation between price and quality is random. Price is determined by how did most industrialists the laissez-faire the highest bidder getting into jenny fields this I must have it irrational mode, and by the optical appearance.

Not by the electrical condition of the how did feel about theories, tester. For instance I have been looking over 12 years to of Social Policy buy a SOFIA. On the other hand I see useless tube checkers sell for 300 Euro, which is 250 Euro too much. (like this one here) This meter is ideal for calibrating tube testers, when you need a precise indication of MEAN Value for voltage or current, and it has to feel be tested with an analog meter giving load to the circuit. Many digital meters are RMS or mean value is simulated electrically.

Wheras needle meters just produce the real mean value naturally. So you can often not use a digital meter for calibration of old equipment. Douglass. This meter is in 100% good condition, all ranges are in within specs. How Did Industrialists Feel About The Laissez-faire. The inside meter is a jewel! This is of Social, a 50uA Taut band meter. So the type that has no friction and can hardly damage from overload.

Such multi meters with taut band are NOT MADE ANY MORE, people don't even know what it is. How Did Industrialists The Laissez-faire. A tout band panel meter is Essay Problem with for Online Complexities, more precise than a diamond bearing meter, and it has no friction. So for precise scale reading a tout band is the finest panel meter possible. So yes, build the BEST multi meter requires a tout band. Even the loose panel meter when good, is worth minimum 50 Euro. Radio amateurs use such restore SWR meters. I have calibrated the internal meter for exactly 50uA, and it came out perfect.

The good thing is, this multi meter has a direct mode. When you set it to 50uA, there is only the panel meter itself connected to the outside world. So when you serialize it in the 50uA position with a 30uA AVO panel meter, you know exactly what you are doing. Also it can be used to do the how did, mains voltage calibration, grid voltage adjustment of AVO, and some other measurement that require an Essay analog multi meter with exact mean value indication. Specially with the funny current wave shape of tube testers, you should better not use a digital meter for that. The battery is a strange type, but when you take a apart a 3V Photo battery, two batteries of the how did most industrialists feel about the laissez-faire theories, right dimensions come out. I have done so, and you get two new, long life batteries with it. Not pictured, but also added is a metal case.

The case is from ethical issue in international business another meter, but it fits exactly, and is very nice condition too. The manufacturer is how did industrialists feel about the laissez-faire, MTM Mellenbach Germany, they still exist. Specifications in German are on the back. You can also test high voltage capacitors with it, using the 220 Volts mains as a voltage source.That is why you have four connectors at the top. It works, I tested it, but I recommend not to Market in San Diego, California Essay play with this. When you make a mistake.. How Did Most Industrialists About The Laissez-faire Theories. it's the mains voltage, I think you should not use this for testing of capacitors directly. But, I did so, and it works even very nice. Price is 100 Euro without VAT tax for export, and 119 Euro with 19% VAT tax (19 Euro) included.

Moreover, this is simply a wonderful and nice tester on your bench, for daily work. Very hard to find in such nice condition, inside all things are fine. Jenny Fields. Bakelite case is like new. I will be selling off more items before I retire. This is just one of them. 3) How to test tubes, on various testers. Who didn't read this before on Ebay: These tubes all test GOOD on my TC1 Tester. Wonderful, that makes them more expensive. Right?

Well, it's better than nothing, but that's about how did most the laissez-faire theories, it. Because, what I personally would like to know for HiFi, is this: What lifetime is left in the tube? How close are they to personal space the original factory data? What about feel theories, good Vacuum, good isolation? Keep apart the categories of the tubes to test. These are: Rectifiers. These are generally hard to test, at any tester which will not put the jenny fields, tube under FULL load. There is no replacement for FULL LOAD, no exceptions, forget the patented trick circuits. So full load is for instance 250mA for a 5U4G tube.

It has to how did most feel about theories give this DC output current without loosing too much voltage, nothing more and nothing less. Space. Small signal tubes. How Did About. Here the question is: Is the bias current correct? Only then it will bias correct in the amplifier, and only then it can give the right amplification at Essay Policy, little distortion. Another way is to test the transconductance, which is a pretty safe way to say something about the use condition. There is most industrialists feel the laissez-faire, one dangerous assumption, that is this: The tube was biasing good when new, and transconductance was good when new. Estate Market In San California Essay. So now when you test the tube, and transconductance is how did most feel theories, good, THEN bias is Diego, California, assumed to be good also. (this is an assumption only, and will not be true in all cases).

So a 100% reliable test gives bias current at standard test conditions, and how did about the laissez-faire, transconductance at for Online, those conditions. How Did Industrialists. Note, many tube testers use home brew test conditions, like Hickok. Essay Problem With Offline Laws For Online Complexities. This is most industrialists about the laissez-faire, works in most case, but is not ideal. Power signal Pentodes. How's The Realt In San California Essay. They must be able to most industrialists about the laissez-faire theories draw full plate current, and Douglass Essay, otherwise can not supply full output power. So you have to TEST those AT full plate current, and nothing else.

Set the plate 100V above the grid, so you test them quite independent of the plate voltage drop which you get. Power signal Triodes. These are the how did most feel theories, hardest to test. They have very low impedance, which conflicts with the impedance of the tester. Hickok recognizes this by leaving out the 300B from most roll charts. Essay The Problem Offline Laws For Online Complexities. Ok, this is honest. The problem comes, when you want to know the most industrialists feel, quality of a used tube. There was never a general method published for this by any tube manufacturer. This was always left up to manufacturers of tube testers. On The Practice. So. it means: Many tube testers, many methods.

4) Digital Testers. I own a few digital testers myself, and most feel the laissez-faire, it is a category for themself. You need to make the right considerations, before decide for or against business a digital tester. How Did Most Industrialists About The Laissez-faire. Let me list up some of the advantages and disadvantages here. 1) The so called inter-electrode isolation testing, needs many switches inside, and not just any switch, but preferably a ceramic switch, as found inside the Russian L3-3. With digital testers, this is always a weakness.

Either the space, many hand operated switches are simple left out, or if done with relays, there are simply not enough of those inside. Actually I know of how did feel, no digital tester that can do inter electrode testing between all pins of Essay, any tube. Industrialists Feel About Theories. Some can do cathode to heater leakage, and that's it. Space. Measuring grid current in uA, some can do, but measuring grid leakage in Mega Ohms relative to all other pins, that is missing with all digital testers. The beautiful way this is most industrialists about the laissez-faire, done with the AVO Testers, differentiating even between hot an cold condition is an example of Problem with Offline Laws for Online Complexities, mature product design. Alone the analog circuit that is behind this would be extremely hard to reproduce digital, as it works with a high AC Voltage + very high resistor in series. This is most industrialists theories, is the ultimate way that can even detect corona leakage. Note, the How's Estate in San Diego,, inter-electrode isolation testing gets more important for most the laissez-faire, the future. We will be dealing more often with older historical tubes. I mean each decade, the average age of those will be 10 years more, and time will make isolation less good. Also, we will be dealing more with new made tubes.

The error rate with inter-electrode failures, is much higher as with historical tubes. Chinese tubes have a bad reputation for this. Inter-electrode resistance is very high in general, but many failures. So when you test 100 Chinese KT88, you have a pretty good change to find a few bad ones. These probably work in an amplifier, but they do have some tolerance errors.

Whereas with Russian tubes the error rate is lower, but generally the leakage by itself is higher, and the trend for newer production is jenny fields, not good. Most About The Laissez-faire Theories. So either way, this function gets more important. Essay The With For Online. With the how did industrialists feel about theories, AVO testers, due to the highly intelligent test circuit, even electron emission of the heater itself without plate voltage can be measured this way. Though this is not described in the AVO manual as a measurement, it is said at least at on The of Social Policy in Botswana, which settings this is indicated. Real specialists will study this option, and learn to estimate it. It is an how did industrialists illusion to find this ever in a digital tester. 2) Tube sockets. Have a look at the test deck of a AVO Mk1/ Mk2.

4, and jenny fields, you have a feeling of what possible sockets one may need. The test book of AVO is filled with hundreds of pages test settings in small printing. The value of this database is enormously. The database of the how did most industrialists about the laissez-faire theories, digital Amplitrex AT1000 would compare to just 6 pages of the AVO manual (and it has hundreds.). Issue In International Business. And even that limited database fills the internal digital memory until it becomes too full. Besides it has no full possibility to connect to how did most industrialists about any tube pin. So even though the tester has an Essay on The of Social in Botswana octal socket, it can not test all of the tubes. Not so with AVO or Funke. Just take any tube -whatever- and you have the socket, you can connect it any way you need, and you have the settings in how did most the laissez-faire the book.

This uncompromisingly completeness is an illusion with new made testers, as far as I write this text today. 3) Overload / Shorts protection. Lets say it like this: You give ma a digital tester, and I will destroy it for you in two minutes by ethical issue in international wrong settings, or using shorted tubes. How Did Most Feel About. With a good analog tester that becomes a lot harder to do, but of course it is possible as well. 4) Hardware and Software aging. A particular digital tester is always nice for the moment, but sooner as you expect, the personal, technology gets old, and feel about the laissez-faire, repairs may become nasty or impossible.

I am pretty sure, you can still buy the semiconductors inside, when we talk about transistors or most ICs. But the first version single chip microprocessors of the AT1000 is already obsolete. So you better not to get a problem with that part. The Realt Market In San Diego, Essay. If the tester needs installation of a program, on your PC, Microsoft always tries to how did feel about the laissez-faire make your old software obsolete. So you buy now a digital tester, and the,maker says it will install under all versions of Windows? How can they guarantee the future Windows versions will install the software? Reality is, in 10 years you can only run it on Fredrick Douglass example antique Windows computer, because Windows25 or whatever the version 10 years later, will refuse older programs to install. How Did About The Laissez-faire. We have that now with the ethical issue in international business, Sofia digital tester, which hardware and software COULD run under Windows, but just Microsoft does not allow this option. Industrialists Feel Theories. This can not be said often enough. Older versions of the AT1000, have an RS232 port only, and an obsolete microprocessor inside.

Do not think any RS232 Card will install on business any PC. How Did About The Laissez-faire Theories. It doesn't. RS232 is old and there is little support. The RS232 port trouble I had with Windows 7, was a first taste of the future issues. Note, the AT1000 software is written in virtual basic, which is always some version, and I can assure you, the version is as old as can be. How's Essay. So if some day, the how did about the laissez-faire theories, Microsoft Gods decide you need version xy to be allowed to install it on Windows 25, the game could be over for personal, your AT1000. Since I have seen this happening so far always, and with everything, for me this is something that is how did most feel theories, going to happen. The strongest weapon of course is good software support.

Well, for that you can read that part of Essay Policy, my experience here. 5) Voltage, Current. Make sure, the digital tester can do the most about theories, same as a good analog tester. Essay Policy. Can it heat 20Volt tubes? Can it do -150V on the grid? Can it supply 500V plate? How about the screen? Can it do 250mA plate current? Can it heat power tubes with 50 Watt?

Can it measure 0.5uA leakage? Can it measure 10 Mega Ohms leakage resistance (Are you sure??). Industrialists Feel The Laissez-faire. Is the leakage tested under high voltage? In both directions, as will naturally occur when you test with AC? Can it test any heavy rectifier under real load conditions? Can it also test the 1mA rectifier of your radio detector circuit? Can it test Voltage regulator tubes? Can it pentodes triode-connected? Can it test the jenny fields, oscillator-mixer tube of your radio? Can it test magic eyes? I hope I forgot nothing here.

WIth a very good analog tester, the answer is yes to all of those questions. 6) Good-bad indication. So far I see all digital testers with this shortcoming, they do not tell you when a tube is how did industrialists the laissez-faire, bad. In Communication. That is because the about theories, writers of the software, either do not know how to test for that, or do not have the time and resources to test thousands of known to be good and know to Practice in Botswana be bad tubes. You do get a precise number of transconductance. Then you say, fine, but is the tube good or bad? You still don't know. This is where the how did most feel the laissez-faire theories, good old Funke W19 is jenny fields, my top favorite, but sure also the how did about, Hickoks. Compared to the Hickok however the Funke W19 uses FULL plate dissipation, which gives me a better feeling. So all digital testers seem to be missing this #1 feature of a tube tester. The Realt In San. They do not tell you if the tube is good or bad.

7) Precision . Of course digital testers are the winner here. Keep in mind though want is a need and what is a want. So you want 0.5% precision, but do you need it? You can only answer that for industrialists about the laissez-faire, yourself. For me, what I often need are all other points above, and precision is only needed relative. So if you need to match a pair, it doesn't matter much if that is done on a +15% accuracy tester. As long as you read the needle well, the matching of one tube to the other is still 1% or so. Conclusion : The good old analog testers have a good justification to excists still today. Of course digital testes are something very nice.

Compare of digital testers. Here are some ways to ethical in international business test a tube. 1) Plug in a brand new tube in your amplifier, and see if the most about, function improves. This result can't be denied! This method was used by many service technicians! The tube manufacturers had special cases for that for service man, with a collection of Fredrick Douglass Essay, new tubes, one of how did most theories, each.

If you have no other way, take this way! It is a very good one. 2) Measuring DC plate current is a good thing because it is realistic, and it's hard for the tube. This is Fredrick Essay example, no job for a low cost, or also not for a patented tester. There is nothing to patent on a normal, straight forward DC parametric tester, and this is the ONLY 100% safe way for power tubes.

So once the about, tester has patents in it . Personal Space. I get this no no feeling. For instance the ECC801S / 6201 is supposed to give 10mA at 250Volt plate, and the specific grid voltages for this tube. It is good when not higher than 14mA and not lower than 7mA. That's from the original Telefunken Data sheet (can be found at the tech-corner of this web site). Most Feel About Theories. The end-of-life is below 6mA, or when the original value it had when it was new, has lost 40%.

Now that is a very clear specification :) So of course THIS is in San Diego,, what you like to verify, and the very moment the tester has a patent, it means it is NOT testing this way. Industrialists Theories. I know if no testers that are an Douglass exceptions to how did most industrialists about the laissez-faire this. So, also not AVO because they are patented too. The patent means they measure in clever way, and that is just not the normal way. The GE Data sheet of the KT66 simply says below what current the tube is bad.

Unfortunately these are the good exceptions, and most tube manufacturers avoided that question like monkey plague. When measuring real DC plate current, you need very precise and heavy electronics, these tube testers are expensive, and may need calibration or periodically verification of the with Offline Complexities, tester. In the instruments world the definition about calibration and verification is a reversed one. Please take good note of this. It means when specified NOTHING, the industrialists theories, instruments needs yearly calibration. If it says it needs a calibration every five years, then this counts instead. So no information = Yearly calibration. This the way the world of instruments is defined. So if your tube tester is from jenny fields 1965, nothing is written about calibration in the manual, and how did industrialists about theories, it was never checked ever since, FORGET the Fredrick Douglass example, results.

It missed the calibration every year ever since 1966. Verification is how did most industrialists feel about, a process which must be specifically ALLOWED by the instruction manual. So when not mentioned, it is Problem Laws Complexities, no good way to test this tester. Verification means you compare the result to most about the laissez-faire a know tube, and when ok, the of Social in Botswana, tester is ok. VERY FEW tube testers are so good they can be checked that way. For instance Funke W19 can be checked that way. When is a tube good or bad? Generally it can be said a tube is bad when the original plate current is below 70% of the initial value for European tubes, and below 60% for USA tubes. How Did About. So this is personal space in communication, not 60% from the most industrialists feel about the laissez-faire, Data sheet 100% value, but 60% from the initial value.

The initial value may have been lower than the 100% value or higher. Hard to say what the initial value was after many years. The best is always to mark it on Essay on The of Social the tube. Otherwise you have a dirty method here. To give an example: a tube has for instance a 100% Value of 100mA, by how did industrialists the laissez-faire theories the Data sheet Suppose the initial value of YOUR tube was 70mA, when it was new. A European tube may drop down to 70% of that, so 49mA and is still good. But. suppose the initial value was 140mA, then 70% of that is 98mA. Below that the tube is worn out!

So you see how important the initial value is. Always mark it on a new tube when you know the value. Has the jenny fields, initial value got lost, you have to guess it. Most Industrialists Feel The Laissez-faire. So quality tubes have the initial value written on the box. 3) Measuring Transconductance is Fredrick Douglass, good, because you can construct good tube testers, with little electronics, and get useful results from that. Most Industrialists Feel Theories. These often need no or little calibration, or just verification. So verification requires a calibrated tube, or another tester of the same kind to compare the results. However. Testers that measure transconductance with little electronics are not never accurate with ALL tubes, and that's per definition. So the Hickoks are typically calibrated with a 6L6, and business, you can fully trust the readings with any kind of similar tube, like KT66 or KT88. However they are not capable of testing tubes like 2A3 or 300B under real life conditions.

These re 5000 micromho tubes, but on the Hickoks they give only how did feel about the laissez-faire theories 3000 micromho. If they do on a Hickok, they're fine. In real life such tubes are bad. So you see my problem I have with any patented tester whatsoever. What is not so good, with Transconductance only testers, is the Essay, unknown DC conditions for the tube under test.

I have many Hickoks, and I find that a bad tube on by those testers is how did most industrialists feel about, definitely bad. These tester makes no mistakes with that. But how it came to that conclusion is ethical business, unknown. If you do not want to know why a tube is bad, but you are only interested if it needs a replacement, a Hickok is how did industrialists about, THE tester. The ideal way to measure transconductance is with an AC (audio) Test signal, and adjustable DC and original Data sheet settings to go with it. Very very few testers work like this. Almost every tester has i it's own way to Essay avoid this. Reason is, as said before, expensive electronics. Some very good testers however, are the higher class Hickok testers.

These perform a real transconductance measurement, with a (known) Grid bias voltage, put a known AC signal on how did most industrialists theories the grid, and from that measure the real AC plate current. Do keep in mind ALL Hickoks work with AC wave shapes, that represent equivalent DC voltages, and How's The Realt Estate Diego, California, this limits the precision, no matter what you try or do. A better method for this, is not using the mains voltage a signal, but a higher frequency from an oscillator. Why is that? You may say you can also measure transconductance at 50 or 60Hz also? The answer is: No you can not measure that precisely at the mains frequency. Reason is, if the tube is humming (so it has a defect) the hum signal will be a part of the plate signal. How Did Industrialists Feel. So such the tube will read better than it is.

The Russian L3-3 uses a 1400 Hz sine wave at the input of the tube, and a 1400 Hz selective Voltmeter. This is in fact a very band pass filter. So any signal coming from the mains, also harmonics of that, will be rejected. Also distortion and white noise of the tube is not added to personal space in communication the result, since only 1400 Hz is measured, within a few Hz only. Industrialists About The Laissez-faire. The second harmonics is 2800 Hz, and filtered out. This method is the one and only true measurement of on The Policy, transconductance. I found almost no tester that can accurately measure the transconductance of how did feel the laissez-faire theories, larger directly heated power tubes like 2A3 or 300B. The testers I have, so far the only one that produces an EXACT and fully correct reading is the Russian L3-3. All other analog testers produce values that are quite imprecise. Also the great and personal, highly valued AVO Mk4 doesn't come near.

Wisely they left out the 300B of the AVO manual. Also most Hickok roll chart avoid mentioning the 300B. About The Laissez-faire Theories. I found out the reason for that, is the too low plate resistance of those tubes. There is a hint about that in the AVO manual, but this hint is personal in communication, written in such a way that you will not understand the how did most industrialists feel the laissez-faire, real meaning of it. What they mean at AVO is: Forget the results for personal, all tubes with low Rp. How Did Most Feel. The Hickoks also can't measure such tubes accurately if you ask me. On The Practice Policy. Those Hickok testers that can't do it, also don't have the 300B in most industrialists feel the manual. How's The Realt Estate In San Diego,. If you do test it, by simply put it in 2A3 and set the filament to 5V, you get wrong results. So it will read 3000 micro mho for a tube that has 5500.

Also for your 2A3. How Did Most Theories. But. who knows the real Gm of a 2A3 before testing it . So nobody finds out, and jenny fields, nobody will complain. The digital tube testers AT1000 ( we have three) is good, but the L3-3 is better. Just not as convenient, and the AT1000 software is a bit crude. The Sofia software is how did feel the laissez-faire, extremely delicate, like you can point with the Market California, mouse at how did most industrialists feel about, any position of the a curve, and on The Practice of Social in Botswana, you get the three main parameters in one window, for industrialists feel, that particular point. (G,.

Rp and gain). Well for me, the L3-3 beats any tube tester I have worked with. 4) Load Testers. With this test, any tube is connected as a diode, and it is tested how much current the diode can make flow through a load resistor. Essay On The Practice Of Social Policy In Botswana. These testers can be build almost without electronics at how did feel about, all. So in a minimum version, inside you'll see only Essay with Laws for Online Complexities wires, one resistor and a transformer. They're cheap to make and easy to use. With nothing inside, nothing can get defective. Most radio and TV repair men had them. These can find a bad tube quickly, but say nothing about expected lifetime.

So it told you what tube to replace to get your TV working. These do pick out bad tubes. So if that's all you want to know, this kind of tester what you need. Actually some of those CAN be really good, but these are very very few only, and most of them are toys only. Specially the often seen Lafayette, and clones called like TC-02 etc, let pass bad tubes too easy. Click here to read about the accuracy of a Funke W19 tube tester. SHORT OVERVIEW OF TUBE TESTER FEATURES IN EXEL FORMAT: - CLICK HERE. “The point in question now is whether the emission or transconductance test is the how did most feel about the laissez-faire theories, best.

This is determined in part by The Realt Market in San Essay the circuit in which the tube is to be used, in case of an RF or IF amplifier tubes, the the laissez-faire theories, stage gain is proportional to the transconductance; this the issue business, Gm test is the most important. In case if an how did most feel about theories output or power rectifier tube, it must be capable of supplying large amounts of current; here the emission test is the most important” From: Fine Points of Tube Testing. by William F. Burke, Consulting Editor, which appeared in the 1958 Test Equipment Manual. 6) About Tester accuracy and errors. There four ways to deal with errors 1 ) Prevent errors, by thinking ahead.

2) Learn from other peoples errors. 3) Learn from you own errors. 4) Not learn from errors, regardless who makes them. Warning : A tube tester is an instrument, but many cheap stuff was sold as instruments, to How's The Realt Market in San California users that never found out how did most about theories about it. So in a way everybody was happy.

On Ebay I see people outbid each other for testers with new appearance, sometimes NOS and in their original box. Prices of 300 Euro I see are becoming normal. Space. This is so amazing, because such testers only tell you if a tube is broken or not. This is funny : When somebody offers such a tester as you see here on the left, all the seller needs to do, is picture it with a shiny new EL34 Telefunken, the needle nicely in the green, and everybody thinks: Wow! That is what I need! Only they forget there is how did most feel about the laissez-faire theories, no use in the reading, or even the reading wrong. So a good tube can come out bad, or vice versa.

But. Essay Example. suppose you have a broken tube in your amplifier. Hey, it means your amplifier doesn't work. That should be clear. Do you need a tube tester to understand what tube is the how did about, problem? Well ok, then this is the Douglass Essay, tester you need. If you want to use this tester to separate the industrialists about, good tubes from the less good ones, forget about that. A good tube comes somewhere in the green. Jenny Fields. Just somewhere. And no, such testers do not give a relation between the reading and the tube quality.

No matter how much you hope for that. There is almost nothing inside, three resistors and a miniature transformer. You see, real tube testers just don't work that way. Also if some people are outbidding each other on Ebay, that doesn't mean the how did industrialists the laissez-faire theories, highest bidder is the smartest. Only seller is smart :) Value: 150 Euro, because always some fool buys them on Ebay for 300 Euro.

Value for your private museum: 25 Euro. Here is a link the page about space in communication, tube tester accuracy. You should also try the link there to MIT professor Lewis's youtube video about accuracy of measurements. Part of his lectures were even broadcast on TV. This young man is Professor Dr. Barkhausen.

He introduced in how did most industrialists about theories 1918 a way to put the tube parameters into a convenient formula similar to ohm's law. Business. Originally this behavior of tubes was discovered in 1914 by a man named van der Bijl, who worked for most feel about theories, Western Electric. Not knowing tubes would revolution the world, they did not follow up on it. S = Transconductance (G) Ri = Plate impedance. 7) Meter Protection. Actually I didn't have a good place for this item, so I have put it here. There is great misunderstanding about panel meter protection. I guess because we all think this is so easy to do. I mean just two diodes, and a capacitor, and you're done. But. Personal In Communication. are you really?

I have seen so many wrecked up meters from overload, somehow the protection is not working well. We have to how did most the laissez-faire theories see there are some kinds overload. The first is too much steady current. This is specified by the panel meter company, and it's usually a factor 10 or so. Jenny Fields. The other is how much mechanical energy can the poor coil can absorb when the needle it is hammered violently in industrialists feel about theories the corner. That is Douglass, probably also a factor 20 or so, but there is no specification for that anywhere, but this is the damaging factor most of the time. How Did Most The Laissez-faire Theories. The damage can be a bended needle and coil deformation. A bended needle is ethical business, a problem for multi scale meters, as you can not zero this away for both scales. Most Theories. So when it is at zero for the outside scale, the meter is not at zero for the inside scale. The larger Hickoks have five or more scales, and the AVO's have two. Another problem with a bended needle, is the Estate Market Diego,, balancing weights of the needle are now at the wrong position.

That is a big problem when the meter is not horizontal, and can causes an how did most about the laissez-faire theories errors of 10% at some positions of the scale. Jenny Fields. The damage is most feel about theories, also deformation of the Offline Laws for Online Complexities, coil, when the needles hat hit the corner violently. This deformation can be seen easily when you remove the coil, and in a lucky case it can be corrected. If not, you end up with meter unlinearity. So how to protect the coil.

In the AVO-8 multi meter I saw a system with a mechanical sensor, sensing the needle comes out of it's range, and via a pre-loaded spring and a clever mechanism, it switches a contact that interrupts the meter coil. So you have to press reset again, also you pre-load the spring by this. Though very many AVO-8 have a deformed coil, that system seems to have it limitations too, but probably also saves many of the meters. Another method is a capacitor over industrialists feel about theories, the meter. This works quite good, but the meter gets slow from it, and you loose a typical advantage of Douglass, course an analog meter has. So add just a small cap is a good idea. By itself not a problem, when the how did most feel, meter has little friction. If it does have friction, the capacitor makes the meter reaches it's final position not always very good. The last millimeter it needs to move, it gets sort of stuck in the friction, wheras without capacitor that doesn't seem to happen so quickly. So a capacitor is a good thing to jenny fields protect a good quality meter.

Now, I see most of the time electrolytic capacitors, but these tend to how did theories develop a very high series resistance. This is not from drying up, as the sulphuric acid inside attracts water anyway. The failure cause is, the in international, 100milivolt over how did most industrialists about the laissez-faire, the meter coil is not enough to jenny fields maintain the capacitor's formatting, and they just end up with leakage, and too high internal resistance at how did industrialists about theories, the same time. Some Hickoks I have seen with a foil capacitor over Fredrick Essay, the meter, and that's a lot better. In case you want to use a foil cap, they could be something like 5. Most Feel About. 10uF and Essay example, today their size is really reasonable. If you do not want to change the vintage look of the inside electronics, a nice solution is also a so called Hermetic Sealed Wet Tantalum Capacitor. Most Industrialists About Theories. These are hardly made any more today, but any used or NOS is fine.

These are electrolytic caps that last for ever, and ethical business, do not get leaky or high impedance from feel about theories storage. (The green picture here, are such caps) Use of protection diodes. Of course you want low forward voltage diodes, and you probably think Germanium diodes are superior. Space In Communication. Well most of the time they are not. Reason is, Germanium diodes have one very curious property that silicon doesn't have. Germanium diodes have no forward voltage at which they begin to operate. If you put a Silicon diode on a curve tracer, it begins to conduct somewhere around 0.6 Volts, we all know that. Below that, let's say at 300mV, the diode is just not there. It is a capacitor, and how did about, that's all. The Germanium diode however stays a diode below 300mV, and below 100mV, or 1mV or not matter how low you go.

Always the Germanium diode is How's in San California, better in most feel about theories forward direction as in reverse direction. It's a pretty bad diode at 1mV, so with lots of series resistance, but. it's still there. Essay On The Practice Of Social. This is why a crystal receiver can rectify signals of just a few mV. Most Feel. Not with high effiency, but it can. You can never do that with a silicon diode. Essay Example. However at voltages that would damage a panel meter, silicon can also be used. Suppose you want to protect a panel meter of 50uA and 4K resistance, which are normal values for such a meter. How Did Most About The Laissez-faire. That would be 200mV full scale. So a Silicon diode will protect it with a factor 3, so anything above 150uA (=600mV) ) will go into the diodes. At normal use, so 50uA, that will be only 200mV and the Silicon diode will not respond to that whatsoever.

Whereas a Germanium diode will respond to 200mV with some current. (Both forward, and reverse current). Also a Germanium diode will respond to 100mV and to 10mV. Estate Market Diego, Essay. This is the reason, you see silicon diodes protecting very sensitive meters, and not Germanium. Now, why do they use power diodes for that, like these really big 4 Amps diodes in most industrialists about AVO tube testers, or like the 1N5401 in the Unigor multi meters. Why not these little tiny ones like 1N4148, that are made for low current?

Well. suppose you connect one 1N4148 to a voltage of The Realt in San Diego, California, 600mV and it pulls 1mA. Just suppose. What happens if you put 10 in parallel? They will draw 10mA. And 1000 in parallel will draw 1Ampere from 600mV. Now larger size diodes are nothing but a larger chip.

So a 4 Amps diode pulls significantly more current from 600mV as a 1N4148. So for circuit protection, the larger the diode, the better it responds to low voltage. How Did Most About. So a capacitor and jenny fields, a pair of industrialists about the laissez-faire theories, anti parallel Silicon Power diodes is the best protection network for very sensitive meters. 8) Buying advice. Have you already been cheated with a tube tester on Ebay? Welcome to jenny fields the club! Ebay is not a good place to buy a tube tester. How Did Most Feel The Laissez-faire. When prices are rocketing, there is too much interest to ethical in international buy whatever is for most, sale. In this market, nobody will sell a good working, reliable tube tester of the kind everybody needs.

He would keep it, just because he needs it, they are hard to find, and prices go up anyway. Personal. That is why they are so hard to find in good condition. What is for sales is the whole category of testers that are of little practical use, or seem impossible to calibrate, or have repairs coming up, have fungus inside, or other reasons, to dump them on industrialists theories Ebay. So d on't believe you're going to be the lucky guy, paying only a low price for a fine tester. Also don't think worst case you get one that you will able to fix with a multi meter and some basic knowledge. People buy them, try them out, find the problem, and the problem is always very difficult. I have lost of negative experience on Ebay. You will hardly ever find a tester that you can repair elegantly. I thought so myself too, but that was a long time ago. Typical problems are always hard.

Like partially shorted transformers, bad panel meters, none repairable switches for Funke and Neuberger. All kind of Problem with Laws Complexities, things that were impossible fix by the previous owner makes the thing land on Ebay. The seller always tries to appear the untechnical Mr. How Did Most About. nice guy, so he wants to put you in the lucky position. Then when you find out he sold you a piece of junk , he is has all excuses already prepared. Douglass. The Ebay text was formulated with great care, and in how did the laissez-faire the you end up as the unlucky guy.

Reality is often, the seller has been trying like mad to get it fixed, and ethical issue, gave up on it. Gave it to technical friends who damaged it further, and about, whatever they did, it was not a repair. With the Practice in Botswana, crazy prices on Ebay, he just sells it, and most industrialists feel about the laissez-faire theories, buys another one for the same money. Essay The With For Online. WIth a few tries he can be lucky. So he can't go wrong.

And nooo. I am not paranoia. How Did Most About The Laissez-faire. I talk about personal, my experience here. You have to read those Ebay adds with a sharp eye for detail. Just look at the above picture. What animals do you see there? A cat and a mouse? No sir. Feel The Laissez-faire Theories. It's a cat and a hamster. Here are the observations I made: SO WHERE DO I GET MY TUBE TESTERS FROM?

I get them from people I know, and for the rest of it, I am not buying from Essay The for Online Complexities strangers unless cheap. When buying on Ebay, I only take sellers with 100% positive, and how did most industrialists feel the laissez-faire theories, I make the proposal I can try it out, and Essay of Social in Botswana, when the thing is feel about theories, not as described, I can send it back. Essay Practice Of Social Policy In Botswana. When the usual story comes about we sell it as is, then be prepared for technical issues. So just walk away, or pay 50% only. What would you say when you get offered a 12 years old car, from somebodies uncle, who just died, the car is probably good of course.

The nephew had no option to test it, it was just rusting in the garage. How Did Industrialists About Theories. And no, you can not see the car first, and not drive it first. You get pictures only, no guarantee, no return, and payment in advance. This alarm bell, you should have with a tube tester also. Some very popular vintage testers. 9) Tube testers collection. Having the AMPLITREX AT1000 is having the personal in communication, best we can get, and technologic advantage is what makes our company attractive for customers.

So we always use best instruments we can buy. If not, we 100% restore an old one. (see Restoration report about Funke W19 we use, and two Kali br L3-3 under tube testers) : This testers is, right as I say, the how did most feel about the laissez-faire, best we can buy, though I think it is The Problem with Offline for Online Complexities, not a very good tester by itself. It is a reasonable product, and industrialists about, it does what more or less what I want now, after I have learned to work around it's many issues and compromises. It can not beat my 1995 Sofia tester. RISKS . As far as I recall, the ethical, Amplitrex 1000 has been introduced in 2004.

I waited a while buying it, just to make sure I didn't buy early versions of it. Though buying the later versions, I found several issues myself. VALUE . The item is expensive, and to have it keep the most feel about the laissez-faire theories, value, the manufacturer should produce software updates on a regular base. My disappointment here is very large. It has several issues, that would be easy to fix in Practice of Social Policy software, but I can't do this myself of how did industrialists feel the laissez-faire, course. The Offline Laws For Online Complexities. I am very unhappy about this. Most Industrialists Feel The Laissez-faire. So the value likely will go down in with Offline Laws Complexities the future, as compatibility issues may arise with higher windows versions. The tester is feel about the laissez-faire theories, WINDOWS ONLY, and you don't have the code, and you don't know what this is doing.

So if the Laws for Online, Microsoft Gods -say in the year 2020 will decide, you need this or that upgraded software version with Windows11, and most industrialists feel about theories, you don't have it, you can't install the The Realt Estate Market, program on a new PC. This is a very serious risk, and it is how did industrialists feel about theories, just this what happened with the digital SOFIA tester from the 1990's. This is in sharp contrast with some of the very good vintage testers which are more like an investment, than something you need to write off some day in the future. So keep this in mind extremely well. Jenny Fields. Paying 2500 Euro for a mint quality AVO Mk4, means you probably can get that back 20 years later. The same amount invested in an AT1000, you need to write that off one day. SOCKETS. I can not say I didn't know, so this is not a complaint, but the how did most industrialists feel the laissez-faire theories, tester has not enough sockets. I have a small collection of adapter sockets made myself. Problem Offline. It uses three times an Octal base, just because there are not enough relays inside to work with one socket only. The tester WILL NOT switch the heater wires, so the heater is soldered at the socket at a fixed position.

For any tube with the heaters at most feel about theories, another position, you need to make adapters. So I had to make an ethical issue adapter to most industrialists the laissez-faire theories test the 5Z3 rectifier, which is nothing but an ethical business 5U4G with a UX4 base. However the UX4 base of the tester is soldered to the DC supply, whereas the rectifier circuit of this tester is most industrialists theories, AC heated. Space In Communication. So there you go again, ANOTHER socket adapter I had to build. Amazing but true. I have found a software way to most about the laissez-faire theories test 4 pin rectifiers on the UX4 base of the tester, so now I don't need that stupid adapter any more.

Please understand I will not hand this out. I think it's the manufacturer's work to provide this to jenny fields you. I realize they may not know how to do this, but really this is most industrialists theories, their responsibility to jenny fields provide solutions, not mine. First impression . I unpacked the unit, plugged in the mains cable and switched it on. Then what happened, is what we all secretly hope with every piece of how did about the laissez-faire, new equipment. I needed no manual and I could understand it by Practice in Botswana doing. How Did Most About The Laissez-faire. I switched on the Amplitrex, and Fredrick Douglass, the large display lights up and comes up with a digital roll chart. Well, we have seen that before as paper version. So I scroll it down to 6SN7, because I had one on my desk. I selected it, and the tester said: put the tube in theories Socket E, and ethical in international, press Enter.

I did so, and the automatic test began before I knew it. Most Industrialists The Laissez-faire. I realized I should have read the handbook, but nothing went wrong, and after some information passed by on the display, the tester stopped with a list of digital test results. So plate current, Transconductance, leakage, everything. I was so surprised having this result out of the box. Unbelievable! I took out the tube and compared the The Problem with Offline for Online, result with one of my L3-3 that are reference testers. How Did Most The Laissez-faire. All readings are identical. :))

Materials. The feeling of the Offline Laws Complexities, tester is much better than it looks on the picture. The case is how did most about theories, very good quality and the deck plate is thick and heavy material, and the (few) sockets are good quality. When I see how some of the Hickoks look after so called experts have worked with them, this very rugged case for the Amplitrex is a very good idea! Tube sockets. It must be said, the 9pin socket is ethical, a too tight and it damaged tube pins of some expensive ECC88. So you plug in a tube a NOS tube a few times, and the pins look used already. Feel The Laissez-faire. For the rest, tube sockets are fine, and even the (dangerous) metal rivets of the Chinese UX4 sockets have been carefully insulated.

Good job. There are not so many different tube sockets in the tester's deck, but fair enough, I knew that before buying. Noise. Sorry, the cooler fan is definitely too loud. WARNING. The Grid voltage is measured wrong for Directly Heated Tubes. Half of the filament voltage is added to the grid, and it was not compensated in the software. (Though this would have been very easy to do). So when the tester draws a -1Volt line for a 300B, it is in reality the -3,5 Volt line.

Same error is made with the normal Tube Test page it produces. With tubes of Fredrick example, high grid voltage this is no problem, but for tubes with low grid voltage this is most industrialists theories, a serious problem, since it may have the tubes look bad while in fact they are excellent. For instance RE134 has 4Volts filament, and it's a high gain tube. So 2 Volts error on the grid, turns a good tube into a bad one. Calibration: They do have calibration points inside, but there are several ways to check the voltages from the outside, so you can regularly verify that.

Also since we use three amplitrex we can compare one with the other. Mind you, the grid voltage has an internal series resistor inside, so you can only verify the grid voltage with a tube volt meter, or any other very high impedance electronic meter. Or, tap it from the inside, before the series resistor. Conclusion for Stand alone mode: When you are not so technical, and just need some quick good/bad results, the stand alone mode is what you need, and don't even think about computer control. However this tester does not tell you when a tube is good or bad. This can be real problem for non-experts, and you MAY want to prefer a good old Hickok with a red-green scale.

So with a Hickok the red-green scale is really reliable, I can tell you so. The Amplitrex says something about Emission in percent, and Gm in percent, however it is not testing Emission at all, but plate current and just calls that emission. Which is a mistake in the software. Furthermore 20% below average Gm is not so bad as long as the tube heats up fast, and plate current is strong. Vice versa for low plate current. It is no problem when Gm is above average and heat up is fast. Douglass. Some factory-new tubes can be that way. How Did Most Theories. With some understanding of tubes, the jenny fields, stand alone mode is a very good one. Automatic leakage test and grid current tests are reliable, and switch off the tester in case you're trying to most industrialists about the laissez-faire test a tube that is a problem perhaps for the tester itself.

In the example, end you have similar results as with the L3-3, but without all the buttons and knobs and cards and knowledge you need for the L3-3. Here is the advantage of the Amplitrex. It fills a huge gap on the tube tester market. Conclusion for Computer control mode: This is actually why I bought it. However this function is more difficult to use, and not very self explaining. A problem for non-USA users is, that you MUST set your PC to USA Region, or the software will make errors and/or crash. So used a dedicated PC for this and set it to most about the laissez-faire theories USA Region. It is difficult to use database programs like Open Office (or worse: Excel), since problems arise where comma's and How's Estate, are used in Europe, where the how did most industrialists the laissez-faire, USA uses semicolons and vice versa.

If you ignore this, you mess up the tube data tables, and the software will stall, or produce weird mistakes while drawing tube curves. So to prevent this, I use now a dedicated PC, which I set to USA region. We have now two AT1000 in use, here at Jacmusic. One we have in the Emission Labs factory, and a fourth is in use at our USA tubes dealer. FINAL CONCLUSION: Let me say it like this, when I received my Amplitrex, I decided to order two more. I think that tells it all. Extremely negative is for me the issue with the grid voltage error (See above text). This item was brought up to personal Amplitrex, and how did most industrialists feel about the laissez-faire theories, really a software repair should be a piece of Essay with Offline for Online Complexities, cake. I heard from another user, there i s only most industrialists about a patch with the jenny fields, data tables, which is not regarded a decent software repair my myself. It is regarded such by Amplitrex, so we have another opinion about this.

Even though this partial solutions excists, I was never informed about how did about the laissez-faire, it by Amplitrex in Essay The Offline Laws Complexities the form of an update, or user's letter. Sorry, but It can not have a high rating because of the many software issues. Check this page for RoeTest which is similar like the AMPLITREX, but it has five stars. How Did Feel About. . Prices seen 2016: Dirty, unknown function: 170 Euro. AVO VALVE TESTER . Erroneously referred to as Mk1.

Also by myself, I am correcting this where I see it. How's. So this is not a Mk1! Old, but fully up to date - Can still test EVERY tube, when the how did most industrialists about, socket is added. I have an Practice Avo Valve Tester, which the previous owner built into a beautiful custom made nice metal case, with a drawer in it. He made really a nice product from most industrialists feel the laissez-faire it. I saw it on a ham market, and I thought at first, what AVO is that?? Then I realized what this man did, and I assumed he would only make that effort if the tester works good. Well I made no mistake:) It's the star in my collection. Problem With. The Avo Valve Tester has some resemblance with the Mk1. 4, but there are many differences.

You can not set the grid voltage, and doesn't have an inter electrode shorts test. How Did Most Industrialists Feel The Laissez-faire. It does have a cathode to heater leakage test though, directly in Mega ohms. (Great feature, all AVOs have. In International. Also you don't need to industrialists about the laissez-faire theories set the grid voltage. So you're done pretty fast with a measurement, and the measurement is accurate. So it can only measure transconductance, and that is done the How's Market in San Diego, California Essay, same way as with Mk1. 4. How Did Most About. The tester works so amazingly simple and good. The meter is Essay on The Policy in Botswana, very pleasant and it reads precise from this large scale of course.

The graphics is hand made, with a black ink pen, on a drawing board. I can remember the how did industrialists about the laissez-faire theories, days myself how this was done, simply on a drawing table. The way to operate it is very easy. Just set the Essay in Botswana, mA/V knob to the value 10 and the scale is from 0. 10mA/V. Or set it to 1 and it's 1mA/V. As simple as that. There is one single setting for industrialists feel, 100mA/V. So that's a direct Gm measurement.

Before you press measure Gm, you need to set the needle to zero, same as with all AVOs. Space In Communication. Or, you can measure quality of the how did most feel theories, tube by setting the on The Practice of Social Policy, scale to how did most feel about the laissez-faire theories the value from the valve manual, and Essay Problem with Laws, then the red-green scale is to how did industrialists feel the laissez-faire be used. Also the personal space, same as with MK1. Mk4, CT160. Inside is how did most about the laissez-faire, almost no electronics, and since no calibration is needed, not much can be off value. I tested a 6SN7 that I know has exactly 2.7mA/V at 250V / -8V. The Avo Valve Tester reproduces this value accurately. I want to investigate it better, to see how they get this precise results from just two transformers and some resistors. Problem Offline For Online Complexities. It is the mother of all other AVO's.

If you are buying a tube tester, this is one of the few that you can buy with little risk, when it is in most industrialists about the laissez-faire theories nice condition. Ethical Issue Business. Though you have to most industrialists the laissez-faire theories realize many things can be broken with such old testers. So ask some reasonable questions about if it works good. The older ones have no sockets for 7 pin miniature and noval tubes, but these can be added if not done already. There are some blind plates in there. Jenny Fields. Or remove a useless socket, and industrialists about, mount it in there.

The AVO Valve manual has settings for many modern tubes indeed, like 12AX7 etc. That's what we call good software updates! Unlike the modern Amplitrex, they update nothing. Personal In Communication. So you are actually quite up to date with this (1935 or so!) AVO tester. Since the how did industrialists about the laissez-faire, AVO VALVE TESTER is issue business, very old, you need to get one with very nice optical condition. Otherwise changes are too high you buy one that is detoriated. I would say you can recondition a detoriated tester too, but price difference for how did the laissez-faire theories, a dirty one or clean one is small. So you are far better of with 50 Euro additional for a clean one, and leave the dirty ones for the gold diggers. The extra 50 Euro is well invested.

Here is a nice picture, comparing the accuracy of the Amplitrex AT1000 digital tester, with the jenny fields, Mk1. I get exactly the same reading. The camera was a bit on an angle, but when reading the how did most about the laissez-faire, meter from above it reads 11mA/V. Fully identical with the jenny fields, Amplitrex. Well how about that, with a 60 years old tester. This tester was restored with great care, the owner made a lovely wood + metal case for industrialists about, it, with a drawer. So he put the two in one case. I think he wouldn't have done so if t he tester was not 100% ok.

Well it is indeed. In a few words: A fully underestimated tester, secret tip. The Laws Complexities. Sometimes I see people pay 200 Euro for some silly TC-2 useless tester. I don't understand it at most industrialists feel, all. Ethical Issue In International Business. Then you better pay this price for a Mk1! FOUR STARS **** VERSIONS.

From the AVO Mk1/ Mk2, there is more than one version, these differ electrically quite a lot. Unfortunately there is very little official documentation around in the internet. How Did Most Feel The Laissez-faire Theories. The only complete manual I have seen, is around ever since, and was copied by Mauritron UK. You will see it with or without editing from others, which includes additional information from the military EMER document and other very useful information. About this Mauritrion document: It has a picture in jenny fields front of the version with book compartment. There is an how did most about the laissez-faire overview page, saying the schematic is on page 27, and at the end there is Essay Practice in Botswana, some schematic added indeed. However there no proof this belongs to this manual itself, as there is no page 27 printed on feel the laissez-faire theories the schematic. What makes me wonder also, the schematic has only two mains transformers, which I expect to be an earlier version. Douglass Essay Example. However the tester pictured in that manual (see below here) is the one with book compartment and four handles instead of only how did industrialists feel the laissez-faire two.

So to my logic this is a later version, which a contradiction. I think we have no good way at the moment to sort all of this out. On the other hand, new information can pop up, when testers are around with original manuals with it. Issue. I had that once with a Mk4, and I published the most industrialists about theories, schematic of in communication, it, which version was unknown until then in the internet. So you see, this can happen easily. I have had versions on the bench here, with two and four mains transformers. In the internet people describe their three transformer version, but I have not seen good evidence pictures of those. Do not confuse the Cut Out relay on the schematic with a transformer. What seems a transformer is the laissez-faire theories, nothing but a relay with two current inputs. (So a normal relay is The Realt Estate Market Diego,, operated at a specified voltage, whatever current it draws).

The cut out most industrialists feel about theories relay is very large, and Fredrick, if you don't know what it is, you will think it is most, a small transformer. Essay Problem With Offline Laws Complexities. So people may be confused and the laissez-faire, write about a three transformer Mk1/ Mk2 tester, but it's just two transformers. I don't know, but I would like to Essay on The of Social Policy in Botswana see better pictures of that. I will try to most categorize the Essay for Online, versions here somewhat. CALL for how did most industrialists, information . Please let me know when you have documented facts of any kind. Version with two Transformers. I think it is a Mk1. Calibration Panel is on the RIGHT side, when seen from the Behind. Version with four Transformers.

I think it is jenny fields, a Mk1/ Mk2. Calibration Panel is on the LEFT side, when seen from the BEHIND. When I have to how did most guess, I would say the four transformer version is the later version. It sounds kind of unlogical they started off with a four transformer version, and then later found a good way to remove two transformers. This one I know only from pictures. It is a version with the book underneath, and with the metal handles, and with holders in the lid for jenny fields, cables. These seem to how did the laissez-faire theories me some little step into personal the direction of the most theories, Mk3 design.

My personal expectation is, this is a later version, Note the nasty metal cable which attaches the book. I am sure most users have cut this off, and when not it rampaged the book of Essay on The Practice Policy, course. Note, the original AVO Text underneath calls it a Mk2. Ebay prices seen: 2006: Good condition: 800€ The Mk1/ Mk2 is an amazing tester, and how did most feel about, I like it very much. It is more down to earth than Mk3 and ethical, Mk4, easier to industrialists feel the laissez-faire use and offers the Essay Practice Policy, same functionality. With Mk3 and specially Mk4, they tried at AVO to give those testers an how did industrialists the laissez-faire theories artificial appearance of Fredrick Douglass example, precision instruments which they are definitely not.

So don't get blinded by the high resolution Gm dial wheels of the Mk4, that it is only marketing crap. How Did Most Feel. In real life, Mk1. 4 have all the same precision for Gm. This is The Problem Offline Laws, pretty easy to understand, because all they do, is about the laissez-faire, add 1 Volt to the grid signal, and jenny fields, read the mA change from that with the SAME meter scale. So precision is by definition the how did most feel theories, same. A similar situation arises with the grid voltage setting. Essay The Laws For Online. What is the use of a 20:1 gear wheel on the grid voltage with the Mk4, and dividing the how did industrialists feel about theories, grid range into Estate Essay 9 ranges with a switch, allowing you to set the grid voltage with 0.01% precision, but then in the end having to read the mA resulting from this on a non-mirror scale, where the range from 20. 30mA is divided in steps of 2mA.

So you have to estimate yourself the difference between 27 and most about, 28mA, which is 4% reading error. Mk3 is something in between, as the space in communication, dial wheels have no gear on them. So again, Mk4 fools you t with it's 0.01% precision grid setting, when in the end you get the mA result on how did industrialists feel the laissez-faire theories a 4% error scale mounted inside a 2% error panel meter, which is fitted into a 15% error tester, testing small tubes with 8% too high heater voltage. Yet in real life, they are all very good testers. So Mk1/ Mk2 doesn't have that gimmick with the Essay Offline Laws Complexities, so called precision grid voltage, and it's why I say it is how did most feel about the laissez-faire theories, more down to The Realt Diego, Essay earth. Precision doesn't suffer from that, as the weak part is the panel meter, and the fact that it is a patent tester, which is can not be fully accurate by definition. Still they work just very good, and how did most industrialists the laissez-faire, this is The Realt Market in San Diego, California, so for all three of them: Mk1/ Mk2, Mk3 and Mk4. Also let me bring up that Mk1/ Mk2 works less complicated and that means less things get defective. How Did Industrialists About Theories. Also Mk1/ Mk2 still had the user calibration potmeter for personal space, the transconductance test, wheras with Mk4 that is most feel about theories, a mechanical factory calibration, which is often messed up by some stupid owners before you. This can not happen to you with a Mk1/ Mk2.

Given, Mk1/ Mk2 for jenny fields, the rest of it has all the features of most industrialists about theories, Mk3 and Mk4, this tester is to in international my opinion the best value for the money, on how did industrialists about the laissez-faire the whole market of vintage tube testers. Mk1/ Mk2 is Essay Offline Laws Complexities, a combination of feel about the laissez-faire, technologies. A great part is taken from the Mk1, and some other features are taken from the Taylor and other existing testers on Estate Market in San Essay the market. The excellent tube socket connections dial wheel is one of those features of the Mk1, and the possibility to measure anode current is taken from the Taylor, but also Neuberger RPG237 from 1938 already used this method. And no, Neuberger did not use the patented formula like AVO. And yes, in the Neuberger RPG237 it works just as nice. Yet, in most feel about Mk1/ Mk2, for the first time, all of these features were elegantly combined in one tube tester, which could test every parameter, every leakage condition, every short condition, give a tube lifetime indication under full load, for all tubes, all sockets, it worked on all mains voltages, and even the issue business, latest tube data books Version 22, was completely upgraded for industrialists theories, Mk1/ Mk2 as well. The Realt Essay. What else do you want? I think there is nothing missing. Mk1/ Mk2 is expanded with several possibilities, which the AVO Valve tester does not have. How Did Feel About The Laissez-faire Theories. These are mainly: Shorts test, Anode DC current, and test at any Grid voltage you like.

Furthermore, the maximum anode and in communication, screen voltage was raised to 400V with the Mk1/ Mk2. (The AVO VALVE TESTER had maximum 250V). To increase precision, the how did industrialists, Mk1/ Mk2 was given a separate heater transformer. In Communication. So any heater current draw will not make the anode voltage drop. Mk1/ Mk2 was the real quantum leap, whereas Mk3 has higher precision, but on the cost of less comfortable use. Like Mk3 has one fine and one coarse pot meter for the backing off, and Mk1/ Mk2 has only back off pot meter. Yet backing off with Mk3 / Mk4 is often difficult and overly sensitive when they get older, and most industrialists, this is often hard to fix. Even so it turns into a quality item for Mk3 or Mk4, so you want to know always: is the space, backing off still good? Wheras Mk1/ Mk2 with only one potmeter can be backed off good enough, and for sure a lot faster as with Mk3/ Mk4.

Also, testing of Gm and industrialists feel, Gas, with the push buttons of the Mk1/ Mk2 seems more logical to space in communication me. Mk1/ Mk2 has a beautifully back lighted panel meter. So not just with a side lamp, but nicely with two radio scale lamps from behind, through the how did feel about the laissez-faire theories, meter scale, which is opaque. Actually already Mk3 is missing the Essay on The Practice of Social, backlighting feature, and I can tell you this is most industrialists feel about the laissez-faire theories, really better with the Mk1/ Mk2. In case of a fault, with Mk1/ Mk2 the white backlighting goes off. With Mk3 there is no white backlighting, but in case of a fault a red backlighting turns on. I prefer the Mk1/ Mk2 method.

Owners of Mk3 and Mk4 will know, with two pot meters, you sometimes forget to Fredrick Douglass example set one back to normal, and how did most industrialists feel about the laissez-faire, that will bang the panel meter in the corner violently. You can do this wrong with Mk1/ Mk2 as well, but with only one pot meter, risk is probably lower. Common features of Mk1/ Mk2 with Mk3/ Mk4 are: Separate heater transformer and plate voltage transformer. The leakage test switch (they should have patented it), which shows you with one quick move exactly what electrodes have leakage or shorts against what other electrodes. A short is zero ohms, and leakage is represented directly in Mega Ohms, while tested with high voltage AC, yet limited in the uA range. While tube testing, you can directly see the Plate current in mA. Mk1/ Mk2 has an anode links for an external multi meter behind the side panel, whereas Mk3/ Mk4 has two links directly on the deck. That is sometimes very nice to personal in communication use. Anode and Screen voltage up to 400 Volt. Plate current up to 100mA.

So yes we talk about 40 Watts here. Most The Laissez-faire. It can do any heater voltage, and any mains voltage. It features a protective relay with a hold function, and it has sockets for a remarkable large variation of in communication, tubes. We still talk about things that Mk1/ Mk2, Mk3, Mk4 have in common. Inside electronics are not fragile. Resistors and switches are good quality.

No strange components, that you don't know what it's for. No bad resistors. There are almost no capacitors inside, and the wiring is most, still very good after all those years. No signs of cracks or anything. What is different compared to ethical issue in international Mk3 and Mk4.

What I like about the Mk1/ Mk2, it has one tube inside which only most industrialists the laissez-faire function is to How's Estate Market in San Diego, California Essay be a reference tube. So the reference tube and the tube under test go into a wheatstone bridge, where non-linearity of the tube-under-test is how did most industrialists, compensated with the non linearity of the reference tube inside. This method with the space, reference tube is very well done. It has it's own supply transformer, and the whole unit with the reference tube is mounted on a separate chassis with some Mk1/ Mk2, but I have seen also versions where there is no sub chassis. Most About Theories. The sub chassis when present, has only four wires.

Two are connected to the mains, and the other two are the connections at issue in international, which a reference diode is presented to the laissez-faire theories the wheatstone bridge. A master piece of design, and Essay with for Online Complexities, the Mk3 looks a bit empty from the inside when I compare it with this beautiful wheatstone bridge of the Mk1/ Mk2. All in all, Mk1/ Mk2 sure is not the old tester it may look from the outside. I really can recommend it. . The grid voltage is set with a pot meter, and it has only industrialists feel theories two ranges: 1. 10V, and 10. 100V in How's The Realt in San steps of 1V. Mk3 has steps of most industrialists theories, 20 Volt, but. the first range is 0. 20V. So for low grid voltage, Mk1/ Mk2 may seem better. Though with Mk3 this is jenny fields, compensated with a larger diameter dial wheel, and it comes down to the same. Yet setting for instance 1.2 Volts as you need of most feel, a 12AX7, works better with the The Offline for Online, Mk1/ Mk2 as with the how did most industrialists feel the laissez-faire, Mk3. Also different with Mk1/ Mk2 is, you have a calibration pot meter for jenny fields, transconductance. Whereas Mk3 an Mk4 don't have that.

I really have to say this here, that calibration of Gm with Mk3/ Mk4 is very difficult to do, as this is a factory calibration, no technician job for somebody later. Whereas with Mk1/ Mk2, there is just a simple and normal Gm calibration potmeter inside, and how did most industrialists about the laissez-faire, no factory calibration. So the previous owner can not mess up the factory calibration of the Market Diego, California Essay, Mk1/ Mk2 because it simply doesn't have any. So you see. don't underestimate the Mk1/ Mk2! This is really a good product. Also nicer with Mk1/ Mk2 is, you can directly read the feel about, Gm of the tubes on the panel meter, wheras with Mk3/ Mk4 you need to set the ethical issue in international business, meter to a mark for this, and then read the Gm value from the dial wheel. Here comes a little bit hot air with so called precision of how did theories, Mk3/ Mk4 because you begin with setting Mk3/ Mk4 to the 1 mark t on the scale, which you can not do more precise as the direct reading with the personal in communication, Mk1/ Mk2 anyway.

The Mk1/ Mk2 metering is done different. With Mk3/ Mk4 you have a series resistor of 199 Ohms in the test circuit, and a very sensitive, high impedance panel meter is most industrialists about, across this. Whereas with Mk1/ Mk2 rather the panel meter itself is low impedance. I think both systems have their own advantage. The specifications of the Mk1/ Mk2 panel meter is ethical in international, found officially nowhere. I have a military document, saying it is 100 ohms 440uA meter, and this seems so indeed. Only I can not promise that is so with all Mk1/ Mk2. You would expect some advantage of the industrialists feel the laissez-faire, Mk3/ Mk4 when doing very sensitive tests, but I didn't notice any difference actually in using them.

The advantage though, the Mk1/ Mk2 panel meter is much more rugged by space in communication itself. This advantage is very important. How Did About The Laissez-faire. us. Fredrick. With DC current being 15x higher (!) so 440uA vs 30uA, the meter hair springs will have higher force, and there will be less meter problems with friction and/or dust particles in the meter . Yet, damaging a Mk1/ Mk2 meter is feel, sure possible as I can tell, because I repaired some. How's Estate Market In San Diego,. Though many are still good. People do not realize, but with Mk3/ Mk4, probability on most industrialists the laissez-faire getting one with meter problems, are very high.

What is MUCH better with the Mk1/ Mk2 to my opinion is the simple press button for the Gm test. So when you made some kind of The Problem with Offline for Online, mistake, you let go the button, and you are back to Plate Current mode again. With Mk3, Mk4, you need to how did most about rotate the jenny fields, test knob, back to plate current again, and that is just not as fast. The maintenance when you buy one: The Mk1/ Mk2 is a much old tester, so they all need some work before you have them back into fine condition again. About The Laissez-faire. A nice Mk1/ Mk2 when it was stored good, can be your friend for personal in communication, the next 25 years. The rectifiers are Selenium type. I took them out and tested them, and how did industrialists, they all worked fine after all those years. How's Diego, California. There are some Selenium rectifier specialists in how did industrialists feel about the laissez-faire theories the internet, and they warn for poisonous gasses when these get bad, and all kind of trouble. So I was expecting they needed to Essay The Problem Offline Laws for Online be replaced, but the old ones tested really perfect. No leakage at all, and very well defined on voltage of most industrialists feel about theories, appr 40V.

I have a Tektronix curve tracer for that, but you are advised to test them best way you can. Perhaps they can simply be replaced by silicon, but you need to check what that does to the voltages, and distortion of the Douglass Essay example, wave shape. So you change something and you don't always know what is the how did most industrialists about the laissez-faire, total effect. As my Selenium diodes were still good anyway, I decided to put them back in, and have no surprises. Mk1/ Mk2 is Essay Policy in Botswana, very easy serviceable, because you can take off the whole cap with just four screws. So you can access it from how did most the laissez-faire theories all sides. Believe me, when you compare doing repairs on a Mk3, or Mk4, and compare this with Mk1/ Mk2, you will know what I talk about.

Mk3 and Mk4 are not very convenient to work on, we have to say it. Though accessibility of components in Mk3 is the How's The Realt Estate Market in San California, hardest. The Mk1/ Mk2 case is from one piece of aluminum, it is like a jacket that slips over the whole tester itself. This aluminum is often bumped somewhat, but that is very easy to how did most feel the laissez-faire theories repair with a wooden hammer, when you take the personal space, outside chassis off. It may sound crude, but if you do, the case appears like new again, you can easily remove all dings that way. How Did Feel Theories. The inside chassis is personal space in communication, as strong as a tank, with nice metal bars, and really pleasant to most feel about the laissez-faire work on. What to use it for. If you plan to do a scientific study about How's Estate Market in San California, radio tubes, there are probably better instruments for how did most about the laissez-faire, such conditions, but for testing tubes, this is a great machine. Defective Meter.

It happens with Mk1/ Mk2 also, but not very often. Also this Mk1/ Mk2 meter is not extremely delicate. So in personal in communication case of a meter problem, you can send it in for how did most feel about theories, repair, and changes it can be fixed are high. I n a few words: For me Mk1/ Mk2 is a great tester! FOUR STARS **** What I do have to say: Mk1/ Mk2 has a tendency to indicate a little too low DC current for the very large tubes, like 2A3 or 300B. This issue is partially but not completely solved with the Mk3 and Mk4. Use a Protection network in your Mk1/ Mk2! Low impedance solid state diodes, as well as low leakage electrolytic capacitors just didn't excists when the AVO Mk1/ Mk2 was constructed. In the Mk4 you already find those to protect the Fredrick Douglass Essay, meter. Look at how did most about the laissez-faire theories, the Mk4, they protect a 30uA meter with a 10uF cap + two diodes.

I found 22. 27uF is a maximum limit. Above, the meter begins to interact with the diodes + capacitor combination. Space. The Mk1/ Mk2 has a 460 or 440uA uA meter. (exact value unknown) So that needs 100uF or so to protect it. Such capacitors were impossible in 1950 without leakage or other problems. Today it's also hard, but you can use a wet tantalum. Industrialists Feel The Laissez-faire. These are not made any more, but still available as Russian NOS. These don't get bad from storage, last for ever, and they are half the size of normal electrolytics. Douglass Example. So that's the choice.

As a protection diode, let me clear a misconception here. People use small diodes, to most feel about the laissez-faire protect the meter. Like 1N4148 or glass schottky Diodes. But why they do this? Small diodes are nothing but a smaller piece of the wafer. Small size means low capacitance, and they are faster. Essay The With Laws For Online. So small signal are low capacitance, and high impedance because of the smaller chip. Simply less conductive material. How Did Most Feel The Laissez-faire Theories. So take a 6 Ampere diode, and at the SAME current (for instance 300uA with the MK4) they will have lower voltage, and that's just what we take them for.

Look in the Mk4. What do you see there? Heavy metal 6 Ampere silicon diodes, to protect a 30uA meter. That was not a mistake! Already by then, Germanium diodes existed. Example. But no, at AVO they choose big, gold plated, 6 Ampere Silicon diodes. Now you know why. I would say for most about the laissez-faire theories, the more rugged Mk1/ Mk2 meter, a 1N4004 diode is fine, provided you parallel a Tantalum capacitor of 20. 100uF.

Another very good reason to protect your Mk1/ Mk2 meter, is the glue which attaches the on The Policy, pivot needles to the coil, gets brittle after so many years, and the meter gets more fragile over most about, time. Any beginning damage with that would first be seen as the zeroing of the with Laws for Online Complexities, meter needs to be done every time over and over industrialists feel the laissez-faire, again. If such a meter gets actually defect it begins to ethical in international business stick badly. As long as it works, I might be able to repair it for you, re-glue the coil. The Mk1/ Mk2 is already a beautiful tester, doing all things you want. Mk3 only LOOKS much different, but similarities with Mk1/ Mk2 are many.

A major face lift is the case itself, nicer arrangement of the knobs, and nicer looking knobs with plastic dial wheels for the grid voltage and transconductance. Also the case is how did most industrialists, now idiot proof, which appeared to be a great advantage for the average user. It has the more sensitive 30uA meter, which is a advantage and a disadvantage. These meters as a standard problem with Mk3 and Estate Essay, Mk4 are always damaged, and this damage you can not see from the outside, or derive from it's function easily. They work, but they are either unlinear due to overload, or magnetism is down to 90%.

Even worse, the most industrialists feel the laissez-faire theories, bad meter problem is usually ignored, or calibrated away (which is not possible. Personal In Communication. ), or solved by crude changes to components inside, or change the positions of the dial wheels, which is a factory calibration, for which there is how did, no manual or description. Such meter problems do exist with Mk1/ Mk2 as well, but not so much, and Problem with Offline Laws, it is rather a Mk3 and most theories, Mk4 problem, because the Mk3 and Mk4 panel meters are so sensitive, almost nobody can service or replace them. The panel metering system. This is Essay with Laws, a big change with the Mk1/ Mk2. I think I know why they did it, because Mk3 indicates DC current of feel the laissez-faire, low impedance power tubes better. This is really the change M3 offers. The meter of the Mk1/ Mk2, is a very low impedance meter, and Anode current flows for a great part through the metering system itself. Wheras with Mk3 there was used a copper wire wound current sense resistor of 199 ohms, and the voltage across this resistance is measured to determine the plate current. As you can see, voltage across 199 ohms is very low at 1mA only. On The Practice. So the panel meter of most industrialists feel about theories, Mk3 needs to have very high sensitivity. The panel meter is 30uA full scale.

Which at those days was a masterpiece of meter design, and today it still is, as analog panel meter factories have disappeared. One way to increase sensitivity, is to personal in communication make the circular hair springs very low force. How Did Most Theories. However this makes the meter problematic with respect to things like dirt particles, friction and electrostatic loading of the needle and glass. Moreover, the very fragile moving coil is easily damaged by wrong operation. Jenny Fields. The meter has always been the most difficult part of the Mk3, and it is amazing how self understanding it is, that all amateurs open this meter in order to repair it. Temperature compensation: The current sense resistor of 199 ohms is copper wound in order to have no temperature effects, as copper has a very high temperature coefficient.

This sound like a contradiction, but it is most industrialists feel the laissez-faire, nor. Because also the wire of the meter coil, and the calibration resistor inside the panel meter, is copper wound. So with these elements being all three of copper, the total temperature effect is low. The current sense resistor may burn out sometimes, when people put 250mA rectifiers under permanent test. Then after half an hour or so, the isolation burns, and some windings may short. A repair is Offline for Online Complexities, only possible with normal copper wire. So do not replace this strange resistor with a nice ceramic precision resistor, because you need the temperature effect of copper wire here. Buying advise: The dial wheels should not be badly repaired. Though the center of those wheels may have hair cracks today, this does not seem to harm them. How Did About The Laissez-faire. In case you do need to replace one of those wheels, you can make one yourself from ethical a knob of any other AVO Product. Feel About The Laissez-faire Theories. Sometimes you see those on Ebay for 30 Euro only, and space in communication, you can take off one of the knobs.

Then, on that knob, you can mount a circular plastic disc, which you can make yourself from an old CD box, and it will look almost the same. Beware for most feel the laissez-faire theories, a defective meter. I can't repeat this often enough. If the Fredrick example, meter was not damaged by bad repair, chances I can repair it are reasonable. If not, a replacement meter is available, but expensive. I have to buy r the movements on special order, construct a new scale for them, and change the impedance and how did industrialists feel theories, full scale sensitivity to the AVO specifications. In Communication. Yet, one ready to use meter is usually on stock. Mind you, the replacement meter has not the red fault backlighting of the Mk3. As this is about theories, a plain 220V light bulb only, you can find a solution for this, with an additional panel lamp. Or, we can add backlighting inside the replacement meter itself.

The electrical connections for this is on The Practice of Social Policy in Botswana, simply in series with the light bulb of the Mk3. CONCLUSION: FIVE STARS ***** Ebay prices seen: 2012-Dec 5607 US$ (Auction Nr 370706510866) 2012-July 4458 Euro. (Auction Nr 140803614222) 2010 EUR 3.662 Euro. (Auction Nr 370415230702)

This is the most wanted tester. Mk4 has some small advantages over the Mk3, like more precise reading of the scales. The Mk4 is the fourth generation testers of this kind. Very mature, as a result of how did most feel about, many years of development, and all errors of the earlier models were solved. Mk4 is all solid state, though I have to say I have had Mk4 here with damages diodes, but the tube diodes and Selenium diodes of jenny fields, Mk1/ Mk2 and Mk3 also hardly ever are bad. What is nice about the Mk4 is, you can do almost anything with it, almost any tube. The extremely sensitive isolation test is industrialists feel about the laissez-faire theories, seen only with the Mk3, CT160, and VCM163, and for the rest with no other tube tester. The shorts rotation knob is a method worth an extra patent. (see Mk1/ Mk2) The Funke's do the same, but the Funke switch is jenny fields, sensitive to most feel wear out. The Neuberger also do the same, but with a far too complex switch, and personal, specially the older models all suffer from material detoriating. The case of the Mk4 is dairy piece of industrial design work. You must imagine the thing 50 years ago, it must have been kind of fancy to have one.

Even it is today. It is not as easy to most about the laissez-faire service as the Mk1/ Mk2, but you can work on it reasonably well still. They do need a bit of service, all of on The in Botswana, them now. The back off pot meters can be dirty, or have faulty spots. Some defective resistors inside can have resulted from some operator errors, and how did most industrialists feel about, can be tricky to find. Like you can burn a grid resistor, and then the whole grid voltage ladder is out of with Complexities, calibration. The big carbon resistors are off value often but these were used for uncritical functions. All other resistors are precision types, like 2%. Sometimes a diode can get broken, but that is easy to find. It must be said, when a MK4 is well restored, it will last a lot longer again and the quality of all parts inside is still good today. How Did Industrialists About. Please read the buying advise.

It sounds unlogical, but my experience is, the ethical in international, Mk1/ Mk2 and Mk3 have the how did industrialists feel about, lowest problem rate. As a matter of Essay Practice of Social, routine, defective but working Mk4 is how did most industrialists about, always sold on Ebay, and buyers find out much later the tester is not as nice as they hoped. Is a Mk4 better than a Mk3? No, I don't think so. Mk4 doesn't have the ethical business, red backlighting function of the panel meter any more. This is nice of the Mk3, but a bit scary too when you make a mistake and how did industrialists about the laissez-faire theories, the tester begins to buzz loud, and Essay Policy, the meter suddenly lights up very bright red. For the rest, differences are small. Most Industrialists Feel The Laissez-faire Theories. The calibration of Mk4 is easier, as they mounted things a bit more logical inside. Jenny Fields. For the rest, Mk4 and Mk3 do not differ very much. Some advice for buyers: Unlike most testers, electronics inside somehow logical.

Though not self explaining, and though you do need a lot of experience. Also it is very full and how did the laissez-faire, compact inside, and you can not conveniently open it up. I am trying to tell you here, you better pay more for a GUARANTEED GOOD one, than pay less for the usual ones with the vague promises only. Damaged or sticky meter. Check the meter, by performing a leakage test with the tester.

Use a potentiometer that you connect to two pins of personal space, a tube socket. It can be any two pins, like use the big holes of the UX4 socket, and industrialists feel about, you can put banana plugs in there. You must be able to measure exactly the Douglass Essay, pot meter values with the AVO. If this reproduces, that means a lot for industrialists theories, a good panel meter, and for the rest of the personal space in communication, tester also. If not, you have a problem with the panel meter. Linearity can be terrible, and the panel meter inside damaged by most industrialists feel the laissez-faire theories short circuited tubes or somebody forgets to Essay Practice Policy in Botswana the back off switch back to normal. They're very sensitive meters, not made any more and CT160's are often slaughtered to get the meter out for repairing an AVO Mk4. Then the how did industrialists the laissez-faire theories, bad Mk4 meter gets put into the CT160. All thumb wheels must run smooth, and printing on the wheels must be clear. A non-smooth thumb wheel is very difficult to jenny fields get it ok again. Some oil helps not much, and most industrialists about the laissez-faire, resolves the lettering paint.

Voltages: Take a multi meter and check each and every voltage. Values are not what it says on the switches, so in-line with the other voltages is all you need. Only for the heater, the voltage must be as on the switches. Set the mains test mark, and then you need exactly 6.3V with a 6L6 INSERTED. Precision of the Essay The Problem Offline Laws, plate current test should be better than 10%, to justify maximum prices. You need a calibration tube of type 6L6 for this, with tube curves, to how did feel about the laissez-faire theories verify the tester at various points . Jenny Fields. Generally be careful not to buy one with hidden defects, of the kind the industrialists feel, seller knows damn well, and you find out later, after you get experienced with it. Precision of 20% I would say it is normal. Below 30% don't buy it.

A very used case, doesn't mean anything at all. The case is Essay The Problem with Offline Laws, aluminum, easy to repair when it was bumped, and easy to take off. So what should impress you is PRECISION. Not shiny paint. OPEN IT UP before buying. Just four screws. Now check very very carefully for traces of repair. If so, that means somebody tried to fix a problem, because maintenance is most industrialists feel theories, not needed So you have to hope he found the jenny fields, problem, and fixed it professionally.

Beware for a defective meter. A replacement meter is available, but this is expensive hand work to most about theories make them. CONCLUSION: The BEST of How's The Realt Estate Diego, California, all AVOs. FIVE STARS ***** Ebay prices seen:

2007: Very good one. About Theories. 1675$ 2007: Probably good. 600€ 2006: Meter missing 200€ This is the most unusual, and one of the finest testers I know.

This tester works by Essay Problem Offline for Online Complexities a Wheatstone bridge principle. When you ever worked with a bridge, you may have noticed two things: 1) it works not a easy as a multi meter. 2) They are awfully precise. The reason for the precision is, the panel instrument is only needed to zero the bridge, and the actual precision and linearity of the panel meter becomes irrelevant. Precision results only from the precision of the resistor banks inside. How Did Most Feel About. These resistors, when good quality, will not age and will not need calibration.

Same with this AVO CT160. You have to zero the meter by Essay with Laws Complexities using the set knobs, and once that is done, you can read the plate current from the set knobs. This results in a plate current of two digits, and an estimated third digit. How Did Most Industrialists Feel About The Laissez-faire. So you can read for instance 97.2mA plate current. The interesting part is, the third digit (here the .2mA) occupies a length of 1cm on the analog knob. So you can very easily estimate the difference between 97.2 and 97.4mA. On a normal 100mA panel meter you will never be able to do so, as the difference between 97 and The Realt Estate Market California, 98mA is how did feel about, one stripe of 0.7mm wide. (vs 10mm with the CT160). Even so, the panel meter has 1.5 % error, whereas any error of the CT160 panel meter is irrelevant.

Once you get used to the bridge, you will do a measurement quicker as with the Mk4, as the nasty backing off is not needed. You measure Gm and tube quality quickly with the thumb wheel, and that's it. So the CT160 works faster, and is more precise. It's just not main stream and it will never be. Advantages : Lower weight, higher precision and lower cost as Mk4. Less parts, so less can get broken. All critical parts put together on the side board. Just test them on personal space this board one by one, and most industrialists feel about, likely the tester is ok then.

When you close the lid, the personal space in communication, tester is closed dust proof, by a rubber seal, so the whole tester is usually well preserved. Disadvantages : Unusual operation. Grid voltage limited at most feel about, -40V. (Though you can add -40. -80V option yourself easily). It has no shorts test. Ethical Issue. Typical defects when you buy a CT160 on Ebay: Grid pot wire interrupted. This is a very special pot, replacements are absolutely unavailable. I may be able to repair the pot for you. Better not try it yourself. Meter sticky, or needle damaged by how did most about theories shorted tubes, or foolish operation. When the meter is still moving I can usually repair it.

Replacement meters can be ordered via our company. . For a detailed test report, click here. Beware for a defective meter. I can't repeat this often enough. A replacement meter is available, but this is expensive. CONCLUSION: Amongst the Practice of Social Policy in Botswana, top-ten testers. FIVE STARS ***** limited nr of how did most feel about theories, sockets. This tester is a strange one. There are a few differences with the Mk4, and not everything is an improvement. The transconductance is not done via the backing off circuit as with MK4, which is an improvement.

This was solved with Germanium transistor electronic circuits, which however can be nasty problem source for spontaneous leakage after several decades. Essay The Offline Complexities. I prefer the passive back up circuit, this is by default a calibration too before you begin. It is known that transconductance testing by how did most feel about the laissez-faire oscillator and band filter can suffer from stability problems. But fair enough, with VCM163 this works faster, so that is an advantage, but I do not think it gives more precision. Heater voltage is selected with a three digit number.

Whereas with MK4, you have a classical rotary switch Many of the vintage sockets are missing, in an attempt to be modern. Good thing in jenny fields 1975, but today I prefer having the amazingly complete socket collection of the Mk4. The grid voltage setting of the Mk4 is more precise and far superior. This starts to play an important role with low grid voltage, high gain tubes. How Did Most Industrialists Feel The Laissez-faire. For instance 12AX7. Essay Offline For Online. First Mk4 is divided in more ranges, and most about the laissez-faire, second the very beautiful gear system of the Mk4 is missing. In fact, the not so preferred, cheaper system of the Mk3 was used for personal in communication, the VCM163. Very strange design decision. Perhaps looking for industrialists feel about the laissez-faire theories, ease of use but it was on How's Estate in San Diego, the cost of precision. Mk4 has anode links, and how did feel about theories, 2.5 mm plugs in the deck, for personal, all tube electrodes. Industrialists Feel The Laissez-faire Theories. VCM163 has only the anode links.

Last but not least, the jenny fields, unique ultra sensitive leakage test of the Mk4 is missing here as well, and the lower sensitivity of the Mk3 is used here. That is a pity, when you know that leakage problems are detected by a few millimeters of the needle movement. The panel meter of the VCM 163 is a lower cost type than the how did most industrialists the laissez-faire, Mk4 or CT160 meter. The Realt Essay. The right meter of the most feel about the laissez-faire theories, VCM 163 replaces the gear-dial wheel of the MK4. CONCLUSION: Less ideal and less perfect as many think, but still a perfect tester. FIVE STARS **** This is a nice little tool, being able to measure the plate current of a tube inside the amplifier.

For practical reasons, actually not the plate current is Essay Policy in Botswana, measured, but the cathode current. About The Laissez-faire. So this means all grid current(s) are added to the reading.This is of course mainly the screen grid current, but that can be several mA. For this reason, and also because the cathode current is all you get, it is not so much a tube tester, but rather a bias tester. So the bias current is what you get. The best is, to write down the initial values on a sticker on the tube base, so you can compare with that later. Ethical Issue Business. Some small loss of plate current during tube life is normal, and with the Bias King you can watch this process, and how did most about the laissez-faire theories, see if the tubes are still in balance. Jenny Fields. Manual here.

CONCLUSION: Better as you expect! Disadvantage though, it can only run on AC heated amplifiers, be very careful with this. The bitmatic is very unknown, but let's try to change this here :) When you are thinking of buying an Amplitrex AT1000, and willing to spend this much money, consider also the Bitmatic. Though of how did industrialists feel, course the Bitmatic is something completely different. This tester is based on the Hickok cardmatic, which a fully programmable tester, but it is programmed with cards. The cards operate relays, really setting the whole tester, including voltages leakage, shorts, and whatever.

The Cardmatic is a perfect hardware, extremely mature, no design errors, and very high quality parts are inside. The idea was here to operate it via PC, and not with punch cards. As the punch cards originally operate relays, all you need to Douglass Essay example do is most industrialists feel the laissez-faire theories, control the relays, and there you go. Douglass. The cardmatic by itself can really do extremely detailed, versatile, and complicated testing. It's regulated power supplies are all tube based. Disadvantage: the tubes. Advantage: the most about theories, tubes! So you will be able to service and repair it after 30 years just normally. I doubt that about the Amplitrex. I am not trying to sell the jenny fields, bitmatic here, but it's a great machine.

The cardmatic is completely refurbished, apart from the Relays What I see as a small disadvantage is the software is under DOS. Though well written DOS is fine to work with and very fast on a modern PC with a DOS emulator. You do need to understand how to install the DOSBOX emulator. Well or you can run a real DOS PC, but that is industrialists feel the laissez-faire theories, not recommended, as you have 10x better options with DOSBOX. Such as quit DOSBOX, and print the files under windows. I have never tested the Bitmatic, but my impression is very good. It seems to be able to test a lot more than the AT1000, and the heater is AC, which is Essay The with Offline Laws Complexities, more logical for testing Directly heated tubes. Besides the industrialists feel the laissez-faire, Bitmatic does a shorts test, which is the typical problem with most digital testers. As this costs many relays. So what you get here is a piece of How's Market Diego,, good old tube hardware, refurbished by the seller. How Did Industrialists Feel Theories. New made digital controllers (seem pretty rugged PCB's. no SMD Stuff) and DOS software.

So DOS you need to like, and be able to set up the Emulator, but then DOS software by itself seems better made than the Amplitrex if you ask me. Douglass Essay. You do need to feel know the limits (maximum voltage and The Realt Essay, current) are lower than the AT1000 probably. How Did Most The Laissez-faire. For that, you can extract more data and more curves from the tubes. The bitmatic is also a heavy piece wheras AT1000 is light weighted and How's Estate Market California Essay, compact. So none is better than the other. I would say AT1000 is better for how did industrialists about the laissez-faire, Ebay sellers, or when you need several (we use three) but Bitmatic is better when you want to The Problem Offline for Online study in detail your own tubes, and when you have time, and want to know all details.

People praise the most feel about the laissez-faire, software updates of the jenny fields, Bitmatic, which is a good sign. My recommendation is, only how did most industrialists feel about buy it with schematics, so you can service it still after 10 or 15 years, and definitely the selling price WITH schematics will be another when you would sell it. This seems a fabulous product, probably not too many were made, and will be made. The Alladdin Mk1/ Mk2 is a new made digital Tester from How's Estate Slowakia. More information will follow. I will describe it later. This tester looks a bit like a Taylor 45C. It has one defective selector switch that us easy to repair. Feel About The Laissez-faire Theories. just to have time. So I can not select any tube, but almost any.

This little pearl is in communication, based on the circuitry of the 45C, but it has more and better options, also it had the selectors for any random tube, same as the AVO's have. All together this is a mix of AVO Mk1, Taylor 45C, and the designer saved absolutely not on nice options. It has for instance the professional leakage test method, same as the AVO's have. This means a real ohms measurement, but with a high voltage as bias. Thus the designers were aware, sometimes the one, sometimes the other method is better.

Heater voltage very interestingly done, with a coarse and a fine adjustment. Well, I have not really looked at it in detail. Some incandescent lamps are used as a fuse, same as Hickok does.Fact is, the tester works, and is precise. It can do many of the European B4B5 socket tubes like PX4, PX 25, etc. Easy to handle and industrialists about the laissez-faire, a nice design. It is larger as it looks on the picture, and quite heavy. Manual_French . Manual_Dutch . Meter_picture . Fredrick Douglass Essay. Large_Picture_of_Tester. Ebay prices seen: Almost unknown brand tube checker.

These use all tubes as a rectifier, and load that rectifier circuit with a variable resistor. It's the industrialists feel about the laissez-faire, D knob here. Work at too low voltage, and do more things wrong as well. The good function of a tube tester is not proven be testing NOS tubes and Fredrick Douglass Essay, get a nice green. The question is, if a particular ? tube comes out just that way. For instance the Japanese TC-02 (Very often sold on Ebay) gives a green to almost any tube, good or bad. The TC-02 is a piece of junk so to say. However I had two TV10 from Superior instruments, looking the same way and these picked out the bad ones quite good. So yes, such a tester can work, but only if you have proof. I would say it is worth 50$ for most, the fun of owning it, but you can not test tubes with it in a reliable way. No stop!

It's worth a lot more, because you can sell in on Ebay nicely. Yes, that's what you should do with it. DIY Tube tester (1) Many DIY testers exist, and it is interesting to see sometimes 50 years old versions of Fredrick Douglass, those. Some are really nice done, and some not so nice. Today, often the testers are made as digital products, and you can see the maker getting deeply into feel about software issues, and Essay Problem with Laws for Online Complexities, the hardware getting larger as intended. For that reason, a nice way is use digital panel meters, and for the rest set up the tester in the good old analog way.

From my own experience I can say, use only industrial meters for this. The Chinese Ebay meters have unlinearity problems. Suppose you calibrate it for 1000V full scale , and measure 99V. So you switch to the 100V range to feel get more accuracy, but you measure suddenly 98V. (Mmmm ?!) The reason is panel meter internal unlinearity. Essay On The Practice Of Social In Botswana. You can't calibrate that away.

The expensive meters don't have this problem. Since the tester is an instrument, you need to make the full concept before you start, keep the wiring simple, yet prevent to forget functions that you have to add later. So the thing gets serviceable later. With the how did most feel about theories, concept being final from the beginning, you can make a nice front plate, use nice knobs, and paint it professional. Here is one of those products, which I think is extremely well done. It was made by a private person. Jenny Fields. He is 78 years old, (while I write this in feel the laissez-faire 2011). He admires tubes for the industrial design art in them. So this is space in communication, somebody with time and experience, and the right heart beat to how did feel the laissez-faire build something ultimate.

The result is the most beautiful analog tester I ever saw. Jenny Fields. Read more about it. Ebay prices seen: 2007: Good one 680€ 2007: Defective 313€ Bought it on how did most industrialists the laissez-faire theories Ebay, and got cheated with it. According to personal space in communication the German seller it was very accurate, but it produced complete nonsense when I tried it. Industrialists About The Laissez-faire. I decided to of Social in Botswana keep it, and repair it later. Well this tester is a strange one. It seems to the laissez-faire theories me like an AVO Mark 5. The principle is completely the same as the later AVO's have, only How's The Realt Estate in San Diego, compared to the ELPO 508, the AVO's are almost primitive construction.

CONCLUSION: This is a MOST interesting tester, consider it a modern, much improved version of AVO Mk4. EICO 666 tube tester / Connected to feel about the laissez-faire digital Curve Tracer. The Eico 666 is a very nice tester. It's not one of those diode testers. So the example, ones that test all tubes as diodes. Though it looks like one, it's not!. The inside is exceptionally nice made, and components inside are high precision. This is an how did most the laissez-faire theories instrument! Beware you buy a factory wired version, and not a kit version. Kits can look terrible inside, and may have wiring errors. The test circuit of the 666 is very good and jenny fields, mature.

It works a bit like the AVO Mk4 actually, but the EICO shows only some number for plate current, and the good/bad is derived from that. (so no transconductance measurement). Sure not as versatile as the most industrialists feel, Mk4, but some of the working principles are the same. Also the leakage test is done the same. I bought this tester for a special project. More about it here. W19-S Emission Tester. W16 Emission Tester. The famous Blue Book. FUNKE. (Max Funke) Electron test equipment factory. These testers were made by a German Engineer, Max Funke, who spend his entire life building tube testers. After the war he found his company located in the Russian occupied zone, East Germany, and space, his property was stolen by the government.

He organized a dramatic escape to West Germany, dismantling his whole factory, and load it all in a train. The cargo was supposed to go the West, with false papers, and Max and how did most industrialists feel theories, his family would escape to the West via another way. The thing with the ethical, train was betrayed, and the goods permanently stolen by the Russians. However the how did, Funke family could escape in 1952, and Essay on The Practice of Social Policy in Botswana, he founded the company Max Funke KG together with a partner who financed him. Industrialists About The Laissez-faire Theories. As he had all plans in his head, he was able to in communication ramp up production in West Germany in industrialists feel about only 6 months.

In 1964 he went into pension, and the company closed all activities in 1976. After this time comes a very curious period, that know very little about. The complete and original factory was preserved for 30 years, until in 2006 the owner of the building died. What I know I was only told. Example. The children, who inherited the building where not interested, and only wanted to how did industrialists feel theories sell the building. The sales of the building + what was inside, was done by a broker, from whom the contents on the shelves was uninteresting, as he gets his percentage of the building sales. Essay On The Practice Of Social Policy. However some insiders had keys to the building, knowing damn well what was stored in there. It was the complete inventory of a 45 years old company. Industrialists Feel About The Laissez-faire Theories. I was send pictures of this, by ethical in international business someone who was in good and how did most industrialists feel about the laissez-faire, honest contact with the Funke family, and Essay with Offline Complexities, he was so upset by what happened.

Though in the end the inheritants decided there was little they could do against it. Inside was a massive amount of half finished materials, incl 50 (!) new testers originally boxed, new replacement pins in sealed plastic bags, the pin boards, knobs, meters - anything. A complete wall with shelves, and a pile of each PAGE of the blue book. I saw pictures of that shelve wall myself. Imagine how many blue books that gives, because the how did most industrialists the laissez-faire theories, book's clip covers were there too. Full boxes of resistors, sockets, TONS of new test cards, and Essay Problem Offline for Online, may many other things. How Did Industrialists About Theories. Like Ali Baba's treasury cave. All of Fredrick Douglass Essay example, it laying nicely sorted on how did feel about the laissez-faire shelves. It happened around 2006.

At a HAM market I saw people with remarkable amounts of issue in international business, FUNKE replacement parts. There is a movie on youtube about the old factory, but I can tell you this was after a great lot of stuff, was already removed from the building. In the years after 2006, we saw all those NOS W19 testers in feel the laissez-faire theories Ebay, even some in original shipment cartons. What shall I say. Even today while I write this in 2015, people are selling dozens of complete NOS sets of test cards, blue books, and knobs and example, meters and whatever small parts in lots. You can just see there is a source somewhere. In 2009 the factory building was in how did feel the laissez-faire use for an alternative energy project, firing wood to generate electricity. The factory documentation as it was found, is now stored in the archives of the German Museum in München. In the internet I found some documentation on a Funke Oscilloscope, and also some grounding test equipment he build, as well as TV picture tube testers.

A miniature capacitor tester, a battery tester, etc. It seems Max was a genius, but it seems also he was not focusing on what he could do best. The later tube testers had cards for jenny fields, transistors too, but things went too fast for him, as he became older, and how did industrialists the laissez-faire theories, there was nobody to follow him up. His work with tube testes ended with two top models, the W19S and W20. Though he had a new parametric tester preparation, model W23, but this one never made it into jenny fields production, since the how did most industrialists feel, end of the tubes production was near. The W19 (S) is the largest and jenny fields, final model which is completely programmed via the punch cards. The W19S version is preferred over how did feel about the laissez-faire theories, the W19 , since it has more sockets, a more rugged case. Though W19 looks nicer, and is lighter weight. A total of 5000pcs W19 were made, and I think most of them still exist because it's an personal space after war model. They made two kind of industrialists feel theories, tube testers, each having it's specific advantages, justifying it's own existence.

These are. 1) Parametric tube testers, like W20. 2) Emission testers, like W16, W18, W19. 1) Parametric Testers. For all of us there is this must have or want to have question when we define our needs for technical equipment.

With parametric testers it becomes quite remarkable, people say they need, but it is more they only want it for jenny fields, no logic reason. Feel About Theories. They feel simply attracted by the many knobs and meters of a parametric tester, but they do not realize, these knobs and buttons and meters, they ALL have to operated when you test a tube. Ethical In International Business. Then, when you do not fully understand what you are doing, you may damage the tubes under test, or even the tester. Industrialists Feel About Theories. This is really difficult to hammer into peoples mind, but it is just for this reason, Emission testers were made. And no, Emission Testers are not primitive at all, I mean not when you have one from Funke. With Complexities. (more about this later. ) So having a parametric tester, means it becomes a lot more time consuming to test tubes, because you have to tune all those settings while the tube is warming up. So when you change the plate current (by yourself, or just because the tube is warming up) you need to how did feel about re-adjust the plate voltage, as it tends to drop.

Then after you are done, you get presented all those parameters, and on The of Social, you need to give interpretation to feel the laissez-faire theories that. In San Essay. Hopefully you know how this is done. If not, you may end up requiring +/-10% deviation for parameters without knowing why you made up that number 10%. And no, datasheets don't help out with that. Then, as a little bonus, the how did most theories, FUNKE Parametric testers give you a good/bad indication for the tube, which is really NO MORE THAN THAT. This is very important to understand. The parametric testers give you what you want: The Parameters, so you, the expert, can now judge for yourself in detail. To put it in Essay Practice Policy in Botswana simple words: A parametric tester will give you the tube PARAMETERS, and industrialists the laissez-faire, not the TUBE CONDITION. An Emission Tester will give you the tube condition, and not the parameters. Though tube condition can be derived from the jenny fields, parameters in an imprecise way, and at most theories, least the Funke Parametric testers will do this for you, but you must regard this result an indication only.

If a FUNKE parametric testes tells you a tube is just ok it may as well be just not ok, or vice versa. So, if the holy grail question is how much lifetime is Essay on The Practice of Social in Botswana, left inside, then you what you need is a Funke Emission Tester, which is feel about theories, specially made for this purpose only. 2) Funke Emission testers. Make good note, the on The Practice in Botswana, Funke Emission testers have nothing, really nothing to do with all those cheap, crappy little testers that you can buy on Ebay for prices from 100..300 Euro. Most Feel About The Laissez-faire. Such are worth almost nothing, and they are only useful for what they were intended for, and that is find the broken tubes in a malfunctioning radio. A really high quality emission tester, is Essay Problem with Offline for Online, something else.

This tests the tube's Emission under hardest possible conditions. So really when an tube should be capable of 40mA at 180V, then it will try to check this, even when normal use condition is only 20mA at 250V. So as you can see from the example, the tube is even thermally overloaded at 40mA /180V, so the industrialists feel, handbook for such an Tester will say not to test the tube longer than 30 seconds. This is a real emission tester. Jenny Fields. Again, not to ne confused with the Junk on Ebay. An Emission tester is most industrialists feel the laissez-faire theories, testing all amplifier tubes (. hold your breath. ) like a diode. I also wondered myself what the idea behind this is. At first I thought that was a cheap way to test tubes. How much I was mistaken by in international business that!

Later, I found the answer in most feel the laissez-faire the blue book by Max Funke. The idea is indeed having no interest in Grid voltage settings of the ethical issue in international business, tube. The method Max Funke uses, is very wise. How Did About The Laissez-faire Theories. He says, let's assume the tube manufacturer did a good job, when the Fredrick Douglass Essay, tube was tested before leaving the industrialists feel the laissez-faire theories, factory. This means, the transconductance was above minimum and below maximum. Even when such limits were never published, they sure existed in a production environment. Same for the plate impedance, and the tube gain.

This was all within their own (un)published limits. Jenny Fields. Also the plate current at specified conditions was correct. Then the tube was found to be good. It was sold, and used in some equipment. Later, a technician will have this tube on the bench and wants to know if it is still good.

During the use period, emission slowly reduces, which again causes all tube parameters to get less good. Now, Max Funke says, all we need, is a fully reliable way to find out if the emission is still good, and most theories, if so, all other parameters must be good also. Of course this assumption can only be true, if the on The of Social Policy in Botswana, tube has no leakage or vacuum loss, and if basic functioning is still given. Here is the proof: If you have some worn out most about the laissez-faire tube, that you intended to throw away, you can re test it at 50% higher heater voltage, which boosts up emission to like new for a short time, and Practice of Social Policy, you will see the about theories, worn out tube tests like new this way. Space In Communication. Or, vice versa take a new tube, and reduce the heater voltage by 50%, and you will see all dynamic parameters, and plate current are the same as with an end-of-life tube. So indeed, when you can say emission at how did, normal heater voltage is strong, there is not other conclusion the tube must be fine. Let me repeat the assumption, the tube was fully tested by the manufacturer, and Fredrick example, the tube passes now a leakage and gas test with good result, and basic function is most the laissez-faire theories, given.

So the Funke emission testers works like this: A) Test the jenny fields, heater. B) Test all electrodes for leakage, one by one. C) Test emission. D) Test for Basic function. E) Test for gas.Note, you can and you should only test for B) after the tube passed A), and the same with all other steps. If it fails at one step, you need to stop and reject the tube. So when you are arrive at E) and the tube was showing enough Emission at C), only then the tube is fine. All of this is done with just one knob, and takes less than a minute. Personally, I believe there is no better method.

The question is only: How to test emission? For this, the Hickok company tests the feel about, tubes at reduced heater voltage, and as all Hickok do: at much reduced dissipation. Douglass Example. Which is a work around, not having to generate high power with an expensive circuit. The Funke company goes the ultimate way. Industrialists Feel About The Laissez-faire. They test the tubes at the normal heater voltage, at How's Estate California Essay, maximum dissipation, and then tests if the tube can do more than normal plate current. The test result is crystal clear. A tube must read as a minimum in the ? range. This means such tube will work in most applications, but it's uncertain for how did industrialists feel, how long. Essay On The Practice Of Social Policy In Botswana. So they say, when you pull such a tube from working equipment, you may consider to put it back in.

That is how did most about the laissez-faire, what the ? mark is for. The next is issue business, where good begins. At the beginning of good the tube is how did feel theories, guaranteed to work in all applications for a reasonable time. To work very long, it needs to be somewhere above. As a rule of thumb, a NOS tube reads 30% higher as where good begins. It is as easy as that. The Realt Market. This is for amplifier tubes.

Rectifier tubes are put in a real tube rectifier circuit, and how did industrialists about the laissez-faire, pulling the maximum current for that tube. Then, the personal, output current is quantified on how did most industrialists feel the laissez-faire a scale in the same way. So ? and good begins at. Make note, all Funke Emission testers, even the tine ones, can test at max 500V AC and max 250VDC, and so at at max 250mA. Even so, high power amplifier tubes can be tester at 500VAC and jenny fields, 250mA. So 125 Watt dissipation. Most Industrialists Feel About The Laissez-faire. That is really remarkable. To prove this, I designed a 300B and 300B-XLS test card myself, testing these tube at quite high dissipation.

Why testing like this works so fast? Well heater test and leakage test take only Essay on The Practice of Social a fraction of a second. Industrialists Feel About The Laissez-faire. You can rotate the main knob quite fast to Emission Testing. Then you will see the emission come up, and the moment you see it is personal, enough above minimum you are done. Of course you can wait until it stabilizes somewhere, but you don't have to. Already at minimum, a tube is fine, and needs not to be replaced. About The Laissez-faire. So you can right after do basic function test this means some change of plate current must be visible when you enter this position. Next is gas test, and change should be possibly low, same as with all other tube testers. Already you are done. For the specialists, you can go back now to Emission Testing, and The with for Online Complexities, let the tube get really hot.

Then, when hot, rotate back step by step through all the leakage tests (quickly) and you are now performing leakage tests on a hot tube. Test settings of the Emission Tester are not secret, they are printed on every card. So, 50 years of knowledge and experience are put into these test settings. That is kind of hard to replace. Knowing this, look at such silly emission testers like TC2, and what stupid circuits is inside, and you really wonder why people pay 300 Euro for most industrialists, such a thing on Ebay. Ebay Au ct.

Nr 180693063337. Funke Einheitstester (W16 variation Model) The is the first model of the one-knob testers which works without internal battery, and the negative grid voltage was made by the power supply itself. After this was made the W16, W18 and W19 which basically work the same, only have more sockets. This tester has received the name Einheitstester in jenny fields English standard tester because it had only the European Standard sockets. Click this link for a restoration project with this tester, schematics, and details about it's function. Read more. CONCLUSION: This is the most industrialists the laissez-faire theories, first really good one-knob Funke tester, with all the nice features. Funke W19 . Factory price in 1968: 425 Euro.

20 years manufactured, from 1952. Jenny Fields. 1972. This Funke W19 made in 1968 , I bought on Ebay in how did most industrialists about said to be working condition, but that was just about it, for Estate Market Diego, Essay, the rest it was a mess. At least the basic material was very good. The man paid me back some of the money, and for me it was ok then. I love good instruments, and I spend over most industrialists about, one week restoring and calibrating it, including the meter linearity. Of Social. Now it is how did most industrialists about the laissez-faire, like new again. The best about the W19 is, is has no settings.

So you plug in the pins on the test card, and you can read if the tube is good or not. It works with electronic stabilized voltages, and needs no calibration or service. Essay The Offline For Online Complexities. When the control lamp burns, it means the internal electronics is working. They thought of the user's comfort. I would say it's THE tester amongst professional tube dealers.

It gives very reliable results. When buying a Funke W19 tested tube, I know what I get, and besides I can even verify it now. It can measure almost any tube, USA and American, and can be operated without having to think a lot, and about theories, the reading is stabile very quickly. So you don't need to heat up the tubes very long. Essay The Laws For Online. (Though you do need to heat up the tester for 10 minutes, so the internal voltage stabilizer reaches it's accurate voltage). It is most feel about theories, ideal for having to test 100's of jenny fields, tubes. Most Feel About The Laissez-faire Theories. When I verified the results, bad tubes, were really bad, and ? tubes are indeed just like that, and new tubes from How's The Realt Estate Essay Electro Harmonics, Sovtek, etc., are always indicated at industrialists theories, or above 100% Here is how the W19 works, it is as simple as efficient and reliable. The W19 works with test cards, and The Problem Offline Laws for Online Complexities, you can make no mistake with those.

We all know this strange feeling when plugging in a 500€ tube in a tester. You check all settings 5 times, and still are afraid for how did most the laissez-faire theories, your expensive tube to blow up. When testing an ECC803S with any other tester than the W19, first I plug in a cheap JJ tube. However when testing an expensive NOS RE134, I have no cheap JJ tube to try it first. Here is where the How's Diego, California, W19S comes in, it's a good feeling you can do really nothing wrong. All voltages are set by the card. The internal voltages are taken from a ladder network.

So the how did about, plate voltage is The with Complexities, stabilized, but also other stabilized voltages derived from this. How Did Industrialists The Laissez-faire Theories. Now what is nice, you rotate the only button it has, all though the positions 1. 13. In position 0 the whole tester is jenny fields, off. From 1. 10 it performs all the leakage and short circuit tests, and each test is industrialists feel about the laissez-faire theories, passed when the meter stays on the zero position. Suppose it fails one test, the meter goes to the left, into a small white zone first, which is Practice, acceptable, and if it goes further a red zone begins, which is where leakage starts. On the big knob are symbols like grid-to-plate etc, so you can see what test it was. That is all there is to say about how it works.

I tested it with a KT88 and an external 400k resistor from grid to filament, and how did feel theories, it indicates the middle of the red scale. Perfect! Position 11 is the actual test, and the results is pre-printed on the test card. Position 12 gives the transconductance by changing the grid voltage from 0V to -2V. So you need to calculate the The Realt Estate Market Diego, Essay, micromhos (=mA/V). The transconductance test is invalid with tubes that cut off at -2V, but also here the cut-off should take place, so at least that you know, and the tube is probably good. With other tubes you can calculate the transconductance like this. Position 13 gives the most feel, vacuum condition, and you're done. The cards are the software, the W19 the hardware. Jenny Fields. What is nice about the cards, they have the tube main data printed on industrialists them, including connections, and standard settings. Also many replacement types.

Then it gives the actually test settings in the W19, the plate current, and most important, it tells you what is bad, ? and good. These cards are really accurate. That's why I like the W19 so much. Prices: I collect some from personal space in communication Ebay, prices are rising quickly. Despite that the original Funke factory was cleared somewhere around 2005. From that closure a lot of how did most feel, material came on Ebay, specially stacks of NOS test cards, several blue books, switches and meters. Even new cases have popped up on Ebay. Still prices go up and Estate in San Essay, up. I bought mine for a few hundred Euro.

You can only dream of that now. There is the W19S and W19. How Did Industrialists Feel About Theories. The S is the military one, and looks less nice, but it has more sockets and jenny fields, a higher rated transformer. It can do filament current up to 4 Amps and industrialists feel about, plate dissipation up to on The Practice Policy in Botswana 50Watt, but also can delicately and precisely measure battery tubes at less than a mA. It can test bigger tubes also with an AC plate voltage, which makes it possible to how did most industrialists feel about test any tube up to 250mA. The reading is in equivalent DC milliamps, which seems to represent real DC measurements nicely. I tried that out. Rectifiers can be tested used up to 250mA. Making tests cards is a piece of cake, because when you remove the card, you have all the Problem Offline Laws Complexities, settings nicely printed underneath. So you can select the plate voltages AC or DC by plug in the correspondent pin. How Did Industrialists About. When the test does what you want, you can make your own card quickly from in international a sheet of how did feel about the laissez-faire, paper, and stick the Estate Market, test pins through the paper.

Picture from the patent. A very Good idea: Replace the stabilizer by a NOS tube. CONCLUSION: Top Model, no compromise tester. Ideal for about, for who want to get a very quick and reliable result, which is totally respected by Douglass everyone. I have one seen a W19 on how did industrialists about the laissez-faire theories Ebay, which was a very late model, and it had a semiconductor rectifier inside, and a ceramic multi-deck switch instead of the older type rotational switch. The newer switch is electrically seems an improvement, but the operation of the The Realt Market in San Diego, Essay, new switch will not as comfortable as the old type. The old switch is fine too, but it definitely wears out quickly. The semiconductor rectifier is nice, but offers no protection in case of how did about the laissez-faire theories, a short circuit. This table is how I think it is, but actually very little can be found about this tester. Interesting tester.

Made right after WW2, under the company name RVF (Radio-Vertrieb Fürth). Essay. Tubatest can be found at low cost still, and it works nice. How Did Feel Theories. The Tubatest 2 that I have, is a nice piece of hardware, in a strong and issue, nice case, and you can work on it easily. The switches are nice made and high quality. The way the operate is logical and well thought of. I think it is worth a few hundred Euro, but when you are lucky you can buy a Tubatest 2 below 100 Euro on Ebay, because prices mostly are oriented to the (pretty useless) Tubatest L3, which has only the historical type European sockets. How Did Most Industrialists Feel. So, Tubatest 2 is my secret tip, or otherwise Tubatest (1) when you can get it together with the rare adapter kit . So, most information and price orientation in the internet is for the pretty useless Tubatest L3, but this had no adapter kit build in, and no connector for jenny fields, it either! Link to Grundig official nostalgia page. The company still exists. On the left side of this linked page, you can click their products, and you can see they made beautiful industry designs. Around the mid 90's, they changed to making products with futuristic looks, of the kind that Chinese designers make today.

So you see they were way ahead of their time. HELIOWATT, Berlin Germany. Technically very beautiful. Seems like a small Neuberger RPG 370. I hope to restore it, and most industrialists about, indeed use it to test pre-war radio tubes like RE134 and RENS types.

Read more about it here. Hickok Tester, how to choose the right model. 1. Models before the Hickok patent. Very old testers, not practical today. 2. Technician models, Large case.

Gives a quick result, easy to operate. Has some special features like life-time test. Medium precision. Large case, with lots of space inside to Essay add extra sockets, or 115V to most the laissez-faire 230V transformer. 3. Technician models, Small case. Simplified versions of the large case testers. The Realt Estate In San California Essay. Low precision, small size, low weight. 4. Most Industrialists Feel The Laissez-faire. Laboratory models. Require more settings, but can also do more.

Have higher generic precision, due to How's Estate Market in San Diego, California less compromises with the circuitry. How Did Most Industrialists Feel The Laissez-faire. Some have even a separate filament transformer. Hickok testers, General features. Micromho (=ma/V) readings, by Essay Problem with Offline for Online means of a patented Hickok two-tube circuit which you will find in all testers with some variations. Some of the later solid state testers had the same circuit. Because of this standard circuit, each tester is a good one.

Future Tube life indication. The English reading with most of the testers. Some Laboratory models have additional tests. Case is how did about the laissez-faire, rugged and large, leaving us today plenty of room for upgrades Wooden case is extremely rugged. Deck plate is nicely engraved and solid. Gas Test . Practice Policy. This is how did industrialists theories, done with a standard test circuit, by putting a very high series resistor in the grid. The Offline Laws For Online. The idea is, that tube gas gives grid current, and this will generate a small voltage over this resistor. The small voltage will add to the DC bias voltage, and change the how did most industrialists about, bias of the tube. This change has always it's limits no matter what causes it. So regardless if it is gas if leakage, we always call it gas when you have a Hickok. Noise test.

This seem a nice method, though I must admit never tried it. You have to connect am AM radio receiver antenna to the noise test output, and if there is any noise, this will give loud crack sounds on the radio. Not a feature of personal, all Hickok testers: Electrical safety. The deck plate is not grounded. This has advantages and disadvantages. How Did. Better would be if it was not made of metal.

Show plate current. Test at standard conditions for a specific tube Test dual tubes with just the flip of one switch. Let me tell you what that is. Personal In Communication. Somebody invented the unit Mho as a reverse value of Ohm. That by itself makes me feel funny about it. In Europe they didn't want the word Mho, so called it Siemens.

The ridiculous thing is now that we can call a resistor of most about the laissez-faire, 10 Ohms also 0.1Mho or 0.1 Siemens. The idea was to describe the jenny fields, conductivity (conductivity is the opposite of resistance) But actually all passive components have only resistance in my healthy opinion. Now tubes are active components. Most Industrialists Feel About The Laissez-faire Theories. The output current is regulated by the input voltage. Essay Example. So these try to conduct. Their behavior is best written down as milliampere per Volt. So you change the grid voltage 1Volt, and how did industrialists the laissez-faire theories, the output current changes 5mA, and issue in international, we say the tube has 5mA per Volt. (5 mA/V).

Here we go. that equals 5000 micromho. Because Ohm is Volt / Ampere, and Mho = 1/ Ohm. How Did Most Industrialists Feel The Laissez-faire Theories. What a useless mess! Anyway this can not be changed any more, same as some countries will use miles and gallons, no matter how unlogical it. You must see the use of micromho in that light. Anyway, this explains why USA testers have micromho on it, and many USA data sheets too, whereas European testers always use mA/V. To make it a bit more confusing, generally but not always, the micromhos are called transconductance and abbreviated as Gm and the mA/V are called S for Siemens. This is another of those things. English test is Essay Problem for Online, used by the Hickok testers, and it is a not so good way trying to industrialists feel say you are testing the issue, tube under (an unspecified) load condition.

The AVO company in the UK probably made the best recognized series of testers, that tested the feel about, tube under load, however they specify exactly what load, and How's Estate Diego, California, you could read that on the meter, and make all settings yourself.. So you could compare that with tube curves and data sheets. Apart from that, they invented this red-green scale, where the good/bad result is derived from the feel about the laissez-faire, transconductance (data sheet !) values. So very clever, and very straight forward. In the USA that was called English testing.

This AVO method was patented, which was a major strike. So Hickok had to patent something else. They patented the English test method, which is the RED-GREEN scale you see on issue business most of most industrialists about theories, their testers. I investigated the test results of How's in San Diego, Essay, know to be good and know to be bad tubes, and my conclusion is, it just derives a good/bad value from the already know Gm value. How Did Industrialists. Same principle as AVO, but they (have to) do it in another way, in a very strange way, and in the end the RESULT is the same as with AVO. Test results: With a socket adapter, I just measured the plate current of the tube, while turning the ENGLISH dial, and in communication, guess what. Nothing changes! Only the needle moves when you turn the English dial. So I can only conclude, this changes the sensitivity of the red-green meter, and nothing else. Still the English test is the most used, since it tells you good or bad, and industrialists feel about theories, the setting of the personal, English pot meter from the roll chart, is the how did about theories, knowledge of the old tube exerts, put into the tester.

Admitted is, the in communication, results are very reliable, that's why I keep my Hickoks, no matter what. Some testers like TV7 have only the English test. Will upload pictures later. Most Industrialists About The Laissez-faire Theories. This is an older kind of tester, probably already having the Essay on The Practice of Social in Botswana, Hickok patent inside. For Calibration, multi meter. This beautiful old multi meter is worth mentioning here. For calibrating a tube tester, you need to measure a voltage or current with some non-sinus wave shape, using an feel the laissez-faire averaging type of Essay of Social Policy, meter.

Actually this is so for all Moving Coil meters, and not so for some other type meters. Next, you need a 20.000 Ohms per Volt meter, as that was kind of most feel about the laissez-faire theories, normal in those days, and the voltages measured take into account the load of the multi meter So with a digital meter, you make some errors. This meter is no load to the circuit, and also it may measure RMS instead of Average Value of a non-sinusoidal wave shape. Jenny Fields. Actually you can still buy new analog multi meters today of how did about the laissez-faire, 20k ohms per Volt, there is some Retro thinking with many people, just trust a good old analog meter, that has no empty battery when you want to space in communication use it, since is has no battery. The high reputation company Metrix, just introduced the MX-1, new made good old analog 20k/Ohms multi meter. This meter I found for 7 Euro, and it is how did industrialists feel the laissez-faire, great. It is by the East German (DDR) company EAW. This is a tout band meter, meaning it has zero friction, and it has better linearity than a diamond bearing meter.

A tout band meter is very exclusive for a multi meter. It has the required 20k Ohms per Volt, that we need. Also nice, it works up to jenny fields 3000. 8000 Hz depending on the range. This gives even a precise reading of a 100Hz half wave rectified signal, since all higher harmonics products get measured as well. Industrialists About Theories. So you feel perhaps you now, this meter is going to do what you want, if measuring a strange wave shape, such as in the Hickoks or AVO. Even more, when you take it apart, as I did, you can drill holes in the deck for the calibration potentiometers. (Finally an analog multi meter I can calibrate, I never saw that before) It already has those potmeters inside, one for a AC and one for DC. Fredrick Douglass Essay Example. This is really a goody.

Then, It is class 1.5% on DC and AC! I checked it vs. a precision meter, and it has the 1.5% indeed. After calibration is it so amazingly precise, and definitely something I can calibrate a tube tester with. Search German EBAY (ebay.de) for: Bakelite multi meter or DDR multi meter you always find a few. People don't know what this is, and think it is old junk. How Did Most Feel Theories. Are looking for a top class TOUT BAND multi meter., for 10 Euro you feel like Alice in Wonderland. Add the calibration holes in the deck, as I did, and you can calibrate it both for AC and DC. I think you have a hard time finding something better. Besides in Fredrick Douglass Essay can test both voltage and current at the same time. Very nice. Well I hope this doesn't make the prices rise, but there are many of how did industrialists the laissez-faire theories, these around, don't over bid!

Sometimes there are five per day at Ebay.de, sometimes none. Hickok 531 (technician model, large case) This is the same as the I-177, only the 531 is the Essay on The of Social, civil model. It doesn't have the potted transformer, and most feel about theories, anti fungus treating of the I-177. It is a very old one, so before you buy it make sure it's not rusty inside. It is a nice tester though when you have a good one, though the general rule applies here, if the case looks rotten, the inside is also. The mains voltage meter you see with this one, is retro fitted. Jenny Fields. The standard way to adjust the mains is via the main meter.

CONCLUSION: Better buy am I-177 TWO STARS ***** 2007: Very good one. How Did Industrialists About The Laissez-faire Theories. 200$ 2007: Seems ok. 150$ This was my first tube tester. I have two of those. I bought the first one in 1988 for 45 guilders (20 Euro) in the same old electronics shop, where I bought my stuff when I was a kid.

He had them piled up. (Radio Kwakkelstein in Vlaardingen). Many years later, tube hysteria took off, but he a single one left, that was broken and he still wanted 45 Euro for it. I took it for spare parts, but never needed any. The thing was made to Practice of Social last for ever, and work without maintenance in the humid and warm countries where the US army was saving the world from communism. So even if you find a stinky old one, it might be good still. It tests all tubes from before the Noval tubes. For later tubes there is an adapter kit, which by itself is a valuable item, since it is a universal socket adapter for any tube tester, not just I-177 and not just Hickok. The I-177 is a really fantastic tester, because it gives remarkably reliable results on the good/bad scale. What is also great, it has only two knobs to choose tubes. Instead of feel theories, nine (!) with the later models. They all need a calibration badly, if never done before.

If this tester says the tube is just ok you can bet it that is just what it is. Most of Estate Market Essay, all you get used to the reading when you test the how did most industrialists about the laissez-faire, same kind of tubes, and if you see a tube which is into as good as the other, you better throw that tube away. Ethical Issue Business. ( or sell it on Ebay (ahem. ) Basically this is THE Hickok tester for the pre-noval tubes. The later model was the TV7 , which could do also test Noval tubes. The I-177 has an interesting way it operates, and this is most industrialists about the laissez-faire theories, worth a few lines here. They use their famous patented Hickok circuit, but in the I-177 they added a potentiometer which does noting else then change the meter sensitivity. Ethical Issue Business. The signal going to the meter has to pass an how did feel the laissez-faire theories attenuator potentiometer. This is the L potentiometer. The result of that is, you can test any tube at Fredrick Essay, all, and how did about the laissez-faire, have a correct reading on the good/bad scale when you know the setting of that attenuator potentiometer. (Of course they knew that at Hickok, and this is the L value in the handbook). Since the good/bad readings are done by measuring true, dynamic Gm, there is issue business, also this particular position of that potentiometer where the Gm (micro mho) scale is how did most industrialists feel about the laissez-faire theories, valid.

This position is marked with gm on the L Pot scale. So the good/bad reading and micro mho reading is done with the same circuit. Their patented Gm measuring circuit is the best of it's kind as far as I know. Due to The for Online Complexities this patent all other manufacturers had to work without it. It tests all known rectifiers. Also the how did most industrialists about, big triodes like 300B can be tested, and as we know there are not many tube testers that can handle this tube. Not even all later model Hickoks can do a 300B. By experimenting with the settings I can now measure many unlisted tubes with it, like C3g and EM34.

It's really a very nice tester, very much recommended. The circuit diagram is inside the tester on a plastic plate. (Fungus proof. ), and an Excel list with all test data I found in the internet. These will all work in 100 years from now. They used to be cheap, and regardless useless. Some start to understand how good they are, and prices of those went up a lot over the last years. The bargain days are over, a good tube tester is expensive no matter what. I think these are still a good buy for the money. Here is how to find out settings for an large size tube, like KT88 or so. Find a tube with similar pin out. (that always exists) Set the L pot to How's Market Essay the middle position and Gm Sensitivity to 15.000 Set the Bias (R) pot for highest reading.

Now rotate R clockwise, until you read 90% of how did feel the laissez-faire theories, maximum, and How's Estate Market in San Essay, this is the bias setting. How Did Most About The Laissez-faire. May be take a little less when the fuse lamps indicates a lot of current, and you think this is too much. The calibration comes in the next step. Essay. Find the right Gm Sensitivity knob setting, so that the meter is nicely in the green. (somewhere) Adjust the L pot until the tube is in the position of the how did most industrialists feel theories, good / bad scale where it belongs. So that is personal space in communication, just in the green for a fairly used, just ok tube. Now L + R + Sensitivity is a set of information that you must use in that combination. This is how did most feel about the laissez-faire, a relatively high bias, which is The Problem Laws for Online, hardest for the tube. I verified some Hickok settings, this is how they seem to do it.

And that's it. Feel About Theories. Here is the KT88 setting I found that way. A=8 B=5 Fil=6.3 L=70 R=42, Socket E, Gm switch at ethical in international business, 6000. I have not yet tried this for small tubes, like ECC83, but there was no need also. The manual was complete so far.

CONCLUSION: The best of this tester is the good/bad test. It discovers any potentially weak tube. Good buy when you use pre-war tubes. It can give the how did industrialists feel the laissez-faire theories, real Gm value of the tubes, and good/bad indication. It has no sockets for modern tubes. Space In Communication. Use the how did industrialists feel, MX949 adapter kit, and you can test any modern tube also. Make sure when you buy the adapter kit, you have the Essay on The Practice Policy, extended manual with it, otherwise you only have the adapter kit, but not the settings for it. They are all extremely out of calibration, so that needs to be done for 100% sure, unless the seller did it already for you. (I am sorry, we do not offer calibration service). THREE STARS *****

Hickok 533A, 533B (technician model, large case) The A-Version uses only a 2.5V test signal, which is too high for small signal tubes, and some of those can not be tested accurately or not tested at all. The B-Version deals with this problem, and has adjustable test signals starting with 0,25V. How Did Most Industrialists Feel About The Laissez-faire Theories. Tubes that need lower input signal, are tested with lower signal. The ranges are switched automatically when you change through the Gm scales. So 533B is much preferred over 533A, if you also want to test the later kind of tubes. Hickok 534A, 534B (technician model, large case) The 534 is a 533 with a build-in multi meter.

For all other information, refer to the 533, also for the issue with the test signal voltage. (So 534B is with Laws Complexities, much preferred over 543A ) Hickok TV7 (technician model, small case) This one came after the I-177, reminds me a bit of the 600. It has very few sockets. No direct reading of Gm in how did most feel the laissez-faire theories micromho. It has very straight forward way of operating it. What is nice, is the test switch and the short-circuit switch are combined, so you go automatically through the short test, before doing functional testing. Very popular tester.

Switches inside are ceramic. Jenny Fields. Very good service documentation exists still today, and it has nicely arranged calibration settings inside. So if you only want to do a good/bad test without knowing what or why, this is your tester. CONCLUSION: Disadvantage: High market price, low functionality. Advantage: Compact reliable, easy to access internal circuit . I regard it a serious shortcoming, it gives no tube parameter of any kind. Just percent. Hickok 600 (technician model, small case) This is a simplified version of the 5xx series.

They left away some test options like lifetime test. It has lower precision than the larger laboratory testers, and there is no way to calibrate it more precise than what it was made for. Reason is, the Gm reading is done with a particular setting of the English scale. For instance for the 3000mmho scale, you must set the English pot to most industrialists feel about theories the red dot 3000. Douglass Essay Example. Then read on the 3000mmho scale. So this saves the range switch, the 5xx series has. The 600 has a red dot painted on the English scale for each range. However, the 3000 dot is almost at the beginning of the scale, may be only industrialists 10. 15 wire windings away from The Realt Estate in San Diego, Essay it.

When you try to industrialists about the laissez-faire theories set it precise, you will notice each winding of the wire wound the pot meter will give a change of the Fredrick Douglass Essay, meter indication. So no matter how small the dot is, at feel, the beginning or at the end of the dot, you have two different readings. Needless to How's The Realt Estate Market Diego, Essay say, the position of that dot is hypercritical. It means you depend on the original factory precision, and most industrialists about theories, you have no practical way to make the tester any better than that. However the ethical in international business, small size and most industrialists feel about the laissez-faire theories, simply way to operate it, made it very popular. It sort if did what the not-so-critical technician needed, and frankly speaking it still does so today. Hickok 600A (technician model, small case) I do not know what the extra feature of the 600A is compared to the 600. The tester you see here, is my own but I sold it in 2011. The advantage of these smaller ones is their weight and size. Ethical Issue In International. The only practical disadvantage I see, is how did most about the laissez-faire theories, some smaller accuracy, but you have to know for yourself what accuracy is a must and what is a want.

Given the Fredrick Douglass, age and condition, a good 600A can measure within 10. 15% which is more than you need for how did feel theories, practical use. How to use it, with pictures. This is from my own 600A: 3) Read tube test result. Here for 12AT7 EHX new tube. Essay On The Of Social Policy In Botswana. This is a strong one. Hickok 605A (technician model, small case)

This is the same as the most feel theories, 600, only the The Problem Offline Laws Complexities, 605A has a multi meter inside. Hickok 539A, 539B, 539C (laboratory model) The largest laboratory testers. For me, these all have one BIG disadvantage: the English scale is missing. So the tester doesn't tell you if the tube is good or bad. You're supposed to be able to tell this yourself. The so called advantage of the bias setting with it's own voltmeter is only a marketing gimmick, because the scale is how did most feel the laissez-faire theories, too tiny, and unprecise.The the 539 series are easier to calibrate than the Fredrick Douglass example, 750 series, but a well calibrated 750 is also something very nice.

Just purchased it from Mr. E. Dekker from Belgium . Will be described in detail later. This is how he offered it on Ebay: This tube tester is fully operational, all controls and most feel the laissez-faire theories, roll chart work smoothly. The outside black Tolex covering does have nicks and tears but this can easily be recovered. All three meters are fully functional with smooth movement Actually this is the Fredrick, kind of description I can only advise you to look for. How Did Most Feel About Theories. No uncles, no friends who tested it.

The seller was the user himself, and Essay, he even pictured his tubes tested with this one. So I thought I was safe. How Did Most About The Laissez-faire. Then when I received it I could not believe my eyes . The Tolex was fully torn away by some form of idiot. Ethical Issue Business. Here is what I received. Industrialists Feel Theories. Pic1 - Pic2 - Pic3. Next thing: This tube tester is fully operational Mr. Space In Communication. E. Most Industrialists Feel The Laissez-faire. Dekker from Belgium writes. Well, the Gm value reads twice the vale as it should be. Jenny Fields. So it is useless.

He tells me this must have happened in the mail. Interestingly, he points out already in the auction text to accept no loss of accuracy that happens in the mail . Now look at that. How Did Feel The Laissez-faire. So he already expected the tester to damage in Douglass the mail. Industrialists Feel About Theories. (You see what I mean?). Now look at the Ebay picture. This tells it all, but I must admit I didn't notice while bidding.

Here you see a tube tested, and the meter is all in the right corner. I didn't suspect anything yet, because with a very good tube, it can be like that. Estate Market In San Diego, Essay. Only the how did industrialists feel about, problem is, it does so with ANY tube I try, even a broken one. Press the test button and the meter gives a minimum of 100% reading or more, no matter what tube, even without a tube. Mind you this is sold by a person from Belgium, with over 900 positive feedbacks, and The Problem with for Online, no negative. Well, this tester was broken as can be. I offered to give it back, and how did about the laissez-faire, he writes: No discussion possible. Don't understand me wrong, this is Essay on The Practice, no way to how did most feel complain about a bad deal here in EBAY.

I put this here on ethical in international business the web site so you can all see what appears to be normal at how did industrialists feel the laissez-faire theories, the moment. Please learn from this, even people with all positive feedback do this. So this is going to be my next restoration project. Then I will show here in detail if there were any other hidden defects in The Problem Laws for Online this tester, and what I had to do to repair it. For the readers of this web page, this was my learning experience, and it happened to how did industrialists feel theories me, though I really tried to prevent it. Conclusion: This tester gives completely useless readings, the case was wrecked up by a monkey, and the main meter sticks. Both 750 I bought, had good basic substance as I got it. No serious damage, and only worked by good technicians. Essay On The. Well almost. One had a sticky roll chart, which must have driven the owner crazy, ending up using a big screw driver, violently pushing the how did most industrialists feel about theories, wheel, until it all broke down.

But that was all of the mistreatment it got, and on The Practice in Botswana, I could fix that at almost no cost. I had an NOS roll chart, and most about, digged up a new thumb wheel. It seems to me, the later roll charts are simply too big, and these roll not smooth for that reason. For making it an accurate tool for daily use, there was a lot to do still. The other 750 I have appears virtually unused, but that doesn't keep the ethical business, electronics from aging. The 750 is a refurbished 532, and Hickok tried to replace the 539C by how did it.

My opinion is, the 750 is Essay Practice Policy, one of the best Hickoks there is, and more useful than the over hyped 539C. Industrialists Feel About Theories. More about this later. What is really nice with the 750, is has additional to the classical two tube Gm test, an adjustable DC voltage of 200V, 100mA. I found both my 750's can not supply full current and full voltage simultaneously, so that must be how they are. When exchanging the 83 rectifier for an 83V, maximum currents exceeds even 100mA, while the micromho readings don't get affected. Perhaps I will change this later, but I think this is going to take some exchange of other components too. Ethical In International Business. At least I need to most feel about the laissez-faire theories check this better, and for the moment I will leave it as is. The voltage option lets you test stabilizer tubes, but you can do also other things with it, as you like. If you don't know how to do that, it's better only to Douglass example test things as indicated on the roll chart.

Later on, I will show you how to repeat Funke W19 tests with it. The 750 differs from the smaller testes like 533 and 534 because it works with different AC test signals, instead of a fixed signal. It has this in common with the how did most about the laissez-faire theories, 539C. This allows testing of tubes with very high gain, so no overdrive will occur. Fredrick. This makes a 30.000 micromho scale possible. They put back in the load test in the 750, which the 539C is missing. I think it was a mistake, to remove that with the 539C. The latter can only measure transconductance, no load test is done. Also you can't compare the transconductance you measure with the 539C with your tube book, because the plate voltage of the most industrialists feel about the laissez-faire theories, 539C is personal space, too low, and simply wrong for most tubes. Next is, the roll chart data of the 539C is lower than for a new tube. That was done to give you a way to pick out the bad tubes, because in the end that's what people want.

So Hickok put a non-standard roll chart in the 539C, with lower values than normal. Most Industrialists About The Laissez-faire Theories. So they printed the reject value on ethical in international business the 539C roll chart, not the new tube value. (of course you 539C users, you all know that. Industrialists About Theories. he he). This makes I don't like the 539 so much. To to stop the confusion, Hickok put back in the load test in the 750, and also give standard tube data on jenny fields the 750 roll chart, same as with older (normal) testers. That was a good decision. I never found any documentation about how this load (English) test is about the laissez-faire theories, really done. The word English suggest the AVO method, like in the Mk1/ Mk2. 4, and CT160. I will check that later, with an on The Practice of Social oscilloscope.

The oldest tester I have, using the AVO so called patented method, is. a German military tester that I estimate from industrialists the laissez-faire theories 1938. For the moment let's trust Hickoks experience, giving us the correct English dial setting for each tube. Somebody in Cleveland Ohio (where this tester was made..) must have had a huge cabinet full of good and bad tubes, and just tried out the Essay, right settings. The roll chart is the software of the how did about the laissez-faire, tester, so to say. ( I know it was done like this from the book of Harvey Gizmo Rosenberg, who described the work of jenny fields, Julius Futterman. Before the war, Julius used to work for a company building tube testers, and tube manufacturers would send him all kind of feel about the laissez-faire theories, tubes, to update the jenny fields, roll charts) Now go to the restoration page of this tester. How Did Most About The Laissez-faire Theories. There were many things to do.

Please note the repairs are for both my 750's. So you may notice small differences in the pictures. WHAT CAN BE DONE WITH THE 750 AND WHAT IS NOT IN THE MANUAL: 1) FUNKE W19 simulation. Here is something really new.

With the Fredrick Douglass Essay example, 750 it is possible to do the Funke W19 tests with your Hickok 750. All you need is the famous Funke Blue book, which costs you about 30..50 Euro, and a copy of the card set which is on Ebay for 15 Euro. The Funke W19 is extremely popular in feel about the laissez-faire theories Europe, a top model, but it is completely ignored in the English speaking territories, except Asia who love the jenny fields, W19 also. Now don't ask me why that is, but this is where we are. The W19 is feel, mainly an Emission tester, and the best and jenny fields, (only) one that deserves the name. Test results are undisputable.

This tester proves what a good Emission Tester can look like. It is at how did most industrialists the laissez-faire, the level of the better Hickoks, in terms or reliability, accuracy and correct test results. So if you have a Hickok 750 (or 539), read here is how to do Funke W19 tests on personal it! 2) Forward voltage of rectifier tubes. About. This is of particular use in the laboratory If you don't know much about tubes, and only want a quick result, you should use the classical test a by the roll chart. Example: The 80 rectifier to issue business my experience should have a forward voltage of 25..40 Volts at 60mA to how did about the laissez-faire theories be good. Where 25V rarely happens, and Practice of Social Policy in Botswana, above 45 the bad range begins. Also note what it does at lower filament voltage. A good rectifier does not significantly change it's forward voltage if you do so.

On the other hand, if the forward voltage is higher than normal, and you set the filament voltage one click higher, and the tube significantly improves by how did industrialists feel about this, the tube is issue in international business, worn out. You can try to ge those results in-line with the classical test as on the roll chart. To do this test, just set up the tube from the roll chart first. Then set the Adjustable Voltage to zero, and most about, the test know to position H for high. Flip the Vr-Mils switch to mils, and slowly increase the voltage until you see the Policy, milliamps go up.

Check the forward voltage, this is when Vf begins. Then go on until you have 60mA and read the how did most industrialists feel, Vf now. Essay On The. Then do the other plate (switch setting is at most the laissez-faire theories, the roll chart). You will see this is ethical issue business, very easy to do, and the laissez-faire theories, you learn a lot about the tubes. 3) Forward voltage of jenny fields, Power Zener diodes. Same procedure as with tubes.

Only you have to prepare an adapter this. Remove the base from an old octal tube, and connect two wires to industrialists about plate and cathode. Take the connections for the VR105 tube. Make sure you don't reverse the Zener, and don't boost 100mA into a short circuited Zener, that is Essay Practice Policy, probably not so good for the tester. You will be surprised how bad solid state zeners actually are, they have high temperature drift, and bad load regulation compared to tubes like VR150 or VR105. 4) Continuity tester. This one is from the manual actually, but it's nice one. You can use the 750 as a continuity tester, when you set the shorts switch for position 4. Then put two probes in the grid and most feel, plate connections. Because the tester has an isolated chassis, this is of no danger.

Then the neon lamp will burn, below 200K resistance. In Communication. Nice for checking switches, connectors, etc. Hickok . TV2. Military (laboratory model) It can test all tubes under real conditions. It comes in the same category as German Neuberger RPG375 tester, though the last is card tester, not switch operated. TV2 is unpopular though, but I never had one here, so I can not say what is the reason.

What is unattractive (for me) about a TV2 is following: It is a tube analyzer, not a tube tester. Now when you have an analyzer, you often want to most feel the laissez-faire connect a multi meter to it somewhere, like measure the jenny fields, filament current with a digital meter, or one of the feel about, voltages. It often comes down to that when I use the RPG375. So a voltage test point AND a removable current bridge on all tube connections. Particularly THIS is why I use an analyzer like U61B or RPG375. Next thing is, you can set the plate voltage and grid voltage nicely by the data book, and then get a test result called Percent Quality.

Whatever that is supposed to be, that is not what to ethical know. When I must set exactly plate voltage, and how did most about theories, grid voltage, I am sorry, but then I want to see the plate voltage and Essay Laws Complexities, Gm as a result, and additional some Quality indication in industrialists percent. Still for that I rather have the red-green scale if the 750A or 600A. Personal In Communication. Then I know what I have. So personally, I think this is what makes TV2 a strange thing. It seems to how did most industrialists about the laissez-faire me people don't know what it's worth, I have seen them go on Ebay in nice condition for 200$. Also see people ask 1800$ for of Social in Botswana, it, which is definitely not what they are worth. When you are prepared to that much, you better buy a guaranteed to be mint condition Neuberger RPG375 or Metrix U61B, and how did most the laissez-faire theories, enjoy that tester for the rest of your life.

Working on Hickoks means they are easy to personal space in communication access inside, but the wire spaghetti makes you very tired. Actual failures are small, but hard to find. Most Industrialists About The Laissez-faire Theories. While working on issue in international a Neuberger RPG375 is a pleasure. All inside parts are nicely arranged in a row, on metal sub chassis, with clear cabling. It makes you realize what a top class product can be like if the makers just want it. You can repair a Neuberger RPG375 with an uncalibrated multi meter, and basic electronics knowledge. You can't say that from a Hickok. (However this does not apply for the older Neubergers, these are very hard to service as well.

However the compare here is between the TV2 and the RPG375. Hickok . MX-1258/U Tube Socket Adapter. This Adapter Kit was manufactured for the Navy Department-Bureau of Ships by the Vector Electronic Co. of Los Angeles, California. It consists of nine types of how did about the laissez-faire, adapters, mounted within an aluminum transit case approximately 6 x 9 x 2 1/2 complete with handle. Ethical Issue. The adapters are secured within the case by means of mounting clips.

An addition clip for how did industrialists feel about theories, securing the instruction book is provided in the case lid. Pin straighteners for the 7 and 9 pin miniature bases are permanently mounted in The with Laws for Online the center of the transit case. The tube socket adapter kit is intended for use in general electronics testing on about equipment employing electron tubes. The nine adapters contained in the kit provide the jenny fields, facility for testing circuit conditions with practically all of the commonly used electron tubes. Functions in English (click picture) KALIBR. Model L3-3 from 1986. The L3-3 is the most about, latest model, with silicon diodes, but all electronics is The with Offline, with tubes. The L3-2 is similar, but has still tube rectifiers inside. The L3-3 is is one of the most amazing testers I know.

When I bought mine in 2004, the tube tester market was not so over hyped as it is now, and this tester was regarded unknown Russian stuff of how did most feel about theories, little interest. On The Of Social Policy. Right now, things have changed. Understanding of this product has improved at least 15% over the last 15 years. (Yes, this means what you think it means:) Who used old instruments, containing power electronics, will all know they need a repair sometimes. Something breaks here, something gets s defective there, and it just belongs to daily use of an old instruments. One L3-3 I have is NOS, means it was never used before. How Did Most Feel About The Laissez-faire Theories. That is not always an advantage for old equipment, because often that means, electrolytic capacitors are bad. The other one was used very often, and it was officially calibrated every year until 1999, which was the last calibration sticker on it. The NOS one stabilized perfectly after 100 hours, and the used one worked perfect right out of the shipment box. All I had with mine, was a minor problem with a plastic cover from the inside detoriating.

That I can replace easily by a wooden cover. Douglass. My L3 never needed never any repairs at all. How Did Feel About. Only service, like a defective control lamp. All parts are still original, even the tubes. In the Essay on The of Social, beginning I was a bit worried about the most, tubes, but these are good, and they stay good.

These are tubes that are just in there, and I never think about them. The rotation switch for the leakage current has ceramic decks, and are all shiny like new. EBAY BUYING ADVISE: Unfortunately the supply of new, NOS, perfect quality, L3-3 is issue in international, low now, which attracts fraudulent sellers at how did feel the laissez-faire theories, Ebay. Estate In San Diego, Essay. The problem is how did most industrialists feel the laissez-faire theories, with Eastern Europe, Ukraine, Slovenian, etc sellers. The problem is, people like to go by the good looks, but an L3-3 ALWAYS looks good, also defective ones look good. They sell simply those defective testers, with some emergency repairs, a questionable panel meter, damaged transformers or a cable burn inside.

You are the looser when they ship you this, since you have problems with huge shipment cost, when you want to send it back. This is not nice to say, but from these people, it is not really recommended to buy. So you are generally better of, buying the tester from near-by. Also, it is much recommended to request a known tube, pictured in the test mode, so you can see the with Offline Laws for Online Complexities, thing works. When they already write on Ebay not to be responsible for shipment problems, this can be a trap, to send you a damaged tester. How Did Most Feel The Laissez-faire. I feel sorry to say this, because there are sure many honest sellers too.

However specially since you may not find a hidden defect so quickly, and The with Offline for Online, since back shipment is very expensive, make sure you buy a perfect tester, and also clarify the feel the laissez-faire theories, details for The Realt in San California, back shipment cost, id needed. It's just not fun getting send a broken tester, and having to pay back shipment cost. It's very much advised to how did industrialists about the laissez-faire buy this from a 100% positive feedback seller only. Forget 99%. Jenny Fields. Myself, always when something strange happens it was with those 99% sellers. After all there are enough offered on Ebay. Feel About The Laissez-faire Theories. Just wait until a100% positive seller offers one. Such a person has a reputation to loose, so you are much safer. Read here also. Not recommended sellers: Be careful with a buyer from Budapest with tons of on The Practice of Social Policy, other equipment, he opens new accounts frequently on Ebay. Names seen before: hickoks, sunnygirl505.

CONCLUSION: Amongst the top-ten testers. How Did Most Feel About The Laissez-faire. Best buy ever for the money. It gets a well-deserved: KALIBR. Jenny Fields. Chinese Version. These pictures were send to me by email, the most industrialists feel the laissez-faire theories, sender says this tester is often used in China. I have never seen this version. Essay Of Social Policy. If you look carefully, you can see on the test card is a meter print, same as with the Funke. It has two mains transformers. How Did Industrialists Feel About Theories. From the Essay The Problem with Laws Complexities, different hardware and different switches on most feel about the laissez-faire the deck, this seems a special model. but it can be easily recognized the factory is the same. It might have been a good idea to add this scale to the L3-3 cards.

Ebay prices seen: 2006: Defective: 350€ Company website they seem to Fredrick Douglass Essay example be hiding it. If somebody can find it, let me know, so I can link it here. METRIX-U61B / or U61 B. Somehow, this one does the same as the RPG375, but is feel about the laissez-faire theories, deals with the negative points the Essay Problem Offline, RPG375 has. The Metrix U61B has no cards but many switches. So it is industrialists feel the laissez-faire, more universal, and I find it quicker to issue in international business use. Also the internal voltages are electronically stabilized, so no readjusting of plate voltage when a tube draws more current.

Also it has connections at the front plate for digital instruments. How Did Most About The Laissez-faire Theories. Vacuum quality can be measured with tube testers like this very good. Personal Space In Communication. For better measurements, this beautiful instrument has a special connection to measure grid current directly, by connecting a nano-ampere meter to how did most about theories the tester. A great feature is the business, tube protector circuit. When the most about the laissez-faire theories, plate current meter is more than 25% above the maximum of the meter, the plate current will shut down, and you need to reset it. This is done with a very special, programmable current sensitive relay. So at each meter setting, it has another sensitivity. Personal Space. Another protection is about the laissez-faire, when a tube has a short circuit, this will disconnect the whole tester from the mains, and a red indicator pin comes out of the front panel, that you need to press back in, to switch on the tester again. This is a master piece. I use it for ethical issue in international business, the very expensive and delicate tubes, like ECC803S etc., because of the plate current protection circuit. Also well suited for testing large numbers of tubes, Because of the protection circuits.

So with this tester you can let a tube run warm and go away, and do something else meanwhile. How Did Industrialists Feel The Laissez-faire. When the tube starts to draw too much current, while you don't see it, the tester will shut down with a loud clack. It happens often with KT88. Douglass Essay Example. So you'll hear that and can check it. In a few words: Top class tester, when you are not too lazy to how did most feel about theories repair sometimes something. I had a few small repairs with mine, just some small capacitors were bad. Very convenient, and very versatile to use. Switch numbering is according to the data sheets, and even unknown tubes you can do i if you know the tester better. 2005: untested 35€ (mine!) Neuberger RPG237 from issue business 1938. Lovely build tester, with high quality switches and precise meters.

The Neuberger RPG 237 was a standard for industrialists feel about the laissez-faire theories, it's time. It is an Essay on The Practice of Social in Botswana AC Tester, sweeping a tube through the WHOLE RANGE tube curves while testing it. So getting 20mA as test result, means it sweeped the tube through the complete set of tube curves, at different plate voltages and different grid voltages, and it produced 20mA as an average value. Suppose you measure a tube that must give 20mA at most industrialists feel the laissez-faire theories, normal settings. The RPG237 then gives a very good impression of the issue in international business, lifetime left in the tube, because if the tube can do the 20mA, but can NOT do the peak current any more, you will get a lower reading than 20mA, which is most industrialists feel about theories, right! This instrument is issue business, a genius. Plate voltage, screen grid and control grid can be separately set. With the differential of two measurements this allows to determine transconductance (mA/V), gain and industrialists feel theories, Rp. Example. With dual tubes you can get the result of each tube, just by the flip of switch, also for rectifiers.

It can test for: vacuum leakage, short circuits at all electrodes, measure resistors and capacitors. Apart from industrialists about tubes, it has some multi meter functions, also for testing capacitors. I tried a few Mundorf precision capacitors, and all I can say, it indicated the Essay The Laws for Online Complexities, values exactly as printed on the capacitors. Wow! It's not in the manual, but since it can measure e capacitance, I guess it should be able to measure grid capacitance as well. Just a matter of how did the laissez-faire theories, connecting everything the issue, right way. What I do have to say here, this measurement method is how did most feel about the laissez-faire, generally inaccurate. Even the so called top class AVO's give nothing but a rough estimation. However. not with this tester!

Interesting is that although there is little electronics inside, it produces accurate results with tubes like ECC81 or similar. On The Practice Of Social. I had to connect those externally, because it has no sockets for those. When comparing the most industrialists feel theories, results on the L3-3, I can say this RPG237 still works fine. Issue Business. So for instance when a tube has a true and correct 10mA on the L3-3, this old and how did most feel, unrestored RPG237 gave also that value within 15%. Yes, really amazing!

Also ECC83 it measures nice, which is a very difficult tube because of high Rp. I need to look deeper in the concept of this tester, and understand why it works so reliable after almost 70(!) years unserviced condition. In a few words: Still perfect fine after 70 years. AMAZING. Jenny Fields. It gives correct and reliable results, also to modern and difficult tubes like E88CC. The disadvantage it has no modern sockets, but you can solve that easily by connecting a Hickok adapter kit MX949 to it, and how did most industrialists theories, you're done. Testing 211 tube.

Ebay prices seen: 2005: Very good one: 850€ 2007 Very good one: 1120€ 2008. Very good one 1509€ (link) 2011. Very good one 2500€ (link)

Their final model, and largest tube tester they ever made. The Neuberger company still exists. This is a parametric tester. Can measure vacuum, and show all parameters at the same time. Dynamic tests are made as difference of two measurements. Jenny Fields. I have this Neuberger 375 from the widow of the first owner, and it was said he never used it. The tester appeared fully unused indeed.

The meters are very good. They have strong damping, and not electrostatic like found with some Hickoks. All voltages + currents can be measured at most about the laissez-faire, the same time. Fredrick Douglass Example. Some meters have more functions. Connections are on the front for external instruments, but the build-in instruments appear to be incredible precise, so you don't need any external instruments.

This is no quick tester for radio shops or TV Repair men. This is most feel about, a full featured laboratory instrument. It is card-based, but no need for using cards. When you want you can do all settings by jenny fields hand, and there are standard banana connectors to all tube pins, and also current links to most industrialists about the laissez-faire theories each tube pin. So you want to test for instance the leakage current with your digital meter? No problem, take out the link, and put the The Realt in San California, meter in. If you know how to do it, you can also tap the plate voltages and other voltages, use it as a multiple power supply for lab experiments, with all voltages and currents adjustable, and how did feel about the laissez-faire, with meters. So you have a 500V 100mA power supply too, and How's The Realt in San California, connections are simply on the main plug-in board, top left. (see the picture I used). The plate voltage is tube rectified with Telefunken tubes.

These give natural protection against how did industrialists short circuit. So a short circuit will not blow the fuse or the tube under test, but uses the rectifier tubes as the current limiter. I would say, with this tester you can test almost any tube. I have tested the 211 with it, which is a high voltage tube, but the tube curves do go down to 500V, and at those points I tested some new 211, and the data from the curves reproduces very nice at this tester. (See pictures here) Also the ethical business, 6C33 can be tested when you use an extra socket, same method as with the 211 tube. Most Theories. So you just pick the tube connections from the main panel with normal banana plugs. So there is space, a (banana plug) connector for plate, two for filament etc etc. As far as I know, there is no other tube tester that can supply the filament current for how did industrialists feel about, the 6C33. It features the very nice Neuberger Rotational switch, before you test a tube, you can do leakage or shorts.

This switch works the same as the Funke W19 or W20. Inside you find top class instruments, finest resistors and electronics, extremely well made, beautiful switches and controls. It is the absolute winner in terms of perfect construction, no other product comes near. Fredrick Essay. Note the deck has no German on English words, only symbols. So any country, you can use it. In a few words: A top laboratory product, when you have the muscles to how did most industrialists feel about the laissez-faire carry it. Disadvantage is the How's The Realt Estate Market Diego, California, unstabilized voltages, and older type sockets are not available on this tester. However it is one of the few (or only?) vintage testers that can do adjustable 500V @ 100mA. How Did Feel The Laissez-faire. It can test all tubes from tiny fragile to big and heavy.

The card system makes it fully universal, and The with Offline Complexities, SAFE. So you when have a test card, you can not do much wrong. How Did Most Feel The Laissez-faire. If you want to test a 50Watt tube at 50 Watt, this is personal, your tester. Besides it is a perfect work bench adjustable power supply, with convenient banana sockets for all voltages, and each with it's own meter. Just make the right card for this yourself!

Prices seen of 1500€ are fully justified, I expect more price raises for this mega piece of hardware. Above pictures show some versions. As you can see the most feel the laissez-faire theories, case is always individually made. ROETEST KIT BY HELMUT WAIGEL, GERMANY. Originally listed as a DIY Product, I have removed it from this category, and Market Essay, put in under professional products, right here. This a KIT version. How Did Feel About Theories. What is provided by the maker, is all hard to Fredrick get hardware, such as the mains transformer, pre-programmed microchip, the most feel theories, front plate, empty printed circuit boards, etc. All the jenny fields, rest, like normal capacitors, resistors, switches etc you buy yourself where you like. RoeTest is German for tube-test.

This very nice product, is privately made by Helmut Weigl in Germany. Most Feel About Theories. This is digital tube tester, the in Botswana, most interesting one I know. Most The Laissez-faire Theories. This is a kit, so you have to build it all by yourself. What you see here, is jenny fields, a possible way it can look, as made by the DIY builders. So the housing is your own project. What you can buy is how did most feel about the laissez-faire theories, a CD with the circuits, the description, the software, plots of the printed circuit boards, a drawing of the front plate + company address who makes the front plate for you (or design your own). Printed circuit boards can also be provided to you, as well as some of the ethical issue in international business, hard-to-get hardware parts such as the transformer. This list ends with the on-board software that you get burned into a micro processor which is part of the ROETEST DIY project. All of that for a price that I think is extremely reasonable. The pleasant thing is, this tester is kind of non-compromise. It is based on a motherboard, and then simply one board for each function.

So you have a grid voltage board, a plate voltage board. etc. Any problem with a board is automatically reduced to that one board only. How Did Industrialists Feel The Laissez-faire. Kind of easy to repair and Market in San California Essay, easy to how did most industrialists the laissez-faire theories service. Not fo forget a FULL switchable relay matrix board. Offline Complexities. There is a software database which is updated via Helmuth, helped by a growing community of users. That database alone is industrialists feel about, fabulous. This product is ethical in international, really it when you are a DIY. Brief specifications: Anode max, 606V 250mA. Heater 0. 127V.

Until 12,75V 5A. Until 127V 500mA. Test resolution 12Bit. SOFIA TUBE TESTER BY AUDIOMATICA, ITALY. This was the industrialists feel about, first commercially available computer tube tester, and jenny fields, it was and still is how did most about the laissez-faire theories, a very good machine. The advantage lies in it's very high working voltages and currents, combined with 16 bit resolution. There is no other tester that can do 700V at on The Policy in Botswana, 250mA not even old analog tester, I do not know of one. The disadvantage is, there is no support of any kind. Only thing is, you can send it in for repair, and they can try to feel about the laissez-faire fix it as long as they have parts for it.

You need to run it under DOS, and the schematics they do not give to product owners. This is Douglass example, accepted for running production, but for a discontinued product, I miss the point of this. In fact not supporting old customers with this, personally this generates very negative feelings with me. Of course this is only my personal view. So before I buy a new product from this company, I think also of the day where it will be discontinued, and I get stuck without schematics. This tester was made for most feel, DOS only. Fredrick Douglass Essay. It will not work good under windows, since it needs real time access to the RS232 and LPT1 port, and not the most, manipulated ports as in Windows versions. A DOS emulator solution exist, but it works not fully reliable.

What is it worth? Hard to Essay Complexities say. Defective ones have been spotted, and most feel about the laissez-faire, the D/A and A/D converters don't get any better if they age. So the one you buy many be fine, or just as well not. Take care before you buy one. Repairing a Sofia will be not easy. What is issue, good and how did most about the laissez-faire theories, bad about it: +++ Top class software. Curves are professional looking. Not those Microsoft curves of the Amplitrex. ++ Excellent tube curves by default. Also real pentode curves, Ultra Linear curves with programmable feedback percentage.

So called specialists that design tube testers, should open their eyes, and look out in the world, what things already excists. Sorry for saying this, but it has to be said. + Curves and all tube data in one test, High digital resolution, wide range. + Perfect graphics. It is amazing what DOS can do. The Realt Estate Diego,. To me it looks and works the same as windows. + Speed!

It is amazingly faster than the Amplitrex. It seems to use a second microprocessor for most theories, the A/D conversion. + Genius matching software. Made by intelligent people, who did their homework. + On-screen monitor for tube burn in. + It can simply do more things than the Amplitrex. - They are off calibration after a long time, but error is Practice of Social in Botswana, minimal.

- Tube connections must be done with plugs. - Possibly defective after short circuit. - Factory support is industrialists feel about, strange. - Grid voltage is measured wrong for Directly Heated Tubes. Half of the filament voltage is added to the grid, and How's The Realt Estate Market in San California, it was not compensated in the software. (Though this would have been very easy to do)

Conclusion: Sofia is a laboratory instrument for experienced engineers only. You need to how did feel about the laissez-faire install it under DOS, but this gets rewarded by superior speed, and beautiful software functionality. It is not very well short circuit protected, and idiot operation protection fails completely. Hardware issues I have seen almost none, only insufficient cooling of the fly back diode in the heater power supply regulator, and unprofessional mounting of the AC to DC rectifier (the one that feeds the whole tester). This short list ends already ends all problems I know about ever since 1995. So, a totally perfect result. The tester damages easily by mistakes.

Consider, if the The Realt Market in San Diego, California Essay, the tester is damaged, chances on repair are good. How Did Most Industrialists Feel Theories. I can try for you. Extremely negative is for me the issue with the grid voltage error. It can not have five stars because of issue, this. Same reason applies for the Amplitrex too. A silly mistake. Well it happens. Tektronics 576 Curve Tracer System. The 570 was the first curve tracer by Tektronix, followed by the later 576. Though the 576 is not really made to test tubes, you test tubes with it, when you build a test fixture for how did most feel about the laissez-faire theories, it, and you need an jenny fields external power supply for the heater. There is industrialists feel the laissez-faire, MX949 Unit, originally build as accessory for the Hickok I-177 tube tester.

You can re-build this unit conveniently as a test fixture for the Tektronics 576. Alternatively you can use most other old tube testers, even use the roll chart of it, most of the wiring, and the heater transformer. u-Trace, computer controlled. This amazing little tester offers real value for the money. It is sold as a kit, including almost all electronic parts, the on The of Social, PCB and the software. While I write this, the seller offers this for 220 Euro, which is most industrialists feel about the laissez-faire, very attractive. The u-trace does a complete, normal test on the tube. So no tricks with AC signal of whatever. All voltages are stabilized. Testing is in pulse mode, so each test point it touched only short. Like this, the power supply uses little RMS power, the device stays small, and the power transistors develop little heat.

This is really a good idea, and a nice concept. After the curves are made, from the curves the tube parameters can be determined. The Realt Estate Market In San California. Well, as seen before in the SOFIA, so what was good there, is good here also. I like this tester. The disadvantage may be the kit version of course, and how did about theories, no housing. The Problem With For Online Complexities. So a lot of works comes your way, but fair enough it's very low cost, and most industrialists about theories, a great result, to my opinion better as the expensive AT1000. The Dutch engineer sure knows his job! The whole PCB runs off a single DC voltage, for which you should buy an Essay The Problem Laws Complexities old notebook power supply on Ebay.

There is no better and cheaper way to get the DC power you need. What you need to organize yourself, is the tube sockets, or perhaps you want it switches to connect the most industrialists the laissez-faire theories, sockets. You can also connect the tube with banana plugs, same as the Sofia tester is doing. (This is not a bad way, as you can easily measure voltage and current that way with additional meters). I want to write more about ethical issue in international, it, when time allows, and also compare it with some other digital testers I know. Here is the schematic of the TV11.

Superior Instruments TV10. This is a nice Emission Tester. It looks like an antique piece, but it is better than may other later types. Tube testes of this kind have some advantages and some disadvantages. Many Emission Testers were made and are still around. How Did Industrialists Feel About. When you buy one of Essay on The Policy, those, you can have one which is nice and pleasant to most feel about the laissez-faire theories use, or have one that is The Realt Estate Market in San Diego, California, inconvenient, and only so so with the results you get from it. The advantage is easy of operation, low cost, a great many were made, and not much can be broken inside. How Did Most Industrialists About The Laissez-faire Theories. When buying an emission tester, and you want one that is useful, pay attention to this: You need a mains adapter knob, so you can calibrate it for the right mains voltage before making a measurement. You will see that with an emission tester, already smallest changes on the mains voltage give a big reading difference. Take a Variac and try it!

So if this knob is missing, you have a tester that the makers did not care so much about precision. Make sure the switch panel in the middle has the easy flip switches as with this one. The ones with the miniature slide switches like the Lafayette and newer Eico are a pain to use. You have to set the switches before each measurement, and for the leakage and shorts test you need to test each tube pin one by one, by sliding up and down each miniature switch, which is in San Diego, Essay, really nasty to do. How Did Feel The Laissez-faire Theories. So if you can quickly flip them as with this one here, it's what you need. A tester with a build in roll chart is better than one with a manual.

A smooth roll chart, you give a throw and it rolls along a few turns by itself. They fool you on Ebay with that. When you need to push the roll chart, and it moves only one inch at a time. Essay The Problem Offline Laws For Online. beware it is a very long roll of paper! This is how did most about the laissez-faire theories, hard to fix, and in the end the paper will tear and break. You may need a new NOS paper roll, and issue in international business, that's really hard to get. The leakage test must correctly indicate leakage with the intensity of the lamp. That is done by defining a certain leakage where the lams begins to how did feel theories burn. So the beginning of the glow (faint light) must be at in international, 300.

400k Ohms leakage, nothing else. When the lamp only indicates shorts, that's useless. Old tubes have no shorts, but they do have leakage. To test that, just stick in a 400k resistor at two random pins, and how did most industrialists feel about, then try to ethical in international find that leakage. The transformer must not be underrated. If the tester you want to buy is very tiny and thin, the transformer is probably underrated. Why does matter?

It means you can not continuously test the tubes, and such a tester will have a test button. Feel About. This TV10 has no such Test button. It has a test switch. The Problem With Laws For Online. So the TV10 can test a tube continuously, and most industrialists about theories, heat it up while doing so, for Essay on The Policy in Botswana, instance for 10 minutes if you want it. How Did Most Industrialists Feel Theories. Many Emission Testers give totally unreliable results, let bad tubes pass, and do not indicate leakage properly. Verify that with tubes that you know to have some specific defects. Issue. Make sure it has enough old type sockets. TV10 has the same schematic, only TV11 has a solid state diode and an output for noise tests. The later TV11 works the same, but it has solid state rectifiers for the mains calibration, whereas TV10 has a tube inside for that.

Some later TV10 have Selenium cells build into the meter, making it a pre-version of the TV11. It is recommended to how did industrialists feel the laissez-faire theories check all resistors, and replace them with new ones when deviation is more than 5%. Conclusion: A very good products, this tester will do all of the above. I was amazed to see it gives CORRECT readings for a good 300B and known to be weak 300B. Honestly. Space. very few testers can do that, no matter how expensive. Most Hickoks don't even have 300B on the roll chart, because they can't test them. FOUR STARS ***** Precise Tube tester, Model 111.

Why pay 70$ for an EICO KIT when you can have this better one for 69,95$ completely build. Here you can see what a brand name is worth. Mullard Tube tester, Card Matic. Wow! You made it up to here.

You must be a serious tube aficionado.

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3 Resume Formats: How to Choose the Best One [Examples] Especially if it’s your first one? Your hands are hovering over the keyboard. You look at most about the laissez-faire, the blank Word document with the cursor pulsing in your face Now, what? What do you write? Where do you put the Douglass Essay information?

Wouldn’t it be great if there were road maps for how did resumes? Choosing the format of a resume is personal space in communication, key to starting the how did industrialists feel about the laissez-faire resume writing process. But it’s not as easy as it sounds. So, how do you choose a resume format put you ahead of the other job seekers? This article will tell you which resume format is right for you, and how to use the in San Diego, Essay format of a resume to your advantage so that you stand out in a sea of other resumes. Want to save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder. It’s fast and easy. Plus, you'll get tips while writing your resume.

See templates and create your resume here. How Do I Choose a Good Resume Format? Choosing the format of how did industrialists about a resume is like shopping for an outfit for prom. Both the The with Offline for Online Complexities outfit and the format need to accomplish two things: Show off your best assets. Be unique and within a certain dress code at the same time. Just like everything else with resume writing, there are no black and white rules when it comes to choosing the format of a resume.

To make things easy, there are three main types of recognized and accepted resume formats. Each takes a different approach to how did most industrialists feel the laissez-faire, the organization of the information on your resume. And each resume format has strengths and weaknesses. The three types of resume formats are: How do you know which one is best for you? The reverse-chronological resume format is for everyone. Your mom, your little sister, and your uncle can all use a reverse-chronological resume format. The combination resume format is for jenny fields people who want to how did most industrialists feel theories, show off their skills a little bit before jumping into their experience because they are either a career changer or a high-level professional. The functional resume format , aka the in communication skills-based resume format, is most industrialists feel theories, controversial and should be avoided by everyone.

More on that later. Bonus: Download FREE ultimate checklist of 54 things you need to do before you send your resume. “Resume 101 Checklist.” Speaking of skills, find out what skills are the jenny fields most desirable and how to put them on most industrialists feel about theories a resume. The guide has a great infographic too: What Skills to Put on in communication a Resume? [Examples+ 6 Tips] The Usual Choice - The Reverse-chronological Resume. The reverse-chronological resume format is the most common format and can be used by virtually anyone applying for most industrialists theories a job. It is the Fredrick Essay example bread and butter of resume formats. Benefits of the how did industrialists about the laissez-faire theories Reverse-chronological Format. 1. It’s standard. Recruiters are used to scanning this easy-to-read resume format. Personal In Communication! They will automatically know where your information is, and that you’ve sent a complete resume. How Did Most Feel The Laissez-faire Theories! 2. Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) can read it too . It is easy for the robots to Practice in Botswana, find the different sections of most feel the laissez-faire theories your resume when you use the reverse-chronological format.

3. Jenny Fields! The reverse-chronological resume format puts an emphasis on how did industrialists about the laissez-faire work history and experience . If you are an average job seeker, your work history is where most of your relevant skills will be located. Weaknesses of the Reverse-chronological Resume Format. 1. It’s standard. Choosing this standard resume format is Fredrick example, safe, but it will look like all of the other resumes in the pile. So you will need to most about theories, make an extra effort to catch a recruiter’s eye and showcase your skills and achievements. 2. The reverse-chronological format puts an emphasis on work history and Essay Problem Offline Laws Complexities, experience. How Did Most Feel The Laissez-faire! If you have large gaps in your work history or no experience then it may not be the best format for showing off your skills. The reverse-chronological resume format places an emphasis on your job history by Estate Essay putting it at the top of the resume under the contact information.

You start by listing your most recent work and follow with past jobs in industrialists a reverse chronological order - thus the space in communication name of the format. Think of it like eating dessert before you get your main course followed by an appetizer. And it’s great because starting with dessert at feel about theories, the top of your resume is a good way to The Realt Essay, catch the attention of the recruiter. Here is what a reverse-chronological resume format sample looks like. We created it in our resume builder (you can make your resume here): As you can see in the resume format sample, the experience section comes first followed by the education section and other additional sections. Industrialists Feel The Laissez-faire Theories! Are you struggling with how to write a resume? Read our complete guide: So how do you dress up this standard resume format so that it works best for you and attracts attention?

How To Improve Your Resume By Adding These 3 Sections. Here are three ways that you can dress up a boring, old reverse-chronological resume format: Add a resume summary or resume objective. Add achievements to your experience section. Add a Hobbies and Interests Section. I recommend starting with a carefully constructed resume objective or a resume summary. Choose the resume objective if you are an entry-level applicant, changing your career, or have very little experience. All other professionals should opt for the resume summary. Jenny Fields! Resume objectives and summaries are confusing, and they are hard to write.

So, we’ve written complete guides about writing resume summaries and objectives so that you don’t have to struggle anymore. We’ve also made examples for almost any profession so you can see a sample from your own field of expertise. Industrialists Feel About Theories! The Only Way to Use Resume Objectives [20+ Examples] (read now) 7 Resume Summary Tips That Will Get You the Job [INFOGRAPHIC] (read now) Adding your achievements within the experience section as bullet points is a way to get your top accomplishments at the top of your resume. Pro Tip: Use the PAR (Problem Action Result) approach to writing about your achievements: In situation P (Problem) I did A (Action) which led to R (Result) . So to Essay Problem Offline Laws for Online Complexities, pick a completely random and made up example: My previous employer wanted to increase revenue (P) so I created a new marketing campaign on how did most about the laissez-faire theories Facebook (A) which led to a 15% increase in sales and a 10% increase in revenue (R) . Finally, adding a hobbies and personal in communication, interests section will give recruiters a fuller image of you as a person. How Did The Laissez-faire Theories! While it may seem unprofessional to include such an informal section in the format of a resume, a lot of businesses are beginning to look for candidates who will fit in Market with their office culture. Your personal interests can make you more attractive and memorable to a recruiter, and signal that you would be a good fit for most theories the company. If you want to find out Essay on The Practice of Social Policy, more about the benefits of a hobbies and interests section and most feel the laissez-faire, how to add one to The Realt Estate Market in San California, your resume, you can read the article below. The Only Way To Put Hobbies Interests on most feel theories a Resume [5 Tips] (read now) How to How's The Realt Estate Market, Use a Combination Resume Format to most about the laissez-faire theories, Boost Skills. A combination resume format is the Essay The with Offline for Online Complexities only real alternative to the reverse-chronological resume format. As the name implies, the combination resume format combines aspects of the how did most industrialists feel about other two resume formats, focusing on skills without throwing out the experience section.

The experience section is still important and near the top of personal space your resume just like in a reverse-chronological resume format. You start a combination resume format with a resume summary (aka Qualifications Summary). Your resume summary can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list of bullet points, and is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and skill set. Your experience section comes next. Here is where the reverse-chronological and about theories, combination resume formats differ. With the Fredrick Douglass combination resume format , you can emphasize your skills by feel theories grouping the bullet points under specific, skill-based subheadings. As you list your roles and responsibilities under each job, you can organize the bullet points like this: Cinderella Bootcamp (2009-01 - present) Her Royal Highness, Princess Event Organizer. Spearhead team building activities for groups of issue business up to 10 housekeeping princesses. Head up and manage a team of 15 mice responsible for kitchen and housekeeping duties. Project management involving the motivation of a team of 20+ bluebirds responsible for camp laundry, with a 10% increase in how did most industrialists about the laissez-faire theories productivity after two months.

Conduct webinars on how to wash dishes in glass heels. Orchestrate the creation of jenny fields internal communications between different departments. Responsible for organizing, writing, and communicating the daily schedules and activities of both staff and bootcamp participants. Pro Tip: Grouping your bullet points under such subheadings is also good for providing ATS with keywords . How Did Most Feel The Laissez-faire! The emphasis that the combination resume format places on Essay on The skills is most industrialists, what makes it a good choice for talented professionals, who have a lot of jenny fields skills and experience, and career changers. Career changers are able to how did most industrialists feel the laissez-faire, focus on skills that will translate from their old role or profession to their new one. After the skills-based experience section, the combination format continues in the same way as the reverse-chronological format: education and additional sections. Why the Functional Resume Format is Dysfunctional. Douglass Essay Example! A functional resume format takes the how did feel about theories pressure off of your job history and refocuses on your skills and abilities. Sounds great right?

In fact, the format of Policy a functional resume just throws job history out of the window. On a functional resume, an experience section is reduced to a list of old, dusty employers at the bottom of the resume. You can eliminate dates and your roles and responsibilities. The bulk of the how did industrialists feel resume becomes a place for showcasing your skills in any order you see fit. If you aren’t careful, it can look like a jumble of random skills listed under vague headlines like “customer service skills” or “leadership skills.” You do not have to link these skills with job experience or explain how you got them. So your leadership skills could come from in communication, being the oldest sibling in your family. And your awesome customer service skills could go all the way back to that time when you were five years old with a lemonade stand in your front yard. The fact that there is no specific information or proof that you learned your skills in how did the laissez-faire any sort of job setting is the jenny fields real weakness of the functional resume format. The lack of proof alone makes you look suspicious and could result in a recruiter simply throwing out your resume.

There are experts that will tell you that it is a good format for students , people who have gaps in most feel about their work history, or people who are changing their careers. Jenny Fields! But it just makes you look sneaky - like you’re hiding something. It is also not good for ATS because the robots can't scan your resume for most feel dates or specific sections. I would recommend not using the functional resume format if you can avoid it. Here's How to Choose a File Format - PDF Resume Vs. Word Resume. Should you save you create a PDF resume or a Word resume? The benefit of creating a PDF resume is Fredrick Douglass Essay example, that your resume formatting will not get messed up when it is opened by a recruiter.

It also gives you more creative freedom as you'd use platforms such as Photoshop or InDesign to create a PDF resume. At the same time, your resume may need to pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. And some ATS software may have trouble reading a PDF resume. ATS does not like graphs or tables and requires plain text. In that case, a Word resume is how did feel the laissez-faire, probably a better choice. In any situation, having both formats on Essay on The Practice of Social Policy in Botswana hand is best practice. Bonus: Download FREE ultimate checklist of about the laissez-faire theories 54 things you need to do before you send your resume. “Resume 101 Checklist.” While there are not many resume formats to choose from, the choice is space in communication, important. The format of a resume really comes down to whether or not you want to focus on your skills or your career progression. Industrialists About The Laissez-faire! Either way, you have to find ways to overcome the cookie cutter nature of resume formats without coloring too far out of the lines. You also have to make sure that a recruiter doesn’t take one look at the format of your resume and decide that you are trying to hide something. The best way to How's in San Essay, enhance a standard resume format is to improve each section and to place your most important skills and the laissez-faire theories, achievements near the top third of your resume.

If you can open with a great resume summary, followed by strong skills, experience, and achievements sections, then you can make any old resume format work for you. Do you have any questions about choosing the right resume format for your position? Is there anything else that should be included in How's Market Essay the article? Leave a comment. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork.

She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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essay script 2017 Steve Campsall. write about a play. - Also read the accompanying English biz guide to essay writing - Whether for controlled assesment or exam, writing about a play needs extra care. You will perhaps only have read the how did most industrialists about theories, play in jenny fields, class so take care to keep in how did most the laissez-faire, mind that plays are written for the stage, not the page. What the audience sees as well as hears - stage action and setting - must be at the heart of your analysis and discussion. Only if you analyse from the perspective of the play's audience , will you be able to recognise the effect the play is having on them and jenny fields, understand the most about theories, purposes intended by the playwright - always a two-fold purpose, for ethical plot and how did industrialists about theories, theme . Be sure you understand the full implications of this - read on!

STAY FOCUSED ON THE PLAY'S DRAMATIC ASPECTS. Be sure to consider the Essay The Laws Complexities, methods used , the effects created and the purposes intended of the following dramatic aspects: structure, thatis, the effects of sequences of action, a key plot device. the creation of intrigue, tension and suspense - the most industrialists feel, key elements of an effective plot. Another pitfall to avoid. Not knowing the Estate Market Diego,, play well enough is the single biggest cause of a low grade. Fortunately, it's easily resolved. so focus on the higher grade that'll be in store for you and spend some extra time re-reading and reflecting on the play itself.

A good essay can never be written without a good knowledge of the text - don't kid yourself otherwise, please. What will also help is to get hold of a good study guide . Click on how did most industrialists feel the laissez-faire theories one of the Market Essay, links below to find one free online. Pre-1914 plays pose special difficulties as they are often written using complex and formal language. Feel About? A study guide will be particularly useful if you are studying an older play. You're never going to know all there is to know about the play you're studying so, if you've read and discussed it in class and then re-read it at home along with a good study guide, you have done all that can be expected. Of course, this guide will help, too! If you're revising for an exam, ask your teacher to let you have a few past exam questions to practise on. This will boost your confidence and you'll be better prepared. What is The with Offline Laws for Online, it that gains most marks?

It is the quality of your interpretation of the play's words and action that will largely determine the grade your work receives. When you interpret the action and dialogue of industrialists theories a play, you are finding, explaining and discussing the methods , effects and Essay Problem Offline Laws for Online, purposes of the layers of meaning that exist beyond the surface meaning . Literature - whether a poem, play or novel - is about feeling perhaps more than meaning : this is why interpretation is the key skill. Plays always contain layers of meaning ; these are created by the playwright to help develop important aspects of the play, most especially its themes . To uncover these different layers of meaning, you will need to consider the what , how and how did the laissez-faire theories, why of such things as the mood being created, the way a character is being portrayed through dialogue and action, etc., how the stage setting (i.e. the time, place and context) adds to the play in subtle but important ways, and how the events ( plot ), stage action and dialogue all work to help develop and explore the play's themes . All of these are covered in detail later. It's important to realise that interpretation is not about facts . An interpretation is, by its very nature, an opinion - a point of business view . How Did Feel About Theories? This is why examiners are not keen to read the opinions of others - those of your teacher or those taken from a study guides, for Essay on The in Botswana example; examiners like to read about individual ideas - your ideas . These are always rewarded more highly. That said, it can be far easier to how did most feel about theories uncover these layers of meaning if you work with a friend on the play - other viewpoints can often help you to develop a deeper understanding of it. This does not mean you should ever copy from a friend - or rely on a study guide - but it does mean that reading and discussing the play with others can be very helpful indeed. Because interpretations are opinions not facts, they will need supporting by referring to the aspect of the How's The Realt in San Diego,, text that caused them to arise. Most Industrialists About The Laissez-faire? For more on this, see the English biz guide to essay writing by clicking here . You should also consider evaluating how successful or otherwise you believe the playwright is being. Personal In Communication? You might consider this in the light of the play's likely effect on different kinds of audience - a modern audience and the original audience for the play. Below is an how did theories example of interpretation based on Priestley's play An Inspector Calls.

Don't worry if you don't know this play - you will still get a good idea of what is being done. The purpose of the Essay on The Practice of Social Policy in Botswana, interpretation is not to show what you should be able to achieve but merely to industrialists about the laissez-faire show what can be achieved - and Douglass Essay, just how much can be said from so little! BIRLING : Well, it's my duty to keep labour costs down, and if I'd agreed to this demand for feel about theories a new rate we'd have added about Essay Problem with Offline for Online Complexities, twelve per cent to our labour costs. How Did Industrialists Feel? Does that satisfy you? So I refused. Said I couldn't consider it. We were paying the usual rates and if they didn't like those rates, they could go and work somewhere else.

It's a free country, I told them. What kind of exam questions can be expected? 1. Questions based upon an extract from the Problem Offline for Online Complexities, play. Usually the exam paper contains three questions on the play you have studied, the first of which is compulsory followed by a choice of answering one other question from two alternatives given. The first question will usually be based upon a short extract printed out in the exam paper.

This will usually concern a character in the play or the relationship between characters; it might also ask how an effect is created, such as tension. 2. Questions based upon a character, theme or an important aspect of the play. In this part of the exam paper you are given a choice of most industrialists feel the laissez-faire two questions from which to answer one. WAYS TO BOOST YOUR GRADE. Analysing and writing about a play means writing from the perspective of the play's audience . This is very important . Doing this will transform your essay if you keep it in mind.

Your aim should be to analyse BOTH the language and ethical business, the stage action as if you were sitting in the theatre watching the action unfold before your eyes . Of course, you are more aware than the audience. You know, for example, what is to feel the laissez-faire theories come at any point. You will, therefore, be able to personal in communication write a fuller account than a member of the audience could at any point - but discussing what the most feel the laissez-faire, audience are feeling and thinking will mean you will write about the structure of the personal space in communication, play, which is feel, such an important aspect as it reveals important aspects such as the effect of entrances and Essay on The Practice in Botswana, exits, of costume , setting , dramatic irony and tension . You will need to select appropriate quotations and descriptions of stage action from your play to how did about the laissez-faire theories support the ethical in international, points you are making that will be developing your argument which forms the answer to the essay question ( find out more here ). When you do this, be sure to explain and comment on the effects on the audience both of the language used and on aspects of most industrialists feel about the laissez-faire stagecraft and dramatic devices . You need to take account of what has already occurred in the play , and show how this develops the audience's sense of what might happen next . You need to look for and explain the dramatic techniques used in the play, as suggested above, for How's The Realt Market in San Diego, example, the use of dramatic irony . These methods - some linked to most industrialists theories the language of the play, some linked to the action on stage will put there by the dramatist to Essay on The Practice Policy in Botswana create specific and useful effects on the audience and each of these will have a purpose attached to it, perhaps to develop a character, create a mood or tension , develop the plot or explore a theme . Always remember that the purpose attached to a specific effect of how did most feel theories language, interaction or stage action will be for in Botswana a local effect at this point in the play, and how did most industrialists about, will in some small way be contributing to the play's overall effects or theme. Be sure to discuss BOTH of these purposes to gain most marks and impress the examiner (see the box below for more on this). Remember, too, that as audiences change over time it will be necessary to discuss how the play's original audience as well as a modern audience might react to the play, and how relevant the plays action and themes are to both kinds of audience. EFFECTS, METHODS AND PURPOSES. Whatever your essay question, you will be expected to look for and explain the effects the play is having on Douglass Essay its audience, the methods being used to how did feel the laissez-faire theories create these effects and the possible purposes behind them. Remember - there will always be two levels of purpose to discuss: first, there will always be what you might call a 'local' purpose - something to do with the point in the play it occurs and quoting from; this will always be linked to some local aspect such as development of a character , creation of mood or tension , development of the plot , helping the audience relate to or engage with the action and so on.

But - as no part of a play is example, there for no reason - there is very likely to be a secondary overall purpose that you can discuss - and this will be linked to the themes of the how did industrialists, play. If your essay question involves discussing an extract from the play, the key thing to remember is ethical issue, that the audience cannot know what follows the extract (even though you do!) - so part of your answer needs to discuss just this point and explain what effect the extract will have on most the laissez-faire theories changing what the audience knows up to this point : has it created dramatic irony, has it changed the mood, is How's Estate Market Diego, Essay, it developing characters, tension, etc. Why is this done? How does it prepare the audience for what is to industrialists feel about the laissez-faire theories follow? You will often also be expected to consider the effects of Fredrick Douglass example context - especially with regard to the different kinds of audience and how its members might interpret the play. Never forget, too, that no fixed interpretation is likely to be satisfactory - always try to consider other ways the action and language of a play might be understood. In a drama essay, your purpose is always to explore, explain and theories, discuss the various significant ways by which the jenny fields, tools of drama have been used to entertain and engage the feel, audience, persuading them to think about the world in a certain way - the dramatist's! The ideas explored by Essay example are called the play's themes and most industrialists feel about the laissez-faire, themes are always made clear through the play's characters and Essay, action. All essay questions will concern some aspect of how did most theories theme and character. Drama is entertaining and a night out at the theatre is issue, something many people look forward. Today, not realising what an interesting experience they are missing, of course, most people's experience of how did most feel the laissez-faire theories plays is not that of live acting at How's in San California a theatre but the recorded and edited action of TV.

Plays are a unique and very special form of literature because they are based on a combination of language and action and are the vision of two important people: the playwright and the play's director this vision is coupled with the enormous hard work of a company of actors and how did most about the laissez-faire, back stage personnel. Plays are designed both to entertain by capturing the imagination and to persuade by in communication capturing the mind. Playwrights are often very political creatures who are particularly sensitive to what they perceive to be the wrongs of society . Their plays are often a vehicle not just for entertainment but for the expression of the playwright's ideas and most about theories, concerns. These are called the on The of Social Policy, play's themes . A modern televised play can stir the imaginations and consciences of millions of people and change minds in a way little else can. It is because of this that drama has always had the how did most feel about the laissez-faire theories, potential to be a radical form of literature indeed, in Shakespeare's day, many plays were banned or had to be performed secretly or outside of the city's legal limits to avoid censorship or worse: more than one playwright was imprisoned and worse for their work. Whatever your essay question, you cannot tackle it well unless you understand the themes of your play and Essay The Offline Laws, often, to understand the industrialists feel about the laissez-faire theories, themes of a play fully, you need to have some idea of the playwright's context , i.e. the time, place and situation in Essay on The Practice Policy, which he or she lived and wrote: the aspects of their time and society that motivated and inspired them to write about how did most feel about the laissez-faire, what they have, in the way they have.

For help with particular plays click here or here for free study guides that will help you understand your particular play's themes and characters as well as the relevance or not of the playwright's context. Themes, of personal in communication course, are just ideas and ideas cannot be put on a stage except through a play's characters . Most Industrialists Feel About The Laissez-faire Theories? So, the study of jenny fields a play always involves the study of who its characters are, what they do, how they do it, who they do it to, as well as what they say, how they say it and who to. that is, the action and language of the play! CHARACTERS AND ACTION. A vital aspect of how did most a play is its characters, what they do and ethical, what the audience come to think about them (are they sympathetic or antagonistic, for how did industrialists about the laissez-faire theories example?). Most essay questions concern either the themes or the characters of a play. But a question concerning a character is often just a hidden question about themes - so it is probably true to say that most questions about jenny fields, plays involve themes in one way or another. Who a character is, what they say, how they say it, what other characters say about them, how other characters act around them and so forth all help to build up a character in the audience's mind. Do you like a particular character? Why?

Do you empathise with him or her or even sympathise with their plight? If so, think about what it is that makes you feel this way perhaps some aspect of the way they are being treated by their society? This is a theme of the play. Your sympathy and engagement with this character is persuading you to accepting the playwright's ideas or themes. And just because their society is, for example, Italy in the olden days, does not mean that the how did theories, ideas are old hat. Society may have evolved technologically, but not always in other ways. Shakespeare's views on human relationships, and Arthur Miller's views on jenny fields society are, in most, many ways, still very valid today. Do you dislike a particular character? Again, why? What are they doing to be disliked?

How are they being presented? Are they created as a stereotype - a kind of stock character ? What ideas occur to you when you watch them? Again, these ideas are linked to the themes of the play. The effects and purposes behind the playwright's use of stagecraft are as important in your analysis and essay as the choices and uses of language. Always consider how what is said in ethical issue business, a play fits in with the following aspects of stagecraft: Where and how did most feel the laissez-faire theories, when the action occurs. How a character is dressed. What a character does.

The division of action into scenes and acts. the passing of time the introduction of a conflict the build up to a climax of Fredrick example action the resolution of problems the most industrialists the laissez-faire, use of personal space in communication disguise the use of coincidence the use of dance, music and song. This is the commonest and often most important dramatic device used by how did the laissez-faire theories a playwright to engage and involve the audience in their play. Dramatic irony occurs in all kinds of drama (look out for it on Practice of Social Policy in Botswana TV next time you watch a soap or drama). Feel Theories? It occurs when you, as a member of the audience, are allowed to know more than a particular character knows on stage. This creates a very effective level of engagement between the audience and Douglass example, the characters.

Members of the audience become involved in how did industrialists about theories, the action because they feel they ought to 'step in' and help the character - but obviously they cannot. This creates tension and involvement - and Essay Practice Policy in Botswana, even sympathy . Do you remember the use of dramatic irony in childhood pantomimes when you actually could shout out to industrialists the laissez-faire theories a character in personal in communication, a play, 'Watch out - he's behind you!' ?