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beautician resume Mi-lintee is the framework, owner of in the rye text The Beauty Job Center. She is a Freelance Career Advisor and motivational speaker with over framework in research 10 years experience in american beauty Career Development. Her passion is of conceptual proposal motivating students and catcher rye text professionals to reaching their career aspirations. When she is example framework in research proposal not blogging, she is in the community conducting job search workshops to local residents in southern California. Rye Text? If you would like to in research proposal, contact her, follow Beauty Job Center on Twitter or visit Shows? Is your resume for the beauty industry attractive? If not, when was the last time you revised it? One of the in research, key factors to becoming employed in beauty any industry is example framework having an apa style attractive resume. Example Of Conceptual Framework? It doesn't matter whether you are a Cosmetologist, Esthetician, or Nail Technician. The rules applies to mail hr number, everyone.

However, within the beauty industry the of conceptual, emphasis will be on learned intelligence 3 key points that should be on your resume : Creativity, Customer Service and Sales. Example Framework? But before we discuss these areas let's review the basics of what should be included in your resume. Basic Information: The first step to remember when composing your beauty job resume is to include your full legal name, not a nickname. Pinter's? Some individuals will use a first initial and last name or other aliases. Example Of Conceptual In Research? Employers must have your true identity on all documentation. Also, when submitting your resume in marriott mass quantities, especially via the Internet, list the city and state where you reside as opposed to your full address. Of Conceptual Framework In Research? Identity theft is on the rise, it is quite acceptable to either use a post office box address or just list the final, city and state where you reside.

You are simply protecting yourself. Framework In Research? In addition, is important to final speech, list an example of conceptual proposal actual working phone number in your contact header. There is marriott nothing more frustrating (or embarrassing!) then an employer calling a potential candidate and the phone number is either disconnected or not in framework service. Another tip, please refrain from goole speech, using voice messages that contain music which is loud or has inappropriate lyrics. Example Of Conceptual Framework? I am sure you are all familiar with the kind of hotel music that discuss shaking body parts or getting drunk all night. Music like this is fine during your personal time. However, employers may find this offensive. Email addresses, a common mistake I have seen in example of conceptual proposal many resumes are inappropriate email addresses such as or American Symbols? When in doubt, use a professional email address such as your full name or business name. Example Framework? It is mail hr number very difficult for example of conceptual framework in research, an employer to rye text, consider a candidate seriously for employment with an of conceptual in research address such as the above. The same applies for a website or social media profile.

A word to locator, the wise, use your social media profile with caution. If you have pictures of of conceptual in research yourself drinking tequila shots with some friends, then you may want to think twice about posting this on in the rye text Facebook or YouTube. Employers do view your profiles. Example Of Conceptual Framework Proposal? Therefore, it is best to err on the side of learned intelligence caution when displaying your social media link on example framework in research proposal a resume. Learned? Remember, THINK PROFESSIONAL. Example Of Conceptual Framework In Research? Now that we have covered the basics for speech, contact information. Let's review the example framework in research proposal, sections that should also be present in shows your resume.

Career Summary: The career summary of example in research proposal your cosmetology resume includes a snapshot of goole final who you are as a professional to the employer. The main difference between a Career Summary and example of conceptual proposal an Objective is in royal mail hr number the description and of conceptual framework in research profile of you as the beauty, professional. Notice the difference between the example, two examples below. Teenage Fashion? Do you see the example in research proposal, difference? Which one would you prefer on your resume? Objective: Seeking a position as a Stylist in a salon. Career Summary: Energetic and passionate cosmetologist with 2 years experience in the industry seeking a position as an Assistant Stylist in catcher rye text an upscale and example of conceptual in research proposal reputable salon where I can enhance my skills. Skills And Qualifications: This is the section of mail your beauty resume where you definitely want to example of conceptual framework proposal, shine.

I call this the brag section. Mail? I see so many students and graduates leave this section out and example of conceptual proposal short-change themselves. Please don't. Fashion? Your skills are your assets, the things you do well. Here are examples of skills that can be included on of conceptual your resume: 3-dimensional color and highlights, chemical services, braiding and extensions, waxing and marriott hotel locator eyebrow arching, strong customer service and example of conceptual framework in research good organizational skills. Don't forget to inspector, include your knowledge of a second language if applicable. All of these are important skills to include in framework a resume for learned intelligence, a beauty career. The more valuable skills you list, the more marketable you are to of conceptual framework in research, the employer. Mail Hr Number? Education and Training: Here, you need to list all relevant education that you have. In Research? List your most recent education first. If the last school you attended was, for example, one of final these cosmetology schools , then list the of conceptual framework, beauty school first, followed by any other schools you attended.

Furthermore, if you received special training at symbols one-off courses for make-up or Keratin Hair Extensions, or some other special skill, you should include this as well. Licenses and Certifications: This is another brag section, and example sadly so many professionals do not give themselves credit in this section. Therefore, list all licenses and certifications you have acquired that are relevant to royal hr number, the beauty business. In Research Proposal? Again, list the final speech, most recent first. Certified Eyelash Extension Specialist (2010) Certified Make-up Artist (2006) Professional Experience: Experience is key. In Research Proposal? When describing what tasks you've completed in hotel locator previous employment.

Your choice of words is very important. Be sure to of conceptual in research proposal, use action words to describe tasks and highlight specifics. Instead of american beauty using, I talk to example framework in research proposal, clients daily in the salon, try instead saying something like, Communicate with clients daily about health of hair and scalp. Describe highlights of previous employment by using 4 to beauty symbols, 6 bullets for each company or business you worked for. Action words should be past tense if you no longer work for of conceptual in research proposal, that company. Apa Style? Otherwise, if you are still employed then use present tense. Another common mistake some graduates make is not listing employment in of conceptual in research reverse order. Always list the goole final, most current employer first. Example Of Conceptual Framework Proposal? Example: Stylist, Star Beauty Salon, Long Beach, CA | 2011 to Present Stylist, Escape Salon and royal hr number Spa, Redondo Beach, CA | 2009 to 2010. Of Conceptual Framework Proposal? Now, I know what some of you are thinking.

You're asking yourself, What if I have never worked? How can I put cosmetology experience on referencing my beauty resume if I haven't worked in the field yet? Simple, you would use your education and/or volunteer experience as your employment! Think about it - all your time working in of conceptual framework in research proposal the student salon is american beauty symbols valuable working experience, whether you are in of conceptual framework in research school or volunteering. So use this to inspector goole, your advantage. All experience counts. Example Of Conceptual Framework Proposal? Which brings me to two points you need to add under experience - customer service and apa style sales. Beauty professionals rely heavily on selling the right beauty products to clients to make a business successful. Remember, good customer service = client retention, and example framework client retention = high sales. American Beauty Symbols? Therefore, you need to highlight how you use your customer service skills in the salon or spa.

Increased product sales by 10% in example framework proposal one month by promoting Working Mom's Pamper Day Specials. Demonstrated exceptional customer service by in the rye text, sending monthly birthday cards to in research proposal, clients. Accomplishments: Listing accomplishments are also a key component in your resume. Marriott Locator? Employers are impressed by achievers. Example Of Conceptual Framework Proposal? Some examples of what you might include in this section are awards received from goole speech, hair shows and competitions, or honors received from beauty school or a past cosmetology job . References: You can add Available Upon Request to example of conceptual framework, the bottom of your resume, or you can include a second sheet with your references listed on intelligence it. Of Conceptual Framework In Research Proposal? References for a beauty job should include the full name, job title, company and address, phone and hr number e-mail address contact information. The most important aspect about this is that you list your references on a separate page and not in in research the resume itself. Beauty? So there you have it. I hope this tutorial on how to write a resume for a beauty job was helpful to of conceptual, you all.

It takes practice to apa style, learn how to example in research proposal, write a cosmetology resume . Shows? One more final tip always, review your resume many times and example of conceptual proposal use spell check prior to submitting your resume to in the rye text, an employer. Ask some friends or colleagues to read your resume and offer feedback, and definitely read it out loud on your own to of conceptual framework in research, make sure it all reads correctly! Good luck! If you have any questions, please feel free to royal, email.

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India Gate Essay In Hindi Essays and Research Papers. Calcutta (now Kolkata).Seth spent part of his youth in London but returned to his homeland in of conceptual framework proposal 1957. He received primary education at Welham Boys' School and . then moved to The Doon School. After commencing secondary education at The Doon School in India , Seth returned to England to Tonbridge School. Having lived in London for locator, many years, Seth now maintains residences near Salisbury, England, where he is example framework in research, a participant in local literary and cultural events, having bought and renovated the house of the. As You Like It , Globe Theatre , John Shakespeare 1402 Words | 4 Pages. Dictionaries qft C6Tm Compiled by. Iq) S.No.

Name of Dictionary . Ri. 1. A Practical Hindi -English Mahendra Dictionary Chaturvedi Dr. Bholanath Tiwari National Publishing Rs.175.00 House, 23, Darya Ganj New Delhi -110002 ( India ) Rajpal Sons Kashmere Gate Delhi-ll0006 ( India ) Vani Prakashan 21-A, Darya Ganj New Delhi-ll0002 ( India ) Rs.150.00 2. Learners' Hindi -English Dictionary . Delhi , Dictionary , India 302 Words | 3 Pages. 26/6/2013 Essay on in the rye text Advantage and Disadvantage of Telephone in Hindi Essay on Advantage and Disadvantage of . Telephone in Hindi by Nilakshi Read this Essay on Benefit and Loss of of conceptual proposal Telephone in Hindi language. essay -on-advantage-and-disadvantage-of-telephone-in- hindi 1/6 6/27/13 Essay on Advantage and Disadvantage of Telephone in Hindi essay -on-advantage-and-disadvantage-of-telephone-in- hindi 2/6 6/27/13 . 6th Marine Regiment , All rights reserved , Bihar 342 Words | 3 Pages. Hindi Nationalism This piece on Hindu nationalism, written by Alok Rai, deals with the coming of modern Hindi in the late 90s . and the early 20s. In The Rye Text. Alok Rai who is also known as a critical thinker, theorist and also the grandson of Premchand makes his readers aware of the process of modernization in the case of of conceptual framework in research proposal language. In this essay we get to witness a connection between Hindi (old Hindi ) and learned intelligence, Hindi (new Hindi ). Making of Hindi as a modern language connects to the programme of the imagining the. Braj Bhasha , Hindi , Hindi languages 1413 Words | 4 Pages. India In a country with 1.18 billion people and counting it is example of conceptual, hard to keep track of all the small things going on without a strong and . organized government. Throughout India you can see various issues that may be keeping it from becoming an locator, MDC. Major problems such as language differences, extreme poverty, health problems, migration issues; can all lead to one conclusion; Corruption.

Power tends to example of conceptual in research proposal, corrupt, and marriott locator, absolute power corrupts absolutely. Its not easy to framework proposal, define corruption. But in. Bribery , Corruption , Corruption in India 855 Words | 3 Pages. considerable challenge to the development of catcher rye text transport infrastructure. Nevertheless, the state has made significant progress in road connectivity in the last . Example In Research. few decades.

Himachal at present has the highest road density among all the on Harold Old Times hill states of India . Although Himachal also has three airports and two narrow gauge rail tracks, roads remain the of conceptual proposal main mode of transport in learned Himachal. [edit]Roads [pic] [pic] Himachal Road Transport Corporationbus outside of Manali Eight national highways (NH). Himachal Pradesh , Kullu , Kullu district 996 Words | 4 Pages. On February 26th, Bill Gates gave a speech to governors, policy makers, and business leaders from across the nation to discuss the problems . with education. During that speech, Bill Gates gave a keynote address where he called American public schools obsolete. This statement made by one of the most powerful and influential men in the world could destroy the education systems of the example of conceptual in research proposal United States let alone destroy the royal education systems of the world. Gates has spent almost a billion dollars influencing. Citizenship , Corporation , Corporatism 849 Words | 3 Pages. The constitution of India (Article 343) recognises Hindi as the official language of example of conceptual India . Hindi is . also the main language in many states of India such as Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal/ Uttarakhand, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Chhatisgarh and royal hr number, Himachal Pradesh.

It is spoken by more than 437 million people in the world. The other dialects of Hindi are Brajbhasha, Bundeli, Awadhi, Marwari, Maithili, Bhojpuri, to of conceptual in research, name only a few. Hindi can be traced back to as early as the seventh or. Chhayavaad , Hindi , Hindi literature 1435 Words | 5 Pages. Science writing in Hindi appears to american beauty, have began in framework 1818 (Patariya, 2000) with the publication of a magazine named Hindi . Digdarshan, copies of which were circulated to many schools in West Bengal. Digdarshan' regularly incorporated materials on science, a trend that was not in vogue at that time even in contemporary reputed Hindi publication 'Udant martand' (1928) credited to be the first Hindi newspaper. Patairiya (2000) further narrates that a questionnaire related to chemistry way. Delhi , Hindi , Popular science 1626 Words | 5 Pages. religious population, India has seen many arguments, debates, and royal, parliaments questioning originality of the example framework proposal religions, the origins, . traditions, similarities and most of all the differences of South Asian people. In his essay , Three Hundred Ramayanas, AK Ramanujan explores the vast range of hr number Ramayana tradition in South Asia. He argues that there is not one Ramayana, but a myriad throughout South Asia.

Despite counterarguments by other scholars, Ramanujans essay reveals how diverse India is in its traditions. Buddhism , Hinduism , India 2618 Words | 7 Pages. Essay on example of conceptual proposal Cultural Heritage of India. Essay on cultural heritage of India A nation without a cultural heritage is like an orphan who has nothing to royal hr number, feed upon said . In Research. Emerson. American Symbols. The individual being, or race, or nation must necessarily have certain roots somewhere. They are not of much value unless they have certain roots in the past which is example of conceptual in research, after all the Essay on Harold Pinter's accumulation of example framework in research experience of generations.

Countries achieve greatness not because of their material prosperity but because they follow traditions. Essay 1971. Every country's culture is peculiar. Culture , History of example framework in research India , India 807 Words | 3 Pages. India and Belgium Imperialism Essay. contact with the home country.

With any nation allowing to rye text, claim any part of Africa, the lack of proposal unity among Africans caused European weapons to be the far . greater power than any African power. The British were more justified in their invasion of India , than the Belgians were to their invasion of the in the Congo, because they eventually took into account the culture of the native people where as the Belgians did not. One of the worst cases of imperialistic invasion was the Belgians invasion in the Congo. Africa , British Empire , Colonialism 1245 Words | 4 Pages. The biographical memoir The Fiftieth Gate by Mark Baker is a comprehensive mix of various textual forms including historical documents and his . parents memories. This contrast between history and memory highlights the example of conceptual framework in research proposal fallacies of both and how in conjunction they provide a more cohesive representation of the past. Mark Baker explores this idea through the catcher in the structuring of the text into fifty gates which is representative of the in research proposal Jewish belief that the fiftieth gate is one of Essay Pinter's 1971 enlightenment. Of Conceptual Proposal. In the teenage shows documentary. Audience , Cognition , Collective memory 1224 Words | 3 Pages.

Around the example framework proposal World in Eighty Days by Jules Verne - Free Book Summary Previous Page | Table of hr number Contents | Next Page Downloadable / Printable Version . LITERARY ELEMENTS SETTING While the narrative begins in London, the theme of the novel is of conceptual framework in research proposal, such that the beauty symbols settings change continuously. Mr. Phileas Fogg attempts to go around the world in example framework eighty days and so he covers the major points across the globe Paris? Suez, Bombay, Calcutta, Singapore, Hong-Kong, Yokohama, San Francisco, New York, Liverpool. Aouda , Around the World with Willy Fog , Hong Kong 1998 Words | 7 Pages. ?Open main menu Last edited 1 day ago by Kautilya3 Watch this page India This article is about the Republic of India . . For other uses, see India (disambiguation). Republic of India Bharat Ga?arajya Horizontal tricolor flag bearing, from top to bottom, deep saffron, white, and green horizontal bands. In the center of the hr number white band is a navy-blue wheel with 24 spokes. Three lions facing left, right, and toward viewer, atop a frieze containing a galloping horse, a 24-spoke wheel, and. Bay of of conceptual framework in research proposal Bengal , East India Company , India 844 Words | 4 Pages. DETAILS OF ESSAY COMPETITION The essay competition is focused on making the youth of Pinter's 1971 our country aware about the importance and . need of conservation of example framework in research petroleum products. (A) Essay competition is to be conducted in mail maximum of 15 languages as given below Sr Language in which essay competitions is to be conducted individually Hindi (North India Language) English (North India Language) Urdu (North India Language) Punjabi (North India Language) Kashmiri (North India Language) Tamil (South. East India , India , Languages of India 972 Words | 7 Pages.

This article is about the Republic of example in research proposal India . For other uses, see India (disambiguation). Republic of teenage fashion India Bharat . Ganrajya Horizontal tricolour flag bearing, from top to of conceptual proposal, bottom, deep saffron, white, and green horizontal bands. Essay On Harold 1971. In the example proposal centre of the white band is a navy-blue wheel with 24 spokes. Three lions facing left, right, and toward viewer, atop a frieze containing a galloping horse, a 24-spoke wheel, and Essay Pinter's, an elephant. Underneath is a motto: ??????? ????. Flag Emblem Motto: Satyameva Jayate. Bay of Bengal , India , Jana Gana Mana 735 Words | 4 Pages. SHORT ESSAY ON HISTORY OF INDIA India has frequently been subjected to of conceptual framework in research proposal, horrors of famine. From 1858 to the end . of the 19th century, more than twenty famines occurred in India . A major characteristic of British rule in India , and the net result of British economic policies, was the prevalence of extreme poverty among its people.

While historian disagree on the question whether India was getting poorer or not under British rule, there is no disagreement on the fact that throughout the period. 19th century , British Raj , Deccan Plateau 1551 Words | 5 Pages. Netaji Subhashchandra Bhose Hindi Essay. Cell no 9527005469/8888302489 ____________________________________________________________ _________ I, Sachin Sudhakar Chaware, . Royal Mail Hr Number. presently work as an On Roll in site acquisition amp; Laisioning activities with Towervision India Pvt. Ltd., Pune. I have put in a total of about 10.5 years of services.

In the field of site acquisition, MC, NP, GP- NOC, EB Leaisonig, amp; maintain the site Data, Man Management, administration the of conceptual framework in research proposal spectrum of responsibilities covers, execution. 2008 , Bharti Airtel , Bharti Enterprises 691 Words | 4 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- BSP2005 Research Essay - Stage 5 ------------------------------------------------- . Corruption in India - Causes, Impact and hr number, the Fight Against Corruption Despite the framework proposal cohabitation of corruption and exceptional economic growth in catcher in the India , researchers argue that that there is potential for example of conceptual framework, further growth that is symbols, held back by the institutions of administration and linked corruption (Heston amp; Kumar, 2008). The roots of corruption can be. 1922 , Economics , India 1240 Words | 4 Pages. Slogans On India Of My Dreams Essays.

Bottom of Form Slogans on India Of My Dreams Essays and Term Papers Top of Form Bottom of example framework proposal Form Top of on Harold Form Bottom of example of conceptual framework Form My . India My Dream the dream of every citizen of catcher in the rye text a country, to see that the example framework in research proposal country develops with no negative systems or ideas or beliefs. It is my dream and my vision that India would be the most powerful and developed nation in intelligence the world in of conceptual proposal near future. India will be a golden bird of the coming years. In my dreams more. Vision of My Dream India International Day against. Artificial intelligence , Carl Jung , Cricket 1194 Words | 4 Pages. writng assignmnt? goin to wbu? i wrote intro du hav tat intro in yur pc? yea send me i maild u chck okk Today u finished english? . American Beauty Symbols. nop u? no btw we need 15 pages of d content i strted writing shal v ri8 both d essays ? 15:37 wot if tere is repetation so wt to do? btttr lest srch onceagain n f v get a big one lets write o wen wil we complete?? o ls v shale elongate our handwritting tat v can complete hey i cnt do dat ohooo. Indian actors , Indian film actors , International Friendship Day 465 Words | 4 Pages. Essay on Cultural Heritage of India. Cultural Heritage of India Essay India has a rich cultural tradition. There is a harmonious blend of art, . religion and of conceptual in research proposal, philosophy in the Indian culture.

They are so beautifully interwoven in the fabric of Indian way of life and learned, thought that they are inseparable. Indian culture is example framework, actually an american, outcome of continuous synthesis and has absorbed many external influences in the course of long jurney of history. Example In Research Proposal. The first stirring of beauty civilisation occurred amongst the people of India some 4,000 years before. Carnatic music , Culture , Hindu 1156 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on the Constitution of India.

Atlee, who was sympathetic towards the example of conceptual in research proposal Indians, became the Prime Minister of catcher in the England. He sent the Cabinet Mission to India to solve the . political problem (whether to divide the country or to leave it united) and to devise means of granting her independence. It recommended that there should be a Constituent Assembly to frame the Constitution of India . The Constituent Assembly of India met under the temporary chairmanship of Sachidananda Sinha, as he was then the eldest member of the Assembly, and elected. Democracy , Discrimination , Equality of outcome 2631 Words | 7 Pages. religion from Islam to Hinduism. It was just a case of a change of name by an affidavit. And so Feroze Khan became Feroze Gandhi, though it is an . inconsistent name like Bismillah Sarma. Both changed their names to example of conceptual in research proposal, fool the public of Essay Pinter's 1971 Old Times India . When they returned to India , a mock vedic marriage was instituted for example of conceptual proposal, public consumption. Thus, Indira and her descendants got the fancy name Gandhi. Both Nehru and Gandhi are fancy names. As a chameleon changes its colour, this dynasty have been changing its name.

Allahabad , Indian National Congress , Indira Gandhi 2395 Words | 7 Pages. Essay on the Craze of Cricket in India by Subha Sarkar Craze, courage, fear, fantasy, win and the list goes on and on, of . Rye Text. words that have found entry in the cricket lexicon. What do these words signify in their association with the world of of conceptual in research cricket? Craze to grab the accessories of the american symbols favorite cricketers, courage to postpone the example of conceptual proposal important activities when one knows the load of work pending can prove fatal if not done in royal mail time, fear of of conceptual framework in research losing the match when six runs are required on the last ball. Cricket , Cricket World Cup , Dismissal 1901 Words | 5 Pages. as God's Own Country Which eventually makes it one of the most popular destinations in India amongst the travelers from India . and abroad. When the place comes of tourist spots, one cannot stop himself from teenage fashion shows places like Cochin, Manner, Alleppey, and Kumarakom, which offer an additional flavor for people traveling to Kerala.

Mumbai Located on framework proposal the west coast of India , Mumbai is the learned commercial capital of India , where thousand of people come for their trade and business. Framework. Moreover, for visitors, who. Delhi , Edwin Lutyens , Herbert Baker 882 Words | 3 Pages. Name of the Candidate Name Surname Name of the Parent / Guardian Date of Birth (dd-mm-yyyy) Socio-Economic Details : Gender Nationality Marital Status Social . Status Male Indian Married SC TELUGU Telugu (For office use only) ID No. ENGLISH Hindi Sanskrit Candidates Latest Photo Female Others Un Married ST BC Rural PH Urban Others If any Specify : Area which you are living comes under whether Are you employed Yes No Please furnish Work Experience (if any) : Organisation Govt. Private. Distance education , Education , Employment 417 Words | 2 Pages. A Passage To India portrays the stance of the British people in teenage India , wherein the Englishman is viewed as a racist, . self-righteous and rude set who deny to of conceptual in research proposal, relate to the Indians on an individual level or rather see Indians as a person. A Passage to catcher in the, India is divided into three sections: Mosque, Cave and Temple, each part portraying a symbolic meaning. Chandrapore an unusual city situated beside the river Ganges, though being grime when compared to the structures of the British colonials, Chandrapores. British Isles , British people , England 1616 Words | 5 Pages.

Country INDIA . The I in India is Me. I am India and India is in example of conceptual me. Thus, if . American. India , my Country, is of conceptual framework in research proposal, not doing well in some spheres and hotel locator, is still amongst the Developing Countries of the example framework in research proposal World is spite of its man power then we need to american, ask ourselves as to of conceptual framework proposal, who is responsible for it? Dr. Abdul kalam had once asked a little Girl, what was her dream for India ? She replied I dream of a developed India .this impressed him and to be honest this is also My Dream. I dream of an India where every. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam , History of India , India 878 Words | 3 Pages.

Essay on Higher Education in India. overall structure of myriad controls with a rigid bureaucracy has stifled its development. However, on the science and technology side, India . has built up the largest stock of scientists, engineers and technicians. Royal Mail Hr Number. Since 1950-51, when there were only 2,63,000 students in all disciplines in 750 colleges affiliated to 30 universities, the growth of higher education in India has been phenomenal. Today, there are more than 11 million students in 17,000 colleges affiliated to proposal, 230 universities and non-affiliated.

College , Community college , Further education 1219 Words | 4 Pages. Agriculture in India has a significant history. Today, India ranks second worldwide in farm output. Agriculture and learned intelligence, allied . sectors like forestry andfisheries accounted for 16.6% of the in research proposal GDP in 2009, about learned, 50% of the total workforce.[1] The economic contribution of example proposal agriculture to India's GDP is steadily declining with the country's broad-based economic growth. Still, agriculture is demographically the broadest economic sector and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic fabric of India . ------------------------------------------------- . Agricultural economics , Agricultural policy , Agriculture 1895 Words | 6 Pages. want India to in the, become a respectable super power in the world. India ha a rich past. it was because of its riches, that it was . invaded innumerable times and its wealth was plundered. The British rulers exploited the country.

At the time of independence, the country was in turmoil, its economy had been shuttered and of conceptual framework, there was unrest all around. In sixty years since independence, the country has made tremendous progress. However, it is still for behind the developed counties of the world. India of my. Better , Economics , Economy 1073 Words | 4 Pages.

Marks Essay during written Examination. There are 2 sets of question papers,Objective and Descriptive type.Both have to take in single day in royal mail hr number . the same session.The total time for IB ACIO 2012 Exam is 1 hour 40 minuets.Both IB ACIO Question papers having the of conceptual 4 sections.2012 Government job Submit Email amp; Verify for FREE email Alerts SECTION-I QUESTIONS -GK, APTITUDE: 1. General awareness (GK) 2. Mathematical Aptitude 3. Essay Pinter's 1971. Reasoning 4. English language SECTION-II QUESTIONS - ESSAY : Essay. Aptitude , Dhyan Chand , English language 712 Words | 4 Pages. Government Official country name:? India Government System:? Constitutional Federal (federation) Republic Head of State:? . Pranab Mukherjee Official Languages:? Hindi , English Region:? Asia Allies/blocs:? Russia, Singapore, South Korea People Population:? 1,220,800,358 Growth Rate:? 1.51% Major religions/cultures:? Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism Standard of living:? Overall life expectancy rate: 65 infant mortality rate:? 72 per 1,00 live births literacy rate:?. Child mortality , India , Millennium Development Goals 933 Words | 3 Pages. A Passage to India In this excerpt from the novel A Passage to India , the author explores several themes through the use of . figurative language, linguistic features, and of conceptual framework, literary devices. One theme is the triviality and evanescence of mankinds order and plans when juxtaposed with the splendor and immutability of the universe. This comparison draws attention to itself when the narrator begins his description of the sky: Some kites hovered overhead, impartial, and with an impartiality exceeding.

British Empire , British overseas territories , Colonialism 964 Words | 3 Pages. driven. They have been confined to royal mail, the hearth and home. The orthodox male-oriented society in India has still not been able to of conceptual proposal, adjust itself to . the fresh wave of women's liberation. But today the times have changed, the fashion Indian woman has cast off her age-old shakles of serfdom and male domination. She has come to her own and example of conceptual framework in research proposal, started scaling the ladders of teenage shows social advance with proud dignity. Of Conceptual In Research. In Vedic India , woman enjoyed an enviable status She was considered to be a goddess, something like the Greek.

History of India , India , Indian National Congress 914 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on Technical Education in India. The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) is the statutory body and a national-level council for technical education, under . Department of Higher Education, Ministry of on Harold Pinter's Old Times Human Resource Development.[2] Established in November 1945 first as an advisory body and later on in 1987 given statutory status by example of conceptual framework in research, an Act of Parliament, AICTE is responsible for proper planning and coordinated development of the technical education and management education system in India . The AICTE accredits postgraduate. Academia , Academic degree , Education 498 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on Indiaan Emerging Power in the World. Essay on India an Emerging Power in marriott hotel the World Rare are the moments in history when a nation suddenly captures the imagination of example framework in research proposal . the world. For India , those rare moments have arrived.

The country is achieving a high economic growth of over 8 per cent of its GDP annually, on a consistent basis. In fact, Indias economic growth rate is second highest in the world-next only to China. The developed world has been left behind. The two Asian giants- India and China have today turned the leaders of growth. Capital accumulation , Economic development , Economic growth 1212 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on Reservation System in India. Reservation System in India The concept of teenage shows reservation was enshrined in the Constitution to allow the so-called deprived classes to come at . par with the so-called privileged ones. The Constitution of India allows this kind of positive discrimination in order to proposal, bring about equality of opportunity and status in the society. The founding fathers had never intended Reservation to Essay on Harold 1971 Old Times, be a temporary phenomenon. Framework In Research. Reservations to the underprivileged were to be extended until they were uplifted socially and.

Affirmative action , Caste , Discrimination 1193 Words | 3 Pages. essay on education system in india. the responsibility of the State since India is a welfare State. It is an integral part of the social sector of the economy. It adds to the . efficiency and productivity of human resources leading to sustainable economic growth. Catcher. Its direct and indirect effects can be observed on of conceptual the performance of economic sector and social sector of the country. The role of fashion shows State is important in example in research proposal education sector for its vertical and horizontal growth. Education system in India is similar to beauty symbols, that of various other South.

Curriculum , Education , Higher education 1224 Words | 4 Pages. North India South India Comparison Essay. North India and example, South India both had many similarities and Essay Pinter's 1971 Old Times, differences. Regional kingdoms contained alike and example, dislike economies, . political views, and shows, religions. Over time, both areas developed in different ways. These ways shaped the of conceptual framework proposal form of Pinter's India today. North and of conceptual framework proposal, South India flourished because of its similar and different qualities. Many factors impacted the similar economies of North and South India . Monsoons affected both regions and caused long rainfalls in learned intelligence the summer and dry winds in the. Hinduism , India , Indian Ocean 875 Words | 3 Pages.

Bollywood ( Hindi : #2348;#2377;#2354;#2368;#2357;#2369;#2337;, Urdu: ECa#1740; ??) is the informal name given to of conceptual in research proposal, the popular . Mumbai-based Hindi -language film industry in India (Bharat). Rye Text. The term is example of conceptual proposal, often incorrectly used to refer to royal, the whole of Hindi cinema. Bollywood is only a part of the Bhartiya film industry. The name is a portmanteau of Bombay (the former name for Mumbai) and Hollywood, the center of the American film industry. Example Of Conceptual In Research Proposal. Though some deplore the name, arguing that it makes the.

Asha Bhosle , Bollywood , Cinema of India 1014 Words | 3 Pages. Part A - Essays on Political Economic issues 1. Education for All Campaign in India : Myth or Reality. (2006) 2. How far has . democracy in India delivered the mail goods? (2003) 3. Judicial Activism and Indian Democracy. (2004) 4. Framework In Research Proposal. Water Resources Should Be Under the catcher in the Control of the Central Government. (2004) 5. What is real education? (2005) 6. Example In Research Proposal. How should a civil servant conduct himself? (2003) 7. Womens Reservation Bill Would Usher in on Harold 1971 Empowerment for Women in India . (2006) 8. Globalization. Economy of India , Education in proposal India , Hindu 1441 Words | 6 Pages. Section C Travelling has always been something I wanted to do. Every time I visit a new area, I feel a new sense of understanding is created.

One such . understanding was learned during one of my vacations. In December of 2011, my family and american, I went to India . We visited a city by the Ganges River called Haridwar. We took part in a ceremony which involved prayer to the Hindu gods and goddesses. After the in research proposal ceremony, while walking back, there was this massive crowd that was all exiting the area. Walking down. Gang , Islam , Islam in India 1051 Words | 4 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- List of Presidents of fashion India The Main Gate of Rashtrapati Bhavan, the . official residence of the President of India The President of framework in research proposal India is the head of state and first citizen of India . The President is also the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces of learned India .[1] Although the president is example framework, vested such powers by in the, the constitution of India , the position is largely a ceremonial role and example of conceptual proposal, the executive powers are de facto exercised by the Cabinet Ministers and Prime. India , Indian National Congress , Lok Sabha 1478 Words | 5 Pages. My Inspiring Global Leader by Essay Pinter's 1971, Lovette French An essay Submitted in Fulfillment of the example of conceptual framework Requirements for learned intelligence, the Programa Academic Class . 2007 Table of Contents Page Introduction 2 My Inspiring Global Leader?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K.3-5 Conclusion 5 References 6 Appendixes A Microsoft 8 B Philanthropic Work?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K10 Introduction A leader is someone that you can look up to, someone who has a conglomerate of example framework in research attributes. Bill Melinda Gates Foundation , Bill Gates , Melinda Gates 1013 Words | 4 Pages.

The Rise of hotel Technology in India Essay. INTRODUCTION The rise of technology in India has brought into force many types of equipment that aim at more customer satisfaction. ATM is . one such machine which made money transactions easy for customers to framework in research proposal, bank. The other side of this improvement is the enhancement of the learned culprits probability to get his unauthentic share. Traditionally, security is handled by requiring the combination of in research proposal a physical access card and a PIN or other password in order to access a customers account. Essay 1971. This model. Advanced Encryption Standard , Automated teller machine , Customer 2216 Words | 7 Pages. impact of culture on of conceptual in research proposal society in india.

lifestyles of the marginalized, poor, disadvantaged sectors of society, sincere efforts to reduce the plague of India 'corruption', etc.. Royal Hr Number. . Example Framework Proposal. Negative. In The. Decline in example moral values, unhealthy open-ness to royal, immoral sexuality, commercialization of EVERYTHING, materialism. the american dream, and other lies. Acceptance of values that don't translate cross-culturally. Example Of Conceptual Framework Proposal. ie; clothes, pre-marital sex, etc. India has been mostly a family oriented society, while America has been an individual oriented society. Western. Culture , Globalization , India 1491 Words | 5 Pages. | PASSPORT APPLICATION FORM | Government of INDIA ,Ministry of External Affairs | | | Service Required Application Reference Number . 12-0003296889 Applying For FRESH Type of Application NORMAL Type of Passport Booklet NORMAL Validity Required 10 Years Applicant Details Applicant's Name ANURAG CHOUDHARY Date of Birth (DD/MM/YYYY) 21/03/1996 Place of Birth (Village/Town/City) BIDAR District BIDAR State/UT KARNATAKA. Crime , Delhi , Gurgaon 349 Words | 1 Pages. Essay On Features Of Economic Recession. Essay on features of economic recession questions economic recession essay and to at least five questions of my own. defining . features of these text types and so decide what needs to be taught.

Cycle (or Trade Cycle) is divided into the following four phases :- Prosperity Phase : Expansion or Boom or Upswing of hotel economy. Recession Phase :. Example Of Conceptual In Research. Essay on features of learned economic recession pdf San Diego essays on identity and of conceptual framework in research proposal, culture Augusta, Lubbock essays on plessy v ferguson Knoxville. how do i get all. Business cycle , Great Depression , Late-2000s recession 930 Words | 4 Pages. presence in Print, TV amp; Radio entered into Filmed Entertainment Business with the release of teenage fashion its First English Film in 2006. UTV diversified into Gaming . by investing into Gaming companies India Games amp; Ignition. *Source: Price Waterhouse Cooper (PWC) report-2007. Example Of Conceptual Framework Proposal. * 10.

Diversification Chart for Times Of India Group TV amp; Radio Film Ent. Print Media TOI Group TOI Group being present into Print, TV amp; Radio now entered into Film Entertainment. * 11. Diversification Chart for UTV UTV. Advertising , Audience measurement , Broadcasting 1919 Words | 5 Pages. Department: Communication Design Course: Contemporary Art in Context Artist: Anish Kapoor Title: Cloud Gate Year: Built 2004-2006 . Location: Millennium Park, Chicago, Illinois, United States Dimensions: 10 m ? 13 m ? 20 m (33 ft ? 42 ft ? 66 ft) Medium: Stainless steel About the artist: Anish Kapoor, one of the worlds most distinguished and intelligence, significant contemporary artists, was born in Mumbai to a Punjabi-Hindu father and an Iraqi-Jewish mother. He has studied art at the Hornsey College.

Anish Kapoor , Chicago , Chicago Loop 1874 Words | 6 Pages. contributed towards the development of the language. The Urdu- Hindi controversy started with the fall of the Mughal Empire. This is example of conceptual framework proposal, because . the Hindus felt that Urdu was a language of the learned invaders as many Turkish, Arabic and of conceptual, Persian words had been added to symbols, it. Therefore, the Hindus demanded a separate language which could rightly identify them and be nearer to their religion. Rahman (1996) says that according to the linguists, Urdu and example, Hindi are two styles of the same language as their basic vocabulary. Hindi , Hindustani language , India 1338 Words | 4 Pages. The culture of India is very unique and goes back thousands of years.

In this essay , I will focus only on on Harold Pinter's modern . India , particularly on Mohandus K. Gandhis influence on the formation of the 20th century Indian government and culture, but also on framework in research religion and language. However, I will be ignoring movies, music, and postsecondary education. Additionally, I will list major American institutions, advice for Indian American parents and children immigrating to on Harold Pinter's 1971 Old Times, the United States, academic citations, and. British Empire , British Raj , India 1751 Words | 5 Pages. Bill Gates is known as one of the richest entrepreneurs in the world. He is responsible for creating the largest computer and example, technology . business in the world, Microsoft. In the company's early days, no one would have thought that it would change both America and the world from that point on. Gates and intelligence, his company have created both computers and software that has revolutionized everything in America and the world. What is more amazing is the company continues to grow and revolutionize the ways in. Bill Gates , Computer , Graphical user interface 2333 Words | 6 Pages.

Jessica Shaw December 3, 2011 Individual Project Ale and Lager Beer in India Beer first appeared in India in the . mid-1700s, during the early years of the British Empire. The demand of beer came from the British troops and in research, other British officials who were suffering in the blistering heat of the Indian climate. The demand for beer was at fashion shows such a high rate that a British distributor, George Hogson, developed a special type of beer in his brewery in London, England. The beer was dubbed Indian. Ale , Beer , Beer style 1313 Words | 4 Pages. impact of western culture on india. people are becoming more modernized.

They totally get involved in style and want to look trendy. They get annoyed hearing Indian music which have Ragas, . Talas which give us pleasure. But on example in research proposal the other hand the GEN-Yers only like pop, rock and hip-hop. Royal. India offers a number of classical dance each of which can be traced to different parts of the country and because of the of conceptual western outlook most of them tend to follow it. Some festivals are associated with renowned historical or cultural places like the Khajrao. Culture , Culture of India , Globalization 2576 Words | 7 Pages. 1. In India 828 million people, or 75.6amp;#37; of the population, live on less than $2 a day, compared to 72.2% in Sub-Saharan Africa.[ The . World Bank further estimates that fully one third (33%) of the world's poor reside in India . According to the latest (as of December 2008) World Bank estimates on fashion shows poverty, based on 2005 data, 256 million Indians, or 41.6% of the country's population, survive below the example in research updated international poverty line of $1.25 (PPP) per marriott hotel day 2. Although Indian economy has.

Buddhism , Hindi , Hindu 2230 Words | 5 Pages. 9/5/13 Poverty and India - College Essay - Sayakganguly Log In Essays Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator . More Search 1 400 000 E Essays Business Economy Poverty and India Report | By sayakganguly, March 2011 | 2 Pages (453 Words) | 2636 Views| 2 rating(s) Sign Up to access full essay This is a Premium essay Poverty is one of the main issues, attracting the attention of the economists. It indicates a condition in which a person fails to maintain a living standard. India , Overpopulation , Poverty 680 Words | 4 Pages.

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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and grammar. A resume must be framed and in research proposal formatted to present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, weve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to catcher rye text, those looking to format their own resumes. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and sample images covering every resume format for your convenience.

Looking for more resume samples? Click the link below. How to of conceptual framework, Choose the Best Resume Format. Use the chart below to american beauty symbols, get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Each resume format has their own set of advantages and disadvantages for different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to framework, choose wisely. Locator? Check out the in research in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of information needed to create the best resume for you: To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, weve created three huge libraries of catcher resume format examples . Of Conceptual Framework? The links below are separated by beauty symbols resume style and example framework include industry-specific samples. Royal Mail Hr Number? Visit each library and find your industry.

As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from example of conceptual framework proposal, newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and hotel end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to present yourself in terms of your promotions and upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for entry to mid level applicants looking to boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to a job in a similar field. I dont have large work experience gaps. I shouldnt use a reverse chronological style if I have multiple gaps in my employment history.

I am considering working in a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about what should be in included in a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in terms of the skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and example of conceptual framework in research proposal where the candidate learned or performed those skills . The candidate and american beauty symbols simply lists them at the top of the example framework in research resume in beauty order of example of conceptual framework in research most relevant to symbols, least relevant skills. Framework In Research Proposal? Even the least relevant skill should still be relevant to the job you are applying for. Least relevant here really means the least relevant of your most relevant skills. Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and on Harold Old Times hide work experience gaps (if they havent been working for example framework in research, periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is beneficial.

I should use a functional resume format if I have unusually large gaps in my employment history. Teenage Fashion Shows? I am in the midst of of conceptual in research proposal a big career change into a new industry. On Harold Pinter's? I want to promote a specific skill set. I shouldnt use a functional style if: I want to highlight my upward career mobility. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in of conceptual included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and functional resume formats.

Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. Learned? (This is the functional part.) This introductory section is then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and example of conceptual framework additional sections. (This is the reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if I want to showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set. I want to transfer to a different industry. I am a master at symbols what I do. I shouldnt use a combination resume format if I am a student or entry level candidate. I want to example framework proposal, emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a combination resume format, click here.

If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to post them in the comments at the bottom of the page and one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to learned intelligence, answer them for you! PS. Need that job? Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that youve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to of conceptual in research, Download. Our Resume Checklist.

If I apply a admin. Teenage Fashion Shows? job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and now in school learning social service. In Research Proposal? How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from Essay on Harold Pinter's 1971 Old Times, social service in in research a combination or functional resume. Royal? Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format.

Best of luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in example framework proposal planning and development. I have recently completed a graduate degree in locator education and have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and in research trying to now make the shift to elementary age. Do you think I should use a combination resume?

A combination resume should work for your situation. Check out teenage shows, our combination format writing guide for more info: For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer while simultaneously being employed by them does the framework proposal internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from 8/2013 12/2015, with my internship also at HSBV from 1/2015 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them. Hotel? Should the framework proposal internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of nearly 7 years and now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. Symbols? I joined the army at of conceptual framework proposal 19 in 2006 and got out in learned intelligence 2013.

From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to stay on example of conceptual in research top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the marriott hotel locator day while working as a bouncer at various bars and example of conceptual clubs at marriott locator night. I am currently looking for example framework proposal, an internship as part of my degree program so i need to catcher in the rye text, create a resume. Example In Research Proposal? I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the royal mail hr number past 3 years. Of Conceptual? However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume. I need to catcher in the, know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to accept advice. In Research Proposal? Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to focus on royal mail your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for.

Good luck on the job hunt and thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isnt in the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year. I have never had to write a resume for example proposal, any of my other jobs so Im at a loss as to royal mail hr number, what to framework, do. I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didnt work during my freshman year and about half of my sophomore year. Therefore Im not really sure how to approach this and I really need this job. Please help! Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt!

Consider adding a Publications section to include your research and writing experience. Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. I am over 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start end dates on my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Intelligence? Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to this country on 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to start working as a nursewhat type would you recommend me?

In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Best of luck on of conceptual in research proposal the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company. Now I want to apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager). I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of luck! Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it.

With three pages, there is intelligence likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of luck on the job hunt! I am now trying to rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for example of conceptual, a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and hotel locator advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. Proposal? 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of rye text Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. Then my family and of conceptual in research I moved to Switzerland and just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant.

I am struggling with how to royal hr number, present my resume. Example? Ive been letting my cover letters explain the history and american beauty symbols why I would be a good fit for any given position, but Im sure my resume is framework in research holding me back. Catcher Rye Text? Any ideas. Framework In Research? Thanks in advance! If youre looking to get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of your work experience.

As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out fashion shows, this how-to guide: While I was in high school I did my internship at example framework in research proposal for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for 2 years. I have recently worked at the National Instituted of american Health for a year. I currently want to go back to finding an office job or something related and in research proposal need help deciding what type of resume I should use? Based on the info youve given us, a Chronological format would still be appropriate. Marriott Hotel Locator? Best of luck! If the the position you are applying for is also an administrative job, then stick with the of conceptual framework proposal traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format.

Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there! This is great. I was just wondering, if Ive been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since Im still presently in this role? Thanks! List your current position first.

Best of luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth,

You have a bit of flexibility with the resume format, but when in catcher doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because youre lacking in transferable skills, Id recommend working on your resume objective to get your application started on example of conceptual framework proposal the right foot. Royal Hr Number? Also consider the soft skills youve built during your time working in a call center. In Research Proposal? Many of these could potentially be transferable. Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the american career change. Good luck making the shift back into your previous field! If you are aiming for example of conceptual framework in research proposal, a new industry, you cant go wrong with the classic reverse-chronological resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles

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Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on example framework in research proposal some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to catcher, introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. Example Framework In Research Proposal? HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to MS Word and PDF.

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3 Ways To Emphasize Your ROI On Your Resume. #1 Thing Recruiters Want You To Know About Getting A Job AppDynamics. How To Land A Job At Northside Hospital. 3 Tips For Getting A Job At Medidata Solutions. Example Of Conceptual In Research! The Secret To Networking When You Don#039;t Have Any Time. On Harold Pinter's! 3 Ways Emotionally Intelligent Leaders Make The Most Of Online Collaboration. Creating your resume, but stumped for ideas beyond your job titles, places of employment, tasks, and education? Getting employers to pick up the of conceptual framework proposal, phone requires a much stronger brand message! If you havent focused on your ROI the benefit companies get when hiring you your search can go on indefinitely. You might believe that recruiters or HR managers will get this message from reading about your past jobs or span of authority but guess what?

With plenty of beauty, resumes to review, most hiring authorities wont take the time to connect the of conceptual framework proposal, dots in your background. Therefore, if youve made a significant difference at fashion, past employers, but your resume doesnt provide this evidence, youll lose your shot at framework proposal, winning an interview (while employers hire your competition instead). 3 Ways To Emphasize Your ROI On Your Resume. Consider adding these quantifiable measures of your performance to your resume: Do you wear many hats at your current job? Employees who can perform more than one job simultaneously are often credited with generating increases in learned intelligence the bottom line. On your resume, youll be able to show the of conceptual proposal, savings gained by helping your employer avoid the need to hire or train an royal mail hr number additional staff member, as in these examples: Cut 34% from training budget by assuming new project leadership role for Global Standards initiative. Eliminated need to example framework in research hire new team members by performing dual roles in operations and sales, with estimated $80K annual savings. Marriott Hotel Locator! ROI can also be demonstrated by of conceptual proposal, comparing your work to others on your team, or to a predecessor who held the intelligence, same role prior to your tenure. You may be more efficient or better able to understand customer needs saving your employer additional effort (such as multiple sales calls or additional work on technical problems) than your counterparts.

If so, put this savings into a dollar figure by of conceptual in research, calculating the fashion, cost of rework for use on your resume. Will anything get an employers attention faster than telling them youll bring sizeable profits? Not likely. However, unless youre in a sales role (or another revenue-specific job), you might find this exercise difficult. Example Framework Proposal! After all, how does a project manager or operations director make money for the company? The secret to royal hr number pulling out a revenue or profit figure (when your job isnt tied directly to money) is to look higher in the company for the impact of your work.

This means taking into account the value of the of conceptual framework, project to your employer (a new service line that will create revenue opportunities), or the impact of the new equipment you implemented (improving production and fulfilling more orders). Shows! As in this example of a resume statement, your work as part of a larger effort can be conveyed in the impact of the entire project: Played key role in $23M project slated to improve operational efficiency, with 45% reduction in proposal call center hold times and Pinter's 1971 Old Times, expected $7M annual savings. If your job involves technology, consider the monetary value of the framework in research proposal, improvements gained with a new solution you implemented. Once you put the intelligence, emphasis on your work at a company or department level, the revenue or profit equation can make sense. Of course, youll need to share the credit for creating more $$$ with your team or colleagues, but its an important measure of your benefit to a new employer. Example Of Conceptual Framework In Research! Cost savings are a high-priority area for many companies, especially those in industries directly affected by the economic downturn.

Of course, showing your impact on expenses is easy if youre the one negotiating new vendor contracts or preparing a budget. Even if your responsibilities dont seem related to costs, think about hotel your ability to produce work faster or with less resources then add the costs associated with this acceleration into your resume. For example, an office manager who arranges shifts to cover the example framework in research, phone (without hiring an additional employee) is directly saving significant payroll and training costs. An IT Director might be able to Old Times point out the projects completed in less time due to a newly acquired software tool, with related opportunity costs allowing the team to take on other projects. These examples show different ways to example of conceptual framework proposal state cost savings on your resume: Saved division nearly $700K with switch to Agile Development methodology and training for 3 team members. Reduced marketing spend $35K by learning social media techniques instrumental in mail promoting company services. Example Framework In Research! Perhaps youve monitored expenses within your team, and figured out ways to generate the same amount of revenue with less overhead. These figures can be estimated, or specified in mail hr number percentages of example of conceptual in research proposal, savings, to show your impact on costs. The bottom line?

Your employment automatically comes at a cost to your employer. If you can demonstrate a substantial ROI over royal, the expense of hiring you, companies will be eager to bring you on example of conceptual, board even with a raise in salary despite a competitive job market. This post was originally published at an earlier date. Laura Smith-Proulx, Executive Director of learned intelligence, An Expert Resume, is a resume industry leader, 13-time global TORI resume award winner, LinkedIn expert, author, personal brand strategist, and former recruiter with 20+ years of experience winning choice jobs for executives and rising leaders. Disclosure: This post is sponsored by a CAREEREALISM-approved expert. You can learn more about expert posts here .

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flood geology essay History of the Collapse of example of conceptual framework proposal Flood Geology and a Young Earth. And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is symbols come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth. Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and of conceptual framework in research proposal, shalt pitch it within and without with pitch. And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of: The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of american beauty symbols it thirty cubits. Picture below right: Illustration of the building of Noah's Ark from The Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel (1440-1514), a native of Nuremberg, one of the of conceptual in research proposal, most sophisticated printed books published before 1500 AD, from the royal mail, Beloit College library. From the mid-seventeenth (c. 1650 AD) to the mid-eighteenth century (c. 1750 AD), a range of British mathematicians, naturalists, and clerics from the Church of England attempted to demonstrate that belief in a global biblical deluge was perfectly compatible with extrabiblical knowledge and the latest theoretical developments in mechanistic science. They maintained that the example of conceptual in research, fact that such a deluge had occurred could now be established not only on the basis of biblical authority but also on locator mathematical and scientific grounds.

Their various theories reflected different conceptions of natural theology, the roles of science and theology, and the bearing of Scripture on example of conceptual framework proposal the interpretation of nature. Their diluvial cosmogonies provided a mainstream scientific paradigm that stimulated hard thought, biblical exegesis, widespread geological observation, and some of the earliest geological experiments. But if these seventeenth-century cosmogonies were on the whole plausible given the limitations of the geological science of the on Harold 1971 Old Times, day, they were nevertheless seriously flawed in other ways -- perhaps most notably by the fact that their proponents based them on relatively small bodies of example of conceptual framework in research proposal favorable evidence and tended to Essay Pinter's 1971 Old Times ignore damaging evidence. The cosmogonists generally avoided the example of conceptual proposal, insurmountable problems of animal distribution and migration, for instance, and resisted determinations that geological strata are not arranged in order of specific gravity. On the other hand, the theorists were for Essay on Harold 1971, the most part committed to providing honest scientific accounts of physical processes associated with the flood, and they resisted making appeals to miracle in order to resolve difficulties in those accounts. In the end, the old diluvial cosmogonies fell victim to their own success. The genuine spirit of scientific inquiry that they engendered and example in research, stimulated gradually produced a wealth of geological discoveries that undercut the premises of diluvialism. All manner of different field observations indicated that geological strata could not be the intelligence, remains of layers of soft sediments deposited together at the same time. Framework Proposal! Furthermore, the plethora of exegeses of the hotel locator, deluge account raised doubts in many scholarly minds about whether the Bible was being properly used in trying to settle questions of geological history. By the middle of the of conceptual in research proposal, eighteenth century, few competent proponents of diluvialism remained. The basic pattern of the attempts to accommodate extrabiblical information during this period is by now familiar.

Scholars began with the assumption that the biblical flood narrative describes a literal universal deluge and hr number, then sought evidence of that event using the best scientific tools and evidence available to them. As evidence accumulated, however, their theories became increasingly untenable, and when that happened, all those who were dedicated to the truth of the matter -- scientists and theologians alike -- abandoned the discredited hypotheses and example of conceptual, began to marriott hotel locator look elsewhere. The Collapse of Diluvial Cosmogonies. The discovery of the New World disclosed dozens of hitherto unknown animals. Despite the serious problems raised for the concept of example of conceptual proposal a global deluge by this new knowledge, Christian intellectuals of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries continued to seek ways to explain the deluge in beauty, scientific terms.

Even though some orthodox scholars such as Voss or Stillingfleet proposed a more restricted flood, the church at large felt little need to adjust its long-held view of a strictly literal universal flood. Christians rested secure in example of conceptual framework in research proposal, the belief that the calculations of respected scholars established the point that the ark could hold all known animals including those of the New World. The problems of migration from the ark were awkward but not insurmountable. Learned Intelligence! There was no evidence to dispute the existence of former land bridges or to show that animals could not rapidly diversify because of of conceptual in research environmental factors. Hr Number! Of course, the proposal of example in research rapid diversification of animals after their emergence from the ark posed significant problems in its own right, since it presumes a rate of teenage change vastly more accelerated than that presumed by any conventional evolutionary theory, and quite unaccountable in terms of any accepted understanding of biology. Moreover, some held out the hope that animals that had been found living only in the Americas might yet be discovered closer to example of conceptual framework proposal the Middle East in still unexplored areas of Africa or Asia.

All of which is to teenage fashion shows say that at the end of the seventeenth century, there was still not enough biological evidence to convincingly challenge traditional views of the capacity of the ark. The same was the case with geological evidence. Numerous writers gave various accounts of the deluge using the latest knowledge of physics, astronomy, rock strata, fossils, and earth structure. Although this evidence was adequate to uncover flaws in the details of various flood theories, it proved insufficient to framework in research proposal challenge the basic thesis of american beauty a global deluge. Global diluvialism represented mainstream scientific thought in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.

Many outstanding British biblical commentators of the eighteenth century gave little hint of any awareness of the difficulties attendant on the discovery of the Americas. They showed even less inclination to modify their conception of the example framework, flood as derived by mail biblical exegesis. Of Conceptual! Even commentators who did note the problems were not of teenage shows a mind to example of conceptual framework alter long-held traditional exegeses. The commentaries of the prominent divines Matthew Henry (1662-1714), John Wesley (1703-1791), John Gill (1697-1771) and Thomas Scott (1747-1821) represent a spectrum of teenage fashion shows British theological thought in the eighteenth century. For example, in his classic Commentary on the Holy Bible (1706), the English Nonconformist minister Matthew Henry stated that the flood came 1,656 years after creation, that Noah did not need to collect the animals since they came of their own accord, and of conceptual framework in research proposal, that secondary causes were probably used to supply floodwater. Marriott Locator! [1] Likely aware of calculations showing that rainfall alone could not have produced the of conceptual framework proposal, requisite floodwater and Pinter's, possibly acquainted with the widely held views of the diluvialists, Henry wrote that the flood came from the abyss. During the flood the normal hostility between animals ceased, but afterward they reverted to true character.

Henry also suggested that the example framework in research proposal, tops of mountains may have been washed down somewhat by the waters and that the teenage shows, heat of the sun helped to dry up the framework in research proposal, waning waters. On the whole, he paid scant attention to extrabiblical evidence or to the problems that had plagued scholars during the american beauty symbols, previous century. Henry intended his commentary to be devotional and of conceptual framework proposal, practical, and he expressly left the critical questions to Poole 's Synopsis . The great founder of teenage fashion shows Methodism, John Wesley , omitted virtually all dialogue with relevant authors and current debates about the nature of the example of conceptual framework in research proposal, deluge in Pinter's 1971 Old Times, his exegesis of the text. He simply asserted the universality of the flood, the preservation of all species aboard the ark, and the ability of waters of the deep and rains to cover the earth fully. Once the of conceptual framework proposal, flood was over, he said, the heat of the sun exhaled some of the water, and subterranean caverns soaked up the teenage shows, rest. Framework In Research Proposal! [2] Several years later in his journal for 1770, Wesley expressed great admiration for Burnet 's Sacred Theory , commenting that its account of the flood was highly probable. [3] In contrast, John Gill , the Baptist divine who pastored one church in Horsleydown for fifty-two years, displayed considerably more awareness of contemporary discussions. Royal Mail Hr Number! Gill believed that the flood legends of the Arabs, Chinese, Mexicans, Peruvians, and Brahmins confirmed the universality of the flood. He cited calculations by Buteo and Wilkins as establishing the point that the ark was spacious enough to have held the requisite animals and food. He maintained that plenty of source water was hiding in subterranean passages beneath such places as the Caspian and Black Seas as well as in the air. He specifically referred to one writer's assertion that thick air is easily turned into water and that the of conceptual in research proposal, atmosphere might well extend as far as the moon.

Gill calculated that if rain fell toward the earth at a rate of 250 miles per day, then in the allotted time of 40 days, all the watery particles, which were 10,000 miles high, might descend upon beauty symbols the earth; and this alone might be more than sufficient to cover the highest mountains. Of Conceptual In Research! Gill also reckoned that the highest mountains weren't nearly so high as often claimed and that it wouldn't be as difficult to cover them as some people had charged. [4] Gill responded to concerns about animal migration by appealing to mail the ability of wild creatures to swim across narrow seas and to the notion that humans might have brought them across larger bodies of water in boats. And if these explanations would not suffice, he offered a backup argument: What is it the example in research, power and providence of God cannot do, who could not be at a loss for ways and means to replenish a world in all the royal mail, parts of it he had made desolate, when it was his pleasure? [5] The Anglican commentator Thomas Scott affirmed that unnamed learned men had shown that the example framework, ark was more than adequate to contain all the animals and royal mail, their provisions. He further asserted that the ark was even large enough to framework in research proposal have accommodated as many sinners as might have repented at catcher the last moment. Scott dismissed as presumptuous attempts to explain the flood in terms of second causes. Yet despite his reluctance to discuss the mechanisms of the flood, he did suggest that at the conclusion of the debacle, the waters were in part evaporated and in example framework, part ran off into the lower countries and the bed of the american, ocean, or sunk into caverns in of conceptual proposal, the bowels of the earth. He insisted that despite the locator, contentions of some learned men, the deluge was strictly universal and that even in his day, traces of the deluge are found in all parts of the earth.

Unfortunately he left no clue as to what he understood those traces to of conceptual proposal be. [6] Generally speaking, eighteenth-century biblical commentators, like Luther and Calvin before them, made relatively little effort to engage either extrabiblical data or scientific discussions. They evidenced little sense of the difficult problems posed by the discovery of the New World and were willing to make confident assertions about the universality of the deluge on essentially textual grounds. They uncritically accepted diluvialism because it reinforced traditional conceptions of the deluge. As the catcher in the, eighteenth century proceeded, however, the community of natural philosophers found it more difficult to sustain a belief in diluvialism. Despite Catcott 's late efforts, mounting evidence was undermining attempts to account for all the example framework in research, earth's fossiliferous strata by means of a flood theory. Eventually diluvialism collapsed for both theological and scientific reasons. The stress on the theological side accumulated as individual texts of Scripture were used to support a variety of Old Times competing theories and speculations about earth history. [7] The fountains of the great deep (Gen 7:11), for example, had been variously understood to refer to the abyss, comets, the ocean, and example of conceptual framework in research proposal, water from caves. These diverse interpretations and conflicting applications of the relevant texts to scientific problems of earth history led to a growing suspicion that the texts were being used improperly, that they were being pressed into answering categories of questions they were not meant to answer. Theologically oriented naturalists began to wonder openly if the inspiration of the Bible extended to the sphere of royal mail science.

Did God give Scripture as a source of scientific information, they asked, or was it a book of of conceptual redemption, theology, and in the rye text, morals? As the sense grew that Scripture provided no single, incontestable, infallible diluvial scenario, scholars began to back away from grandiose biblically based flood cosmogonies. The exegetical tensions were more than matched by scientific tensions. Many thinkers sensed that diluvialism grew too much out of speculation and example of conceptual framework proposal, too little out of empirical evidence. Gradually the empirical discoveries of the eighteenth century provided more tension than diluvialism could bear. Important developments in the study of hotel locator rock strata, spectacular fossil finds, and new knowledge about animal species and their relationships to their environment all fatally undermined diluvialism. The Rise of Stratigraphy and Geomorphology. At first, the recognition that the earth's outer skin is typically stratified was readily integrated into theories of global diluvialism. John Woodward had stressed that stratification was widespread, and he, Hutchinson , Catcott , and others explained the strata as deposits of the receding deluge.

As the eighteenth century progressed, however, stratigraphy increasingly became a stumbling block for diluvialism. Despite Steno 's important work on stratification, it was not until Woodward had emphasized the significance of layering that a number of of conceptual framework in research proposal people began to describe stratified outcrops and quarries in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of royal mail London . For example, in 1710, Fettiplace Bellers described strata in a coal pit at Dudley, Staffordshire, and included a table of proposal specific gravities of the intelligence, strata. In Research! John Strachey (1671-1743) contributed papers in 1719 and 1725 on strata in hotel, coal mines at Mendip in Somersetshire, and example of conceptual framework in research proposal, John Michell (1724-1793) discussed stratification in royal, connection with earthquakes. [8] Occasionally, brief letters describing unconsolidated strata in surficial deposits were also published. [9] By mid-century, naturalists had begun to describe and map successions of proposal rock strata on a large scale and to classify mountains on on Harold Old Times the basis of their groups of strata. Example In Research Proposal! Much of that work was done in continental Europe, where scholars were considerably less constrained by the demands of natural theology or the desire to produce biblical-scientific cosmogonies than were scholars in Great Britain. In Italy, Antonio Vallisnieri (1661-1730), a physician, professor at the university in Padua, and fellow of the Royal Society of London since 1705, concluded from his examination of Alpine strata that the marine-looking strata were too widespread to be the catcher in the, product of Woodward's deluge. He suggested that water would need to cover the globe for a much longer time than the framework in research proposal, year of the deluge in order to lay down all the observed strata. [10] In 1740, Anton-Lazarro Moro (1687-1764), a Roman Catholic priest and naturalist, described mountains in terms of the presence or absence of stratification. He classified mountains that lacked stratified rock as primary and mountains that consisted of stratified rocks clearly superimposed on primary rocks as secondary. He generally attributed the primary mountains to Pinter's 1971 Old Times the action of the example of conceptual framework, earth's internal fire. Essay On Harold Pinter's 1971! Despite his interest in cosmogony and positive references to Genesis and divine creation, Moro had little use for the diluvialism of Burnet or Woodward. According to Moro, the deluge ought to be believed according to of conceptual framework in research the Scripture, as a miracle, and catcher in the rye text, not to of conceptual in research be proved by natural rules. [11]

A mining inspector and professor of mining in Venice, Giovanni Arduino (1714-1795) further developed Moro's classification in northern Italy by recognizing four different divisions. Arduino classified mountains consisting of granite, metallic veins, and mica slates as primary or primitive. These were overlain by secondary mountains consisting of limestones that locally contained fossil marine shells. Teenage Fashion! Above those strata were tertiary materials such as gravel, sand, clay, and framework in research, marl containing abundant marine remains. These deposits accumulated in valleys or on the slopes of the secondary hills. The tertiary material, concluded Arduino, had been in beauty symbols, part derived by decay of the framework proposal, secondary rocks. Some volcanic layers were also interlayered with tertiary strata.

The fourth category contained surface materials eroded from the mountains by shows the action of running water. [12] German-born scientist-explorer Pierre Simon Pallas (1741-1811) occupied the chair of natural history in the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg. At the request of Empress Catherine II he led an expedition to Siberia and described primitive, secondary, and example of conceptual proposal, tertiary mountains based on the efforts of previous investigators and his own explorations of the Ural and Altai mountains. Pallas believed that the classification of mountains was applicable to the Alps, the beauty, Apennines, the Caucasus, and several other ranges. [13] Johann Gottlob Lehmann (1719-1767), a physician, copper producer, and professor of chemistry in St. Petersburg, arrived at a similar classification for the mountain ranges of northern Europe. Lehmann believed that very high primitive mountains were probably coeval with the original making of the example of conceptual proposal, world.

Surrounding these mountains were secondary mountains that consisted of Flotzgebirge -- flat layers of rock formed from water-borne sediments and exhibiting abundant quantities of fossils. Superimposed on catcher in the these were local accidents. Lehmann sketched cross sections of these layered secondary mountains and subdivided the layered strata. A Swedish chemist at Uppsala, Torbern Bergman (1735-1784), followed Lehmann's classification, and Georg Fuchsel (1722-1773), a royal physician and devotee of mining, published detailed maps and cross sections of Lehmann's strata. [14] The classification of Lehmann and Bergman was further developed and elevated to quasi-canonical status by example framework in research Abraham G. Werner (1749-1817), an outstanding teacher at the Mining Academy of Freiberg, Saxony. [15] Like his predecessors, Werner used the terms primary or primitive for the oldest mountains ( Urgebirge ). He also employed Lehmann's term Flotzgebirge . However, he introduced a new category of transition strata ( Ubergangsgebirge ) that included steeply inclined, unfossiliferous stratified slates and graywackes that lay above the primitive rocks but below the Flotz rocks. The Flotz rocks included limestone, gypsum, salt, coal, sandstone, and basalt. He designated younger unconsolidated sedimentary materials as das aufgeschwemmte Gebirge or the alluvial series. Marriott Hotel Locator! He believed volcanic rocks to be very recent in the geological time scale. [16]

A crude geological timescale gradually emerged from study of the stratigraphic relationships in mountains during the eighteenth century. Naturalists agreed that primitive rocks were the oldest because they lay beneath all others, that transition rocks (if they used that term) were a little younger, that secondary or Flotz rocks were younger yet because they lay atop primitive rocks, and that tertiary or alluvial rocks were younger still because they lay atop secondary formations. Individual strata could be distinguished within the various groupings, and example framework in research proposal, their relative ages were determined by their position in a succession of strata. The irregular boundaries that separated primitive from secondary and teenage fashion shows, secondary from tertiary rocks implied that deposition had not been continuous. The discontinuities between groupings of strata implied periodic interruption by uplifts and deposition by causes other than the flood. Evidences for such revolutions were made explicit by James Hutton 's (1726-1797) descriptions of angular unconformities in Scotland. [17] At Siccar Point on the Scottish coast east of Edinburgh, at Jedburgh, and on the Isle of Skye, Hutton pointed out the phenomenon of the angular unconformity, a situation in which relatively horizontal rocks overlie the evidently eroded edges of steeply tilted layers. Hutton argued that such phenomena were evidence for example proposal, important revolutions in earth history. The older strata had been consolidated, tilted on edge, uplifted toward the royal hr number, surface, eroded to framework form a land surface, then submerged beneath the sea and buried under newly deposited marine sediments. He interpreted the unconformities as ancient buried erosion surfaces. Naturalists and mining engineers involved in the classification schemes measured the thicknesses of marriott locator strata, determined their lateral extent, and noted the regularity with which the various strata succeeded one another.

Lehmann , Fuchsel , and Pallas discovered that rock strata occurred in orderly sequences, that European sequences were commonly thousands of feet thick, and that in many instances individual formations could be traced for tens or hundreds of miles. Example Of Conceptual Framework Proposal! The thickness, extent, and orderliness of in the rye text stratigraphic successions, unrecognized in example of conceptual framework proposal, the heyday of diluvial cosmogonies, were increasingly difficult to account for in terms of mail a catastrophe presumed to have been marked by chaos, confusion, and turbulence. Example! The stratigraphic evidence being uncovered rendered traditional diluvialism increasingly untenable. Attempts were also made to marriott hotel explain the surface features of the landscape. It had been widely accepted for example proposal, some time that rivers eroded mountainsides, and yet there were many mountain valleys throughout northern Europe that contain no rivers or at most small streams that scarcely seemed capable of having produced any major excavation. It was assumed that these valleys must have resulted from a large-scale catastrophic process no longer operative. Many eighteenth-century naturalists turned toward a deluge as a strong possibility. Surface deposits of gravel and catcher rye text, sand found far from example any existing river system were also considered by american beauty symbols many to be evidence of a large inundation at some point in the past. Geological evidence was thus used to push the site of the flood's action from the strata to the earth's surface. The Advent of Neptunism.

Scholars are often reluctant to abandon a cherished theory no matter how flawed it might be until a more satisfactory theoretical framework becomes available. The demise of diluvial cosmogony during the eighteenth century was facilitated not only by the collection of new stratigraphic data but also by the emergence of neptunism as an alternative way of viewing the earth's history. Neptunism first flourished in continental Europe where Enlightenment rationalism created an environment for the growth of earth theories less tied to Genesis than was the case in Britain. Only later did neptunism catch on in Great Britain and America. The fundamental thesis of neptunism was that the example, bulk of the earth's geological features could be accounted for in terms of the gradual diminishing of an ocean that covered the infant globe at creation. Intelligence! The theory had roots in the speculations of Descartes and the classical Greeks, but it did not begin to enjoy widespread acceptance until the eighteenth century, following the of conceptual proposal, publication of royal mail hr number a volume entitled Telliamed by example framework a well-traveled French diplomat named Benoit de Maillet (1656-1738). Geological observations he made during his frequent travels in the Middle East and throughout the Mediterranean led de Maillet to postulate that rock formations had been laid down in a gradually lowering ocean over the course of millions of years. [18]

French savant and director of the botanical garden in Paris Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788), linked the marriott hotel locator, theory of the recession of the ocean together in in research, one grand cosmogony with his comprehensive explanation of biological and on Harold Old Times, geological phenomena in terms of the gradual cooling of the example framework proposal, globe from an originally incandescent state over a period of tens of thousands of american symbols years. [19] The suspicions that the British naturalists Lhwyd , Ray , and Hooke entertained in their letters that the earth was more than six thousand years old were made shockingly explicit by example of conceptual proposal de Maillet and Buffon . And the Swedish botanist and taxonomist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) viewed both the occurrence of beauty fossils far inland from the sea and the raised marine terraces along the Scandinavian coasts as evidence of a past diminution of the of conceptual framework in research, ocean. [20] The neptunist theory received a definitive treatment by Werner . He interpreted mineralized veins and primitive rocks such as granite and schist as precipitates of on Harold Pinter's Old Times chemicals originally dissolved in example in research proposal, a universal ocean. Most neptunists agreed that primitive rocks were chemical precipitates, but Werner also believed that many of the stratified rocks, particularly those of in the rye text a crystalline nature such as basalt, were also chemical in origin. Of Conceptual Framework! He further maintained that the transition and Flotz rocks were a combination of chemical precipitates and mechanically produced sediments. Teenage Fashion! He viewed fossiliferous rocks as examples of mechanical sediments produced by the erosion of older primitive mountains. [21] Other neptunists regarded most of the example in research, layered Flotz rocks as mechanically derived sediments deposited on the surface of primitive mountains and subsequently tilted.

Werner's numerous disciples at Freiberg spread neptunist doctrine throughout Europe and America. Locator! Neptunism boasted such prominent defenders as Jean Andre Deluc (1727-1817), Jean Francois d'Aubuisson (1769-1819), Leopold von Buch (1774-1852), Robert Jameson (1774-1854), and famed geographer Alexander von Humboldt (1765-1859). Although neptunism largely replaced diluvialism as an explanation for the formation of layered rocks, interest in the Noachian flood was hardly dead. Diluvialism may have been dying out, but many scholars continued to believe that there was scientific evidence for of conceptual in research proposal, the flood. Diluvialists such as Woodward , Whiston , Hutchinson , and Catcott had maintained that the Pinter's, biblical flood deposited the of conceptual framework in research proposal, rocks now categorized as secondary and tertiary, or transition, Flotz, and alluvial. Neptunists variously attributed the formation of at teenage least secondary and example of conceptual framework in research, some tertiary deposits (or at least transition and Flotz deposits) to the action of a shrinking ocean that predated the biblical flood, but some of them still attributed tertiary or alluvial materials composed of gravel, sand, clay, and peat to the flood. Hotel Locator! Such deposits had frequently yielded the puzzling skeletal remains of giant animals no longer known to exist. Some neptunists believed that these remains could readily be attributed to the flood even if the invertebrate marine shell beds of the secondary rocks could not. Discoveries of Vertebrate Remains.

In 1728, Hans Sloane (1660-1753), the example framework proposal, president of the Royal Society of London, summarized several of these peculiar animal finds. [22] Issues of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London frequently contained notices of strange bones, teeth, or horns that had accidentally been encountered during the digging of in the wells or excavation for building foundations. Example Of Conceptual! [23] Particularly intriguing were a growing number of discoveries of teeth, tusks, and bones belonging to a strikingly elephant-like creature. [24] Some of the discoveries were in Europe, but reports of remains of an marriott hotel locator, elephant-like creature kept trickling in from the frozen expanses of Siberia. Picture below right: Wooly Mammoth ( mammuthus primigenius , Late Pleistocene) -- This well known mammoth was a cold climate dweller equipped with a thick layer of fat for insulation, and an exterior of example in research proposal long black hair. It was smaller than most mammoths (9 ft or 2.7 m high), and had a hump of fat behind its domed head. It fed on low tundra vegetation in which it scraped away snow and ice with its ivory tusks. Several well preserved remains have been found in Siberia and marriott locator, Alaska and cave paintings in Spain and example of conceptual framework in research, France show depictions of the Wooly Mammoth as seen by intelligence early humans. The mammuthus primigenius went extinct only example proposal about 10,000 years ago. Teenage Shows! Drawing by of conceptual framework in research proposal artist Josef Moravec of Prehistoric World Images . In a 1692 Siberian expedition, Ysbrand Ides , Peter the Great 's envoy to China, not only intelligence encountered tusks and framework in research, bones but saw remnants of a partially preserved carcass embedded in frozen ground. Ides wrote that Mammut's Tongues and Legs are found and noted that such remains could be encountered on the shores of the Jenize (Yenisei), Lena, and other rivers. Hotel! One of his companions found a head when a frozen piece of example of conceptual in research proposal riverbank collapsed.

Most of the flesh was rotten. Ides recounted an old native belief that the mammoths continually, or at least by reason of the symbols, very hard Frosts, mostly live under Ground, where they go backwards and forwards, and they died when they came in contact with air. Example In Research Proposal! In contrast, said Ides, the Russians believed that there were elephants in the area when the climate was warmer before the deluge. After the flood, the air became cold enough to freeze them, and their bones have lain frozen in Pinter's 1971 Old Times, the Earth ever since, and so are preserved from Putrefaction till they thaw. Ides suspected that the carcasses could have floated in from several hundred miles distant during the great flood. [25] Additional Siberian mammoth finds were reported in the early eighteenth century. In a letter to Philosophical Transactions , John Breyne expressed his view that such remains were left there by the universal deluge.

When several large bones and a tooth were dug up in in research proposal, the Hudson River valley of North America, Puritan leader Cotton Mather attributed them to an antediluvian giant. In 1739, elephant tusks, molars, and bones were discovered in a marsh near the Ohio River in rye text, Kentucky. A 1765 expedition to the site now known as Big Bone Lick turned up huge amounts of skeletal material, and two years later an account of some of the tusks and grinders was presented to the Royal Society of London. In 1780, in in research proposal, the Wallkill Valley of in the rye text Orange County, New York, four large teeth were collected from of conceptual framework in research a swamp on the property of the teenage fashion, Reverend Robert Annan . Example In Research Proposal! Several more finds, including entire elephant-like skeletons (of mastodons), were excavated from the same region in subsequent years. In 1796, Thomas Jefferson acquired remains of in the rye text a huge skeleton with claws that had been recovered from a cave in western Virginia. Jefferson called the creature megalonix , an animal now known to be a giant extinct sloth. In the meantime, Siberia continued to yield frozen carcasses of of conceptual rhinoceros and intelligence, mammoth, some of which were studied by Pallas. One of the more impressive finds was made by Shumakhov in 1799 in the delta of the Lena River when he noticed a strange looking mass within the frozen ground. He revisited the site for several years, during which time more of the animal emerged.

During the fifth year, the carcass thawed completely and slid down to the river bank. The tusks were chopped off and in research, sold. Drawings of the creature came into possession of M. F. Adams , a zoologist member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, who hustled off to the Lena delta in 1806 to see the carcass for himself. The trunk, tail, and one ear were gone, but one eye still kept its color. Soft parts, except for the skin on learned the head, one foot, and the side on which the animal lay, had been completely destroyed by wild animals and dogs. The animal, a male, had been well fed and fat. The hide preserved on the ground was covered with thick hair. Example Of Conceptual Framework! [26] Remnants of the beast were returned to mail hr number the St. Petersburg museum. In the long run, the discovery of most far-reaching significance took place in 1797 at in research proposal Hoxne, England, when a series of flint implements were found in a layer of shows gravelly soil. Example In Research Proposal! The discoverer, John Frere (1740-1807), reported that the implements lay in great numbers at the depth of fashion about twelve feet, in a stratified soil and were associated with some extraordinary bones, particularly a jaw-bone of enormous size, of some unknown animal.

The significance of the discovery, however, was not immediately recognized. [27] Neptunism and example framework in research, the Flood. Despite the growing belief that primitive, secondary, and most tertiary rocks must have formed prior to the deluge, perhaps during long ages of creation, neptunists nonetheless had room for the deluge. After all, the fossil remains of most of the monstrous animals discovered during the catcher in the rye text, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries had come from example in research proposal swamps, marshes, and american symbols, gravels that formed subsequent to most tertiary formations. Not all neptunists worked out specific deluge theories, but predictably closer links between neptunism and of conceptual in research, Scripture (and particularly the Noachic flood) were forged in the British Isles. The ideas of Richard Kirwan (1733-1812) are illustrative. Kirwan, a chemist and mineralogist, Inspector of Mines for Ireland, and eventually long-time president of the american beauty, Royal Irish Academy, discussed the topic of the deluge in a lengthy article. Example Framework In Research! [28] He suggested in neptunist fashion that the original sea had retreated through rifts in mail hr number, the crust until a few centuries before the deluge, an amount of framework in research proposal time necessary for the rocks formed from the universal ocean to become sufficiently hardened to withstand the teenage shows, shocks they would undergo during the ensuing catastrophe. What, asked Kirwan, were the geological proofs of the deluge? Having proved that at the time of the creation, no mountains reached higher than 8,500 feet, he argued that shells found at higher elevations than that could only have been left there by a subsequent inundation. He found further evidence for a flood in the fact that the fossil remains of organisms that dwell in widely disparate and distant climates were mixed promiscuously with each other in the rocks. Marine remains accompanied European fossil elephant and rhinoceros bones, and all such remains were found even in such hostile areas as Siberia, where animals native to Africa and India could never have survived alive.

Kirwan argued that the example of conceptual, remains must have been swept into the harsher regions over great distances from their native habitats by learned an enormous inundation. Kirwan rejected previous explanations of a universal deluge. He asserted instead that the deluge originated in example in research proposal, the ocean south of the equator and catcher in the, rushed to the northern hemisphere. It was forceful enough, he said, to carry the carcasses of animals such as elephants from the in research, southern countries and marine species from southern seas to high latitudes beyond 45 deg N, where their remains can now be found in surficial deposits. The force of the flood must have traveled northward, he reasoned, because no remains of animals native to the north are found in the southern lands. Moreover, he contended that traces of catcher rye text a violent shock or impression from the south were perceptible in the shapes of the mountains. Indeed, he found evidence in the very shapes of the continents, which tend to be sharpened toward the south as at the Cape of Good Hope and in Patagonia: the land was swashed by the southern ocean so forcibly, he said, that nothing but the mountains could resist.

Finally, an example proposal, inundation from the learned intelligence, southeast would also have been necessary to drive the ark northwesterly toward Armenia. Kirwan envisioned the framework proposal, great southern ocean surging northward with irresistible impetuosity against a continent that at one time likely united Asia and America. This material was torn up and swept away as far as latitude 40 deg N, he said, leaving only scattered islands. The progress of the Pinter's 1971, surge was checked by the mountains of China, Tartary, and the west American coast. Sweeping into China, the torrents picked up the of conceptual in research, soil covering what is now the Gobi Desert and pressed on toward the north polar regions. Here the torrents were ultimately spent by the mountains of eastern Siberia. But on teenage shows the way these huge torrents dashed over the mountains bearing over example of conceptual proposal them the mail hr number, vegetable and of conceptual in research proposal, animal spoils of the more southern, ravaged or torn up continents to the plains of western Siberia, where the remains were deposited. The bed of the Atlantic Ocean was also scoured by the water.

As evidence, Kirwan called attention to the similarities in marriott locator, shapes of coastlines on the opposite sides of the Atlantic and asserted that the example of conceptual in research proposal, depression of such a vast tract of marriott locator land cannot appear improbable when we consider the shock it must have received, and the enormous load with which it was charged. Example Of Conceptual Framework In Research! [29] The concussion of water also rent the basaltic masses along the Scottish and american beauty symbols, Irish coasts into pillars, he said. Kirwan maintained that only animals that were most necessary for the use of man were present on of conceptual framework proposal the ark. Since the ravenous animals would have posed a threat to the immediate survivors of the deluge, Kirwan proposed that carnivores were probably created after the flood and after the graminivorous animals had greatly multiplied. He likewise attributed the animals of America and of the on Harold Pinter's 1971, torrid and frigid zones to a subsequent creation . Kirwan further suggested that prediluvial vegetables gave off such vast quantities of oxygen that the atmosphere before the flood was much purer than now, perhaps explaining the greater longevity of the antediluvians. Example Of Conceptual In Research! After the in the, flood, however, the surface of the earth was covered with putrefying animals and fish which absorbed oxygen and example of conceptual in research, supplied only mephitic and catcher rye text, fixed air, thus bringing the atmosphere to its present state.

He conjectured that domestic disturbances within Noah's family induced him to move, along with those closest to him, to the regions he inhabited before the flood, in the vicinity of China, and hence the early origin of the Chinese monarchy. [30] The widespread opinion that the world's stratified, fossiliferous rocks could be accounted for in research, in terms of the action of a biblical global deluge had faded. Nonetheless, nearly a century later, orthodox Christian naturalists were still largely committed to a universal flood, a flood that accounted only for surficial phenomena, including surface gravels, vast deposits of marine shells, and learned intelligence, graveyards of vertebrates. The hardened stratified deposits were now generally regarded as having formed much earlier than the flood, in all likelihood at the time of creation. And some orthodox Christians were beginning to wonder if a six-day creation was adequate to account for those rocks.

Developments in Biogeography. Further adjustments were also being forced by growing knowledge about animal and plant distribution. The eighteenth-century expeditions such as Captain Cook's voyages to framework proposal the Pacific were continuously adding to the list of organisms, pushing it well beyond the 500 birds, 150 quadrupeds, and about 10,000 invertebrates that had been catalogued by John Ray in the seventeenth century. The great systematician of the eighteenth century, Linnaeus , listed more than 14,000 animal species, including almost 300 mammals. Linnaeus doubted that Noah's ark could have carried all the animal species. Intelligence! Rather than attributing dispersal of all the animals to the ark, he envisioned creation taking place on example of conceptual a primitive mountain rising above a universal ocean. Each pair of animals was created in a particular climatic belt in association with the other species designed for such conditions. Reindeer and arctic lichens existed at royal mail the summit; tropical palms and monkeys lived at the base.

Every plant had its proper soil and every animal its proper climate, and the mountain was an entire world in example of conceptual in research proposal, miniature. [31] In standard neptunist fashion, Linnaeus had the animals spread out to their ultimate environments and latitudes as the universal ocean shrank and exposed more land. Linnaeus generally assumed that species were fixed, unchangeable units binding individuals together by descent through successive generations. He argued that the number of individuals in a species is constantly increasing, so if we work backward, we can trace each species to one set of primeval parents created by God. Linnaeus further stressed the notion that the function and structure of an organism is indissolubly linked to the environment for which it was adapted. Every species inhabited its own definite place. Marriott Hotel Locator! Linnaeus objected to the notion of a universal deluge on the grounds that it would have upset the God-ordained stability of proposal creation. How could all the animals have migrated from an ark when they were now so well adapted to their specific environments? For example, how could a reindeer, so well adapted to the bitter cold of the far north, survive a trek from the ark to the tundra of Scandinavia? Buffon accounted for animal distribution in terms of his theory of the cooling of the globe. Symbols! All life, he claimed, began near the north pole when that locality was much warmer and then migrated southward as the planet cooled.

The southward movement of organisms into framework the Americas, Europe, Asia, and Africa led to increased isolation as animals were cut off from one another by american beauty wide oceans. [32] In the first detailed review of example of conceptual framework mammal distribution, a little-known zoologist, Eberhardt A. W. Zimmermann , a late eighteenth-century professor of mathematics and physics in Brunswick, dispensed altogether with the concept of a common dispersal center. He dismissed Linnaeus's idea of original created pairs existing in the same place on the ground that the marriott hotel locator, first pair of lions would quickly have devoured the first pair of sheep, goats, and of conceptual framework in research, other species, and would ultimately have starved because they had eaten the first pair of everything else. Zimmermann hypothesized that each species, including the teenage shows, approximately 450 mammals recognized in his time, was created in of conceptual, the region it now inhabits. The climate that prevails now in each region would also have prevailed at hotel the time of species creation. Thus whole environments were created at once. [33] Summary of Eighteenth-Century on the Flood. Despite the considerable body of scholarship pertaining to the capacity of the of conceptual proposal, ark, the worldwide distribution of animals, and diluvial cosmogonies, some of the more important biblical commentators of the eighteenth century failed to interact significantly with that scholarship. Matthew Henry, Thomas Scott, and John Wesley gave little attention to extrabiblical information and Pinter's Old Times, were generally content to support traditional views with naive, sweeping, unsubstantiated assertions or by invoking miracle.

John Gill often knowledgeably interacted with extrabiblical knowledge more than others, but, when faced with the example of conceptual proposal, difficulties posed by animal migration to and from the ark, even he ultimately fell back on miracle. Discoveries made after these commentators wrote rendered the royal mail, case for a global deluge still weaker. For example, eighteenth-century scholars increasingly came to framework appreciate the very close dependency of species on their habitats. Intelligence! Ultimately this awareness exposed a fatal flaw in theories depending on any sort of natural migration of animals over long distances. Example Of Conceptual! It is possible for only a very few species to teenage migrate over long distances; the absence of appropriate food, water, and of conceptual, climate renders such journeys impossible for most animals. Naturalists also accumulated evidence that the flood could not have deposited the entire stratified rock record. They increasingly concluded that if the flood left behind geological evidence, it must have been confined to various surface features and deposits. Coupled with this shift in marriott locator, understanding of the example of conceptual framework in research proposal, deluge's effects was a growing sense that the earth must have experienced a history longer than the traditionally supposed six thousand years. Catcher! As significant quantities of physical evidence accumulated, many of those who grappled with it felt a need to reconsider traditional interpretations of the biblical texts relevant to earth history.

Nineteenth-Century Developments, the Rise of Diluvial Catastrophism. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, the interpretation of the geological strata had changed radically. Virtually no established geologist thought that the thick sequences of stratified sedimentary rocks so evident in quarries, cliffs, and mountains had anything to do with the flood. Neptunists attributed stratification to deposition of sediments from in research proposal a shrinking primeval ocean. Others suspected that rock strata represented deposits laid down in learned intelligence, successive interchanges of land and sea, possibly over long periods of time before the framework proposal, advent of human beings. Essay On Harold Pinter's 1971! Most students of the earth gave tacit assent to a rudimentary time scale that classified rocks as primitive, transition, secondary, or tertiary. Great thicknesses of strata, many evidently deposited on the sea bottom, strongly implied that the earth's pre-human history extended far beyond a few thousand years. James Hutton demonstrated that primitive rocks that had previously been dated back to the time of creation actually had a discernible prior history: many of them were altered sedimentary rocks that showed signs of having been deposited on a seabed. Geological unconformities gave evidence of extensive histories involving the consolidation of strata, uplift and tilting, and severe erosion of the tilted rocks before deposition of the of conceptual framework in research, next sequence of strata.

Discoveries of several unconformities within thick stacks of sedimentary rocks and various other observational and experimental findings accumulated to suggest that the earth was really quite ancient . The vast majority of beauty symbols naturalists readily agreed with John Playfair 's 1802 assessment that though there be in it no data, from which the commencement of the present order can be ascertained, there are many by which the existence of that order may be traced back to an antiquity extremely remote. [34] Students of geology were now mapping secondary and example of conceptual framework in research, tertiary strata in detail. In southern England, for example, the marriott hotel, engineer of the British canal system, William Smith (1769-1839), worked out the stratigraphy of example in research proposal much of the secondary sequence during the last decade of the eighteenth century. In the rye text, first decade of the example of conceptual framework proposal, following century, Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) and his colleague Alexandre Brongniart (1770-1847) at catcher in the the French Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris did the same with tertiary strata in the Paris basin. They soon recognized that individual formations were characterized by their own distinctive fossil fauna.

And Cuvier recognized that the Paris basin sequence contained alternating marine and terrestrial deposits, the former containing fossilized invertebrate shells and the latter containing fossilized vertebrate quadruped remains. Both the regular distribution of example framework proposal fossils and the alternations between marine and terrestrial remains made it difficult to reason that the deluge could have produced the teenage, earth's consolidated fossiliferous sedimentary rocks. Students of the earth had also become increasingly reluctant to indulge in grandiose cosmogonical theories. [35] Even so, the presumption of a vast deluge was still common among late eighteenth-century naturalists. Leading geologists of the early nineteenth century on the Continent, in example in research proposal, Britain, and in America still had no difficulty in attributing many surficial geological features to catastrophic diluvial action. Recognizing the tentative, incomplete state of knowledge about the earth, the multitude of important unanswered questions about the earth's past, and the need for a reasonable theory of the earth at the close of the eighteenth century, Alpine geologist Horace Benedict de Saussure (1740-1799), professor of philosophy at the Academy of Geneva, published an agenda for marriott hotel, future research to provide a foundation for a theory of the earth. Among the framework proposal, matters he felt should be addressed were historical monuments, including the deluges or great inundations; their epochs and extent. In a section on rolled pebbles, de Saussure suggested that a study of high elevation pebbles and rolled blocks foreign to the soil which bears them and of the large valleys nearby could yield some indications of the direction, size and force of the currents produced by the grand revolutions of the earth. He also thought it important to determine whether blocks of rock found on mountaintops were transported gradually by waves that raised them from the bottoms of the valleys or abruptly by huge tides. [36] De Saussure spoke for the geological community when he identified the role and effects of past floods as a significant geological issue. Catcher! During the early nineteenth century there was no shortage of top-rank geologists willing to tackle that problem.

Georges Cuvier , scientist-administrator extraordinaire who firmly established the disciplines of both vertebrate paleontology and comparative anatomy, was a professor of example framework in research zoology at the College de France who also held an influential post in the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. [37] He was also a nominal Protestant who, according to his biographer Dorinda Outram, viewed Protestantism as a series of opportunities rather than as a body of belief. His handling of the issue of the flood, says Outram, was not motivated by marriott hotel locator any deep spiritual attachment to Scripture. Of Conceptual In Research Proposal! In his Essay on the Theory of the Earth , an introduction to his monumental multi-volume work on teenage shows fossil vertebrates, Cuvier proposed that the secondary and tertiary strata had been formed during successive sudden catastrophes caused over long ages by repeated irruptions and retreats of the sea. [38] The idea of multiple catastrophes was suggested by fragmented and framework proposal, overturned strata, the presence of heaps of debris and rounded pebbles found among the american beauty symbols, solid strata, and the carcasses of large quadrupeds that had been partially preserved in surface deposits of the northern regions. Cuvier maintained that natural catastrophes had caused the permanent extinction of several large mammals such as the mammoth. Cuvier asserted on example of conceptual framework zoological grounds that the most recent of these catastrophes could not have been very ancient, consistent with the existence of many traditions, including that of Moses, that the globe had suffered a recent catastrophe. Cuvier fully agreed that. if there is any circumstance thoroughly established in geology, it is, that the crust of intelligence our globe has been subjected to a great and framework in research, sudden revolution, the epoch of which cannot be dated much farther back than five or six thousand years ago; that this revolution had buried all the countries which were before inhabited by men and by the other animals that are now best known; that the same revolution had laid dry the marriott hotel locator, bed of the last ocean, which now forms all the countries at example of conceptual framework proposal present inhabited; that the hr number, small number of individuals of men and other animals that escaped from the effects of that great revolution, have since propagated and spread over example framework in research proposal the lands then newly laid dry; and consequently, that the human race has only resumed a progressive state of improvement since that epoch, by rye text forming established societies, raising monuments, collecting natural facts, and constructing systems of science and of learning. Example Of Conceptual Framework In Research! [39] Cuvier stopped just short of an explicit identification of this recent catastrophe with the Mosaic flood. George Bellas Greenough (1778-1855), a student of Werner, member of Parliament, and one of the founders and first president of the Geological Society of royal London in 1807, also stopped short of such an identification.

In A Critical Examination of the First Principles of Geology , issued in 1819 when he was president of the Geological Society, Greenough addressed the problem of the great displaced blocks that were scattered across the face of of conceptual framework Europe. He maintained that if seas, rivers, or collapsing lakes could not transport such exotic blocks, then the only remaining cause, to Pinter's which these effects can be ascribed, is a Debacle or Deluge. [40] To account for the bones and tusks of elephants found in Siberia, Pallas proposed that the deluge had swept over the Alps and the mountains of Tartary during a period of tremendous eruptions that he believed produced the Moluccas, the Philippines, and example of conceptual framework in research proposal, other volcanic islands in the Indian Archipelago. Greenough had difficulties with Pallas's hypothesis, however. He doubted that the bones could have traveled from the on Harold Pinter's 1971 Old Times, Indian Ocean to Siberia without fracture or abrasion, for instance.

He also maintained that relatively fresh carcasses found in the Arctic could not have been transported there from of conceptual framework in research proposal southern regions, because any such remains would have putrefied long before arriving. Moreover, the bones of the elephants were mixed with the bones of such decidedly northern species as the ox, buffalo, elk, and mail hr number, horse. Example Of Conceptual Framework In Research! Greenough also wondered why volcanic eruptions would have caused deluges to take a northern rather than southern course, and he questioned whether the in the, volume of water involved would have been adequate to produce the presumed disruption. The rising of these islands could displace only a quantity of of conceptual in research water equivalent to their bulk, wrote Greenough, and such a quantity would not have been able to surmount the mountains of Asia. Greenough also rejected a proposal of in the rye text Sir James Hall (1761-1832), early geological experimentalist and good friend of James Hutton , to of conceptual in research proposal account for the granite blocks dispersed over Essay Old Times the Jura mountains by a debacle. [41] Despite problems with the various hypotheses, Greenough believed that the widespread distribution of alluvial sand and gravel proved that the same inundation had affected all countries, as did the universal occurrence and example framework in research proposal, distinctive symmetry of mountains and catcher, valleys. Moreover, he maintained that the of conceptual in research, direction in which the waters of the deluge flowed could be ascertained by an examination of the orientations of bowlder-stones, mountains, valleys, promontories, and escarpments. [42] The timing of the geological deluge was a crucial issue, however, for identifying the deluge that Greenough believed had left its mark on in the the earth's surface features with the biblical deluge. He found no evidence that might help to framework proposal determine whether the geological deluge occurred before or after the creation of man. There existed only the negative evidence that no human skeletal remains nor implements of art had been discovered either in the regular strata or in the diluvian surficial deposits. Teenage Fashion Shows! [43] A more difficult matter was the example in research, cause of the deluge.

Greenough suggested that a transitory cause foreign to the solar system, capable of intelligence inundating continents, and giving to the waters of the deep unexampled impetuosity, but without altering the interior constitution of the example in research, earth, or deranging the sister planets was needed. Greenough recalled Halley by looking favorably on teenage fashion shows the possibility of a cometary or meteoritic shock to the earth. [44] Diluvial catastrophism was firmly established when William Buckland (1784-1856) was inaugurated as professor of geology at Oxford in 1819. Buckland was a minister in the Church of England with moderate broad church sympathies. As indicated by his advocacy of the framework in research, gap theory for Genesis 1 (i.e., the belief that a long period of marriott hotel locator time occurred between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2, between the initial creation and the state of formlessness of the earth), he did not insist on strict biblical literalism. Buckland was very sensitive to two matters: (1) the flood played a much smaller role in reconstructions of geological history than it had a century earlier despite the considerable attention still paid to it, and (2) geology was increasingly charting its own course and paying less heed to example framework theological assertions about the alleged demands of scriptural texts. Catcher Rye Text! In his landmark Oxford inaugural lecture, Buckland sought to allay the suspicions of the theologically conservative university authorities that geology might be hostile to revealed religion by painstakingly demonstrating the compatibility of example of conceptual in research proposal geology and religion, particularly with regard to the flood.

Buckland's strategy was to show that geology blended with Oxford's tradition of classical learning. As Nicolaas Rupke observed, in Buckland's inaugural the learned intelligence, diluvial theory became the proposal, linchpin by which modern geology attached itself to locator the carriage of the Anglican tradition of learning and the clerical purpose of an Oxford education. [45] Buckland conceded some slight difficulties in efforts to harmonize geology and Christian faith, but he maintained that there was harmony on the most essential points, including the deluge. He virtually equated the hypothesized geological inundation with the deluge of Moses and optimistically pronounced that. the grand fact of an universal deluge at no very remote period is proved on grounds so decisive and example of conceptual in research proposal, incontrovertible, that, had we never heard of such an event from Scripture, or any other, authority, Geology of itself must have called in the assistance of marriott locator some such catastrophe, to explain the phenomena of in research proposal diluvian action which are universally presented to us, and which are unintelligible without recourse to a deluge exerting its ravages at a period not more ancient than that announced in the Book of Genesis. [46] Just what were those decisive and american beauty, incontrovertible grounds? Buckland argued that the shape and framework, position of hills and valleys as well as the confluence of streams into a main trunk favored the flood. Beauty Symbols! He argued that gravel deposits around the world, locally forming isolated horizontal strata, could not be attributed solely to river action. Moreover, the unfossilized organic remains of animals identical to species now in existence found deposited in the gravels pointed to a deluge. The two great points of the relatively late appearance of the human race and the universality of a recent deluge, said Buckland, were satisfactorily confirmed by every thing that has yet been brought to light by Geological investigations. Example Of Conceptual In Research! Young Professor Buckland, however, had no doubt whatever that the thick successions of stratified, fossiliferous rocks underlying surface gravels were not produced in the deluge but were rather deposited in a slow and gradual manner during successive periods of both tranquillity and great disturbance.

In some cases, said Buckland, these strata had been produced from the destruction of more ancient consolidated rocks and Essay 1971, then violently uplifted prior to the deposition of the more modern strata. Although the deluge had sculpted and destroyed the consolidated strata, the strata themselves could not have been formed in the single year occupied by the Mosaic deluge. According to Buckland, the antediluvian continents were fundamentally the same as those of the present. Buckland's inaugural address exerted considerable influence on a variety of example proposal geologists, including his friend William Conybeare (1787-1857) and William Phillips (1775-1828), coauthors of the catcher, highly respected Outlines of the Geology of England and Wales. Conybeare was an early member of the Geological Society of London, one-time fellow at New College, Oxford, and framework in research, dean of Llandaff. Like Buckland, he was an Anglican minister with centrist affinities, a readiness to look kindly on non-literal scriptural interpretations, and a willingness to rye text cooperate in matters of science with those outside the Church of England such as his coauthor Phillips, a Quaker. Although this 1822 volume was primarily concerned with a detailed description of the secondary formations of southern Great Britain, Conybeare used the occasion to discuss the relationship of geology to religion. He appealed to the same evidences for the deluge that Buckland had, asserting that a recent inundation had swept over the consolidated strata and indiscriminately covered the whole surface. This inundation was the last great geological change to which the surface of our planet appears to have been exposed. He called this general covering of water-worn debris Diluvium because of that great and universal catastrophe to which it seems most properly assignable. In Research Proposal! [47]

In the fashion, meantime, in 1821, a bone-filled cave was discovered at Kirkdale in of conceptual framework in research proposal, Yorkshire. As one of the cave's first explorers, Buckland found what he took to be further confirmations of a universal deluge. [48] The exploration of caves for fossils had recently taken on considerable importance. Buckland had already examined a few, but the remains of beauty Kirkdale provided the occasion for compiling a vast catalogue of physical evidence in support of a recent global flood. Buckland placed on a sound empirical, systematic basis the flood catastrophism expressed by Cuvier and implicit in framework in research proposal, the thought of many contemporary geologists. Intelligence! Following the example proposal, publication of a synopsis of his findings in Philosophical Transactions, Buckland published his great work Reliquiae Dduvianae in learned, 1823. Not quite identifying his universal deluge with that of the Bible, Buckland's dedicatory letter to the Lord Bishop of Durham observed that the conclusions of his work afforded the strongest evidence of an universal deluge and expressed the of conceptual framework in research proposal, hope that it will no longer be asserted, as it has been by high authorities, that geology supplies no proofs of an event in the reality of which the truth of the Mosaic records is so materially involved. [49] Also included was a brief chapter containing evidence showing that the learned, inundation had occurred at high elevations. Buckland argued that granite blocks drifted from the heights of Mont Blanc to the Jura, and the bones of diluvial animals found by Humboldt on the elevated plains of example of conceptual framework in research proposal South America showed that all the Pinter's 1971, high hills and example framework in research proposal, the mountains under the whole heavens were covered when the last great physical change affected the surface of the whole globe. Catcher In The! [50] Buckland came as close as possible without specifically identifying the geological and biblical floods. In Reliquiae Diluvianae Buckland summarized the results of the discoveries at Kirkdale and several other British and European caves. He reviewed facts concerning the form and structure of hills and valleys and concerning accumulations of diluvial loam and gravel containing the remains of animals like those found in the caverns. All of in research these facts, said Buckland, cast light on the earth's state prior to the last great convulsion affecting its surface and learned intelligence, affording one of the most complete and satisfactory chains of of conceptual framework in research consistent circumstantial evidence I have ever met with in the course of my geological investigations. [51]

In Kirkdale cave, Buckland had discovered a great abundance of hyena bones and excrement as well as bones of tigers, bears, wolves, foxes, weasels, elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotamuses, horses, oxen, deer, hares, rabbits, water-rats, mice, ravens, pigeons, larks, ducks, and beauty, snipes. The bones, some of which had been gnawed, were embedded in crystalline material on the cave floor and in red mud overlying the crystalline material. The red mud had been covered by later stalactitic deposits devoid of of conceptual framework in research proposal animal remains. Hr Number! Buckland concluded that the gnawed bones were those of animal carcasses that had been dragged into a lair of of conceptual in research hyenas. He contended that the red mud covering the assemblage of extinct vertebrate species had been washed into the cave by the deluge and learned intelligence, hence he maintained that the stalactitic material covering the mud was postdiluvial. Buckland cited the limited stalactite deposits over the mud and the presence of undecayed bones as evidence that the mud layer was introduced no earlier than the time inferred by Cuvier -- that is to say, the time that had elapsed since that great and universal inundation which has overwhelmed the earth was about example in research five or six thousand years. [52] In the latter part of the royal mail hr number, book, Buckland discusses the dispersion of the of conceptual, bones of teenage fashion shows extinct elephants, deposits of loam and gravel, and diluvial evidences around the world. The book also carries an appendix in which he argues that the flood was responsible for the excavation of river valleys. Buckland doubted that rivers could adequately excavate the huge valleys in which they presently flowed. Unlike Kinvan and Pallas, however, Buckland insisted that the great deluge must have swept out of the north, since boulders on the surface and in gravel deposits of Europe and North America had been transported from identifiable sources to the north. As the example in research, years passed, Buckland backed away from the views he so eloquently set forth in Reliquiae Diluvianae . In a footnote in hr number, his contribution to the Bridgewater Treatises, Buckland observed that subsequent discoveries showed that many of the animals he had previously described had existed.

during more than one geological period preceding the catastrophe by which they were extirpated. Hence it seems more probable, that the of conceptual proposal, event in question, was the marriott locator, last of the many geological revolutions that have been produced by violent irruptions of water, rather than the example framework proposal, comparatively tranquil inundation described in Essay on Harold 1971 Old Times, the Inspired Narrative. It has been justly argued, against the attempt to identity these two great historical and natural phenomena, that, as the rise and fall of the waters of the Mosaic deluge are described to have been gradual and of short duration, they would have produced comparatively little change on the surface of the country they overflowed. [53] Although he still endorsed the of conceptual, notion of great deluges, Buckland pointedly distanced himself from identifymg the geological and biblical deluges, and he also attributed the extinct cave animals to a time prior to american the creation of man. Later still he recognized that even catastrophic floods could not satisfactorily account for diluvial gravels, erratic boulders, and large river valleys. During the years in which Buckland's catastrophic deluge dominated much geologic discussion, particularly in Great Britain, important field investigations were conducted in the Auvergne region of central France, a region previously explored by Guettard, Desmarest, Montlosier, von Buch, and d'Aubuisson. Auvergne had attracted attention because of its extinct volcanic cones. The nature of these volcanoes and their associated rocks became a major problem because of controversies over example of conceptual framework the nature and origin of basaltic rock. Werner and the neptunists maintained that basalt was a chemical precipitate. Intelligence! Hutton, Playfair, Hall, and example in research proposal, others who belonged to the vulcanist party suspected that basalt might be a volcanic rock. Naturalists were eager to compare the Auvergne rocks with basalts of disputed origin in in the, Scotland and proposal, Ireland.

They began to recognize that there had been a long succession of volcanic events in Auvergne, including eruption of basaltic lava flows from the cones. Some of the most recent flows filled large valleys that had been excavated into older layers of lava. The recognition that the basalts at Auvergne were volcanic helped to undermine the neptunist theory. In his early field investigations of the Auvergne area, Oxford's professor of chemistry Charles Daubeny (1795-1867) another associate of Buckland and enthusiastic advocate of the diluvial origin of Essay Pinter's 1971 Old Times valleys, classed different lava flows as either postdiluvian or antediluvian. Example! He suggested that if Buckland was correct in attributing the excavation of valleys to the Mosaic deluge, then the modern volcanoes of Auvergne must all have been posterior to the latter event, since valleys in the older lava flows (presumably scoured by diluvial waters) were filled with more recent lava flows. [54] Diluvial catastrophism also spread to America. The outstanding chemist and mineralogist Benjamin Silliman (1779-1864) of american symbols Yale, a devout Congregationalist, contributed greatly to the establishment of example framework proposal American geology through his teaching, public lecturing, personal research, and marriott locator, founding in 1818 of the American Journal of Science, a still-thriving periodical that is devoted almost exclusively to geology. [55] Among other things, he brought out an American edition of a textbook by British geologist Robert Bakewell to which he appended a lengthy essay on the consistency of geology with sacred history. [56] Silliman flatly rejected the old idea that the bulk of stratified rocks could have been the work of in research proposal a global deluge. But, he continued, the Essay on Harold 1971, surface of the example of conceptual framework in research, planet is covered with wreck and ruin that can be justly attributed to Essay on Harold Old Times mighty floods and rushing torrents of water. Nor were these surface phenomena restricted to Europe; we must charge to moving waters the undulating appearance of stratified sand and example, gravel, often observed in many places, and very conspicuously in the plain of mail New Haven, and in other regions of Connecticut and New England, wrote Silliman. He attributed to diluvial agency both bowlder stones and the vast deserts of sand in South Africa, the Sahara, Arabia, Germany, Russia, and at the foot of the Rocky Mountains. Silliman maintained that denuded valleys, fossilized bones and skeletons of extinct species, and many beds of oyster shells were probably the result of diluvial action.

He believed that the tusla of the extinct elephant that had been found in northern Asia were deposited there by example of conceptual framework a deluge that drowned and buried the bodies of whole races of animals. Nothing could be more violent, destructive, and overwhelming than the universal deluge of Genesis, he said, and certainly upon the face of the earth are every where recorded, in legible characters, the necessary physical effects of such a debacle. But there were some difficulties. Silliman suggested that some gravel deposits could have been produced by local floods, and he suspected that the universal flood would have been much too short to accomplish the rounding of boulders. Like Cuvier and american, Buckland, Silliman did not explicitly equate the of conceptual in research, geological with the Noachic deluge, but he did claim that it was legitimate to compare the two. From 1770 to 1825 diluvial catastrophism was widespread among mainstream geologists in Europe and North America. Silliman's disciple Edward Hitchcock may even have extended the lifetime of diluvial catastrophism in America several years after it had fallen out of favor in Pinter's 1971, Europe.

The Collapse of Diluvial Catastrophism. Despite its popularity among geologists and a British and example in research proposal, American lay public eager to see biblical revelation corroborated by science, diluvial catastrophism began to crumble upon closer inspection. As already noted, Buckland gradually abandoned his early views. Perhaps the most perceptive of rye text those taking a closer look at the approach was John Fleming (1785-1857), a capable naturalist who ultimately became professor of natural history in Aberdeen in 1834 and an evangelical, Calvinistic pastor of the Church of Scotland who participated in the disruption of 1843 to in research proposal join the Free Church of Scotland. In a series of articles published during the teenage shows, 1820s in example of conceptual in research proposal, the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, Fleming advanced several arguments against beauty symbols, diluvial catastrophism. In an example framework proposal, initial poke at current diluvial speculations, Fleming criticized the tendency of naturalists to blur the teenage fashion, distinction between the genus and species of fossil remains. We are so impatient to speculate, he charged, that we do not stop to example proposal inquire, whether the bones found in a fossil state belong to hr number the living species, or to example of conceptual framework in research proposal a member of the same genus only, now extinct. [57] Assuming that many fossil remains resembling modern tropical animals must themselves have lived in in the, tropical regions, naturalists got into trouble by speculating that these organic remains must have been brought into their present situation, by some violent means, from tropical regions, or that our country once enjoyed the warmth of a tropical climate. Fleming argued that the of conceptual framework in research, unbroken state of the remains rendered the Essay 1971, violent transportation idea absurd, and astronomy ruled out the climate change hypothesis.

Fleming vs. Cuvier and Buckland. An example of the speculative tendency concerned the fossil elephants of framework proposal Europe, Asia, and America. Teenage! As amply demonstrated by the anatomical studies of Cuvier and example in research, others, these extinct elephants were a different species from those now living and could well have been native to northern countries. In fact, the Lena River delta carcass discovered in Essay 1971, 1799 was covered with more than thirty-six pounds of thick, lengthy hair, which certainly seemed to suggest that it was not a native of a tropical climate, but an inhabitant of a cold region.

This particular species of elephant was suited to live in example of conceptual in research proposal, Siberia, said Fleming, and the Siberian climate was basically the same when the mammoth lived there as it is now. Where was the need for a cataclysm? Fleming also trained his critical guns on Buckland's Kirkdale cave. While defending Buckland's identification of the learned intelligence, cave as the den of an extinct species of hyena, Fleming questioned his identification of the red mud as a diluvial deposit. Similar mud in other caves was claimed to be fluvial; why not that at Kirkdale? Fleming also wondered why the deluge was so selective in drowning the hippopotamus but allowing the example framework proposal, ox and learned, horse to survive. The subdivision of strata into diluvian and postdiluvian could not be sustained, he argued, because the vertebrate remains occurred in both alleged diluvian clay and acknowledged post-diluvian marl. The flood should have indiscriminately consigned all British quadrupeds to in research a watery grave but instead targeted precisely those animals that in all ages must have been most eagerly sought after by the huntsman, and such as his efforts would, long before this period, have annihilated. It was not the deluge, said Fleming, but human beings who exterminated the extinct British vertebrates. To prevent readers from concluding that he was hostile to Scripture, Fleming argued forcefully that efforts to link geology and the Bible were proving rash and harmful.

Of course, the works and american symbols, the words of God must give consistent indications of his government, provided they be interpreted truly. The moral authority of the book of revelation had been established through the ages. But interpreters of the book of nature, said Fleming, have been few in number, their field of framework in research observation too limited, and teenage shows, their prejudices too obvious, to permit any high value to example of conceptual framework be attached to hr number their theoretical deductions. Geology would fare better, he thought, if its practitioners were more disposed to examine the structure of the earth, and the laws which regulate the physical distribution of of conceptual framework in research proposal its inhabitants and less eager to royal identify their conjectures with popular truths. Furthermore, he asserted that the interests of of conceptual framework proposal revelation would be better served if believers would not exhibit such morbid earnestness to gain support for teenage fashion shows, their creed from the sciences but would rather calmly acknowledge the fact that. geology never can, from of conceptual in research its very nature, add the weight of fashion shows a feather to the moral standard which he has embraced, or the anticipations of proposal eternity in which he indulges, even should he fancy that it has succeeded in disclosing the dens of antediluvian hyaenas, in exhibiting the skeleton of a rhinoceros drowned in the flood, or in discovering the decayed timbers of the ark.

This indiscreet union of teenage shows Geology and Revelation can scarcely fail to verify the censure of Bacon, by producing ' Philosophia phantastica, Religio haeretica .' Fleming intensified his assault in 1826 when he wrote The Geological Deluge, as Interpreted by Baron Cuvier and Professor Buckland, Inconsistent with the Testimony of of conceptual framework proposal Moses and the Phenomena of Nature. [58] Fleming was concerned that Buckland in particular, with his high view of Scripture, had allowed his imagination to become overactive in his desire to find evidence for the flood. Fleming reminded Buckland that he had attributed the extinction of many species of quadrupeds to the deluge, whereas Scripture spoke of the preservation of at least a pair of every kind. Buckland contended that the flood was sudden, transient, virtually universal, and simultaneous, rushing about with overwhelming impetuosity, but Moses mentioned only the universality of the flood, and if anything the biblical evidence suggested that the flood was slow and gradual, inasmuch as it took forty days for teenage, the waters to rise. If the of conceptual framework in research proposal, flood had been as violent as Buckland suggested, it is royal hr number hard to imagine how the ark could have survived, much less landed relatively close to the point from which it first lifted off the ground as the Bible reports. Buckland said that the flood excavated deep valleys by tearing up solid rock, which would imply that prediluvian geography must have been radically different from what it is now, and yet Moses implied that the countries had the of conceptual, same appearance before and after the flood. Marriott Hotel! If one took the biblical reference to example the olive leaf seriously, one would have to conclude that the Mosaic flood was not violent enough to have disturbed the intelligence, soil or trees; and the fact that Noah was able to plant a vineyard shortly after the flood further indicated that the soil had not been washed away. Fleming accused Buckland of having obtained his notions of the flood from example of conceptual framework Ovid rather than the symbols, Bible. Himself endorsing the biblical description of a slowly accumulating, non-violent flood, Fleming disposed of all forms of flood geology, saying that he was not prepared to witness in nature any remaining marks of the catastrophe, and I feel my respect for the authority of revelation heightened, when I see on the present surface no memorials of the event. Buckland and his fellow catastrophists habitually attributed the existence of of conceptual river valleys and canyons, gravel beds, mud in caves, and extinct animals to the action of the flood. The diluvialists said that river valleys had been carved by the tremendous power of the on Harold Pinter's 1971 Old Times, flood as it drained off the example proposal, surface of the earth, but Fleming, like Hutton and Playfair before him, argued that the sinuous shapes of canyons and valleys and the fact that they gradually widen owing to the existence of tributaries mirrors the shapes of modern stream channels, which we know were produced solely by the streams themselves. It was clear to Fleming that ancient canyons and teenage fashion, valleys were carved out by the long-continued action of running water rather than by a stupendous but brief flood.

Flood waters might erode loose soil and loosen boulders, said Fleming, but there is of conceptual in research no way they could have carved deep valleys out of solid bedrock. Fleming was not alone in symbols, challenging early nineteenth-century diluvialism. Throughout the 1820s, the Auvergne district received continued attention from three of Great Britain's more able geologists, George Poulett Scrope (1797-1876), Charles Lyell (1797-1875), and Roderick Murchison (1792-1871). Upon careful investigation of the valleys and lavas, all three of them concluded that the action of rivers and streams over a long period of time was perfectly capable of excavating the valleys. Framework In Research Proposal! Bucklandian deluges were unnecessary. Indeed, if a great torrent had swept over that part of marriott hotel locator Europe, then the cinder cones from which some of the older lava flows had emanated should have been disrupted or even swept away altogether, and they had not been. [59] By 1830, many geologists were having second thoughts about of conceptual proposal a single universal deluge and were taking another look at the physical evidence. Authorities began to issue public recantations. Learned! Cambridge's Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873), like his friends Buckland and Conybeare a broad church Anglican with perhaps stronger evangelical leanings, had also been an early advocate of diluvial catastrophism. Yet, upon retiring from the presidency of the Geological Society of London in example of conceptual framework in research proposal, 1831, Sedgwick announced his abandonment of the deluge theory:

There is, I think, one great negative conclusion now incontestably established -- that the vast masses of diluvial gravel, scattered almost over the surface of the earth, do not belong to teenage one violent and transitory period. It was indeed a most unwarranted conclusion, when we assumed the in research, contemporaneity of all the superficial gravel on the earth. We saw the clearest traces of diluvial action, and learned, we had, in our sacred histories, the of conceptual framework in research, record of a general deluge. On this double testimony it was, that we gave a unity to a vast succession of phaenomena, not one of which we perfectly comprehended, and under the name diluvium, classed them all together. Our errors were, however, natural, and of the same kind which led many excellent observers of a former century to refer all the secondary formations of marriott locator geology to the Noachian deluge. Example Framework In Research! Having been myself a believer, and, to the best of my power, a propagator of what I now regard as a philosophic heresy, and having more than once been quoted for marriott, opinions I do not now maintain, I think it right, as one of my last acts before I quit this Chair, thus publicly to in research proposal read my recantation. [60] Sedgwick suggested that geologists had been too hasty in referring all superficial gravel to hotel the action of the Mosaic flood, on the grounds that no trace of example of conceptual framework humanity had been recovered from those deposits. Nevertheless Sedgwick confidently rejected the inference that there had been no historic deluge or that the facts of geology were opposed to sacred Scripture. Not a word in the Bible or the traditions justified looking to mere physical monuments as the american beauty, intelligible records of the event, he said. Such monuments had not yet been found, and perhaps they never would be, but that was scarcely decisive as to their reality. To cover all bases, Sedgwick affirmed that, although certain traces of a great diluvian catastrophe within the human period had not been found, it had been shown that paroxysms of internal energy, accompanied by the elevation of mountain chains, and followed by mighty waves desolating whole regions of the earth, were a part of the mechanism of nature.

Because such paroxysms had occurred frequently throughout the earth's history, they may have occurred during the few thousand years that man had been living on its surface. Sedgwick triumphantly concluded that we have therefore, taken away all anterior incredibility from the fact of a recent deluge; and we have prepared the mind, doubting about the truth of example in research things of which it knows not either the origin or the end, for the adoption of this fact on on Harold Pinter's Old Times the weight of historic testimony. Greenough issued a similar recantation in example framework, 1834, acknowledging that he once held the not hastily formed opinion based on fashion the best available geological data that the entire globe had been covered by a general deluge. [61] But now, better acquainted with physical and geological nature, he had been convinced otherwise. Of Conceptual Framework In Research! He acknowledged his debt to Lyell for catcher rye text, bringing together a vast mass of evidence suggesting that if a deluge had swept over the entire globe five thousand years earlier, its traces could no longer be distinguished from more modern and local disturbances. Other evidence bore different and more convincing interpretation as well. What he had viewed as diluvial elephants and other animals could probably be better referred to two or three distinct epochs, he granted, and the stone blocks found in the Jura Mountains, northern Germany, northern Italy, and England are not the framework in research, waifs and royal mail, strays of one, but of several successive inundations. What had Lyell said to of conceptual framework in research convince Greenough of his error?

In the final volume of his epochal Principles of Geology issued between 1830 and 1833, Charles Lyell , a deist, poured plenty of cold water on current diluvial thinking. In a chapter on teenage fashion shows the geology of the Eocene Epoch, he reviewed the geology of the Auvergne region and then took up a discussion on the supposed effects of the flood. [62] Lyell noted that contemporaries who used the terms antediluvian and postdiluvian with respect to in research the volcanoes of Auvergne assumed that there are clear and unequivocal marks of the passage of a general flood over all parts of the surface of the globe. He rejected that view as incompatible with the catcher in the rye text, evidence, but he did leave the door open for a localized deluge. He contended that a flood extending to the whole of that part of the earth inhabited by human beings might have occurred had there been both extensive lakes elevated above the level of the ocean and large tracts of example of conceptual framework dry land depressed below that level in a given region. In The! Lyell postulated that if the of conceptual framework in research, waters of Lake Superior, situated six hundred feet above sea level, were to be set loose by the rending or sinking down of the barrier during earthquakes, the teenage shows, entire valley of the Mississippi, with its huge population, would be deluged. Of Conceptual! A similarly catastrophic flood might be induced by the depression of part of Asia, he suggested. The great cavity of hotel western Asia has an area of 18,000 square leagues, and a considerable population.

The lowest parts in the vicinity of the Caspian Sea are three hundred feet below the framework, level of the shows, Black Sea. In that area floodwaters could cover hills rising three hundred feet above the example in research, plain, and if deeper depressions had existed at some earlier time, then even loftier mountains might have been covered in teenage fashion shows, a flood of the region. Although Lyell recognized that the majority of older commentators held to the geographical universality of the example framework in research proposal, flood and hotel locator, that both Deluc and Buckland had eloquently and zealously supported the notion of of conceptual framework in research a great flood that worked a considerable alteration in the external configuration of our continents, he expressed agreement with Fleming that the biblical narrative did not indicate the impetuous rushing of the waters, either as they rose or when they retreated. For Lyell as for Fleming, the survival of the olive branch seemed a clear indication that vegetation had not been destroyed in the deluge. Lyell confessed reluctance to talk about the flood at all because of the sensitive nature of people's feelings about the subject. He concluded his digression by asserting that he had always considered both the causes and effects of the flood to be in the preternatural category beyond the reach of philosophical inquiry. And he warned those who were anxious to point out the coincidence of geological phenomena with the occurrence of such a general catastrophe that they must neglect no one of the circumstances enumerated in the Mosaic history, least of fashion shows all so remarkable a fact as that the olive remained standing while the waters were abating.

Lyell tried as nicely as he could without offending anyone to say that he did not see any geological evidence to support the example of conceptual proposal, notion of a global catastrophe. Indeed, he found that the hotel, strictest interpretation of the scriptural narrative does not warrant us in expecting to find any geological monuments of the catastrophe, a conclusion consistent with the preservation of the volcanic cones of Auvergne. Summary of Early Nineteenth-Century on the Flood. Naturalists of the early nineteenth century accumulated a great deal of information that led to changes in their view of earth's history and the role of the Noachic deluge in it. Example Proposal! They all paid scrupulous attention to symbols the full spectrum of available geological information and adjusted their ideas in response to that information. Many of example them were orthodox Christians, and yet they felt no need to distort the evidence they encountered in royal mail hr number, order to sustain their belief in the biblical deluge. One finds no appeal to miracle on the part of even the most ardent advocate of the deluge, William Buckland. The premier geologists were persuaded that existing geological evidence supported the notion of a global or at example framework in research least continental deluge. Every one of them rejected the old diluvialism which attributed the teenage shows, deposition of fossiliferous secondary and tertiary strata to the flood, however.

They identified only surface deposits as the framework in research, effects of the deluge. Even that view collapsed, however, because of the importance that these men placed on extrabiblical evidence. Buckland, Sedgwick, and others ultimately abandoned nineteenth-century diluvialism when it became clear that gravels, valleys, polished rocks, cave deposits, and Essay on Harold Pinter's 1971, the like could no longer be satisfactorily understood as the result of a giant deluge. Example Of Conceptual! Because the Christian naturalists of the era were unafraid of God-given evidence, they recognized that extrabiblical information provided a splendid opportunity for closer investigation of the biblical text in order to clear up earlier mistakes in teenage fashion shows, interpretation. Biblical expositors of the period were more reluctant to grapple with extrabiblical data in so forthright a manner, as we will see. The Coming of the Ice Age -- the of conceptual, Frozen Flood. The diluvial explanation of gravels, boulders, and catcher in the, wide river valleys had suffered a fatal setback by 1840. Although James Hutton and John Playfair had described before 1800 the effects of glaciation, their work attracted little attention. Unaware of their contributions, Ignatz Venetz (1788-1859), a civil engineer, and Jean de Charpentier (1786-1855) a mining engineer whose father had been a professor at Werner's Freiberg Academy, undertook careful investigations of glacial phenomena in the Alps during the example in research proposal, 1820s and 1830s. Charpentier recognized that erratic boulders, gravels, and mail, sandy drift in the mountains had been deposited by framework in research proposal melting glaciers and that broad U-shaped valleys were excavated by advancing ice.

He also realized that Swiss glaciers had been larger in the past. In 1836 a brilliant young Swiss naturalist, Louis Agassiz (1807-1873) a student of learned Cuvier and professor in the College of Neuchatel who was already renowned for pioneering studies on example framework proposal fossil fish, was given a guided tour of glacial phenomena in the Rhone River valley by Charpentier. Aware that Charpentier explained Swiss erratics and gravels as glacial deposits, Agassiz was skeptical at first but quickly became an american beauty, enthusiastic convert. Of Conceptual Framework! He immediately undertook extensive field research throughout Europe and the British Isles and had already gleaned sufficient information by the summer of learned 1837 to create a sensation with a lecture before the Swiss Society of Natural History announcing that vast ice sheets had covered the northern continents all the way to the Mediterranean Sea during the Pleistocene epoch. Example Of Conceptual Proposal! [63] Not unexpectedly, William Buckland was extremely interested in Agassiz's startling hypothesis. Catcher In The! Hoping to discount Agassiz's new ideas, Buckland participated in one of the most significant field trips in history in October 1838. Agassiz showed Buckland several examples of polished, striated bedrock and transported erratics on the southeastern slopes of the Jura mountains near Neuchatel. Together they examined glaciers in the Alps.

Buckland received a firsthand lesson in the capabilities of flowing ice and example of conceptual framework in research proposal, was convinced that alpine glaciers had once been much more extensive. He informed Agassiz that he had seen similar phenomena in Scotland and England and had attributed them to diluvial action, but he now realized that flowing ice accounted for such features much more satisfactorily than an aqueous catastrophe ever could. Buckland had become a glacialist. Learned! Lyell soon followed. Agassiz issued a full-scale work in 1840 entitled Etudes sur les Glaciers . He, Buckland, and Lyell also gave important papers in late 1840 before the Geological Society of London on the evidence that glaciers had covered Scotland, Ireland, and England in the distant past, pointing out: the widespread occurrence of example framework in research proposal moraines, shoreline terraces of ancient lakes, and striated and polished bedrock. General skepticism reigned. Many believed that the action of icebergs swept over land accounted for some of the mail, features more effectively than the action of of conceptual framework in research proposal glaciers.

In a few years, however, Agassiz's theory of a great continental ice sheet prevailed because it explained so much about the erratics, polished rocks, gravels, and wide valleys that had been previously puzzling in the context of the deluge hypothesis. A scant two decades after his inaugural lecture, Buckland had completely repudiated diluvial catastrophism and had warmly embraced the concept of a great ice age. In Rupke's words, Buckland saw glaciation as the 'grand key' to the diluvial phenomena. Many of his contemporaries eventually followed. [64] Development of the Geological Time Scale. While the great debates over the flood and learned intelligence, glaciation were going on, geologists were also occupied with detailed mapping and subdivision of the simple geological time scale inherited from the eighteenth century. Example Of Conceptual Proposal! By the mid-1800s, the time scale had become highly refined. [65] The subdivisions were worked out intelligence, primarily in the British Isles and western Europe, where thick successions of fossiliferous strata abounded.

The secondary rocks of England were fruitfully subdivided. Proposal! These rocks consisted of a very thick series of strata that had first been mapped by shows William Smith. In a book issued in 1822, William Conybeare and William Phillips carefully described, refined, and extended the sequence and example framework proposal, lumped the strata into groups of related units. Learned! For example, they defined the succession of strata including a prominent formation in Scotland and western England known as the Old Red Sandstone and the overlying formations including the of conceptual framework in research, Coal Measures as the Carboniferous Order because of the intelligence, abundance of coal in of conceptual framework proposal, the succession. During the latter 1830s, Adam Sedgwick and Roderick Murchison mapped and described a terrane of rocks that lay beneath the Old Red Sandstone in Devonshire and labeled it Devonian . [66] Sedgwick and Murchison also mapped the transition rocks of Wales over a period of years. [67] Despite bitter disputes about rye text how to classify these strata, the geological community ultimately recognized a Cambrian and Silurian system in these strata. Smith's claim that different strata were characterized by distinctive fossil remains was amply borne out by these later investigations. Murchison successfully applied the British succession to rocks in European Russia in of conceptual framework in research, 1840. [68] There he recognized rocks that he assigned to the Silurian , Devonian , and Carboniferous systems on marriott hotel locator the basis of their fossil content.

Despite the fact that the rock types did not always precisely match those in Britain, strata with Silurian fossils did lie beneath strata with Devonian fossils, which in turn lay beneath the formations with Carboniferous fossils. On another trek toward the in research proposal, Urals the following year, Murchison found another group of strata with unfamiliar fossils above the beauty, Carboniferous units. He named this series Permian after the nearby town of Perm. Back in Britain, geologists subdivided rocks that lay above the Carboniferous. Southeastern-most England contained formations made up of thick chalk deposits underlain by sands and marls.

These chalks were traced across the English Channel into France and Belgium, where they had been designated the framework, Cretaceous Terrane in marriott, 1822 by Jean Baptiste Julien d'Omalius d'Halloy (1783-1875). Beneath the example, British chalk and marl are various limestones. Because of the abundant spherical pellets known as oolites in many of the limestones, the entire series was first known as the Oolitic , but eventually the term Jurassic was applied because the learned intelligence, rocks contained similar fossils and occupied the example in research, same stratigraphic position as limestones in the Jura mountains. Rocks beneath the on Harold Pinter's 1971 Old Times, limestones and overlying the Carboniferous rocks correlated with so-called Trias strata in Germany and were eventually identified as the Triassic . Even tertiary strata were subdivided. In the third volume of his Principles of Geology (1833), Lyell described rocks of the Eocene , Miocene , and Pliocene epochs. These subdivisions of the tertiary were based on the relative percentage of modern species of fossil shells in the strata. The term Quaternary was employed by 1829 to describe alluvial, lacustrine, and volcanic material overlying consolidated Tertiary beds in proposal, France. The term Pleistocene also was applied to Quaternary deposits to locator describe formations overlaying Pliocene deposits -- what Lyell had earlier termed later Pliocene deposits. By the early 1840s, a detailed geological time scale had been worked out on the basis of of conceptual framework in research proposal successions of mail superposed sedimentary strata distinguished by characteristic fossils. The primitive, transition, secondary, and tertiary gave way to the Precambrian , Cambrian , Silurian , Devonian , Carboniferous , Permian , Triassic , Jurassic , Cretaceous , Tertiary , and Quaternary , and example of conceptual framework in research proposal, the Tertiary was subdivided into Eocene , Miocene , and Pliocene strata. [69] These rock sequences could be traced all across Europe and were always found to occupy the same relative order. Although strata of a given system might be missing locally, rocks were never found out of sequence where the strata were clearly in rye text, a right-side-up position.

Rocks containing Triassic fossils were always found lower than rocks containing Jurassic fossils, for example, and rocks containing Silurian fossils were always found lower than rocks containing Devonian fossils. With increasing confidence geologists subdivided strata around the world on the basis of superposition and fossil content. They also found that rocks belonging to in research proposal different periods were often separated from one another by royal erosional surfaces known as unconformities, indicating that periods of uplift, tilting, and erosion had occurred several times during the deposition of a given sequence of sedimentary rocks. Example Of Conceptual Framework! Increasingly detailed studies disclosed features indicating that the layers must have been deposited over long periods of time in alternating marine and terrestrial environments. In the Essay on Harold Pinter's 1971 Old Times, face of the wealth of of conceptual framework in research proposal new data, no reputable geologist any longer attributed the consolidated fossiliferous strata to the action of the flood. New Paleontological Discoveries. While they were engaged in their detailed mapping and subdivision of beauty symbols strata and expansion of the geologic time scale, naturalists were also discovering spectacular fossilized dragons, monstrous marine and example proposal, terrestrial vertebrates that made the beauty symbols, extinct elephants appear tame by comparison. Some of the most impressive remains were encountered in the Jurassic and Cretaceous beds of southern England by in research proposal Mary Anning (1799-1847), who at the age of eleven found a skeleton of an Ichthyosaurus , a sleek, sharp-toothed, fast-swimming marine reptile. A few years later she found remnants of a Plesiosaurus , a vastly longer swimming reptile, and in 1828 she encountered a fossil pterodactyl , a great airborne reptile with a long beak and membranous wings. Picture right: Pterosaur ( Pterodactylus kochi ), upper Jurassic, approx 150 million years old. Cuvier also described finds of locator Jurassic and Cretaceous vertebrates, including a pigeon-sized pterodactyl and a fierce fifteen- to example of conceptual in research proposal twenty-foot-long marine lizard that Conybeare had named Mosasaurus . Remains of a variety of extinct species were discovered in the Stonefield Slate not far from Oxford.

Caves yielded bones and skulls of several extinct mammals including hyenas and the cave bear. In 1824, Buckland described Megalosaurus , a gigantic terrestrial reptile reconstructed from teeth, jaws, and bones from the Stonefield Slate. Cuvier estimated that the creature had been about forty feet long. Not to be outdone, Gideon Mantell (1790-1852), an outstanding British amateur paleontologist, found a more complete specimen whose thigh bones prompted his estimate that it had been surty feet long. Mantell had also collected crocodile and plesiosaur teeth and bones. In 1822, Mantell's wife found the earliest specimens of Iguanodon , and years later, Mantell described another extinct lizard, Hylaeosaurus . Hotel Locator! [70] One of the great collectors of the era was anatomist Richard Owen (1804-1892) of the Royal College of proposal Surgeons, arguably England's premier paleontologist of the rnid-nineteenth century. [71] Owen described and hr number, reconstructed skeletons of several great extinct lizards and in 1841 proposed the establishment of a new suborder of of conceptual framework in research proposal Saurian Reptiles, for which I would propose the name of Essay on Harold 1971 Dinosauria . [72] He also described several extinct South American mammals. By 1850 numerous small extinct land animals had also been described. Fossil kangaroos were found in Australia. Example Of Conceptual In Research Proposal! Fossil sloths were found in the Americas.

The rapidly expanding list of newly recognized extinct land animals inevitably raised a variety of questions in teenage fashion, connection with the biblical account of the flood. The first major issue concerned the contents of the ark. By this point, it had really ceased to be an issue for established geologists, who were altogether convinced by a weight of evidence that seemed both incontrovertible and framework in research, compelling. They were accustomed to interpreting Jurassic and Cretaceous strata as deposits that had been formed millions of years before the advent of human beings. Catcher In The Rye Text! But for laypeople, theologians untrained in the physical sciences, and example, non-professional scriptural naturalists who worked from outdated geological theory or otherwise continued to teenage fashion shows think of fossiliferous strata as flood deposits, the issue was extremely problematic. Those who insisted that all species of all land animals had been preserved on the ark now had to include among them not only lions and bears but also mastodons , mammoths , giant sloths , pterodactyls , megalosaurs , iguanodons , hylaeosaurs , and a host of other extinct mammals. The prospect of an ark with pairs of forty-foot-long monsters aboard stretched the of conceptual, limits of teenage fashion credulity. The most obvious way to avoid the problem was to example framework in research assume that God had eliminated such beasts in the catastrophe, but that involved a departure from a strict literal interpretation of the biblical account, which states that God preserved at least two of every kind of beast in the ark . To this day, this problem is mail hr number not faced squarely by proponents of flood geology. A second issue related to animal migration. Discoveries indicated that certain animals occurred as fossils only in specific and limited areas.

Fossil kangaroos , for example proposal, example, were found only in Australia, and fossil sloths were found only in the Americas. The problem of migration thus became doubly severe for those who wished to preserve a literal reading of the teenage shows, biblical text: they not only had to argue that kangaroos found the means to migrate from the ark to Australia after the flood but they also had to argue that kangaroos had found a way to migrate from Australia to the ark before the flood. After 1850 no professional paleontologist felt it necessary or warrantable to assume the occurrence of a global deluge. Despite the unceasing deluge of example of conceptual framework proposal discoveries in the early decades of the century that devastatingly annihilated the global deluge theory, a few writers resisted the tendency of geologists to hotel develop theories apart from a recognition of Mosaic history. Some objected to Buckland's restricted brand of diluvialism. Some sought to update the diluvialism of Woodward and Catcott. Example Framework Proposal! For the most part, as James R. Moore observed, these individuals were clergymen, linguists, and antiquaries -- those, in general, with vested interests in mediating the meaning of books, rather than rocks, in churches and classrooms. In The Rye Text! A few were competent field observers who had described regional geology. In any event, reflecting an undying attachment to biblical literalism, England spawned a reactionary movement of framework scriptural geologists. [73] The scriptural geologies of such people as Granville Penn , George Young , George Bugg , Joseph Sutcliffe , George Fairholme , Sharon Turner , and William Kirby were typically marked by a strict adherence to literal readings of the flood narrative -- until they chose to make exceptions. [74] They typically proceeded by forcing selected geological data into the historical framework they believed to be supplied by a literal interpretation of Genesis; along the way, they typically ignored a sizable amount of problematic geological and royal mail hr number, paleontological data.

Perhaps pride of place among the scriptural geologies belongs to example of conceptual framework in research A Comparative Estimate of the Mineral and Mosaical Geologies , published in 1822 by Granville Penn , a toweringly self-assured and prolix writer. American Beauty Symbols! He argued at some considerable length that, contrary to the assertions of the neptunists, primitive rocks could not have formed by precipitation and crystallization from an initial chaos; rather, as Moses taught, they had been created in situ by God. We would be sure to of conceptual framework in research reason unphilosophically and falsely, Penn asserted, if we were to teenage fashion shows conclude that a piece of granite had formed by aqueous solution or igneous fusion simply because it looked as though it had been formed by water or fire. Primitive formations were made in correspondence with the example of conceptual in research proposal, laws which [God] was then about to establish, said Penn, and in learned, anticipation of effects and of conceptual, appearances which were thenceforward to be produced only by the operations of fashion those laws. [75] Penn also spoke directly to example in research proposal the issue of the flood. The problem with mineral geology, he said, was that it rejected the Bible's revelation of catcher a great universal revolutioni1 that God had brought about by the operation of water. On the third day of of conceptual framework in research proposal creation, a first revolution suddenly deepened the ocean bed, violently allowing water to rush in. A second revolution 1,656 years later depressed the exposed land area and raised the former sea bed, submerging what had formerly been dry land and rendering the former seabed habitable. This was the Noachic flood. True Mosaic geology allowed for these two revolutions only, said Penn.

The practitioners of mineral geology erred by presuming numerous revolutions. Scripture provided a true chronological order of geological events consisting of teenage a first formation, a first revolution on the third day of creation, a long period of relative calm, and a second revolution during the flood. Penn argued that calcareous deposits and other marine substances were quietly deposited during the 1,656-year interval between the two revolutions. During the flood, incessant cataracts of rain and the overflow of the rivers stripped off soils and vegetation. Vertebrate remains and the bulk of stratified rocks were distributed by eddies, tides, and of conceptual framework proposal, the continuous flux and reflux of currents.

Equatorial animals were transported to northern sites by the flood. American Beauty! Human beings, on the other hand, would have been clustered together and drawn into the vortex created by of conceptual framework the conflux of the two seas meeting from the opposite hemispheres on the subsidence of the last intervening land; and would thus have been immediately carried downward with violence, into the profundity of the new sea. [76] Despite insisting on strict adherence to the Bible concerning other points, Penn asserted that the catcher rye text, ark had not in example of conceptual in research proposal, fact carried representatives of all the earth's animals. He stated that the on Harold Pinter's 1971, extinction of of conceptual framework proposal animals such as the mastodon was divinely ordained as part of royal God's plan of renovation. He also affirmed that since vegetation could not have survived a devastating year-long flood, God must have created postdiluvial vegetation just like the example of conceptual proposal, original vegetation. [77] Penn recognized that his thesis had other difficulties as well. He wondered, for example, why the rivers of the garden of Eden had familiar names if the surface of the postdiluvian earth were wholly new. His solution was to resort to the exegetical subterfuge of postulating that the description of the rivers was a parenthesis inserted into the direct thread of the in the rye text, history for the purpose of illustration. The fluvial description introduced into the four verses , cannot therefore be regarded, critically, as any part of the of conceptual in research proposal, Mosaical history, he wrote, and so had no weight to affect the strong evidence of the Mosaic history of the destruction of the primitive earth by the deluge.

Even the most enthusiastic biblical literalist found it increasingly difficult to marriott hotel devise scientific theories without abandoning literalism at key points. Another reactionary effort was tucked in of conceptual in research proposal, an appendix to the Bridgewater Treatise written by William Kirby , a biologist of modest accomplishments and intelligence, one-time president of the Royal Society. [78] He admitted that his knowledge of geological science was limited, and his work bore it out. In asserting that geologists had not paid sufficient attention to the magnitude, duration, momentum, varied agency, and. Of Conceptual Framework Proposal! consequences of the biblical flood, he betrayed an apparent ignorance of the beauty, fact that the field had been dominated by various flood theories during the previous 150 years but that all reputable professionals had long since abandoned diluvialism. His assertions were all badly dated -- he named abyssal waters, torrential rain, and volcanoes as sources for the flood, for instance, and cited the framework, abundant fossils in hotel locator, stratified rocks as clear evidence of the action of the diluvial waters -- and in general he sought to attribute far more effects to the flood than any geologist was prepared to. One of the most influential scriptural geologists was George Fairholme , whose masterwork New and of conceptual framework in research proposal, Conclusive Physical Demonstrations Both of the Pinter's, Fact and Period of the Mosaic Deluge was issued in 1837. In Research! Fairholme lamented the beauty, fact that belief in of conceptual framework proposal, a universal deluge was vanishing and that such scholars as Sedgwick and Buckland had recanted their earlier diluvialism. Despite the growing body of evidence to american symbols the contrary, Fairholme optimistically announced that evidences of a general deluge had recently assumed the character of complete demonstration . by a mass of example of conceptual proposal exclusively physical testimony. What was this physical testimony that somehow failed to convince the geologists who were spending their lives investigating it? Undaunted by the widespread knowledge of the existence of unconformities, conglomerates, and steeply tilted strata of constant thickness, Fairholme forwarded the untenable claim that the beauty symbols, sedimentary rocks contained no evidence of great age and were deposited rapidly and continuously in a moist state so that each individual stratum was unconsolidated when the example of conceptual framework in research, next layer was deposited on top of it.

Ignoring countless reported observations of geologists, Fairholme further claimed that he had not personally seen a single instance of a well-defined ancient valley on the subterranean surface of any individual formation, and on this basis he proceeded to Pinter's Old Times conclude that secondary strata could not have been formed by causes in existence today. [79] To support his assertion that the deluge occurred only example framework proposal a few thousand years ago, Fairholme calculated from the rate of recession of Niagara Falls that the river began to flow there only five thousand years ago. Since North America is underlain by aqueous sedimentary rocks that now form dry land, he said, the continent must have emerged from the Essay Pinter's 1971, sea at that time. When the land rose, Lake Erie began to example in research overflow its basin, and the Niagara River began to Essay on Harold carve out the falls. [80] Such assertions were quite unsupportable on the basis of the in research, science of the day, much less thereafter. Early Nineteenth-Century Theological Responses to Scientific Developments. How did leading theologically conservative commentators assess the accumulation of geological, biogeographical, and geomorphological evidence in the early nineteenth century? In commentaries on Genesis and dictionary articles on the flood, we encounter a broad spectrum of approaches ranging from those of Charles Simeon to Edward Robinson. At one extreme, Charles Simeon (1759-1836), founder of the low church party in the Church of England, completely avoided all the catcher, thorny problems and example of conceptual in research, all interaction with other writers in his Expository Outlines on the Whole Bible (1833). Assuming the universality of the flood to be unproblematic, Simeon was concerned only with the moral and spiritual applications of the flood story to the lives of individual believers and to the life of the church. Royal! At the opposite extreme was Edward Robinson (1794-1863), founder of the journal Biblical Repertory and professor of biblical literature at Andover and Union Theological Seminaries. Robinson, a thoroughly conservative scholar but one of the first Americans to example of conceptual in research proposal admit the rights of biblical criticism, painstakingly, if erroneously, dealt with much of the relevant extrabiblical material. Old Times! [81] Most nineteenth-century commentators continued to assume the literal historicity and universality of the deluge.

Some assigned a date to the deluge by proposal extrapolating from genealogies and other chronological markers in the biblical text. Methodist commentator Adam Clarke (1762-1832) put the flood at 2468 BC, while Robinson put it at 2348 BC. Courses on the chronology and history of the biblical books formed an catcher in the, important component of American seminary curricula of the period, and William Hales 's massive multi-volume work A New Analysis of Chronology and Geography, History, and Prophecy filled an important niche as a resource. Hales (1747-1831) was an Irish chronologist, a professor of Oriental languages at Trinity College, Dublin, and later the rector of Killashandra. His work originally appeared in three volumes between 1809 and 1812, and a second four-volume edition appeared in 1830 just prior to his death. Hales's study included a table of suggested dates for the onset of the deluge ranging from the Septuagint's 3246 BC to the 2104 BC of the Vulgar Jewish Computation.

He preferred 3155 BC himself. The Capacity of the Ark. Discussions of the ark's capacity, frequently based on appeals to seventeenth-century calculations, were often stunningly out of touch with the latest knowledge. Adam Clarke was justly famed throughout England as an outstanding Wesleyan preacher, scholar, and churchman, and it has been said that the scholarship in his massive Bible commentary is marked by an amazing openness regarding difficulties and points of example of conceptual framework proposal detail in the biblical text. He gives evidence of american some acquaintance with the science of his day as well, although he appealed to John Arbuthnot 's calculation of example of conceptual in research proposal ark capacity and shows, adopted the common argument that the number of animals was much less than commonly perceived. He acknowledged that later discoveries had established a greater number of example of conceptual framework species than were known to Arbuthnot or John Wilkins (whose calculations he also warmly approved), but he blithely proceeded to state without demonstration that the whole of these would occupy but little room in the ark.

He failed to deal in any way with the issue of the larger number of extinct animals that had turned up in the fossil record, in the end simply affirming confidently that the capacity of the symbols, ark, which has been made an objection against of conceptual framework in research, Scripture, ought to be esteemed a confirmation of its Divine authority. In The Rye Text! [82] Edward Robinson made his observations concerning the ark's capacity in his updated 1832 American edition of the Dictionary of the Holy Bible, a massive work originally compiled in 1730 by eighteenth-century French Roman Catholic scholar Augustin Calmet (1672-1757). Robinson, according to Jerry Wayne Brown the one American scholar to achieve an international reputation in biblical studies before the Civil War, was especially careful to bring material on philology, interpretation, and geography up to the highest standards of contemporary scholarship. Yet in the matter of the flood narrative, Robinson apparently relied on Calmet's antiquated arguments, for, like Clarke, he wrote that the number of animals on the ark was not so great as generally believed, used outdated estimates of the number of known species, and made no mention of extinct mammals. His estimates were scarcely larger than those of Ralegh and example framework in research, Wilkins despite the explosion of knowledge about the world's animals. Although acknowledging that modern discoveries have augmented the variety of species of beasts and birds, he claimed that the number of them is not sufficiently great to annul the argument he has adduced.

He went on to endorse the outdated argument that the number of species increased substantially after the flood as well: The innumerable varieties of species now known, are greatly the effect of climate, of food, of habit, whether roving or domesticated, and these would allow for considerable deductions from the general mass of creatures in learned, the Ark. [83] Hales claimed that the ark could have carried 20,000 men with provisions for six months plus 1,800 cannons and associated military stores. Of Conceptual Framework In Research Proposal! Could we then doubt its ability to contain eight people and shows, 250 pairs of four-footed animals? Despite Hales's efforts to eliminate mistakes from his earlier edition, his figures, too, were outdated, and he took no account of extinct species. [84] Methodist minister Joseph Sutcliffe had not only written books on scriptural geology but also published a commentary on the entire Bible. In Research Proposal! Offended by a lecture suggesting that the ark would not have been able to hold pairs of all the in the rye text, world's creatures, Sutcliffe responded by opting for a cubit not less than thirty inches long, forgetting that an enlarged cubit solved nothing if all the animals were correspondingly larger. Of Conceptual Proposal! [85] The ark, he thought, must have been equal to ten or twelve first-rate ships of war. Although claiming John Wilkins as one of the best writers on teenage fashion the capacity of the ark, Sutcliffe himself made no estimate of the number of framework known species. The German evangelical Lutheran Heinrich A. C. Learned! Havernick (1811-1845), a theologian at the University of Konigsberg who endorsed E. Example Of Conceptual Framework In Research Proposal! W. Hengstenberg's conservatism on questions of learned intelligence Old Testament authorship and example of conceptual proposal, unity, confidently asserted that excellent mathematicians had shown that the ark could contain more than 6,600 kinds of animals: this fact has remained till now unrefuted, as from its nature it cannot be otherwise. [86] While Clarke accounted for the ark's capacity in naturalistic terms, he appealed to miracle to account for mail hr number, how the pairs of animals were brought in an orderly fashion to the ark and how the carnivores lived in peace with the other animals for example of conceptual proposal, a year. Fashion Shows! Robinson granted that a quick migration of animals to the ark from the extreme heat of Africa or the coldest parts of the North might well have proved fatal to them but argued that they could have escaped that fate had they migrated by in research insensible degrees or been bred there.

Moreover, he wrote, animals not now living in Mesopotamia might have lived there in Noah's time. Havernick wanted to solve the rye text, problem the same way. In support, Robinson pointed out that several animal species were formerly abundant in framework, countries where none presently existed. He knew that fossils of the teenage fashion, hippopotamus, wolf, and beaver had been recovered from framework proposal England, and he knew that cranes and storks had formerly bred in England as well as Holland. Despite Robinson's awareness of some contemporary paleontological discoveries, he failed to recognize that various American and Australian animals had no fossil counterparts in Europe, Asia, or the Middle East. Theories of the Flood.

Several commentators believed that physical evidence plainly pointed to the flood, but virtually all were acquainted at best only teenage shows with outdated science. In his inaugural address at the opening of the Presbyterian Princeton Theological Seminary in framework in research proposal, 1812, founding professor Archibald Alexander (1772-1851) urged those preparing for gospel ministry to become scientifically literate. Noting that natural history, chemistry, and royal hr number, geology have sometimes been of important service in assisting the Biblical student to example framework proposal solve difficulties contained in Scripture, Alexander stressed the importance for the advocate of the Bible to attend to truth in catcher, all its forms. The sacred office would suffer contempt if the theologian or minister failed to take due heed to science. Example Of Conceptual In Research! [87] We should not be surprised, then, to find that in his teaching about the biblical flood, Alexander appealed to both tradition and teenage shows, physical evidence. The tradition of the flood has been handed down through successive generations in almost every country, he said, and is attested in the physical record as well: We find traces of the deluge in every part of the world, such as marine substances on example framework in research proposal the highest mountains. The fact that bones and relics of sea and land animals are promiscuously mingled together in many parts of the earth. can never be reconciled with the theories of unbelievers, that the sea and land have by degree changed places. [88] Alexander quoted no sources, so we do not know where he received his ideas.

His writing suggests that he thought that fossils in stratified rocks on mountaintops were the royal hr number, result of the in research proposal, flood, however, which would have put him decades out of touch with the best geological thinking, but he may have had in mind the learned intelligence, geomorphological and paleontological evidence in surficial deposits to which some late eighteenth-century and early nineteenth-century naturalists had appealed. Adam Clarke contended that an immense quantity of water occupied the center of the antediluvian earth. As this burst forth at God's command, circumambient strata sank and filled the vacuum occasioned by the elevated waters. God could have used lightning to convert the whole atmosphere into of conceptual in research water had he wished to do so. As it was, the incessant glare of lightning and the continual peals of thunder added indescribable horrors to the scene.

The rain and on Harold, the abyss together were sufficient to overflow the earth and to dissolve the whole terrene fabric as judicious naturalists had supposed. Clarke appealed to the outdated works of John Ray and John Woodward, who, he said, had rendered it exceedingly probable that the of conceptual framework in research proposal, whole terrestrial substance was amalgamated with the waters, after which the symbols, different materials of its composition settled in beds or strata according to their respective gravities. He was not concerned with long-standing objections that existing strata are not ordered in anything like ascending specific gravities; he maintained that any such anomalies could be attributed to disruptions introduced by example of conceptual in research proposal earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Teenage Shows! As Woodward had shown, every part of the earth bore unequivocal evidence of disruption and violence. The present disordered state of the world could not be an original creation of the example framework, God of order.

The globe everywhere bore the marks of the symbols, crimes of men, and of the justice of God. The most recent geologist to whom Clarke referred was Richard Kirwan, apparently unaware of the fact that Kirwan disagreed with Woodward's assertion that all sedimentary rocks could be attributed to the flood, he completely overlooked the work of of conceptual in research such recent geologists as Buckland, Sedgwick, and Fleming. Chronologist William Hales specifically adopted Kirwan's idea that the main current of deluge waters came from the south and cited as evidence the deep indentations in the southern coasts of Asia, Africa, America, Ceylon, and Madagascar. Teenage Fashion! He argued that the universality and northerly course of the deluge were also evidenced by the abundant fossils in the Alps and example of conceptual framework proposal, Pyrenees, bivalves high in the Andes, skeletons of rhinoceroses and hippopotamuses in Siberia, and frozen mammoths in Essay Pinter's, Siberia. Despite Buckland's compelling argument for a northerly source of the example, deluge, Hales concluded that we have no longer room to doubt of the teenage fashion, northerly progress of the cataracts of the deluge from high southern regions. Of Conceptual In Research! The fact that Hales cited invertebrates in marriott hotel, stratified rocks as examples of flood relics shows that he, too, was appealing to example framework in research proposal substantially outdated theory. [89] Isaac Voss 's local flood hypothesis bothered Edward Robinson. He wondered how Voss could know that parts of the teenage shows, world outside the example framework, Near East were uninhabited at the time of the flood. Why would such a prodigious ark need to be built? And if a local flood had covered the mountains of Armenia, would it not have spread into neighboring countries?

But Robinson was also aware of the difficulties of universality. The greatest problem as he saw it was the quantity of water needed, and he resolved it with an appeal to catcher rye text the subterranean abyss. Example Of Conceptual Framework In Research Proposal! But what of the cold that would have affected Noah and teenage fashion, the animals at the great heights to which they would have been elevated by the waters? Robinson asserted that, although air is colder and sharper on the tops of the highest mountains, people do not die there from those causes. In any event, he thought it likely that the colder air would have been raised yet higher by the rising envelope of flood water, so that the ark's passengers probably breathed nearly, or altogether, the same air as they would have ordinarily breathed a thousand or twelve hundred paces lower, that is, on the surface of the earth. Robinson liked Burnet's theory but wished that he hadn't gone to such extremes. He thought it credible that the state of the globe before the example framework proposal, deluge was different from that of the present. He also cited Woodward approvingly, noting that he had produced proofs of this great event still remaining in sufficient abundance -- proofs that had since been enlarged by others, including Buckland. Like Clarke, Robinson seemed unaware that Woodward's views had long since been discredited and he failed to grasp the fact that Buckland's flood was totally different from Woodward's.

Sutcliffe theorized that God increased the powers of gravitation at the time of the flood, causing the seas to rush onto the land in increasingly high tides until the mountains were washed and the latent rocks presented their shaggy cliffs. Sutcliffe was evidently familiar with the views of marriott Whiston and Halley, because he specifically rejected them, arguing that the waters that overflowed the mountains were held there neither by the laws of gravity nor by the approach of a comet. He was probably more comfortable with the views of example of conceptual framework in research proposal Woodward, Catcott, and Penn, as suggested by his repeated references to the flux and reflux of tides that stratified the earth and left the world of learned plants and trees, which once grew in the warmer climates, deposed in our coal-fields along with numberless plants of which botany is now ignorant. [90] Havernick asserted that remains and traces of framework in research proposal a deluge indicated its universality, but he failed to identify those remains. [91] The Landing Site of the Ark. Discussions of the landing site continued to be important. While agreeing that the teenage fashion, ark landed in Armenia, Clarke disputed claims that the ark remained on Mount Ararat, because nothing of the example of conceptual in research, kind was to be seen there. Contradicting his comments elsewhere, Robinson expressed skepticism that Mount Ararat was the landing site for Noah on the grounds that the cold would have destroyed any person who should have the hardihood to persevere. He adopted the in the rye text, older tradition that the ark came to rest in in research proposal, the mountains of Kurdistan. Sutcliffe observed that the existence of the ark was attested in antiquity by Abydenus, Berossus, and Herodotus and suggested that the ark finally came to rest on Mount Ararat, the elevation of which he estimated at eight thousand feet above sea level. [92]

Summary of Early Nineteenth-Century Theological Responses. Early nineteenth-century Christians had an obvious desire to claim the support of science or natural history for their understanding of the biblical flood story. Essay Pinter's 1971! While the exact relationship of the deluge to surface deposits was still being debated, there was no doubt among leading geologists that the example framework in research proposal, sedimentary rock pile was caused by interchanges of land and catcher in the, sea acting over long periods of time, not by a single brief deluge. Geologists knew that sedimentary layers had consolidated prior to deposition of succeeding layers, and they recognized that deposition had been interrupted by episodes of uplift and erosion. The discoveries of the example of conceptual framework in research, remains of learned mammoths, giant sloths, and various terrestrial dinosaurs in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries made it clear that the world had formerly been populated by a large number of now extinct animals. The difficulty of imagining how all these beasts (and especially the many enormous ones among them) could have entered the ark and survived there for a year presented further challenges to a literal reading of the biblical flood narrative. In addition, the explosion of knowledge of new species of animals and their fossil distribution militated against the assumption that they could all have migrated across the globe to of conceptual framework in research and from the ark. The scriptural geologists had to ignore a vast amount of compelling evidence in order to sustain the traditional view of the flood. Teenage! Whether in ignorance or by example of conceptual framework in research proposal design, many commentators cited as authoritative the writings of naturalists a century or more out of date.

Certainly it became increasingly difficult to make such an error innocently as the burden of evidence continued to mount. And, in fact, as the beauty symbols, nineteenth century wore on, scriptural geology and flood geology schemes in general began to disappear from the scene as Christians began to of conceptual in research face the growing extrabiblical evidence honestly and to seek ways in which they could affirm both the truth of the physical record and Essay Pinter's 1971, the truth of the biblical narrative. The Popularizers of of conceptual in research proposal Geology. During the first half of the nineteenth century, geology throughout Europe and America became an increasingly professional enterprise. Several technical geology journals came into print, university chairs in geology were created, geological societies were founded, and governmental geological surveys were established. Geology emerged as a distinct discipline from natural history, separate from american beauty symbols chemistry and physics. Students of the earth came to be identified as geologists rather than natural philosophers or natural historians. Geology developed its own methods of investigation and became less tied to the demands of biblical exegesis and the interests of orthodox Christian theology.

In Martin J. S. Rudwick's words, geologists gradually excluded as unscientific almost all that had previously made the earth rich in cosmological meaning: the in research, origin of the earth, its ultimate fate, and, above all, the origin and early history of mankind. [93] Technical literature evidenced little concern to relate geological discoveries or theories to biblical texts. Pinter's 1971 Old Times! Geological inquiry was conducted as if the example proposal, Scripture were not in existence, and geology no longer provided evidential support for a global deluge. Because of the increasingly technical character of geology, few biblical scholars or clergy had either access to or time to read such professional journals as the mail, Edinburgh Philosophical Transactions or the Geological Society of London Quarterly, or presidential addresses of the Geological Society. The failure of individuals such as Clarke or Robinson to grapple with the latest geological knowledge is thus partly understandable. At the same time, ordinary Christians seemed to know enough about of conceptual developments in the field to realize that contemporary geologists were abandoning support for a global deluge. Learned! Indeed, many British clergy in example framework, particular, including the scriptural geologists, came to view geology as an in the rye text, infidel science dedicated to undermining Christian orthodoxy.

In this unsettling context, an invaluable service was performed by theologically orthodox popularizers of geology. Several Christian geologists, professional and of conceptual framework, amateur, as well as some geologically knowledgeable theologians, wrote eloquently for the Christian community to introduce them to earth history and to convince them that, far from posing any threat to Christianity, recent discoveries harmonized beautifully with Scripture properly understood. These writings, presented in a manner accessible to Christian clergy and teenage fashion shows, theologians, exerted a profound influence among theological conservatives. [94] James R. Moore has argued that the interval between 1832 (the date of the publication of Lyell's Principles of of conceptual in research proposal Geology , which arguably marked the point at royal hr number which the field of geology was professionalized) and 1860 (the date of the publication of Essays and Reviews , which arguably marked the example in research, point at which the field of Old Testament scholarship was professionalized) witnessed the efflorescence'' of scriptural geologists and the harmonizers. He remarked that in Germany an older division of labor had left the reconciling of the findings of american symbols geologists and of conceptual, biblical scholars to a few conservative theologians, whereas in Great Britain and America it was the geologists who did the harmonizing. In what follows we will examine the opinions of three major popularizers -- England's John Pye Smith , America's Edward Hitchcock , and Scotland's Hugh Miller . John Pye Smith (1774-1851), a divinity tutor in the dissenting Homerton College in London, established his conservative credentials early in marriott hotel locator, his career by challenging German biblical criticism. He was well versed in geology and occasionally wrote on geological topics. [95] A landmark set of Smith's lectures was issued in 1840 under the title On the Relation between the Holy Scriptures and Some Parts of Geological Science . Smith was persuaded that contemporary geologists were discovering genuine truths.

He maintained that geologists were honorable and that Christians were wrong to accuse them of being heretics simply because their claims seemed to framework in research contradict traditional interpretations of some Scripture passages. Smith argued that geological truth was compatible with biblical truth. Hotel! He devoted much of his book to showing the compatibility of geology and the Genesis 1 creation account using a novel version of the restitution or gap interpretation, but he also devoted two chapters to proposal the flood. Smith strongly believed that the biblical account was consistent with a limited deluge. Adopting an argument that would become a staple of local flood advocates, Smith wrote, It is evident that 'the earth' is put, by a frequent scriptural metonymy, for the inhabitants of the earth; whence it is learned intelligence reasonable to infer that the universal terms in our text have their proper reference to mankind, the subjects of guilt, whose flagitious character cried for example in research proposal, a condign manifestation of Jehovah's displeasure. [96] Smith was convinced of the american beauty symbols, historicity of the flood, citing the framework in research, histories and traditions of all nations as adequate proof that the cataclysm was indelibly graven upon the memory of the human race. But he was surprised that so many scholars saw some logical connection between the universality of historical tradition, and hotel, a geographical universality of the deluge itself.

He insisted that all that could be proved by the traditions was anthropological universality. Smith discussed examples of British drift that had often been cited as evidence of the deluge and of conceptual, asserted that such formations had probably been deposited before the creation of man. Writing before acceptance of the glacial hypothesis, Smith suggested that the rounding of pebbles and boulders in drift required a very long time of rubbing and grinding by beauty symbols currents, eddies, and example of conceptual framework in research, tides at the bottom of the royal mail, sea. He attributed the blocks of example framework Alpine rocks now found in marriott hotel, the Jura mountains as well as gravels and grooves on example of conceptual outcrop surfaces in North America and Europe to several local deluges. In support, he quoted the recantations of Buckland, Sedgwick, and Greenough from their earlier deluge theories. Smith inferred that the occurrence of most diluvial phenomena in the northern hemisphere was adverse to the admission of symbols a deluge simultaneous and universal for every part of the earth's surface.

The cindery volcanic cones of the Auvergne region could not have survived a monstrous flood. Either the Auvergne volcanoes had formed since the deluge, which he doubted, or else the deluge did not reach to framework in research this part of the earth. Regarding biogeography, Smith conceded that past calculations of the marriott locator, capacity of the ark worked so long as the number of animal species was on the order of four hundred, but he rightly charged that recent calculations generally showed the most astonishing ignorance of every branch of Natural History; the catalogue of known species at that time included more than a thousand mammals, five thousand birds, and two thousand reptiles. [97] There was no way that pairs of all these animals could have fit on of conceptual framework in research proposal the ark, said Smith. And then there was the yet greater problem of accounting for the transportation of the animals to and from the ark. He dismissed a variety of ostensible solutions and in general expressed ridicule for. the idea of their being brought into Essay 1971 Old Times one small spot, from the polar regions, the torrid zone, and all the example of conceptual, other climates of catcher in the rye text Asia, Africa, Europe, America, Australia, and example framework proposal, the thousands of islands; their preservation and provision; and intelligence, the final disposal of of conceptual framework proposal them; without bringing up the idea of miracles more stupendous than any that are recorded in Scripture , even what appear appalling in comparison.

The great decisive miracle of Christianity, the RESURRECTION of the LORD JESUS, sinks down before it. [98] He denounced as fanciful the scriptural geologies of Penn, Fairholme, Young, and Kirby. What then, asked Smith, should we make of the flood? The idea of royal mail creation and annihilation of the waters was ruled out by the language of example of conceptual framework Scripture, and we are not at liberty thus to invent miracles, since the royal mail hr number, Bible had already assigned two natural causes. Smith suggested that the biblical terms excluded the idea of example of conceptual in research proposal a sudden and violent irruption and presented the idea of a gentle elevation and later subsidence so that the ark was lifted, floated, and borne over american beauty the awful flood in a calm and quiet manner.

Smith assumed that the human race had not spread far from Eden. The human population was small and in framework, a course of rapid progress towards an learned, extreme reduction, which would have issued in a not very distant extinction. Framework In Research! Adopting an essentially Lyellian subsidence hypothesis, Smith located the antediluvian population in central Asia considerably below sea level. In addition to tremendous rain, he supposed an elevation of the floor of the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean or else a subsidence of the inhabited land of central Asia. These combined, he said, would be sufficient causes, in the hand of almighty justice, for shows, submerging the district, covering its hills, and destroying all living beings within its limits. Drainage would be effected by a return of the seabed to its previous level or by uplift of some tracts of land. Finally Smith reminded his readers that the orthodox seventeenth-century clerics Poole and example framework, Stillingfleet had concluded that the Bible spoke of a localized flood on biblical grounds without the benefit of any geological findings. Very influential on American attitudes toward the flood was Edward Hitchcock (1793-1864), student and friend of Benjamin Silliman, a Calvinistic Congregationalist theologian, president of Amherst College, founding member of the Essay on Harold Pinter's, National Academy of Sciences, and expert on New England geology. [99] On numerous occasions, the geologist-theologian took up his pen to elucidate the bearing of geology on Christian faith. According to Stanley Guralnick, Hitchcock saw it as his task to example framework proposal assure the world, especially any skeptics of science, that every finding of geology could then be corroborated in catcher in the, revelation, so that there was never any contradiction between the two accounts of nature. [100] Because Hitchcock wrote for theological and example of conceptual framework in research, ecclesiastical journals, he had a major impact on the thought of theologians and pastors.

In one of american beauty his early efforts, Hitchcock irritated theologian Moses Stuart of Andover Theological Seminary by noting the unsettled character of the exegesis of Genesis 1 and asking whether geology might not put into proposal the interpreter's hand the clue that will disentangle all difficulties. Eager to guard an increasingly professionalized exegesis against learned, any infringement of example framework its rights by royal mail hr number science, Stuart said that he was unable to see how the example of conceptual framework in research, discoveries of modern science and of recent date, can determine the meaning of Moses' words. Undeterred, Hitchcock addressed the topic of the flood in a lengthy article that appeared in The American Biblical Repository, an organ of Congregationalist Andover Seminary, in royal, three parts in 1837 and 1838. [101] In the of conceptual framework, first part, Hitchcock reviewed the biblical story and teenage fashion, extrabiblical flood traditions. Although some of his contemporaries regarded many of the traditions as unrelated, Hitchcock believed that they all originated in the deluge of Noah because many of the gods and demigods resembled Noah and example of conceptual proposal, his sons, the ark was alleged to have been involved in royal mail hr number, heathen worship, and the dove, raven, and rainbow were all featured in ancient mythology. In the second part, Hitchcock reviewed the of conceptual in research proposal, history of ideas regarding the historical and geological deluges. He lamented the fact that some theologians continued to accept the on Harold, old diluvialism in part because of a prevailing ignorance of geology.

What was desperately required, he said, was much more acquaintance with geology, than at present prevails. He rejoiced that at least some advances toward the truth had been made in the previous fifty years. Hitchcock understood why people once believed that fossiliferous stratified rocks were the product of the deluge, but he failed to understand how Kirby, Penn, and Fairholme could continue to in research proposal espouse such discredited views. That such opinions should be advanced by so able a scientist as Kirby, said Hitchcock, simply confirmed the teenage, fact that he knew very little geology. But while ignorance explained the lapse, Hitchcock did not believe it excused it; in fact, he was concerned that Kirby's radically erroneous views might powerfully arrest the progress of truth. Hitchcock dismissed the work of example proposal Penn and Fairholme as physico-theology modernized. He was not impressed by their presumed geological knowledge or unwarranted self-confidence. Mincing no words, he charged that their knowledge of geology was obtained mostly by reading. They so presented facts as to betray at once their want of practical acquaintance with the subject, especially when they were so positive on points which all working geologists know to be quite problematical. He vehemently objected to the practice of accusing geologists of atheism simply because they imputed the changes in the earth's condition to secondary causes.

He repudiated their extravagant theories on the grounds that they greatly distorted geological facts as well as Scripture. Hitchcock flatly rejected the view that primary rocks were created just as we find them, that secondary rocks were deposited between the creation and the deluge, and that tertiary and diluvial strata were deposited by learned the deluge. None but a geologist can know what absurdities must be received, and what distortions made of facts, before such opinions can be embraced. They answered well enough for the times when physico-theology was in its glory; because then it was only a few generalities, and these very misty, that were known: and at this day they can be embraced, without a suspicion of their absurdity, by example of conceptual proposal those who know but few of the details of geology. Yet to the geologist they appear a thousand times more extravagant and opposed to facts than any opinions that have been entertained by the cultivators of teenage fashion shows this science, and which Penn and Fairholme so violently oppose. [102]

Hitchcock recognized three major classes among recent front-rank geologists. The first denied any universal or general deluge, the second believed a general deluge had taken place before the creation of man and believed that the Mosaic deluge was probably a more restricted event, and the third believed that traces of several extensive deluges could be found and that the last of these might have been the Noachic deluge. Hitchcock lumped the example proposal, first two classes together because they agreed that no traces of the Noachian deluge had been found. He argued that their position did not necessarily conflict with revelation, because the catcher rye text, Mosaic account did not require that traces of the deluge remain permanently. It would in framework, fact be unreasonable to expect to find traces of the Mosaic deluge among the fossiliferous secondary or tertiary rocks. For one thing, a tumultuous deluge would have torn up the earth's surface, sweeping detritus elsewhere, but the fossiliferous rocks generally appear to have been deposited in hr number, quiet water and are arranged with great regularity. For another, a year-long flood could not have produced the immense numbers of example framework proposal fossils that had been found. Furthermore, most fossils were not identical to shows existing species of animals and plants, and organic remains become more and example framework proposal, more unlike living beings as we go deeper in a pile of strata. If all animals except those spared on the ark had been killed and entombed by the agitated waters of a deluge, the existing races should be found as often at the bottom as at the top of the american beauty symbols, fossiliferous rocks.

Hitchcock saw no escape from the example of conceptual, force of the evidence unless one maintained that there was an fashion shows, entirely new creation of species that were mostly different from example of conceptual framework in research proposal those destroyed by the deluge. Hitchcock went on to argue that deluge currents would have removed softer parts of the teenage fashion, surface, abraded the harder parts, and produced thin deposits. Example Of Conceptual Framework Proposal! But as similar processes have been going on everywhere since the last deluge, it would probably be difficult after the lapse of centuries to distinguish diluvial from alluvial action. Traces of teenage Noah's deluge might easily be obliterated. Example Framework In Research Proposal! If so, however the fact argues nothing against Essay Old Times, the scriptural account. The absence of traces of the biblical flood should cause no alarm, said Hitchcock, because geology furnished presumptive evidence in favor of the of conceptual, occurrence of such a deluge -- the view of the third class of geologists. Hitchcock marshaled three lines of evidence to support the Bucklandian conclusion that the phenomena of diluvium prove a powerful rush of water from the mail hr number, north over proposal the northern hemisphere. First, boulders and diluvial gravel are found almost uniformly in teenage, a southerly direction from the rocks from which they have been detached. He described a host of occurrences of boulders and gravel throughout New England, the Great Lakes region, Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Although not yet a convert to the ice age theory about to burst on the scientific world, Hitchcock granted that masses of ice might have participated in the diluvial transport by carrying larger boulders to their present locations. After all, would not a rush of water over our continent from the Arctic regions have swept along icebergs? But he maintained that the of conceptual framework in research, vast accumulations of diluvial sand and gravel bore the catcher in the, marks of the action of water. Hitchcock attributed the rounding of the boulders to example of conceptual framework the action of streams that existed prior to the last cataclysm. The second line of evidence included scratches and grooves with a north-south orientation on teenage shows bedrock as well as valleys with the same alignment. Hitchcock asserted that these features, with which he had become thoroughly acquainted in his study of New England's topography, had led most intelligent men to feel as if there could not be much doubt respecting the occurrence of a general deluge in the northern hemisphere in of conceptual in research proposal, comparatively modern times. Hitchcock third line of teenage evidence focused on of conceptual the animal remains found in fashion shows, caverns and fissures. Relying heavily on Reliquiae Diluvianae , Hitchcock could not explain the proposal, phenomena in rye text, any other way, than by example of conceptual framework in research admitting the occurrence of such a catastrophe. But then he raised the big question. Was this alleged deluge identical with that described by shows Moses? He listed three major reasons not to equate the two floods.

First, prior discoveries in geology indicated that progressively older fossiliferous formations contain fossils that are progressively more unlike living organisms. Of Conceptual In Research Proposal! Thus the great preponderance of in the extinct species among the example framework, fossils in the diluvium implied some degree of antiquity. Second, if the purpose of the biblical flood was to wipe out humanity, human remains should be found in flood deposits, but none had been. The only way to escape the force of that argument was to limit antediluvians to central Asia, a region whose diluvium has been as yet little explored. Third, the Mosaic deluge was too short to have produced the diluvial phenomena which geology exhibits. Teenage Shows! Hitchcock tentatively concluded that the arguments against the identity of the two deluges outweighed those in favor.

Even so, he insisted again, no presumption is derived from geology against proposal, the truth of hr number Moses' history of the deluge. To the contrary, there was a presumption in example framework proposal, its favor even on the most unfavorable supposition. In the third part of his series, Hitchcock asked if the Mosaic account was true. Marriott! After reviewing six major objections to the Mosaic chronology, including the argument from biogeography, he argued that the biblical account was true and of conceptual in research proposal, that a localized deluge sufficiently satisfied the demands of the text. He maintained that appeals to hotel miracle solved no problems associated with the flood, and commented that God generally didn't operate through miracle anyway. Hitchcock cautiously endorsed the theory of French geologist Elie de Beaumont (1798-1874) that the sudden catastrophic uplift of mountain chains generated great waves that washed over the continents and that tremendous volcanic eruptions simultaneously triggered torrential rains. [103] If such conclusions were admitted, every reasonable man will allow, that the Mosaic account of the deluge stands forth fairly and fully vindicated from all collision with the proposal, facts of science. Realizing that some people wanted to claim more positively that geology strikingly confirms the Mosaic history, Hitchcock urged his readers to intelligence consider the matter unsettled. In 1851 Hitchcock again tackled the flood in Religion of example of conceptual Geology , a work that included a condensation of learned his three articles with slight shifts in emphasis and a conclusion in which he summarized arguments in favor of a local flood. Only miracle could salvage universality, he argued, and the Bible didn't require miracles here. Proposal! The problems with universality included the sources of such a vast quantity of water, the catcher rye text, difficulty of of conceptual framework in research proposal providing for learned intelligence, the animals in the ark, the distribution of the of conceptual framework in research, animals and plants on the globe after the flood, and the probability that vegetation would have been destroyed. No provision was made for learned, seeds on the ark, and so presumably a new plant creation would have been required, a point to which the biblical text did not speak at all.

Moreover, the Bible often used universal language to describe a limited event. Assuming that human beings occupied only a limited portion of one continent, Hitchcock wondered why it would have been necessary to depopulate all other continents and islands, inhabited only by irresponsible animals, who had no connection with man? He called on Bishop Stillingfleet, Matthew Poole, and John Pye Smith for in research, support. Abandoning Beaumont's uplift hypothesis, Hitchcock turned to Smith's subsidence idea that the Caspian Sea region had been flooded. Symbols! He speculated that volcanic eruptions caused by vertical movements of the Indian Ocean seabed might have condensed enough water vapor to yield forty days of rain.

Hitchcock concluded that even though newer interpretations of the biblical narrative did not seem to be the most natural meaning, yet if geological facts unequivocally require such an interpretation to harmonize the Bible with nature, then science must be allowed to modify our exegesis of Scripture. He suggested that such exegetical modifications would immediately disarm skepticism. And he insisted that the of conceptual framework, Bible still stood as an immovable rock amid the conflicting waves even though no trace of the deluge event remained in nature. Hitchcock had not completely swung over to Moses Stuart's point of view, but, despite his continued allegiance to natural theology and harmonization, his catastrophism had become more placid and he was less concerned about a literal match between Scripture and geological details. Surpassing both Smith and Hitchcock was Hugh Miller (1802-1856), a highly respected and devout Presbyterian who was gifted with an elegance, grace, wit, and clarity of written expression matched by few. In his capacity as editor of teenage fashion shows Witness , the voice of the evangelical wing of the of conceptual proposal, Church of Scotland that ultimately formed the Free Church of Scotland during the Disruption of 1843, Miller gained a reputation as a zealous, eloquent, and trusted defender of Christian orthodoxy. [104] In earlier years, Miller had been a stonemason, and he honed his talents for geological observation during years in the quarries.

He became an amateur geologist who described primitive fossil fish and did pioneering studies of Britain's famous Old Red Sandstone. Miller was highly respected by leading scientists including Agassiz, who wrote a long commendatory introduction to the American edition of Miller's Footprints of the Creator . Miller was indeed an effective popularizer of learned geology. His reputation for theological soundness and his facility with the pen enabled him to reassure Christian believers that geology posed no threat to orthodoxy. Among the harmonizers, Hugh Miller may have been first among equals. [105] Like Hitchcock, Miller attributed the deluge traditions to a historical flood event that was burned into example of conceptual framework in research the consciousness of the race.

He did not believe that the universality of the traditions implied a geographically universal flood, however he maintained that it simply implied that all human beings had descended from those who went through the flood. Given Noah's isolation, there could have been no human testimony to determine whether the exterminating deluge was universal or partial, and Noah himself must have been ignorant of the extent of the deluge. Mail Hr Number! God could have provided that information, but Miller noted that God's revelations usually effected exclusively moral purposes. More generally, Miller asserted that those who have perilously held that the example of conceptual framework proposal, Bible imparted definite physical facts, geographic, geologic, or astronomical along with moral facts ''have almost invariably found themselves involved in monstrous error. Because the teenage shows, extent of the deluge was a physical question that had no more moral implications than the shape or the age of the earth or the motions of the heavenly bodies, there was no need to reveal such information. Miller reminded his readers that the Bible used the common eastern device of metonymy (using the part to signify the whole), so it might well be that a major local inundation would be referred to example of conceptual in research proposal as a universal flood.

He also reminded his readers that Poole and hr number, Stillingfleet had adopted a local flood on solely biblical grounds. In a clear appeal to extrabiblical data, Miller asserted that with respect to example framework proposal the flood as with respect to other biblical references to in the rye text matters of of conceptual framework proposal physical science, the limiting, modifying, explaining facts and circumstances must be sought for in that outside region of beauty secular research, historic and scientific. He believed it essential that the example of conceptual framework in research proposal, church stay as well acquainted with such research as the enemies of the marriott hotel, faith did. From research much valuable biblical illustration had been derived. He warned against ignorance of extrabiblical data, chided those who were content to of conceptual framework proposal solve scientific problems with the Bible alone, and showed that extrabiblical data had frequently corrected erroneous interpretations of the Bible. Plain men who set themselves to in the deduce from Scripture the figure of the planet had little doubt that the earth was flat until corrected by example in research the geographer; plain men who set themselves to acquire from Scripture some notion of the planetary motions thought that the sun moved around an hotel locator, earth at rest until corrected by the astronomer; plain men who have sought to determine from Scripture the age of the earth were confident that the earth was about six thousand years old until corrected by the geologist. In sum, plain men quite properly learned the way of salvation from the Bible, but every time they sought to deduce from in research it what it was not intended to teach -- the truths of physical science -- they have fallen into extravagant error. [106] And if such error is casually or, worse, boldly or even belligerently endorsed, it must necessarily mar the overall credibility of the church. To account for the apparently universal biblical language, Miller asked his readers to think about the impressions an hr number, observer would receive during sudden subsidence of the land or uplift of the seabed. An observer on a boat would be unaware of the cause of what was happening. If subsidence occurred, an intelligent witness could testify to the persistent rise of the example of conceptual in research, sea, accompanied mayhap by rain and tempest.

The witness would testify that it had been flood without ebb, as if the fountains of the great deep had been broken up for many days. But the observer would depart perilously from his position as a witness-bearer if he claimed, when his boat floated above a hill eight hundred feet in elevation that all hills with the hr number, same elevation everywhere were also covered. The observer could not legitimately infer a global deluge from a local depression. Miller joined Smith and of conceptual framework in research proposal, Hitchcock in discounting the old diluvialism. He noted that for learned, fifty years no one acquainted with paleontology or the true succession of the sedimentary formations had believed that any proof of a general deluge can be derived from the older geological systems. Geologists had looked for traces of the deluge in surficial deposits, but John Fleming had clarified the difficulties of that endeavor, and many diluvialists had recanted. Framework In Research! Miller also discounted Granville Penn's assertion that the flood had swept mammoth carcasses across the globe on marriott hotel the grounds that the mammoths were now known to have been native to the areas in which their remains were found. The remains of many extinct species that were once thought to have been transported great distances before being deposited in caves were likewise later determined to have been native to Europe. Miller concluded that the ark would have had to be five or six times larger than the example of conceptual framework in research, generally accepted dimensions to accommodate all known animals. Not only had there been many discoveries of royal new species but naturalists had also come to recognize that many different kinds of animals that had formerly been classified as a single species were in fact distinct species.

There were, for example, far more species of example of conceptual in research proposal sheep than previously recognized. Miller also reminded his readers that the beauty, Bible spoke of at least seven of each clean animal being on the ark, a fact overlooked in many of the older calculations. Miller laid out the biogeographical evidence in more detail than anyone else had before. The migration of the wild animals to example of conceptual in research proposal the ark would have involved a miracle nowhere recorded, he maintained, and the burden of royal mail proof for such a miracle lay on those who asserted a universal deluge. Setting aside the of conceptual in research proposal, issue of whether carnivores could have ceased being carnivorous during the flood time, Miller noted that of the teenage shows, creatures that live on vegetables, many are restricted in their food to single plants, which are themselves restricted to of conceptual framework limited localities and remote regions of the marriott locator, globe.

Many insects had no wings and feeble locomotive powers, some gnats could live for only a few hours or days after losing their wings, and other insects lived only upon single plants. Getting all the animals to the ark posed staggering difficulties, and getting them all back after the flood posed equally staggering difficulties. How would the insects have returned, for instance? As wingless grubs? Miller warned his opponents that the expedient of having recourse to supposititious miracles in order to get over a difficulty insurmountable on every natural principle, is proposal not of the nature of argument, but simply an intelligence, evidence of the want of it. Vastly expanded knowledge of the example of conceptual framework in research, fossil record made the teenage fashion shows, biogeographical argument far more persuasive than it had been only a century earlier. Animals in various parts of the world had been preceded by similar animals. The sloths of South America had been preceded by the extinct megatherium , known only from fossil remains. The kangaroos and example, wombats of Australia had been found as fossils only in that region. Catcher Rye Text! The birds of example of conceptual framework in research New Zealand were found as fossils only in New Zealand.

The problem of the teenage, migration of species to example of conceptual in research and from the learned, ark could not be evaded by recourse to an interchange of land and in research proposal, sea. Miller claimed with devastating logic spiced with biting humor that, on symbols the supposition that a continuous tract of land stretched between South America and of conceptual in research, Asia, it is just possible that, during the hundred and twenty years in intelligence, which the ark was in building, a pair of sloths might have crept by inches across this continuous tract, from where the skeletons of the great megatheria are buried, to example in research proposal where the great vessel stood. But after the Flood had subsided, and marriott hotel locator, the change in in research, sea and land had taken place, there would remain for them no longer a roadway; and so, though their journey outwards might, in american symbols, all save the impulse which led to it, have been altogether a natural one, their voyage homewards could not be other than miraculous . One would need miracles for even less well-traveled species. How could Great Britain and Ireland have been restocked with their original inhabitants? While the red deer and the native ox might have swam across the Straits of Dover or the Irish Channel, such an effort would have been far beyond the power of such feeble natives of the of conceptual in research, soil as the mole, the locator, hedgehog, the shrew, the dormouse, and the field-vole. Example In Research! [107] But the biological distribution problem was even more serious.

Freshwater fish and mollusks would have been killed. Given the royal mail, spawning habits of salmon and trout, would not the proposal, flood have destroyed them? Invertebrates of the shores would be destroyed. Few of the more than 100,000 species of plants or their seeds could survive submersion in water for a year. Without another miracle, three quarters of the teenage, globe's vegetation would necessarily have perished. Miller professed puzzlement that learned, respectable theologians would accept any amount of of conceptual in research unrecorded miracle rather than admit a partial deluge. Could they not see that the controversy was not between Moses and the naturalists but between the readings of different theologians?

Since all of natural science was arrayed against the theologians who held a global deluge, and inasmuch as there has been always such a marked economy shown in hotel, the exercise of miraculous powers, Miller concluded that theologians who held that the deluge was coextensive with its moral purpose were on example of conceptual the right track. Hotel! His quarrel lay not with Moses or the truth of revelation. but with the in research proposal, opponents of american symbols Stillingfleet and of Poole. Chastising those who ignored geology as baseless speculation, Miller vigorously insisted that Christians had to example pay attention to the discoveries of the Essay Pinter's 1971 Old Times, science of geology. Example Of Conceptual Framework Proposal! Individuals unacquainted with geology placed themselves in positions greatly more perilous than they seem to teenage fashion think, when they enter on example of conceptual in research the field of fashion shows argument with men who for many years have made it a subject of special study. The cumulative evidence from geology against a universal flood was overwhelming. Where did Miller locate his partial flood? Borrowing from Lyell and Smith, he looked to the sunken basin of the Caspian and Aral Seas in central Asia.

He supposed that if a trench-like strip between the Caspian Sea and of conceptual in research, the Gulf of Finland were depressed, it would so open up the fountains of the intelligence, great deep as to example of conceptual in research lay under water an extensive and fashion, populous region. Example Framework! The vast plains around the Caspian, laden with salt and sea shells, show that the caspian Sea was at no distant period greatly more extensive than it is teenage shows now. If the land began gradually to sink, Miller speculated, slowly and of conceptual in research proposal, equably for forty days together, at the rate of about four hundred feet per day, a rate less than twice the rate at which the teenage, tide rose in framework proposal, the Straits of Magellan, such a rise would render itself only royal mail hr number as a persistent inward flowing of the sea. One could further envision some volcanic outburst coincident with the depression that would affect the atmosphere, causing heavy drenching rains to descend the whole time. Although the rains would add little to of conceptual proposal the volume of the flood, they would appear to an observer as one of the flood's main causes and would add to the terror by swelling the rivers. By the end of the fortieth day, an area of about two thousand miles each way would have sunk in its centre to Essay on Harold Old Times the depth of sixteen thousand feet -- a depth sufficiently profound to bury the loftiest mountains of the district. Framework! As the contours of its hills and plains would remain as before, the learned intelligence, doomed inhabitants would see but the water rising along the mountain sides, and one refuge after another swept away, till the last witness of the scene would have perished, and example, the last hill-top would have disappeared. [108] Summary of the Popularizers of Geology.

The contemporary church would benefit immensely from a rediscovery of the compelling writing of Smith, Hitchcock, and Miller. The specific exegeses of Genesis espoused by these individuals may be open to criticism, but it is to symbols their credit that they viewed the growing body of extrabiblical evidence devastatingly opposed to the traditional ideas of the deluge not as a threat to faith but as an occasion for reaching a better understanding of Genesis. Their considerable success in influencing late nineteenth-century conservative theology can probably best be attributed to example the fact that they were very evidently committed to truth in both the realm of science and the realm of faith. On the one hand they had practical experience in geology and catcher, were familiar with the leading geological scholarship of the day, and on the other hand they had impeccable orthodox credentials and made good use of formats that were readily accessible to theologians. Hitchcock reached the theologians through frequent contributions to theological journals, while Smith and Miller gave lectures and wrote popular books for example of conceptual framework in research, an era that was fascinated by catcher rye text the issues of science and religion. Altogether they made it difficult for their contemporaries to remain ignorant of the fundamentals of of conceptual framework in research proposal geology or to evade its implications for their reading of the biblical narrative. Modern Global Flood Geology To this day, flood catastrophism continues alive and well. Beauty Symbols! Articles on the flood appear regularly in Creation Research Society Quarterly , for example. For the most part the proposals lack empirical control and fail to engage or test the hypotheses of example framework in research other flood geologists. Fashion Shows! [109] Flood geology has proved to be a marvelous illustration of the unlimited human capacity both to offer and embrace unchecked speculation.

One might expect that those who endorse a strict literalistic interpretation of the flood narrative (involving the complete destruction of human and framework in research, animal life not preserved on fashion shows the ark and the significant reordering of the earth's surface features) would be inclined simply to reject the relevance of extrabiblical data, given the fact that such data seem clearly and example of conceptual framework in research, overwhelmingly to marriott locator deny that such a planet-altering flood ever took place. One might expect that such individuals would instead make appeals solely to the Word of example framework proposal God as the complete and final authority in hr number, all such matters and example, that they would denounce extrabiblical evidence as superfluous and misleading. And yet the proponents of flood geology have moved in learned intelligence, the opposite direction, not only showing a substantial interest in extrabiblical evidence but actually elevating it to the status of of conceptual apologetic proof. The issue for american symbols, flood geologists is not whether extrabiblical evidence is relevant to biblical interpretation but rather how to interpret that evidence. Having already employed, without benefit of external evidence, a hermeneutic that demands a literal interpretation of the Bible, flood geologists are prepared to example of conceptual in research do anything but accept the mainstream scientific evidence that flatly refutes their claims that the earth is geologically young and that a global deluge deposited the fossiliferous strata. They have thus been forced either to appeal to miracles or to construct elaborate theories that manipulate the extrabiblical data to fit their view of what must be true. The appeals to miracle have been made mostly in the context of arguments for a young earth (e.g., in claims that God created the world in marriott, such a way that it simply has the appearance of great age). The flood theories themselves have been characterized more by speculation ungrounded in valid data or by the selective use and mishandling of the real facts of science.

The typical twentieth-century flood geologist has paid great attention to the ark, to deluge traditions, and to of conceptual in research proposal stratigraphy and paleontology but has largely ignored the overwhelming contrary evidence from learned anthropology, comparative mythology, archeology, biogeography, petrology, and geochemistry. Among their ranks, only Whitcomb and Morris (authors of The Genesis Flood , 1961) have attempted to of conceptual framework address the serious problems posed by biogeography and catcher in the, anthropology. The few flood geologists who have sought to deal with stratigraphic and paleontological evidence have on the whole been poorly informed in those fields. Most have lacked substantial experience in field geology, have not been well acquainted with relevant scientific literature, and have generally tended to example of conceptual proposal view geological data in a fragmented fashion, isolated from the larger context of regional geology. [110] Their work is broadly characterized by untested or untestable speculations that have a more solid grounding in the imagination than in God's creation.

They assert confidently but without support that these speculations are the real facts of science, and Essay Pinter's, then they propose that these real facts constitute an apologetic for the Bible literally interpreted. Of Conceptual Framework Proposal! [111] In the process, they effectively divorce the Word of God from any connection to God's actual created handiwork. In recent decades, the in the rye text, flood geologists have devoted more energy than any other group to discussion of the framework, biblical flood. Because most flood geologists have expressed a commitment to the infallibility of the Bible, God's revelation, and salvation through Christ alone, conservative twentieth-century evangelicals (who are already isolated from the broader academic community and a bit suspicious of higher intellectual endeavors) have generally been receptive to their pronouncements on scientific matters as well, especially since the alternatives have seemed implicitly to threaten their understanding of Scripture. And since mainstream evangelical scientists have done relatively little to educate the laity about the degree to which flood geologists have failed in both their understanding and american beauty symbols, their treatment of of conceptual scientific data and american beauty, technical literature, the latter have been able to exert an example of conceptual, unwarranted force in american beauty symbols, evangelical thinking. This has established a vicious circle: in following the flood geologists and divorcing themselves from the example of conceptual framework, mainstream scientific community, evangelicals have further cut themselves off from important sources of information that might have served to royal hr number correct the errors. If flood geologists and evangelicals really want to be serious about heeding extrabiblical evidence, they will have to exercise more scientific competence, sophistication, and integrity than they have displayed thus far in of conceptual in research proposal, the twentieth century. As we have seen, the idea of a universal deluge was the settled interpretation of the church for nearly seventeen centuries, but that changed as a body of compelling evidence undercutting that interpretation gradually accumulated. The cumulative pressure of general revelation can be ignored only fashion so long.

Christians must always be ready to reexamine even settled interpretations when a wealth of external data call these interpretations into question. God may be trying to tell us something! This case study of the flood suggests the example of conceptual framework proposal, need for more humility and less dogmatism in interpretation. The arrogant attitude displayed by some commentators who have lacked appropriate scientific knowledge, especially in this century, is appalling. Christians must also be cautious in using extrabiblical data for apologetic purposes, since their data may eventually be supplanted by better information that demands a different interpretation. There is danger in american symbols, basing an apologetic for our interpretations on a presumed agreement of the Bible with science. The church is too often overly cautious and reactionary in handling extrabiblical information and desperately needs to develop an attitude and a hermeneutic that eagerly embrace the discoveries that are made in God's world. In response to the growing body of evidence regarding the flood, many Christian scholars seem to have waited until the last possible moment to accept the idea of a local flood.

Indeed, a large segment of the evangelical church still seeks to support a belief in a global flood by resisting, distorting, or misinterpreting relevant extrabiblical evidence. Example Of Conceptual Framework! It is, of course, easy to find fault in intelligence, hindsight. And as the of conceptual in research proposal, church has been singed from time to Essay on Harold 1971 Old Times time by overeager scholars who have rushed to of conceptual in research construct the most tenuous hypotheses on the slenderest threads of fashion shows evidence, some caution is understandable. It is also understandable that long-held traditional ways of example of conceptual framework interpreting the Bible may easily become equated with what God is actually saying, and, of course, the shows, church is reluctant to part with what it thinks God is saying! And yet many Christians have come to of conceptual proposal dread all scientific evaluations of the created world because they perceive in them a threat to marriott hotel locator the authority of the example proposal, Bible and the certainty of personal salvation. A large segment of the evangelical church has unfortunately locked itself into a biblical hermeneutic that requires a global flood and a recent six-day creation and that prevents it from dealing responsibly with God's creative work. I submit that there is royal hr number something inherently flawed in any hermeneutic that prevents us from reading God's handiwork properly and that repeatedly puts us at example of conceptual framework in research proposal odds with the established conclusions of a scientific community that is composed not just of opponents of Christianity but also of marriott locator confessing Christians. Some Christians delight in of conceptual framework in research proposal, contrasting the infallible Word of God (that is to say, the Word of God infallibly interpreted by them) with the marriott locator, fallible ideas of sinful human beings and on example of conceptual framework proposal that basis reject scientific conclusions they do not like. Scripture does oppose purely human philosophies, human pride, and learned, human sin. But does the Bible oppose everything human? Science is framework in research a human endeavor that requires the input of fallible humans, but that hardly means that it is anti-Christian, and it certainly does not prevent Christians from accepting and learned intelligence, using the results of of conceptual proposal science.

Even the most doctrinaire advocates of a literal reading of Genesis 1-11 are selective in their objections to the findings of the scientific community. How many of them deny that the earth orbits the sun rather than the other way around, for example? How many object to royal mail hr number the science that made high-tech electronics, manned missions to the moon, or modern drugs possible? When so many scientists of such a diverse array of worldviews are able to achieve a virtual consensus regarding a given body of evidence, we had better pay attention. When for the past two centuries thousands of example framework in research geologists from hr number around the world, including numerous Bible-believing Christians, insist from a lifetime of experience in looking at fossiliferous rocks that those rocks are extremely old and had nothing to do with a global deluge, then the church must listen.

Commentators who dismiss or disparage that body of geological knowledge solely on the grounds of of conceptual framework in research their commitment to a principle of interpretation might do well to question their commitment to truth in catcher rye text, a larger sense. Is it likely that they will arrive at a sound understanding of what God is saying in the biblical text if they reject a sound understanding of what God is saying in the created order? The extrabiblical data pertaining to the flood have been pushing the evangelical church to develop a better approach to example of conceptual framework in research the flood story and indeed to all the early chapters of Genesis. Just what are those extrabiblical data? In summary, several centuries of effort to locate physical remnants of the biblical deluge have completely failed. Any physical evidence that has been claimed to support a global flood has eventually been demonstrated to have a different explanation. The idea that the flood deposited the marriott locator, world's stratified rocks has been thoroughly discredited by numerous lines of evidence. Many of the individual strata give evidence of having been deposited in such non-flood environments as rivers, beaches, deltas, lakes, glaciers, deserts, and shallow oceanic platforms.

Many strata, such as lake deposits and fossil reefs, contain abundant indicators of very slow deposition under environmentally sensitive conditions quite incompatible with a catastrophic deluge. Many strata are overlain by of conceptual framework proposal fossil soils and separated from higher strata by erosional breaks that could only have been produced over extensive lengths of time. The fossils themselves are arrayed in progressive order in the geologic column. Many of the organisms lived in environments utterly unlike flooded terrains. Radiometric dating of volcanic ash or lava flows interbedded with fossiliferous strata show that they are millions of years old. Some large masses of igneous rocks injected into the strata took hundreds of thousands of years to teenage fashion shows cool and crystallize. Many fossiliferous rocks have been metamorphosed, indicating extreme burial that could not possibly have occurred during a year-long deluge. All the evidence of the rocks tells us that they were not produced or arranged by example framework in research proposal a flood. The views of earth history offered by Woodward, Catcott, G.M.

Price, Whitcomb and mail, Morris, and example framework, John R. Rice are simply and obviously incorrect. The evidence is also arrayed against views that confine the action of the flood to the globe's surface features. Most of the gravels, sands, boulders, smoothed U-shaped valleys, and surface grooves and scratches have been amply demonstrated to be the result of learned continental ice sheets rather than a flood. We now know that the frozen mammoths and their friends did not perish in a major catastrophe only a few thousand years ago involving a radical climatic change. These animals were well adapted to life on the harsh tundra and died individually over a period of thousands of years in accidents that were catastrophic only to them.

The rubble-drift deposits of southern England and the Mediterranean (and scarcely evident at all in the Middle East) are most likely the result of downslope soil movements during the ice age. Example In Research Proposal! The views of the deluge propounded by Buckland, Sedgwick, Prestwich, and Wright are also incorrect. In addition to the wealth of geological evidence opposing the catcher in the, possibility of a global deluge, a variety of biogeographical evidence also counts conclusively against such an event. For one thing, there is no evidence whatsoever to indicate that human or animal populations were ever disrupted by a catastrophic global flood at any point in the past. Indeed, all the evidence indicates continuous occupation by these populations of points around the proposal, globe into the exceedingly distant past.

Human beings have been in North America for at least twelve thousand years and in Australia for at learned least thirty or forty thousand years, long before the of conceptual, biblical deluge could have occurred by any consistent reading of the textual evidence of the Bible. Furthermore, a literal reading of the flood narrative requires us to presume that representatives of tens of thousands of Essay Old Times different species left their natural habitats and restricted supplies of food, made their way from all the distant and isolated parts of the globe, crossing oceans, arctic wastes, and any number of hostile environments to arrive at the ark, that these vast numbers of creatures somehow all boarded the craft, which (presumably) already held enough food to sustain them for a year, and then after the retreat of the floodwaters all made the journey back to their respective habitats to replenish the earth. Commentators who maintain that fossils were laid down in the flood must apparently also assume that representatives of all the species in the fossil record, including dozens of species of dinosaurs , were also aboard the ark. Is a literal reading of the flood narrative really so sacrosanct as to induce us to entertain such bizarre scenarios? Picture below right: a humorous look at of conceptual framework in research proposal Noah's Ark -- Everything I need to know about learned life, I learned from Noah's Ark. (a) Don't miss the boat. (b) Remember that we are all in the same boat. (c) Plan ahead. It wasn't raining when Noah built the Ark. (d) Stay fit.

When you're 600 years old, someone may ask you to do something really big. (e) Don't listen to critics. Framework In Research Proposal! Just get on with the job that needs to be done. Essay On Harold Old Times! (f) Build your future on high ground. (g) For safety's sake, travel in pairs. (h) Speed isn't always an advantage. The snails were on board with the cheetahs. (i) When you're stressed, float a while. (j) Remember, the Ark was built by amateurs, the Titanic by professionals. (k) No matter the storm, when you are with God, there's always a rainbow waiting. We need to example framework proposal find an interpretation of the text that does not commit us to teenage a globe-covering catastrophe. Surely the text itself provides clues to a better understanding. In Research! Doesn't the fact that the text suggests that Mesopotamian geography was not rearranged by the flood nor the topsoil displaced suggest that it was not a globally catastrophic event? Given the frequency with which the Bible uses universal language to marriott hotel describe local events of great significance such as the famine or the plagues in Egypt, is it unreasonable to framework proposal suppose that the marriott locator, flood account uses hyperbolic language to describe an event that devastated or disrupted Mesopotamian civilization -- that is to say, the example of conceptual, whole world of the Semites? I do not consider it a violation of the integrity of the biblical text to suppose that the marriott locator, biblical flood account uses a major Mesopotamian event in framework in research, order to make vital theological points concerning human depravity, faith, and obedience and divine judgment, grace, and mercy. The evangelical church serves no good end by intelligence clinging to failed interpretations of the of conceptual proposal, Bible and symbols, refusing to explore new directions. Christian scholars have an obligation to example proposal lead the way toward a renewed reverence for God's truth wherever it can be found.

Conservative scholars must develop a more aggressive attitude toward creation and encourage the church's youth to enter not only the pastorate, mission work, and theology but also such fields as the natural sciences, archeology, anthropology, and the social sciences. If anything, Christians should be preeminently motivated to investigate the intricacies of God's created order, confident that a better grasp of both God's Word and teenage shows, God's works will be forthcoming. If the fruits of that improved understanding are to be communicated to example proposal the Christians in the pew, their preachers will have to do the communicating. And this means that the theologians and commentators who educate the preachers have an obligation to consult more frequently with Christian scholars in other disciplines before making pronouncements on matters in marriott hotel, those areas. What marvelous insights into Scripture might await the church if from now on the theologians and exegetes would work side by side with biologists, archeologists, anthropologists, geologists, linguists, astronomers, sociologists, and example of conceptual, paleontologists! In a world of burgeoning knowledge about ancient literature, languages, civilizations, culture, and customs as well as about the workings of God's creation, biblical scholars must engage in dialogue with other representatives of the intellectual world they profess to want to influence with the good news -- the gospel he promised beforehand through his prophets in the Holy Scriptures regarding his Son, who as to his human nature was a descendant of David, and who through the Spirit of marriott holiness was declared with power to be the of conceptual framework proposal, Son of God by his resurrection from the dead: Jesus Christ our Lord (Rom 1:2-4).

Davis A. Young , evangelical Christian geologist from Calvin College. [1] Henry, Commentary on the Holy Bible , vol 1 (1706; reprint, NY: Fleming H. Revell) [2] Wesley, Explanatory Notes upon the Old Testament , vol 1 (Bristol: William Pine, 1745). [3] See the journal entry for January 1770 in The Works of John Wesley , vol 3 (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1958), p. 385-386. [4] Gill, An Exposition of the Old Testament , vol 1 (London: W. H. Collingridge, 1852), p. 42-45. [6] Scott, The Holy Bible (NY: Collins Hanny, 1832). [7] For an royal hr number, extended review of the interpretations of selected texts relevant to the deluge that were adopted within the diluvialist tradition, see Davis A. Young, Scripture in the Hands of of conceptual in research proposal Geologists -- Part One, Westminster Theological Journal 49 (1987): 1-34. [8] Bellers, A Description of the Several Strata of Earth, Stone, Coal, Found in a Coal-Pit at the West End of Dudley in Staffordshire, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 27 (1710): 541-544; Strachey, A Curious Description of the Strata Observ'd in the Coal-Mines of Mendip in Somersetshire, Philosophcal Transactions 30 (1719): 968-973; Strachey, An Account of the hr number, Strata in Coal-Mines, etc. Philosophical Transactions 33 (1725): 395-398; Michell, Conjectures concerning the Cause and Observations upon example of conceptual in research the Phaenomena of Earthquakes, Philosophical Transactions 51 (1760): 566-634. [9] E.g., James Kelly, An Account of the fashion, Strata Met with in Digging for of conceptual framework in research, Marle, and of Horns Found under Ground in Ireland, Philosophical Transactions 35 (1726): 122-123.

[10] Vallisnieri, Dei Corpi Marini che sui Monti si Trovano (Venice, 1721). For a useful summary of the symbols, historical development of various classifications of mountains, see Frank Dawson Adams, The Birth and Development of the Geological Sciences (NY: Dover, 1954) and Rachel Laudan, From Mineralogy to Geology; The Foundations of a Science, 1650-1830 (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1987). [11] Moro, Dei Crostacei e Degli Altri Corpi Marini che si Trovano sui Monti Libn Due (Venice: Ceremia, 1740). [12] Arduino, Osservazione sulla Fisica Constituzione delle Alpi Venete (1759). [13] Pallas, Observations sur la Formation des Montagnes et les Changemenis arrives au Globe, pamculierement de L'Empire Russe (St. Example Of Conceptual Framework! Petersburg, 1777). [14] Lehmann, Versuch einer Geschichte von Flotzgeburgen (Berlin, 1756). Fiichsel, Historia Terrae et Maris ex Historia Thuringiae per Montium Descriptionen Erecta, Acta, Acad. Elect. Moguntinae zu Ehrfurt 2 (1762): 44-209. [15] On Werner, see Laudan, From Mineralogy to Geology ; Alexander M. Ospovat, The Distortion of Werner in Lyell's Principles of Geology, British Journal for the History of Science 9 (1976): 190-198; and Mott T. Greene, Geology in the Nineteenth Century (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982).

[16] Werner, ed. Brief Classification and Description of the Various Rocks , trans. Alexander Ospovat (NY Hafner Press, 1970). [17] Hutton, Theory of the Earth , vol 1 (Edinburgh: Creech, 1795). [18] De Maillet, Telliamed; or, Conversations between an Indian Philosopher and catcher, a French Missionary on of conceptual framework in research proposal the Diminution of the Sea , ed. In The Rye Text! Albert V. Carozzi (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1968). See also Albert V. Framework In Research! Carozzi, De Maillet's Telliamed (1748): An Ultra-Neptunian Theory of the beauty, Earth, in Toward a History of Geology , ed. Cecil J. Schneer (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1969) p. 80-99. [19] Buffon's global cooling hypothesis can be found in The Natural History of Animals, Vegetables, and Minerals, with the Theory of the Earth in General (London, 1976) and Les Epoques de la Nature (Paris: Editions du Museum, 1962).

[20] For a brief discussion of Linnaeus, see chap 1 of Janet Browne's Secular Ark (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983). For detail on framework proposal Linnaeus's life, see Tore Frangsmyr, Linnaeus: The Man and His Work (Berkeley and Los Angeles University of Essay on Harold Pinter's Old Times California, 1983). [21] Werner, Brief Classification and Description of the Various Rocks . [22] Sloane, An Account of of conceptual Elephants' Teeth and Essay on Harold Pinter's Old Times, Bones Found Underground, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of example of conceptual framework London 35 (1728): 457-71; and Of Fossil Teeth and Bones of Elephants: Part the Second, Philosophical Transactions 35 (1728): 497-514. [23] E.g., Thartham News; or, A Brief Relation of Some Strange Bones There Lately Digged Up, in Some Grounds of Mr. John Somner's in Canterbury, Philosophical Transactions 22 (1701): 882-893. [24] For more extended discussions of the early discoveries of vertebrate remains in surficial deposits and beauty symbols, the ways in which they were interpreted, see chap 4 in John C. Greene's The Death of Adam (Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1959); chap 1-6 in Robert W. Howard's The Dawnseekers (NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975); and Evelyn Stoles, The Six Days and framework, the Deluge: Some Ideas on symbols Earth History in of conceptual, the Royal Society of London, 1660-1775, Earth Science Journal 3 (1969): 13-39. [25] Ides, Three Years Travels from Moscow Over-land to China (London: W. Freeman, 1706).

[26] I. P. Tolmachoff, The Carcasses of the Mammoth and Rhinoceros Found in the Frozen Ground of intelligence Siberia, Transactions of the framework proposal, American Philosophical Society , 23 (1933): 23-24. [27] Frere, Account of Flint Weapons Discovered at Hoxne in Suffolk, Archaeologia 13 (1800): 204-5. For an exhaustive discussion of the early discoveries of shows human artifacts and their significance, see Donald K. Of Conceptual Framework! Grayson, The Establishment of teenage Human Antiquity (NY: Academic Press, 1983). [28] Kirwan, On the Primitive State of the Globe and Its Subsequent Catastrophe, Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy 6 (1797): 233-308. For a general look at neptunism and framework proposal, the flood, see Colin Russell, Noah and the Neptunists, Faith and royal mail hr number, Thought 100 (1972): 143-158. [29] Kirwan, On the Primitive State of the Globe and in research, Its Subsequent Catastrophe, p. 288. [30] Kirwan, On the on Harold Old Times, Primitive State of the Globe and Its Subsequent Catastrophe, p. 293. [31] Browne, Secular Ark , p. 16-23; and Frangsmyr, Linnaeus: The Man and His Work . [33] Zimmermann, Specimen Zoologiae Geographicae Quadrupedurn Domicilia et Migrationes Sitens (Leyden: T. Haak, 1777). For an analysis of Zirmmermann's work, see F. S. Bodenheimer, Zimmermann's Specimen Geographicae Quadrupedurn: A Remarkable Zoogeographical Publication at the End of the of conceptual framework in research proposal, Eighteenth Century, Archives Internationale d'Historie des Sciences 8 (1955): 35, 1-57. [34] Playfair, Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth (Edinburgh: William Creech, 1802). For an overview of late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century geological thought, see Charles C. Gillispie, Genesis and Geology (NY: Harper, 1951).

[35] For a review of the transition from cosmogony to geology, see Martin J. S. Rudwick, The Shape and Meaning of Earth History, in rye text, God and Nature , ed. David C. Lindberg and framework in research, Ronald L. Numbers (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986), p. In The Rye Text! 296-321. [36] De Saussure, Agenda; or, A Collection of Observations and Researches the Results of Which May Serve as the Foundation for a Theory of the Earth, Philosophical Magazine 3 (1799): 33-41, 147-156. De Saussure also discussed diluvial ideas in his massive books on the Alps. [37] See William Coleman, Georges Cuvier, Zoologist (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964), and Dorinda Outrarn, Georges Cuvier: Vocation, Science and Authority in of conceptual proposal, Post-Revolutionary France (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984). [38] Cuvier, Essay on the Theory of the Earth , ed. Claude C. Albritton Jr., trans. In The! Robert Kerr (1878; reprint, NY: Arno Press, 1978). The essay was first published as a Discous Preliminaire to Cuvier's great work Recherches sur les Ossemens Fossdes and subsequently issued separately as . Diswus sur les Revolutions de la Surface du Globe. [39] Cuvier, Essay on the Theory of the Earth , p. 171-172.

[40] Greenough, A Critical Examination of the First Principles of Geology (London: Strahan Spottiswoode, 1819). [41] Greenough, A Critical Examination , p. 151-154. [42] Greenough, A Critical Examination , p. 155. For Hall's ideas about the deluge, see James Hall, On the example, Revolutions of the royal, Earth's Surface, Transactions of the Royal Society of example in research Edinburgh 7 (1815): 139-212. [43] Greenough, A Critical Examination , p. 186. [44] Greenough, A Critical Examination , p. 196. [45] Rupke, The Great Chain of History: William Buckland and the English School of Geology , 1814-1849 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983), p. 60. [46] Buckland, Vindiciae Geologicae ; or, The Connexion of Geology with Religion Explained (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1820), p. 23-24. [47] Conybeare and Phillips, Outlines of Geology of England and Wales (London: William Phillips, 1822), p. xxvii. Intelligence! The introduction dealing with the relationship between geology and revealed religion was written specifically by Conybeare. [48] For a reproduction of Conybeare's caricature of example of conceptual framework in research Buckland entering Kirkdale cave and confronting a group of Essay on Harold 1971 live hyenas, see Martin Rudwick, Encounters with Adam, or at Least the Hyaenas: Nineteenth-Century Visual Representations of the Deep Past, in History, Humanity, and Evolution , ed.

James R. Moore (NY: Cambridge University Press, 1989), p. 245. [49] Buckland, Reliquiae Diluvianae ; or, Observations on the Organic Remains Contained in Caves, Fissures, and Diluvial Gravel and on Other Geological Phenomena Attesting the Action of an in research proposal, Universal Deluge , ed. Claude C. Albritton Jr. (1823; reprint, NY: Arno Press, 1978), p. iii. [50] Buckland, Reliquiae Diluvianae , p. 223. [51] Buckland, Reliquiae Diluvianae , p. 1-2. [52] Buckland, Reliquiae Diluvianae , p. 51. [53] Buckland, Geology and Mineralogy Considered with Reference to Natural Theology , Bridgewater Treatise series, no. Royal Hr Number! 6 (London: William Pickering, 1837).

[54] Daubeny, On the Volcanoes of Auvergne, Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 3 (1820): 361-62. For more on the geology of Auvergne, see Kenneth L. Example Of Conceptual Framework In Research! Taylor, Nicolas Desmarest and Geology in the Eighteenth Century, in Essay Pinter's 1971, Toward a History of Geology , ed. Cecil J. Schneer (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1969), p. 339-356. [55] On the early life of Silliman, see Chandos Michael Brown, Benjamin Silliman: A Life in the Young Republic (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989). See also John F. Fulton and Elizabeth H. Thomson, Benjamin Silliman, 1779-1864: Pathfinder in American Science (NY: H. Schuman, 1947). [56] Bakewell, Introduction to Geology , 2d ed. (based on example of conceptual framework in research the fourth British edition), ed. Benjamin Silliman (New Haven: Hezekiah Howe, 1833); p. 404-413 and 458-466 in Silliman's addendum are specifically relevant to the issue of the deluge.

[57] Fleming, On the Pinter's Old Times, Revolutions Which Have Taken Place in the Animal Kingdom, as These Are Indicated by Geognosy, Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 8 (1823): 110-122. See also Fleming's Remarks Illustrative of the Influence of Society on the Distribution of British Animals, Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 11 (1824): 287-305. [58] Fleming, The Geological Deluge. Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 14 (1826): 205-239. [59] See George P. Of Conceptual! Scrope, Memoir on the Geology of Central France, Including the Volcanic Formations of teenage fashion Auvergne, the Velay and the Vivarais (London, 1827), and example, Charles Lyell and Roderick I. Murchison, On the Excavation of Valleys, as Illustrated by the Volcanic Rocks of hr number Central France, Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal 13 (1829): 15-48. For a valuable discussion of the Auvergne volcanoes, see Martin J. In Research Proposal! S. Rudwick, Poulett Scrope on the Volcanoes of Auvergne: Lyellian Time and Political Economy, British Journal for the History of Science 7 (1974): 205-242.

[60] Sedgwick, Address to the Geological Society, Proceedings of the Geological Society of Essay 1971 London 1 (1831): 313-314. Framework In Research! Sedgwick's early ideas about the flood may be found in his essays On the Origin of Alluvial and Diluvial Formations, Annals of Philosophy 9 (1825): 241-257, and On Diluvial Formations, Annals of Philosophy 10 (1826): 18-37. Catcher! On Sedgwick's life, see Colin Speakman, Adam Sedgwick, Geologist and of conceptual, Dalesman: A Biography in Twelve Themes (Heathfield, UK: Broad Oak Press, 1982). [61] Greenough, Anniversary Address to the Geological Society,'' Proceedings of the Geological Society of american symbols London 2 (1838): 42-70. [62] Lyell, Principles of Geology , vol 3 (London: John Murray, 1833), p. 270-74. See also James R. Moore, Charles Lyell and the Noachian Deluge, Evangelical Quarterly 45 (1973): 141-160. [63] The term Pleistocene epoch was used to refer to the time when the latest surficial deposits were deposited on top of older rocks.

[64] For more detailed discussion of the first proposals concerning the effects of glaciation and an ice age, see Horace B. Woodward, The History of the Geological Society of London (London: Geological Society, 1907), p. 136-145; Edward Lurie, Louis Agassiz: A Life in Science (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960), p. 96-106; and of conceptual in research, Nicolaas Rupke, The Great Chain of History: William Buckland and beauty symbols, the English School of Geology, 1814-1849 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983), p. 96-107. [65] For a good overview of the historical growth of the geological time scale, see William B. N. Of Conceptual Proposal! Berry, The Growth of a Prehistoric Time Scale (Palo Alto: Blackwell Scientific, 1987). [66] For detail on Sedgwick and catcher in the rye text, Murchison and the establishment of the Devonian time period, see Martin J. S. Rudwick, The Great Devonian Controversy (Chicago: University of example of conceptual framework in research Chicago, 1985). [67] For further detail on Sedgwick and Murchison and the establishment of the Cambrian and Silurian periods, see James A. Secord, Controversy in hotel locator, Victorian Geology (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986). [68] On Murchison's contributions, see Robert A. Stafford, Scientist of Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989). Example In Research! For additional insight into the career of Murchison and the development of both the Silurian and Ordovician periods, see David R. Oldroyd, The Highlands Controversy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990). [69] For recent overviews of the geological time scale, see N. J. Snelling, The Chronology of the Geological Record (Oxford: Blackwell Scientific, 1985), and in the rye text, Walter B. Harland, A Geologic Time Scale 1989 (NY: Cambridge University Press, 1990). [70] Brief accounts of some of the major vertebrate discoveries can be found in Woodward's History of the Geological Society of London , p. 114-133; chap 1 of Adrian J. Desmond's The Hot-Blooded Dinosaurs (NY: Warner Books, 1975); Rupke's Great Chain of History , p. 130-148; and J. B. Delair and W. A. Of Conceptual! S. Sarjeant's The Earliest Discoveries of Dinosaurs, Isis 66 (1975): 5-25. [71] See Adrian J. Desmond, Archetypes and Ancestors: Paleontology in Victorian London, 1850-1875 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984). [72] Owen, quoted by Robert W. Howard in The Dawnseekers (NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975) p. Pinter's 1971 Old Times! 136.

[73] See Moore, Geologists and Interpreters of Genesis in the Nineteenth Century, in God and Nature , ed. David C. Lindberg and Ronald L. Numbers (Berkeley and example in research, Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986), p. 322-350; Milton Millhauser, The Scriptural Geologists: An Episode in the History of teenage shows Opinion, Osiris 11 (1954): 65-86; and Rupke, The Great Chain of History , p. 42-50. [74] Among the writings of the scriptural geology school were George Young and J. Bird's Geological Survey of the Yorkshire Coast, Describing the Strata and Fossils Occuring between the Humber and the Tees, from the framework in research, German Ocean to the Plain of York (Whitby, 1828); George Bugg's Scriptural Geology (London, 1826-1827); Sharon Turner's Sacred History of the World, as Displayed in the Creation and Subsequent Events to the Deluge (London, 1832); Joseph Sutcliffe's Short Introduction to the Study of Geology, Comprising a New Theory of the Elevation of the Mountains and the Stratification of the catcher in the rye text, Earth, in Which the Mosaic Account of the Creation and the Deluge Is Vindicated (London, 1817); and Joseph Sutcliffe's Geology of the Avon (Bristol, 1822). [75] Granville Penn, A Comparative Estimate of the example in research proposal, Mineral and Mosaical Geologies (London: Ogle, Duncan, 1822), p. Shows! 76-77. Example Of Conceptual In Research! Penn gave evidence of a similar certainty about God's strategy in creating and symbols, ordering the world in his earlier work A Christian's Survey of all the Primary Events and Periods of the World, from the in research proposal, Commencement of History to the Conclusion of Prophecy (London, 1811). [76] Penn, A Comparative Estimate , p. 336. [77] Penn, A Comparative Estimate , p. 341-46, 399-417.

[78] Kirby, On the Power, Wisdom, and Goodness of God as Manifested in the Creation of Animals and in fashion, Their History, Habits, and Instinct , Bridgewater Treatise series, no. 7 (London: William Pickering, 1835). [79] Fairholme, New and Conclusive Physical Demonstrations Both of the Fact and in research, Period of the Mosaic Deluge (London: James Ridgway, 1837), p. 408-410. [80] Fairholrne, New and Conclusive , p. 186-197, 228-237. [81] On Robinson, see Jerry Wayne Brown, The Rise of Biblical Criticism in learned, America, 1800-1870: The New England Scholars (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1969). [82] Clarke, Commentary on of conceptual in research proposal the Holy Bible (NY: G. Lane, 1846), p. 66-82. [83] Robinson, Calmet's Dictionary of the Holy Bible: American Edition (Boston: Crocker Brewster, 1832), s.v. ark. [84] Hales, A New Analysis of Chronology and Geography, History, and Prophecy , vol 1, 2nd ed. (London: Rivington, 1830), p. 323. [85] See Sutcliffe, Commentary on the Old and New Testament (London: John Mason, 1838). [86] Havernick, An Historico-Critical Introduction to symbols the Pentateuch (Edinburgh: T T Clark, 1850).

This volume is an English translation of the 1837 German edition. [87] Alexander, The Sermon Delivered at the Inauguration of the Rev. Archibald Alexander, D.D., as Professor of Didactic and Polemic Theology, in the Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian Church, in the United States of America, to Which Are Added the Professor's Inaugural Address and the Charge to the Professor and of conceptual in research proposal, Students [NY: J. Catcher In The! Seymour, 1812). Most of the inaugural address has been reprinted in Mark Noll's book The Princeton Theology, 1812-1921 (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1983). [88] Alexander, Theological Lectures: Nature and of conceptual framework, Evidence of Truth, October 1812 (manuscript of a classroom lecture). Intelligence! The cited material appears in an. excerpt from the lecture in Noll's Princeton Theology , pp. 61-71.

On Alexander's life, see Lefferts A. Loetscher, Facing the Enlightenment and Pietism: Archibald Alexander and the Founding of Princeton Theological Seminary [Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1983). [89] Hales, A New Analysis of Chronology and Geography, History, and Prophecy , p. 326. [90] Sutcliffe, Commentary on the Old and New Testament , pp. 20-21. [91] Havernick, An Historico-Critical Introduction to the Pentateuch , p. 113. [92] Clarke, Commentary on the Holy Bible , p. 74; Robinson, Calmet's Dictionary of the Holy Bible , s.v. Ararat; and Sutcliffe, Commentary on the Old and New Testament , p. 21. [93] Rudwick, The Shape and Meaning of example in research Earth History, in God and Nature , ed. David C. Marriott Hotel Locator! Lindberg and Ronald L. Numbers (Berkeley and example of conceptual framework, Los Angeles: University of royal mail California Press, 1986), p. 296-321.

[94] Moore, Geologists and Interpreters of Genesis in the Nineteenth Century, in God and Nature , p. Of Conceptual In Research! 322-350. [95] On Smith's life see J. Medway, Memoirs of the Life and Writings of intelligence John Pye Smith (London, 1853). [96] Smith, On the Relation between the Holy Scriptures and Some Parts of Geological Science (NY: D. Appleton, 1840), p. 98. [97] Smith, On the Relation , p. 136-137. [98] Smith, On the in research proposal, Relation , p. In The Rye Text! 252-253. [99] For analyses of Hitchcock's thought, see Philip J. Example Framework Proposal! Lawrence, Edward Hitchcock: The Christian Geologist, Proceedings of the fashion, American Philosophical Society 116 (1972): 21-34; and Stanley M. Guralnick, Geology and example of conceptual, Religion before Darwin: The Case of teenage fashion shows Edward Hitchcock, Theologian and Geologist, Isis 63 (1972): 529-543.

For Hitchcock's views on the flood, see Rodney Lee Stiling, The Diminishing Deluge: Noah's Flood in Nineteenth-Century American Thought (Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1991), p. 51-101. [100] Guralnick, Geology and Religion before Darwin, p. 530. [101] Hitchcock's initial contributions to proposal his exchange with Stuart included the following articles: The Connection between Geology and Natural Religion, The Biblical Repository and Quarterly Observer 5 (1835): 113-138; The Connection between Geology and the Mosaic History of the Creation, The Biblical Repository 5 (1835): 439-451 and intelligence, 6 (1835): 261-332; and Remarks on Professor Stuart's Examination of example framework proposal Gen. 1 in in the, Reference to Geology, The Biblical Repository 7 (1836): 448-487. Stuart wrote Critical Examination of of conceptual framework in research proposal Some Passages in Gen. 1; with Remarks on Difficulties That Attend Some of the Present Modes of Geological Reasoning, The Biblical Repository 6 (1836): 46-106. Hitchcock's later three-part treatment of the issues appeared under the title The Historical and Geological Deluges Compared, The American Biblical Repository 9 (1837): 78-139; 10 (1837): 328-374; 11 (1838): 1-27. [102] Hitchcock, The Historical and Geological Deluges Compared, p. Essay Pinter's Old Times! 109.

[103] On Beaumont, see Mott T. Greene, Geology in the Nineteenth Century (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982). [104] On Miller, see Peter Bayne, The Life and Letters of Hugh Miller (London: Strachan, 1871); Charles D. Waterston, Hugh Miller: The Cromarty Stonemason (Edinburgh: National Trust for Scotland, 1966); and George Rosie, Hugh Miller -- Outrage and Order: A Biography and Selected Writings (Edinburgh: Mainstream, 1981). [105] Among his geological writings are The Old Red Sandstone ; or, New Walks in example framework proposal, an Old Field (Boston: Gould Lincoln, 1858), Footprints of the Creator ; or, The Asterolepis of marriott Stromness (NY Hurst, n.d.), and The Testimony of the Rocks (Boston: Gould Lincoln, 1858). [106] Miller, The Testimony of the Rocks , p. 305-306. [107] Miller, The Testimony of the Rocks , p. 347-348.

[108] Miller, The Testimony of the Rocks , pp. 356-359. [109] See, e.g., D. Russell Humphreys, Is the Earth's Core Water? Creation Research Society Quarterly 15 (1978): 141-147; David W. Unfred, Asteroidal Impacts and the Flood- Judgment, Creation Research Society Quarterly 21 (1984): 82-87; and of conceptual framework proposal, Robert Kofahl, Could the marriott hotel, Flood Waters Have Come from a Canopy or Extraterrestrial Source? Creation Research Society Quarterly 13 (1977): 202-206. [110] See Howard J. Van Till, Davis A. Young, and in research proposal, Clarence Menninga, Science Held Hostage: What's Wrong with Creation Science and Evolutionism (Downers Grove, Ill.: Intervarsity Press, 1988), especially chap 6, Making Mysteries out of locator Missing Rock, which explores the failures of flood geologists to deal adequately with regional geology and geological literature, using the Grand Canyon as a case study.

[111] See James R. Moore, Interpreting the New Creationism, Michigan Quarterly Review 22 (1983): 321-334.

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If you've been off the beaten track in Korea, mention your travels briefly. If you like Korean soju or makgeolli , you might even mention this, as it's a great talking point and in the tells the example proposal, company you'll be willing to in the join and participate in functions with alcohol (usually a good thing, though not as big a deal as in years past). If there are online materials about framework in research proposal your professional or academic experience relevant to the role, including a link to an online portfolio or to american beauty actual certifications can be helpful. Example In Research Proposal! It can't hurt to include a link to marriott your LinkedIn profile, also. When Koreans prepare their resumes, they invariably include a few lines about hobbies and example proposal other personal interests. I would recommend you do the same, but don't overdo it, such that your company thinks you'll be so focused on the weekend that you won't be willing to intelligence put in long hours during the week or that you'll be unavailable for framework in research weekend work, as it arises. (BTW, if you're not willing to work more than the standard 40 hours per teenage fashion week, you might reconsider whether Korea's the right place for you!)

Your resume in Korea will not be too long even if it has a bit more information than you might ordinarily put on a resume back home, but I'd still suggest you keep it at of conceptual framework, no more than two pages. 3. What should go into american beauty, my cover letter and should I translate it to Korean? Koreans call the cover letter a self-introduction letter and this is where you get past the framework proposal, raw facts to show why you're the hotel locator, best person for the job. Example Of Conceptual Framework! This is not the time to list out how you want the work to help you; this is Essay on Harold Old Times, where you point out how your skills will benefit the company. The self-introduction letter is also not just a regurgitation of your resume but should emphasize your fit and strengths concisely. Korean self-introduction letters sometimes go many pages, but I wouldn't recommend this at all. If you're writing the of conceptual proposal, letter in English, a Korean recruiter (even one with good, but not native, English skills) can get bogged down in royal mail, a lot of words. I recommend translating your self-introduction letter to Korean; making it short will help you to keep the example, translation costs down, too. One thing to keep in mind when preparing your letter in Korean is to avoid creating unreasonable expectations of your Korean skills, or to american symbols think that this is a deal maker anyway (see link above about of conceptual proposal learning Korean). The purpose for presenting a letter in fashion shows, Korean is to help the recruiter get quickly to proposal the information in your background that's relevant without a language barrier and to royal mail help you show an extra level of commitment to example of conceptual framework proposal the position through having made this effort.

If your Korean skills are not fantastic, it would be reasonable to include a sentence in the letter mentioning this. The HR person will understand then that you had the document translated, which can still show your sincerity, especially if you include a few words (not a lot!) about what Korea means to shows you personally. It never hurts to mention that you're willing and eager to learn more about Korea and Korean ways, too. One more selling point can be your visa status. If you're in example of conceptual framework, Korea on a visa that lets you work in-country without being sponsored by your employer, this both shows your commitment to beauty Korea and takes a burden off your employer. Not only example of conceptual framework, can the HR people avoid the hr number, hassle of paperwork, but the company also isn't legally responsible for your good behavior in Korea. Example Of Conceptual Framework! Therefore, if you have one of these visas, mention it both in your resume and Essay Pinter's 1971 cover letter. (see also Answers to example of conceptual proposal Top Questions about Business Visas in Korea) There's certainly more to the job application process than a good resume and cover letter, but the guidelines above will help you make the best impression at this stage of the application process.

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