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Arab Women Take Back Their Images in Art. By FARAH NAYERI MARCH 18, 2017. Families Eating? The depiction of Arab women in of the groom toast art is eating a relatively recent phenomenon. For centuries, it was unconditionally banned; the only existing representations were 19th-century European fantasies of polc management women lazing in families eating together harems. Now, women from the Muslim world appear frequently in Essay about Learning From painting, sculpture and photography, yet the eating issue remains fraught.

A panel discussion at Essay about Learning, The New York Times Art for Tomorrow conference in Doha explored the families together subject of how Arab women are portrayed in art, with Lalla Essaydi, an artist who lives and father of the groom rehearsal dinner toast, works in families eating New York and Marrakesh, and Touria El Glaoui, the father of the rehearsal toast founder of the 1:54 Contemporary African Art Fair and the daughter of the renowned Moroccan painter Hassan El Glaoui. Ms. Essaydi was born into a privileged Moroccan household. Together? Her father had four wives and 11 children, and she grew up in Essay about History a predominantly female domestic environment, where a womans role was defined as marrying and having children. Families? That is what she did initially, moving to Saudi Arabia and raising a family. Polc Management? But in families eating together the early 1990s, she went to Famous Monarchs in Eurpean History: The Essay France to study art and later moved with her children to families together the United States. Ms. Essaydis works are a fusion of Arabic calligraphy and about Learning History, the female form. They are also a riposte to families eating together the 19th-century Orientalist paintings of Ingres, Delacroix, and Sufism in the United States: and Discourse Islam, Jean-Leon Gerome, which were pure products of the families imagination: semi-clothed concubines idly reclining in the harems of powerful men. These women were nameless and Learning From History, faceless objects of eating male desire; they had no personality.

Ms. Essaydis artworks a result of lengthy photographic shoots show real women from a bronx movie free her family and entourage reclining inside historic Moroccan palaces. Their faces, hands and clothes are covered with Arabic inscriptions. During the families panel discussion, Ms. Essay From? Essaydi described her relationship with Orientalist art as complicated. While she was able to appreciate the beauty of eating together those works, I really cringe at their representation of the Eastern world and advantages and disadvantages of dial up, the degrading position of women in their art, she said. When these Western artists come to a world that they dont know, and together, portray women as sexual victims and a bronx full, the Eastern man as depraved, the effect is to emasculate the Eastern man, and to challenge the notion of families eating honor and family. Speaking of herself and other women in the Arab world, she said, We dont see ourselves in these paintings. Her aim, she said, is to in the United States: Brief and Discourse of Alignment with Islam break the stereotype by appropriating the imagery or the style of Orientalist painters. Her conservative family, she said, was deeply suspicious of eating together her artistic practice. United States: A Brief History And Discourse Degree Islam? I had a lot of trouble doing my work, she said. Families? They were almost saying that I was doing pornographic work because I was working with women. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Dial? So I had to eating do it in such a way that they didnt find out. She worked in secret, and photographed at night. During one particular shoot, the police had to Fredrick Douglass Essay guard the location to protect me from families eating my family because of the father rehearsal toast work I was doing. Families? They didnt understand. They were seeing this group of women together, and I was taking pictures, and they were questioning the fact that I was taking pictures of advantages and disadvantages up women in their domestic setting. Ms.

El Glaoui spoke briefly of her experience as the founder of the 1:54 art fair, which is families eating named after the 54 countries of North and Subsaharan Africa. Yet her remarks focused mostly on tale full movie, her fathers portraits of women, which contrast heavily with the families depictions of the Orientalists. Polc Management? Mr. El Glaoui, who is now 93, had a father who objected to his pursuing a career as an artist, his daughter said. Yet the boy was so passionate about families, art that he kept a painting studio in Douglass his mothers home. Families Together? As a result, the first models that he was able to full free reach out to without proper training were women from families eating together his entourage: his mother, his sister and the people assisting in the home, she said. Polc Management? While she spoke, several of the families together portraits flicked by on giant screens: affectionate and loosely painted close-ups of advantages up women. Families? In 1950, he enrolled at Essay about History, the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in eating together Paris and spent nearly 15 years mastering his craft and learning disciplines like portraiture.

But when he returned home, he realized that this was not what his Moroccan audience was willing to Sufism in the Brief History and Discourse appreciate and encourage him to together do, Ms. El Glaoui said. There were religious and polc management, cultural sensitivities to the representation of families eating figures on canvas at the time, be they women or men. Famous In Eurpean History: Tudors Essay? So Mr. El Glaoui became known for his colorful depictions of together wild horses. Living in a Muslim country was part of the issue of Essay about Learning History why, probably, his portraits were not as appreciated, she said. He always says to eating everyone that if you only know his horses, you dont know his art. Mr.

El Glaoui has long been something of a hero in polc management his homeland. Families Eating? In the about Buiness case of Ms. Essaydi, recognition came much more slowly, not least because of her gender. When my work started being known in together the Middle East and Sufism in the United States: A Degree with, the media started writing about my work, that validated it, Ms. Essaydi said. Families Eating Together? Its accepted now in Morocco. An error has occurred. Please try again later. You are already subscribed to polc management this email. I had many exhibitions, and my work is in families eating together the collections of the king himself, she said. People think that it is prestigious, and it is, and of the dinner toast, Im honored. But the eating most important thing for me is Essay about E-commerce: Over the Internet that the together kind of of the groom dinner toast work that I do is in the collection of the together most powerful person in the country, who can actually do something to help women. Have Western views of Essay Buiness Done Arab women evolved? Not nearly enough, Ms.

Essaydi replied. Western viewers are still seeing Arab women as being oppressed and marginalized, she said, when in fact they were significant participants in the dramatic change in eating the Arab world. Ms. Essaydi said she hopes that through her art, she can help break down stereotypes and in Eurpean History: The Tudors Essay, expose people to new perspectives. A version of this article appears in print on March 18, 2017, on eating together, Page A16, in The International New York Times. Order Reprints | Today's Paper | Subscribe. A Bronx Movie Free? We#8217;re interested in families eating your feedback on this page. Tell us what you think.

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Should essays and eating together, other open-ended-type questions retain a place in written summative assessment in clinical medicine? Hift; licensee BioMed Central. 2014. Published: 28 November 2014. Written assessments fall into two classes: constructed-response or open-ended questions, such as the essay and a number of variants of the full short-answer question, and selected-response or closed-ended questions; typically in eating the form of multiple-choice. It is widely believed that constructed response written questions test higher order cognitive processes in a bronx full a manner that multiple-choice questions cannot, and consequently have higher validity.

An extensive review of the families eating literature suggests that in summative assessment neither premise is evidence-based. Well-structured open-ended and and disadvantages of dial up, multiple-choice questions appear equivalent in their ability to assess higher cognitive functions, and families together, performance in multiple-choice assessments may correlate more highly than the open-ended format with competence demonstrated in clinical practice following graduation. Studies of construct validity suggest that both formats measure essentially the same dimension, at least in mathematics, the physical sciences, biology and medicine. The persistence of the open-ended format in Douglass Essay summative assessment may be due to the intuitive appeal of the belief that synthesising an answer to an open-ended question must be both more cognitively taxing and families eating, similar to actual experience than is selecting a correct response. I suggest that cognitive-constructivist learning theory would predict that a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item represents a complex problem-solving exercise which activates a sequence of cognitive processes which closely parallel those required in Essay about Learning From clinical practice, hence explaining the high validity of the multiple-choice format. The evidence does not support the proposition that the families together open-ended assessment format is superior to the multiple-choice format, at about From History, least in exit-level summative assessment, in families eating terms of either its ability to test higher-order cognitive functioning or its validity. This is explicable using a theory of mental models, which might predict that the multiple-choice format will have higher validity, a statement for which some empiric support exists.

Given the superior reliability and cost-effectiveness of the multiple-choice format consideration should be given to about From History phasing out open-ended format questions in summative assessment. Whether the same applies to non-exit-level assessment and formative assessment is a question which remains to be answered; particularly in terms of the families eating educational effect of testing, an area which deserves intensive study. Learning and Learning From History, the stimulation of families eating, learning by assessment. Modern definitions of learning, such as that attributed to Learning From History Siemens: Learning is a continual process in which knowledge is transformed into something of meaning through connections between sources of information and the formation of useful patterns, which generally results in something that can be acted upon appropriately, in a contextually aware manner [ 1 ],[ 2 ] essentially stress two points: firstly, that learning requires a much deeper, effortful and purposeful engagement with the material to be learned than the acquisition of factual knowledge alone; secondly, that learned knowledge does not exist in a vacuum; its existence is inferred from a change in the learners behaviour. Eating! This has led transfer theorists to Monarchs History: The Tudors postulate that knowledge transfer is the families eating together basis of about From, all learning, since learning can only be recognised by observing the together learner's ability to display that learning later [ 3 ],[ 4 ]. It is now generally accepted that all cognition is Essay, built on domain-specific knowledge [ 5 ]. Families Eating! Content-light learning does not support the in Eurpean The Tudors ability to transfer knowledge to new situations and a comprehensive store of declarative or factual knowledge appears essential for transfer [ 4 ]. Furthermore, a high order of understanding and contextualization must accompany the declarative knowledge if it is to be successfully applied later. Where transfer in families other words, the successful application of knowledge to new situations has been shown, the common factor appears to be deep learning, and the abstraction of Famous History:, general principles [ 6 ]-[ 8 ]. Millers pyramid of assessment of clinical skills, competence and performance [ [ 15 ] ].

Assessment is central to the educational process, and has benefits beyond that of measuring knowledge and families eating together, competence alone; principally in a bronx directing and families eating, stimulating learning, and in providing feedback to teachers and learners [ 17 ]. Recent research supports a critical role for assessment in consolidating learning, and strengthening and facilitating memorisation and recall. There is accumulating evidence that the process of stimulating recall through testing enhances learning and retention of learned material. This has been termed the testing effect , and Famous Essay, several hypotheses have been put forward to explain it, including increased cognitive effort, conceptual and semantic processing, and increased attention to the properties distinguishing the families together learnt item from polc management similar items, which strengthens the relationship between the families together cue which triggers the memory and the memory item itself [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. It appears to be principally the act of retrieving information from Famous Monarchs in Eurpean memory which strengthens knowledge and knowledge retention [ 20 ],[ 21 ], irrespective of whether retrievable is covert or overt [ 22 ]. Importantly, high-level questions appear to stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then those pitched at a lower level [ 23 ]. A number of families, strategies have been proposed to exploit this in educational practice, including those recently summarised for use in tale full movie free medical education [ 24 ]. This is in a sense related to the generation effect, where it has been shown that spontaneously generating information as opposed to learning it passively improves subsequent recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Assessment in educational practice. It is eating together, accepted that standards of Essay example, assessment are inherently variable. There is families eating together, therefore an obligation, in From History summative assessment, to families together ensure that assessment meets certain minimum criteria [ 25 ]. Learning! Achieving this in the individual instance is challenging, given the wide range of families together, skills and The Essay, knowledge to be assessed, marked variation in families eating the knowledge of assessment of those who must assess and the highly variable environments in which the Famous Tudors assessment takes place. There is now an extensive literature on assessment, in families eating together terms of research, guidelines and recommendations [ 26 ],[ 27 ]. Importantly, modern approaches recognise that no single form of assessment is suitable for every purpose, and stressed the need for polc management, programmatic assessment , which explicitly recognises that assessment is best served by eating a careful combination of a range of instruments matched to advantages and disadvantages of dial a particular purpose at eating, each stage of the learning cycle, such as for Douglass example, formative, diagnostic or summative purposes [ 25 ],[ 26 ],[ 28 ]. Despite the eating together proliferation of assessment methodologies which attempt to test the competence of advantages and disadvantages, medical students directly, such as OSCE, OSPE, case-based assessment, mini-CEX and workplace-based assessment, written assessments remain in widespread use. Much of the families eating knowledge base required by the clinician is not necessarily testable in the performance format.

Additionally, in comparison with most practical assessment formats, written tests are easier to organize and deliver, requiring little more than pen and paper or a computer, a venue, question setters and markers who need not be physically present. In general, all forms of written assessment may be placed into one of two categories. Constructed response or open-ended questions include a variety of father of the dinner, written formats in which the families together student is required to generate an answer spontaneously in response to a question. Groom Dinner! The prototypical example is the essay. There are many variants including short answer questions (SAQ), mini-essay questions, single-word and single-sentence questions and together, the modified essay question (MEQ). The selected-response or closed-ended format is typified by the multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment, where candidates select the most appropriate answer from a list of a bronx full free, options rather than generating an answer spontaneously. Many variants of the multiple-choice format have been used: current best practice recommends the eating together use of one-best-answer (of three, four or five possible answers), and advantages up, extended matching item (EMI) formats [ 29 ]. In this debate I shall use the term open-ended when referring to the constructed-response format, and multiple-choice as a synonym for the selected-response format.

All high-stakes assessments should meet an adequate standard in terms of quality and fairness, as measured by a number of parameters, summarised recently in a consensus statement [ 30 ]. Principal among these are the families together classic psychometric parameters of reproducibility (reliability or consistency; that a result would not essentially change with retesting under similar conditions), and validity or coherence, which I describe in detail below. Other important measures by which assessments should be judged are equivalence (assessments administered at different institutions or during different testing cycles produce comparable outcomes), feasibility (particularly in terms of polc management, efficiency and eating, cost effectiveness), educational effect (the student who takes the assessment is thereby motivated to undertake appropriate learning), catalytic effect (the assessment provides outcomes that, when fed back into the educational programme, result in better teaching and learning) and acceptability to both teachers and learners. It is generally accepted that the multiple-choice format, in contrast to Douglass example the open-ended format, has high reliability and is efficient, a consequence primarily of wide sampling, and to a lesser extent, of its objectivity. In support of the together open-ended format, it has been widely held that this format is superior at testing higher cognitive levels of knowledge and has greater validity. This belief is intuitively appealing and appears to represent the viewpoint of many of those involved in medical assessment, including those with extensive knowledge and experience in medical education.

In an attempt to gain the best of both formats, there has been a shift from the prototypical essay towards newer formats comprising a larger number of short, structured questions, a development intended to retain the perceived benefit of the open-ended question with the superior reliability of the polc management MCQ. Thus the two formats are generally seen to be in tension, MCQ being significantly more reliable, the open-ended format having greater validity. In this debate I will compare the performance of the families eating open-ended format with MCQ in summative assessment, particularly in final exit examinations. I draw attention to the large body of evidence which supports the view that, in father of the groom dinner toast summative assessment, the multiple-choice format is families eating, intrinsically able to provide all the Essay Learning From History value of the open-ended format and does so more reliably and cost effectively, thus throwing into question the justification for the inclusion of the eating together open-ended format in summative assessment. I will suggest a hypothesis as to why the multiple-choice format provides no less information than the open-ended format, a finding which most people find counter-intuitive. A critical concept is that assessment is not only of learning, but also for learning [ 27 ],[ 31 ]. In the first case, the purpose of assessment is to rehearsal dinner determine whether that which is required to families be learnt has in fact been learnt. In the second case, it is a bronx tale full movie, acknowledged that assessment may in itself be a powerful driver for learning at the cognitive level. Families Eating! This is supported by a body of evidence indicating the powerful effect of assessment on strengthening memorisation and polc management, recall [ 20 ],[ 22 ],[ 23 ]. In this debate I concentrate primarily on summative assessment in its role as assessment of learning ; one must however remain aware that those methods of assessment best suited to together such summative assessment may not be identical to those best suited to assessment for learning ; indeed, it would be surprising if they were.

For the first part of the 20 th century, written assessment in medicine consisted largely of essay-writing [ 30 ]. Multiple-choice assessment was developed for psychological testing by and disadvantages Robert Yerkes immediately before the First World War and then rapidly expanded for the testing of army recruits. Yerkes was interested in assessing learning capacitynot necessarily humanand applied it to crows [ 32 ] and pigs [ 33 ] as well as psychiatric patients and mentally challenged subjects, a group among whom it was widely used for a number of years thereafter [ 34 ],[ 35 ]. Application to educational assessment has been credited to Frederick J. Kelly in 1914, who was drawn to it by its efficiency and objectivity [ 36 ]. Throughout its history, the multiple-choice format has had many detractors. Their principal arguments are that closed-ended questions do not stimulate or test complex constructive cognitive processes, and that if the ability to construct rather than choose a correct answer is families together, not actively assessed, there is a potential that it will be neither taught nor learnt [ 37 ]-[ 41 ]. As Rotfield has stated: Students proudly show off their high grades, from multiple-choice exams, as if their future careers will depend on knowing which choice to make instead of discerning which choices exist [ 42 ]. Self-evidently competence demands more complex cognitive processes than factual recall alone.

The ability to invoke these higher levels of cognition is clearly a skill which should be explicitly assessed. Douglass Essay! Is multiple-choice assessment inherently unable to do so, as its detractors have claimed? The belief that open-ended questions test high-order cognitive skills whereas multiple-choice questions do not and that therefore by eating inference open-ended questions evoke and test a reasoning process which is more representative of real-life problem-solving than multiple-choice, is a serious concern which I address in History this review. We begin however with a comparison of the two formats in terms of reproducibility and families together, feasibility. Reliability and efficiency of open-ended and multiple-choice question formats. Wider sampling greatly increases reproducibility, compensating as it does for unevenness in a candidates knowledge, varying quality of questions and even the personality of examiners [ 43 ],[ 44 ]. That the reproducibility of the multiple-choice format is much higher than that of the Famous in Eurpean Tudors Essay open-ended format is borne out in numerous studies comparing the two formats [ 45 ]-[ 47 ]. Recognition of these shortcomings has led to the design of families eating, open-ended-formats specifically intended to increase reproducibility and objectivity, while maintaining the supposed advantages of this format in terms of advantages and disadvantages of dial, validity.

A widely used format in medical assessment is the modified essay question (MEQ) . The format is of a clinical scenario followed by eating a series of sequential questions requiring short answers. This was expressly designed to bridge a perceived gap between multiple-choice and SAQ as it was believed that it would prove better at testing high-order cognitive skills than multiple-choice while allowing for in Eurpean History: The, more standardised marking than the standard open-ended question [ 45 ]. Yet where these have been compared with multiple-choice, the families advantage of the multiple-choice format remains. A large number of questions and Essay Learning From History, multiple markers are required in order to provide acceptable reliability for MEQs and essay questions [ 45 ]. Even for families eating together, well-constructed MEQ assessments, studies have shown poor inter-rater reliability. Thus in an MEQ paper in a final undergraduate medical exit examination marked in parallel by several assessors, statistically significant differences between the scores of the different examiners were shown in father rehearsal 50% of the questions, as well as significant differences in the median scores for families together, the examination as a whole [ 47 ]. Nor were these differences trivial; a substantial difference in outcome in terms of likelihood of failure were shown. This is cause for concern. Schuwirth et al . History: The Tudors Essay! have stressed the necessity for interpreting reliability in terms of outcome, particularly in terms of families eating, pass/fail misclassification, and advantages up, not merely in terms of numeric scores such as Cronbachs alpha [ 27 ]. In this and families eating together, other such studies the open-ended questions were of the highest possible quality practically achievable, typically MEQ's carefully prepared by skilled question writers working in teams, reviewed for a bronx, appropriateness and scored using an analytic scoring scheme designed to minimise inter-rater variability. These conditions do not hold for the standard essay-question or SAQ paper where the reliability will be much lower, and the contrast with multiple-choice correspondingly greater [ 47 ]. Open-ended items scored on a continuum, such as 0-100%, have much lower inter-rater reliability than those scored against a rigid marking schedule.

Therefore the discrepancy in families reliability for the graded essay marked on a continuum versus multiple-choice is much larger than it is for more objectively scored open-ended formats. In contrast to the open-ended question format, the multiple-choice is objective and allows multiple sampling of a subject. The result is father of the dinner toast, high reproducibility. Furthermore it substantially reduces the potential for a perception of examiner bias, and thus the families eating together opportunity for legal challenge by the unsuccessful candidate [ 48 ]. Of The Groom Rehearsal Dinner Toast! The multiple-choice format is families eating, efficient. Lukhele et al . studied a number of national university-entrance examinations which included both multiple-choice items and polc management, essay questions [ 49 ]. They found that 4-8 multiple-choice items provided the same amount of information as a single essay, and families eating together, that the essays efficiency in providing information about the candidates ability per father of the rehearsal dinner minute of testing was less than 10% of that of an average multiple-choice item. For a middle-level examinee, approximately 20 times more examination time was required for an essay to obtain the same information as could be obtained from a multiple-choice assessment. They reported that a 75-minute multiple-choice assessment comprising 16 items was as reliable as a three-hour open-ended assessment. Though the relative gain in efficiency using multiple-choice in preference to essay questions varies according to families eating together subject, it is an invariable finding [ 49 ].

Though the toast initial development of an multiple-choice assessment is labour-intensive, this decreases with increasing experience on the part of item-writers, and decreases further once a question bank has been developed from eating which questions can be drawn for re-use. The lower efficiency of the Monarchs The open-ended question is not restricted to eating together examination time but also the requirement for grading by examiners. Fredrick Douglass Essay! Typically an open-ended test requires from 4 to families 40 times as long to administer as a multiple-choice test of equivalent reliability [ 50 ]. In one study, the advantages cost of marking the open-ended items was 300 times that of the multiple-choice items [ 49 ]; the relative cost of scoring the papers may exceed a factor of 1000 for a large examination [ 50 ]. The multiple-choice format thus has a clear advantage over open-ended formats in terms of reproducibility, efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Why then are open-ended questions still widely used? Principally this is because of eating, a belief that essay-type questions, SAQ and their variants test higher-order cognitive thinking in a manner that MCQ cannot, and consequently have higher validity. It has been repeatedly stated that the MCQ format is limited in its ability to test deep learning, and is suitable for assessing facts only, whereas open-ended questions assess dynamic cognitive processes such as the strength of interconnected rules, the use of the mental models, and the mental representations which follow [ 37 ]-[ 39 ]; in short that open-ended questions permit the assessment of logical and reasoning skills in a manner that multiple-choice does not [ 40 ],[ 41 ]. Up! Is there evidence to families together support these assertions? The ability to advantages and disadvantages of dial test higher-order cognitive skills. The revised Bloom's taxonomy of learning [ 9 ]-[ 12 ] is helpful in evaluating the level of cognition drawn upon by an assessment (Figure 1 ). Eating! By convention, assessment questions targeting the and disadvantages of dial up first two levels, are regarded as low-level questions, the third level as intermediate, and the fourth to sixth levels as high-level. Those who understand the principles underlying the setting of high-quality multiple-choice items have no difficulty in together accepting that multiple-choice is capable of assessing high-order cognition [ 10 ],[ 13 ],[ 14 ]. The shift from true-false questions, (which in order to advantages up avoid ambiguity frequently test factual information only) to the one-best-answer and EMI formats have facilitated this [ 29 ]. Indeed, there exist well-validated instruments specifically designed to assess critical thinking skills and to measure their development with progress through college-level educational programs, which are entirely multiple-choice based, such as the families eating California Critical Thinking Skills Test [ 51 ],[ 52 ]. Schuwirth and Van der Vleuten [ 48 ] make a distinction between context-rich and context-free questions.

In clinical assessment, a context-rich question is typically presented as a case vignette. Information within the vignette is presented to candidates in its original raw format, and they must then analyse, interpret and evaluate this information in order to provide the answer. Monarchs History:! The stimulus reflects the question which the candidate must answer and is therefore relevant to the content of the families question. An example of a final-year question in Internal Medicine is tale full movie free, shown in the following example. Such a question requires analysis ( What is the underlying problem? ), application ( How do I apply what I know to families the treatment of in Eurpean The Tudors, this patient? ) and evaluation ( Which of several possible treatments is the eating most appropriate? ), none of which can be answered without both knowledge and understanding. Thus 5 of Blooms 6 levels have been tested. Example of polc management, a context-rich multiple-choice item in internal medicine.

Platelet concentrate infusion. None of the options offered are obviously unreasonable or easily excluded by the candidate who attempts to shortcut the cognitive processes required in families together answering it by searching for clues in History the options themselves. All have a place in families eating together the therapy of patients presenting with a variety of polc management, similar presentations. Answering this item requires: Analysis . In order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to recognise (1) that this patient is highly likely to be HIV-positive (given the lymphadenopathy, evidence of oral candidiasis and the high local prevalence of HIV), (2) that the presentation is suggestive of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (given the eating epistaxis, skin manifestations and very low platelet count), (3) that other commonly-seen concomitant features such as severe bacterial infection and extensive esophageal candidiasis are excluded by a number of negative findings. Evaluation . Further, in order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to (1) consider the differential diagnosis for the principal components of the clinical vignette and, by process of of dial up, evaluation, decide which are the most likely; (2) decide which of the diagnoses require treatment most urgently, (3) decide which form of therapy will be most appropriate for this. Knowledge, understanding and families together, application . Advantages And Disadvantages Of Dial! It is utterly impossible to recognise the correct answer to this item without having worked through this process of analysis and evaluation, and the knowledge required to answer it must clearly be informed by deep learning, understanding and application.

Hence five of the six levels of Blooms taxonomy have been tested. Furthermore it would appear an eminently reasonable proposition that the candidate who correctly answers this question will indeed be able to families together manage such a patient in practice, hence implying structural validity. Though guessing has a 20% chance of providing the correct answer, this will be eliminated as a factor by assessing performance across multiple such items and applying negative marking to incorrect answers. As a general conclusion, it would appear that the open-ended format is not inherently better at assessing higher order cognitive skills than MCQ. The fundamental determinant is the way in which the question is phrased in Learning History order to stimulate higher order thinking; if phrased inappropriately, the open-ended format will not perform any better than MCQ. A crucial corollary is that in comparing formats, it is eating, essential to ensure that MCQ questions crafted to Monarchs in Eurpean The Essay elicit high order thinking (particularly those which are context-rich) are compared with open-ended questions crafted to the same level; it is inappropriate to compare high-order items in one format with low order items in families eating the other. Several studies have investigated the effect of the stimulus on polc management, thought processes in the open questions and have shown that the stimulus format is more important than the response format . Scores on questions in open-ended format and multiple-choice format correlate highly (approaching 100%) for context-rich questions testing the same material. In contrast, low correlations are observed for different content using the same question format [ 48 ]. In response to the low objectivity and reliability of the families together classic essay-type questions, modified open-ended formats have evolved which typically combine short answers, carefully crafted questions and rigid marking templates.

Yet this increase in reliability appears to come at a bronx free, a significant cost to families eating the presumed advantage of the open-ended format over the multiple-choice format in testing higher orders of cognition. Feletti and Smith have shown that as the number of items in the open-ended examination increases, questions probing high-order cognitive skills tend to be replaced by questions requiring factual recall alone [ 46 ]. Famous History:! Hence as accuracy and families together, reliability increase, any difference between such an assessment and a multiple-choice assessment in terms of other indicators tends to disappear; ultimately they converge on Fredrick example, an essentially identical assessment [ 47 ],[ 49 ]. Palmer and Devitt [ 45 ] analysed a large number of multiple-choice and families eating together, MEQ questions used for summative assessment in a clinical undergraduate exam. The examination was set to a high standard using appropriate mechanisms of review and quality control. Yet they found that more than 50% of both MEQ items and MCQ items tested factual recall while multiple-choice items performed better than MEQ in the assessment of higher-order cognitive skills. Of The Groom Rehearsal Dinner Toast! They reported that the modified essay question failed in its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the multiple-choice frequently tested more than mere recall of knowledge. In a subsequent study of a rigorously prepared and controlled set of exit examinations, they reported that the proportion of questions testing higher-level cognitive skills was lower in the MEQ paper then in the MCQ paper. Families Together! More than 50% of the groom rehearsal toast multiple-choice items assessed higher level cognition, as opposed to just 25% of the MEQ items.

The problem was compounded by a higher frequency of families, item-writing flaws in the MEQ paper, and flaws were found in the marking scheme in 60% of the MEQ's. The authors conclude that The MEQ paper failed to achieve its primary purpose of advantages of dial up, assessing higher cognitive skills [ 47 ]. We therefore appear to be dealing with a general rule: the more highly open-ended questions are structured with the intention of increasing reliability, the more closely they converge on an equivalent multiple-choice question in terms of performance, thus negating any potential advantage of the open-ended format over families together the closed-ended [ 53 ]; indeed they appear frequently to underperform MCQ items in advantages and disadvantages of dial the very area in which they are believed to eating together hold the advantage. Thus the shift to these newer forms of assessment may actually have had a perverse effect in diminishing the potential for the open-ended assessment to evaluate complex cognitive processes. This does not imply that open-ended items such as SAQ, MEQ and key-feature assessments, particularly those designed to assess clinical reasoning, are inherently inferior to MCQ; rather it is a warning that there is polc management, a very real risk in practice of dumbing-down such questions in an attempt to improve reliability, and empiric observations suggest that this is indeed a consequence frequently encountered even in carefully crafted assessments. Combining multiple-choice and open-ended tests in families the same assessment, in the belief that one is improving the strength of the assessment, leads to an overall less reliable assessment than is constituted by the multiple-choice section on its own [ 49 ], thus causing harm rather than adding benefit [ 50 ]. The second argument, frequently advanced in support of the open-ended format, is that it has greater validity; that spontaneously recalling and reproducing knowledge is a better predictor of the students eventual ability to handle complex problems in real-life then is the ability to select an answer from a list [ 54 ]. Indeed, this argument is intuitively highly appealing. The case for the retention of open-ended questions in medical undergraduate and postgraduate assessment largely rests on validity, with the assumption that asking the candidate to describe how they would diagnose, investigate and a bronx tale movie, treat a patient predicts future clinical competence more accurately than does the ability to select the right response from a number of options [ 55 ],[ 56 ]. The question of validity is central. If the open-ended format is genuinely of higher validity than the multiple-choice format, then there is a strong case for retaining essay-type questions, SAQ and MEQ in the assessment protocol. If this contention cannot be supported, then the justification for retaining open-ended items in summative assessment may be questioned.

Is the contention true? Essentially, this may be explored at families, two levels. Polc Management! The first is to correlate outcomes between the two formats. Families Together! The second is to rehearsal dinner perform appropriate statistical analysis to determine whether these formats are indeed testing different dimensions or factors. Validity is an indicator of how closely the assessment actually measures the quality it purportedly sets out to test. It is self-evident that proficiency in many domains, including clinical practice, requires not only the ability to recall factual knowledge, but also the ability to generate and test hypotheses, integrate knowledge and apply it appropriately as required. Modern conceptualisations of eating, validity posit a single type; namely construct validity [ 57 ]-[ 59 ]. This is based on the premise that ultimately all validity rests on the fidelity with which a particular assessment reflects the polc management underlying construct, intangible collections of abstract concepts and principles which are inferred from behaviour and explained by educational or psychological theory [ 60 ]. Construct validity is families eating, then defined as a process of investigation in which the constructs are carefully delineated, and about Learning History, evidence at multiple levels is sought which supports a valid association between scores on that assessment and the candidate's proficiency in terms of that construct. For example, five types of evidence have been proposed which may provide support for such an association [ 60 ],[ 61 ], namely content, the families eating together response process, internal structure, relationship to other variables and consequences. Famous Monarchs In Eurpean History: The Tudors! In this discussion we highlight the relevant to the last two methods; convergent correlations between the two forms of assessment, and the impact of test scores on later performance, particularly that requiring problem-solving under conditions encountered in the work situation. This is particularly important to those employers more interested in hiring competent workers than good test takers [ 62 ]. Direct comparisons of the open-ended and multiple-choice formats.

Numerous studies have assessed the correlation of families, scores between the two formats. If scores are highly correlated, the two formats are essentially measuring the same thing in which case, in terms of validity, there is no advantage of one over the other. With few exceptions, studies indicate that scores on the two forms of example, assessment are highly correlated. Norman et al. compared the two formats prospectively and showed a strong correlation between the together two sets of of the toast, scores [ 63 ]. A similar result was found by Palmer et al. who suggested that the two types of families together, examination were essentially testing similar characteristics [ 47 ]. Similarly Norcini et al. found that written patient management problems and multiple choice items appeared to be measuring essentially the same aspects of clinical competence, though the multiple-choice items did so more efficiently and with greater reliability [ 17 ]. Similar results have been obtained in fields as diverse as economics and marketing [ 64 ],[ 65 ]. In general correlations between the of dial up two formats are higher when the questions in each format are specifically designed to eating together be similar (stem-equivalent), and lower where the Famous in Eurpean Tudors Essay items in the two formats differ. However, the difference is not great: in a meta-analysis, Rodriguez found a correlation across 21 studies of 0.92 for stem-equivalent items and 0.85 across 35 studies for non-stem-equivalent items. The scores may not always be identical, but they are highly correlated [ 53 ],[ 65 ].

Factor analysis: do the formats measure more than one construct? Identification of the actual constructs measured in an assessment has proved challenging given the together lack of congruence between the simple cognitive assumptions on which testing is often based and full movie, the very complex cognitive nature of the families eating together constructs underlying understanding [ 66 ]. A number of studies have used confirmatory factor analysis and principal component analysis to determine whether the constructs tested by the two formats lie along a single dimension or along two or more divergent dimensions. Essay Learning! Bennett et al . Families Together! compared a one factor model with a two factor model to examine the relationship of the open-ended and closed-ended formats and found that in general the advantages single factor provided a better fit. This suggests that essentially the eating two formats are testing the same thing [ 67 ]. Similarly Bridgeman and Rock found, using a principal components model, that both formats appeared to load on the same factor, implying that the Learning open-ended format was not providing information on a different dimension [ 68 ]. Thissen and Wainer found that both formats could largely be ascribed to a single shared factor but did find some specific open-ended factors for which only the eating together open-ended items contributed [ 69 ]. Though Lissitz et al . [ 70 ] quote a study by JJ Manhart, which found a two-factor model generally more appropriate than a one factor model, this study has not been published and advantages and disadvantages, the significance of the divergence cannot be assessed. In a study of eating together, high school assessments using confirmatory factor analysis, Lissitz et al. Douglass! showed a correlation of 0.94 between the two formats in the domains of algebra and biology; a two-factor model provided a very slight increment over a one-factor model in terms of fit. In the case of an English language assessment the correlation was lower at 0.74 and a two-factor model provided a better fit.

In a test of US government, intermediate results were found with the correlation of 0.83 and a slight superiority of a two-factor model. This suggests that the addition of open-ended items in biology and algebra provided little further information beyond the multiple-choice items, whereas in other domainsEnglish and governmentthe two formats are to some degree measuring different constructs [ 70 ]. Indeed, the literature in general suggests that differences in format appeared to be of little significance in families eating the precise sciences such as biology and mathematics, but may have some relevance in fields such as history and languages, as suggested by Traub and Fisher [ 71 ]. In summary, there is little evidence to Essay From support the families belief that the open-ended format is testing dimensions which the about Learning History multiple-choice format cannot [ 53 ],[ 70 ],[ 72 ]. Construct validity was specifically assessed by Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], who attempted to measure the depth of families, understanding among school-level science students revealed by multiple-choice and short written explanatory answers respectively. They reported that students who showed higher degrees of knowledge integration were more likely to score highly on multiple-choice, though the reverse did not hold true. They suggested that the multiple-choice items were less effective in distinguishing adjacent grades of understanding as opposed to Famous The Tudors Essay distinguishing high-performance from low performance, a finding similar to families together that of Wilson and and disadvantages, Wang [ 74 ] and families eating together, Ercikan et al . In Eurpean! [ 75 ]. Unfortunately the families eating generalisability of polc management, these results is limited since the families eating together multiple-choice items were poorly standardised, both in format and in difficulty, and the circumstances under which the testing was conducted were essentially uncontrolled. Lukhele et al . performed a rigorous analysis of high-quality university placement exams taken by polc management thousands of candidates [ 49 ]. They found that both formats appeared to be measuring essentially the same construct. There was no evidence to eating suggest that the open-ended and multiple-choice questions were measuring fundamentally different thingseven in areas as divergent as chemistry and history.

Factorial analysis suggested that there were two variant dimensions reflected in the scores of the multiple-choice and open-ended sections, one slightly more related to multiple-choice and the other to the open-ended format. However these were highly correlated, whatever the factor is polc management, that is specifically measured by the open-ended format, multiple-choice would measure it almost as well. Thus for all practical purposes, in eating such summative assessments, multiple-choice assessments can satisfactorily replace open-ended assessments. Stylized depiction of the contrasting ability of the presumed open-ended and Essay, multiple-choice formats to assess recognition and recall as opposed to families eating together higher forms of Essay about Learning, cognitive learning. Ideally, multiple-choice and open-ended questions would measure two different abilities (such as recall/recognition versus reasoning/application) this may be shown as two divergent axes (shown on left). The error variance associated with each type of question is indicated by eating the shaded blocks, and is much greater for in Eurpean The Essay, the open-ended question, given its inherent lower reliability. In practice, it appears that the two axes are closely aligned, implying that the two types of questions are measuring essentially the same thing (shown on right). What little additional information the open-ended question might be giving (as shown by eating together a slight divergence in advantages and disadvantages up axis) is eating, offset by its wide error variance, which in effect overlaps the information given by the multiple-choice question, thus significantly reducing the value of polc management, any additional information it provides.

In summary, where studies have suggested that the open-ended format is measuring something that multiple-choice does not (particularly in older studies), the effect has tended to be minimal, or possibly explicable on methodological grounds, or indefinable in terms of what is eating together, actually being measured. In contrast, methodologically sound studies converge on the conclusion that the a bronx tale full free difference in validity between the two formats is trivial. This is the conclusion drawn by Rodriguez in a meta-analysis of 21 studies [ 53 ]. Demonstrating an essential similarity for the two formats under the conditions of summative assessment does not necessarily mean that they provide identical information. It is possible and indeed likely that open-ended questions may make intermediate steps in thinking and understanding visible, thus serving a useful role in diagnostic as opposed to summative assessment [ 73 ],[ 75 ],[ 76 ]. Such considerations are particularly useful in using assessment to guide learning rather than merely as a judgment of competence [ 77 ]. In summative assessment at a stage prior to final exit from eating a programme, and particularly in formative assessment, the notion of a bronx free, assessment for learning becomes important; and considerations such as the generation effect and the potentiation of memory recall by testing cannot be ignored. Eating! Interestingly, a recent publication suggests that multiple-choice format testing is polc management, as effective as SAQ-format testing in potentiating memorisation and recall [ 23 ], thus supporting the contention that well-crafted MCQ and families eating, open-ended questions are essentially stimulating the same cognitive processes in the learner. Some authors have raised the concern that students may constitutionally perform differentially on the two forms of assessment, and might be disadvantaged by and disadvantages of dial up a multiple-choice assessment should their strengths lie in families together the open-ended format. Studies in father groom dinner toast this area have been reassuring. Bridgeman and Morgan found that discrepant results were not predictive of poor academic performance as assessed by families eating together other parameters [ 78 ]. Up! Ercikan et al . reported that discrepancies in the outcome between open-ended and families eating together, multiple-choice tests were largely due to the low reliability of the open-ended component and inappropriate testing strategies [ 75 ]. A study which correlated the two formats with each other and with other measures of student aptitude showed a high degree of Famous Monarchs in Eurpean History:, correlation and was unable to identify students who clearly had a propensity to families eating perform consistently better on one format than the polc management other [ 79 ]. Thus the belief that some students are constitutionally more suited to open-ended questions than to multiple-choice would appear to be unfounded. An important question is whether the families together format of assessment effects the a bronx tale full movie free type of eating, learning students use in preparation for polc management, it.

As early as 1971, Hakstian suggested that anticipation of a specific form of examination did not result in any change in the amount or type of preparation, or any difference in performance in subsequent testing [ 80 ]. He concluded as follows: The use of various types of tests to foster various kinds of study and eating, learning, although widely advocated would seem to be a practice based on Essay about Learning History, intuitive appeal, but not convincingly supported by empirical research. In particular, the contention that the superiority of the essay examination is its ability to promote more desirable study methods and families together, higher performance on tasks requiring organisation, and deeper comprehension analysis of information should be re-evaluated in light of the evidence in the present study of no differences between groups in father rehearsal terms of families eating together, study methods, the essay examination, or items from the higher levels of the cognitive domain. In fact, the polc management relationship between assessment format and together, learning styles remains ill-defined. Though some studies have suggested that students tended to make more use of of the groom toast, surface learning strategies in preparation for MCQ and eating together, deeper learning strategies in preparation for open-ended questions [ 81 ],[ 82 ], other studies have failed to show such an association [ 80 ],[ 83 ]. Some studies have even failed to show that deep learning approaches correlated with better performance in applied MCQs and free, a written course project, both of which required high level cognitive performance [ 84 ],[ 85 ], though, a significant finding was that a surface learning strategy appeared deleterious for both factual and applied MCQ scores [ 85 ]. Indeed, a review of the literature on learning strategies suggests that the families together notion that one or other assessment format consistently calls forth a particular learning strategy is simplistic, and Famous in Eurpean Tudors, much of the evidence for this may have been misinterpreted [ 86 ]. The students choice of learning style appears to be dependent on multiple interacting and to some extent, confounding factors, most importantly the students innate learning motivation and preferred learning strategy. This is together, however subject to modification by other factors, particularly the students own perception of whether the assessment is advantages up, directed at assessment of factual knowledge or of understanding, a perception which may frequently not coincide with the intentions of the examiner [ 87 ]. Individual differences in learning strategy probably outweigh any other consideration, including the eating together assessment format, though this is of the groom rehearsal dinner, not constant and families eating, students will adapt their preferred learning strategy according to their perception of the advantages of dial requirement for families together, a particular assessment [ 88 ]. A further study has suggested that the approach to learning the of dial up student brings into families eating together, the course is the strongest predictor of the learning style they will employ subsequently and, irrespective of the instructors best efforts, the only factor significantly correlated with the change in polc management learning style is a change in the students perception of the cognitive demands of the assessment. Thus students are frequently strategic in their choice of learning strategy, but the families strategies may be misplaced [ 87 ]. The students academic ability may be relevant; one study has shown that more academically able science students correctly identified the MCQ as requiring deep knowledge and adopted an appropriate learning strategy, whereas less able students interviewed the polc management assessment as principally a test of recall and used a counter-productive surface-learning strategy. Hadwin et al . Families Eating! have stressed the major influence of context on choice of assessment strategy [ 88 ]. There is for example evidence that students will modify their strategy according to whether the assessment is perceived as a final examination or as an interim assessment, irrespective of format [ 81 ]. So-called construct-irrelevant factors such as female gender and increasing maturity tend to about correlate with selection of a deep learning strategy [ 85 ] independent of eating, assessment format, while the association of anxiety and other emotional factors with a particular assessment will impair performance and thus operate as a confounding factor [ 89 ],[ 90 ]. In discussing their results, Smith and Miller stated that Neither the hypothesis that multiple-choice examination will promote student use of surface strategy nor the hypothesis that essay examination will promote student use of deep strategy were supported [ 91 ]. As a general conclusion, it would appear valid to say that current evidence is insufficient to polc management suggest that the families eating open-ended format should be preferred over MCQ or vice versa on Douglass, the grounds that it promotes more effective learning strategies. It is families eating, also important to be aware that open-ended assessments may bring confounding factors into play, for father groom toast, example testing language mastery or skills rather than the intended knowledge domain itself [ 70 ], and hand-written answers also penalise students with poor writing skills, low writing speeds and poor handwriting [ 65 ]. In comparison with the multiple-choice format, is the open-ended format superior in predicting subsequent performance in the workplace? This has been assessed and the answer, surprisingly, is that it may be less predictive.

Rabinowitz and Hojat [ 92 ] correlated the single MEQ assessment and five multiple-choice assessments written at the conclusion of families, a series of six clerkships with performance after graduation. A Bronx Tale Full Movie! Results in multiple-choice assessment consistently demonstrated the highest correlations with subsequent national examination scores and with objective assessments of performance in the workplace. The MEQ questions showed the lowest correlation. Wilkinson and Frampton directly compared an assessment based on long and short essay-type questions with a subsequent assessment protocol containing short essay questions and two multiple-choice papers [ 56 ], correlating these with performance in the subsequent internship year using robust rating methodologies. They found no significant correlation between the scores of the open-ended question protocol and assessments of performance in the workplace after graduation. In contrast they found that the combination of the SAQ paper and families eating together, two multiple-choice papers showed a highly significant correlation with subsequent performance. History: Tudors Essay! This study showed that the predominant use of multiple-choice in the assessment resulted in a significant improvement in the structural validity of the assessment in comparison with essay-type questions alone. It was unable to answer the question as to whether the open-ended questions are necessary at eating together, all since the multiple-choice component was not compared with the advantages up performance rating independently of the essay questions. These authors conclude that that the change from the open-ended format to the multiple-choice format increased both validity and reliability. Recommendations from the literature. Wainer and Thissen stated that: We have found no evidence of any comparison of the efficacy of the two formats (when a particular trait was specified and families eating together, skilled item writers then constructed items to measure it) in which the multiple-choice item format was not superior [ 50 ]. Lukhele et al . concluded: Thus, while we are sympathetic to the arguments regarding the advantages of open-ended format, we have yet to see convincing psychometric evidence supporting them.

We are awash in evidence of Douglass example, their drawbacks, and further, We are forced to together conclude that open-ended items provide this information in more time at greater cost than the multiple-choice items. This conclusion is surely discouraging to those who feel that open-ended items are more authentic and, hence, in some sense, more useful than multiple-choice items. It should be [ 49 ]. Palmer et al . have suggested that the MEQ should be removed from the exit examination [ 47 ]. History:! Given that MEQ's are difficult to write to a high standard and in such a way that they test high-order cognitive skills, and given the time required and the subjectivity in marking, their use does not represent an efficient use of resources. Indeed, they state MEQ's often do little more than test the candidate's ability to recall a list of facts and frustrate the examiner with a large pile of papers to be hand-marked. They conclude there is no good measurement reason for including open-ended items in the high-stakes assessment, given that the families eating MEQ performed poorly in terms of testing high-order thinking in comparison with the multiple-choice despite considerable effort to produce quality questions. Schuwirth and Van der Vleuten too have suggested that there is no justification for polc management, the use of SAQ in assessment, since the families together stimulus of most SAQ can also be applied with multiple-choice. They recommend that SAQ should not be used in any situation except where the spontaneous generation of the answer is absolutely essential.

Furthermore, they believe that there is little place for context-free questions in medical assessment as the context-rich stimulus approximates clinical practice more closely [ 48 ]. Why does the open-ended format persist in Monarchs in Eurpean Tudors Essay medical assessment? Hence the evidence suggests that in written summative assessment the eating together multiple-choice format is no less able to test high-order thinking than open-ended questions, may have higher validity and is superior in advantages reliability and cost-effectiveness. Remarkably this evidence extends as far back as 1926 [ 53 ],[ 93 ], and the reasons underlying the persistence of the open-ended format in assessment are of some interest. Families Eating! I suggest a number of factors. Studies bear out the common-sense expectation that questions designed to test factual knowledge onlyirrespective of whether these are presented as open-ended or in multiple-choice formatdo not test the same level of reasoning as more complex questions [ 94 ]. Essay From History! Indeed, a recurring finding in the literature is that the so-called deficiencies of the multiple-choice format lie more with the quality of the eating together individual question item (and by Essay Learning History inference, with the question-setter), than with the format per se . This leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy: examiners who do not appreciate the versatility of the multiple-choice format set questions which only test low-order thinking and not surprisingly achieve results which confirm their bias. Palmer et al. Eating Together! state that criticism of multiple-choice as being incapable of testing high-order thinking is in fact criticism of poorly written questions, and that the same criticism can be directed at open-ended assessments [ 45 ]. There is indeed evidence that stem-equivalent items tend to behave similarly, irrespective of whether the Fredrick Essay example item is phrased as an open-ended question or in MCQ format. It is therefore essential that in making comparisons, the items compared are specifically crafted to assess the same order of cognition.

As Tanner has stated, any assessment technique has its limitations; those inherent in multiple-choice assessment may be ameliorated by careful construction and thoughtful analysis following use [ 95 ]. Second, it would appear that many educators are not familiar with much of the literature quoted in this discussion. The most persuasive material is found in eating the broader educational literature, and though there are brief references in the medical education literature to some of the studies to which I have referred [ 47 ],[ 48 ], as well as a few original studies performed in the medical assessment context [ 17 ],[ 45 ],[ 47 ],[ 63 ], the issue does not appear to have enjoyed prominence in debate and has had limited impact on actual assessment practice. About Learning From! In their consensus statement and recommendations on research and assessment, Schuwirth et al. stress the need for reference beyond the existing medical education literature to relevant scientific disciplines, including cognitive psychology [ 27 ]. In the teaching context, it is remarkable how the proposition that the open-ended format is families eating together, more appropriate in testing the knowledge and skills ultimately required for father of the groom toast, the workplace has been repeatedly and uncritically restated in the literature in the absence of compelling evidence to support it. Third is the counter-intuitiveness of this finding. Indeed, the proposition that the families together open-ended format is more challenging than MCQ is intuitively appealing. Furthermore, there is the generation effect; experimental work has shown that spontaneous generation of information, as opposed to reading enhances recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Although this applies to learning rather than to assessment, many teachers implicitly attribute a similar but reversed process to the act of recall, believing that spontaneous recall is more valid than cued recall.

However, validity at face value is an polc management, unreliable proxy for true validity, and the outcome in practice may contradict what seems intuitively correct [ 48 ]. As the together literature on learning increases, it has become apparent that evidenced-based practice frequently fails to coincide with the intuitive appeal of a particular learning methodology. Examples include the observation that interleaved practice is more effective than blocked practice and distributed practice is more effective than massed practice in promoting acquisition of skills and knowledge [ 21 ]. A Bronx Tale! There is a need for assessment to be evidence-based; to an extent assessment would appear to lag behind learning and teaching methodology in this respect. Eating Together! Rohrer and Douglass Essay example, Pashler have suggested that underutilisation of learning strategies shown to be more effective than their traditional counterparts, such as learning through testing, distributed practice and interleaved practice, remain so because of families eating, the widespread (but erroneous) feeling that these strategies are less effective than their alternatives [ 21 ]. Fourth and perhaps most defensible is concern that there is much that as yet remains unknown about the polc management nature of assessment; particularly seen from the viewpoint of assessment for families eating together, learning, and given very interesting new insights into the cognitive basis of memorisation, recall and polc management, reasoning, a field which is as yet largely unexplored, and may be expected to have a significant impact on the choice of eating together, assessment format. For diagnostic purposes, the open-ended format may hold value, since it is better able to expose the students intermediate thinking processes and therefore allow precise identification of learning difficulties [ 72 ]. Newer observations such as the generation effect [ 18 ],[ 19 ], the testing effect [ 20 ],[ 23 ], the preassessment effect, where the polc management act of preparation for an assessment is itself a powerful driver of learning [ 96 ], and the post-assessment effect, such as the eating together effect of feedback [ 96 ] are clearly important; were it to Famous in Eurpean The Tudors Essay be shown that a particular format of assessment, such as the open-ended question, was superior in driving learning, then this would be important information which might well determine the together choice of assessment. At this point however no such reliable information exists.

Preliminary work suggests that MCQ items are as effective as open-ended items in promoting the testing effect [ 23 ]. None of these considerations are as yet sufficiently well supported by experimental evidence to argue definitively for the inclusion of open-ended questions on about Learning From, the basis of their effect on families eating together, learning, though the advantages and disadvantages possibility clearly remains. Furthermore, this debate has concentrated on high-stakes, summative exit assessments where the learning effects of assessment are presumably less important than they are at other stages of learning. Families Together! Certainly, open-ended assessment remains appropriate for father of the groom dinner toast, those domains not well-suited to families eating multiple-choice assessment such as data gathering, clinical judgement and professional attitudes [ 92 ] and may have value for a particular question which cannot be presented in any other format [ 48 ]. Though the evidence is less compelling, open-ended items may be superior in distinguishing between performances of candidates occupying the Famous Monarchs History: Tudors Essay two extremes of performance [ 75 ]. Cognitive basis for the observation. The need for assessment of research to eating move beyond empiric observations to studies based on a sound theoretical framework has recently been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. There is as yet little written on the reasons for the counter-intuitive finding that MCQ is as valid as open-ended assessments in predicting clinical performance. I suggest that the observation is highly compatible with cognitive-constructivist and situated learning theory, and in polc management particular the theory of conceptual change [ 97 ]. Fundamental to this theory is the concept of mental models. These are essentially similar to schemas, but are richer in that they represent knowledge bound to situation and context, rather than passively stored in the head [ 98 ]. Mental models may therefore be thought of as cognitive artifacts constructed by an individual based on his or her preconceptions, cognitive skills, linguistic comprehension, and perception of the problem, which evolve as they are modified through experience and instruction [ 99 ]. Conceptual change is postulated to represent the mechanism underlying meaningful learning, and is a process of progressively constructing and organizing a learners personal mental models [ 100 ],[ 101 ]. It is suggested that an effective mental model will integrate six different aspects: knowledge appropriately structured for a particular domain (structural knowledge), pathways for solving problems related to the domain (procedural knowledge), mental images of the system, associations (metaphors), the ability to know when to activate mental models (executive knowledge), and assumptions about the problem (beliefs) [ 102 ]. Therefore increasing proficiency in any domain is associated not just with an enlarging of together, store of knowledge and experience, but also with increasing complexity in the extent to Douglass which knowledge is organised and the manner in which it is stored and accessed [ 103 ], particularly as complex mental models which may be applied to eating problem-solving [ 104 ]. Groom Rehearsal! A counterpart in the domain of families eating together, medical expertise is the hierarchy of polc management, constructs proposed by eating together Schmidt et al . Douglass Example! elaborated causal networks, knowledge encapsulation and illness scripts [ 105 ],[ 106 ]. Conceptual change theory has a clear relationship to our current understanding of eating, expertise, which is postulated to emerge where knowledge and Fredrick Douglass Essay example, concepts are linked as mental representations into propositional networks which allow rapid processing of information and the omission of intermediate steps in reasoning [ 107 ],[ 108 ]; typically the experts knowledge is grouped into discrete packets or chunks, and manipulation of these equates to the manipulation of a large amount of information simultaneously without conscious attention to any individual component [ 104 ]. In comparison with non-experts, the representations of families eating together, experts are richer, more organised and abstract and are based on deep knowledge; experts also recognise the conditions under which use of particular knowledge is appropriate [ 109 ]. Essay History! As Norman has stated, expert problem-solving in medicine is dependent on (1) prior experiences which can be used in routine solution of problems by pattern recognition processes and (2) elaborated conceptual knowledge applicable to the occasional problematic situation [ 110 ]. The processes of building expertise and that of families, constructing mental models are essentially parallel [ 99 ].

Therefore any form of assessment intended to measure proficiency must successfully sample the candidates organisation of and access to knowledge, and not just content knowledge alone [ 99 ],[ 111 ]. I have reviewed the empirical evidence which suggests that the multiple-choice format is indeed predictive of proficiency, which provides important evidence that it is valid. This is explicable in terms of mental models. Groom Toast! An alternative view of a mental model is as an internal representation of a system that the learner brings to bear in a problem-solving situation [ 103 ],[ 104 ],[ 112 ]. The context-rich written assessment [ 48 ] is essentially an exercise in complex problem-solving, and eating, fits the definition of problem-solving as cognitive processing aimed at accomplishing certain goals when the advantages solution is unknown [ 103 ],[ 113 ]. Zhang has introduced the concept of a distributed cognitive task: a task requiring that information distributed across both the families internal mind and the external environment is processed [ 114 ]. If we extend Zhangs concept of external representation to include a hypothetical patient, the subject of the clinical vignette, who represents the class of all such patients, then answering the context-rich multiple-choice item may be seen as a distributed cognitive task. The candidate must attempt to call forth an appropriate mental model which permits an effective solution to advantages up the complex problem.

In a sequence of events which parallels that described by Zhang, the candidate must internalise the information provided in the vignette, form an together, accurate internal representation (an equivalent concept is polc management, that of the problem space, a mental representation of the problem requiring solution [ 115 ]); this in turn activates and eating together, interacts with the relevant mental models and is followed by externalization: the return of the product of the interaction of internal representation and mental model to the external environment, and the selection of a solution. In effect a relationship has been defined between environmental information, activation of higher level cognition and rehearsal dinner toast, externalisation of internal representations [ 114 ]. Assessment items which require complex problem-solving call on mental models appropriate to that particular context, and the item can only be answered confidently and correctly if the eating mental model is present at the level of proficiency. There is polc management, therefore no such thing as the families eating together student with generic expertise in answering multiple-choice questions, which explains the of the groom toast findings of Hakstian [ 80 ], Bridgeman and families, Morgan [ 78 ], Ercikan et al. [ 75 ] and Bleske-Rechek et al . [ 79 ], none of whom found convincing evidence for the existence of a class of student with a particular skill in advantages of dial answering multiple-choice questions. Recent observations that retrieval of knowledge improves retention, and may be enhanced in the learning process by frequent testing [ 20 ],[ 21 ], and in particular a recent publication summarising four studies performed in an authentic learning environment which demonstrates that that testing using MCQ format is as effective as SAQ testing [ 23 ], supports the hypothesis that the together MCQ format engages with high order cognitive processes, in both learning and retrieval of memory. This is further supported by their finding that high-level test questions stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then do low-level test questions [ 23 ]. In summary, the multiple-choice item is testing the integrity and appropriateness of the candidates mental models, and in doing so, is in fact assessing proficiency.

If the item is designed to test factual recall only then it will fail for this purpose, since it is the solution of a complex problem which tests the strength of the mental model and the cognitive processes which interact with it. Yet even a low-quality assessment based on factual recollection will correlate significantly with proficiency. Firstly, all mental models are based on a foundation of structural knowledge. The subject with sound mental models must therefore possess a good knowledge base. Secondly, possessing effective and tale full, appropriate mental models facilitates the families retention and recall of knowledge [ 103 ]. Not surprisingly therefore, even on a fact-based assessment, good students will correctly recall the information and excel; students with deficient mental models, are less likely to a bronx tale free be able to recall the information when needed.

This is together, supported by the work of Jensen et al . [ 116 ] who found that high order questions stimulated deep conceptual understanding and retention, and groom dinner toast, correlated with higher performance on both subsequent high order assessment items and low-order assessment items. Indeed, recognition and recall are highly correlated [ 50 ]. There is families eating together, evidence that the cognitive processes evoked by the multiple-choice format are not influenced by polc management cueing [ 117 ], though the families reasons for Fredrick Essay example, the frequent observation that MCQ scores are higher than those for equivalent open-ended item assessments raise concern that cueing may yet have a role [ 118 ]. Eating! However, where the stem and options have been well-designed?particularly such that the distractors all appear attractive to the candidate without the Essay about From History requisite knowledge? cueing should not be an families eating, issue [ 29 ],[ 48 ], and the common argument that it is about, easier to recognize an answer than it is to generate it spontaneously would appear not to hold true. Problem-solving skills are poorly generalizable [ 41 ]. Families Eating Together! This is explicable in that mental models are essentially domain-specific, representing a particular set of knowledge and advantages and disadvantages of dial up, circumstances, but the families actual process of developing them is highly dependent on domain-general processes including metacognition, self-regulation and cognitive flexibility [ 99 ]. I suggest that the problem with many assessments in the MEQ format is that they are essentially linear. Fredrick Essay Example! By requiring the candidate to families think one step at a time, the assessment effectively misses the crux of the problem-solving process, which is to look at and respond to a complex problem in its entirety, and Essay about Learning From History, not stepwise. The context-rich vignette-based multiple-choice item by contrast presents a complex problem which must be holistically assessed. Thus it requires a form of cognitive processing which mirrors that associated with actual proficiency.

Hybrid formats such as key feature assessments in effect also break down the clinical reasoning process into eating together, a sequence of sequential steps; whether this is regarded as a drawback will depend on the relative importance ascribed to decision-making at critical points in the decision tree and Famous in Eurpean History: Tudors Essay, global assessment of a problem viewed holistically. This is families eating, a critical area for future research in clinical reasoning. Educators who mistrust the multiple-choice format have tended to concentrate on the final, and cognitively the least important, step in this whole process: the Famous in Eurpean The Tudors Essay selection of a particular option as the answer, while ignoring the complex cognitive processes which precede the eating selection. Indeed, in a good assessment, the candidate is not selecting an answer at all. They recognise the external representation of a problem, subject the in Eurpean Tudors internalised representation to high level cognitive processing, and then externalise the product as a solution [ 119 ], which (almost as if coincidentally) should coincide with one of the options given. The multiple-choice format is by families together no means unlimited in its capacity to test higher-order thinking. The literature on problem-solving stresses the importance of highly-structured complex problems, characterised by Douglass unknown elements with no clear path to the solution and indeed a potential for there to be many solutions or even no solution at all [ 99 ]. Eating! The standard multiple-choice item by definition can only have one solution. Thus, though it may be context-rich, it is limited in its complexity. It is difficult however to imagine how a practically achievable open-ended written assessment might perform better. In order to accommodate complexity, the question would essentially have to Essay be unstructuredthereby eliminating all the structured short-answer progeny of the essay format, such as MEQ. In order to permit the candidate to freely demonstrate the eating application of all his or her mental resources to a problem more complex than that permitted by a multiple-choice vignette, one would in Douglass Essay example all probability require that the candidate is afforded the opportunity to families together develop an Fredrick Douglass, extensive, unstructured and essentially free-ranging, essay-length response; marking will be inherently subjective and we are again faced with the problem of narrow sampling, subjectivity and low reliability.

In effect the choice would then lie between an assessment comprising one or two unstructured essay length answers with low objectivity and reliability, and a large number of highly reliable multiple choice items which will effectively test high-order problem-solving, but will stop short of together, a fully complex situation. Perhaps this is a restatement of the assertion that measuring something that is not quite right accurately may yield far better measurement than measuring the right thing poorly [ 50 ], the situation depicted in Figure 3 . Expected performance in a well-structured context-rich multiple-choice assessment requiring complex problem-solving. Knowledge lacks structure and father, is essentially context-free. Concepts and relationships are of poor quality. The candidate will be unable to identify or contextualise the families together problem. His or her ability is effectively limited to answering items which require factual recall only provided they possess that knowledge. Situated knowledge is present but cannot be prioritised appropriately for polc management, the problem. Though the eating problem may be recognised, the candidate will be unable to represent it internally or activate a mental model with sufficient fidelity for advantages, problem-solving. Is able to extract the together key elements from the problem and father of the groom rehearsal dinner toast, possesses many or most of the concepts required for application to the problem, but the families eating together relationship between these may not yet be fully mature. The candidate will recognise the problem and respond appropriately to it, but may struggle to polc management prioritise and evaluate elements appropriately because of the families eating immature relationships between concepts.

Immediately recognises the problem and is able to accommodate it fully in a mental model which permits a solution. Will recognise the a bronx full movie free problem, identify, evaluate and prioritise all the elements necessary for a solution, thus arriving at the correct answer. Understands and families eating, responds to the situation intuitively, using tacit knowledge arising from extensive experience. Is able to rehearsal answer the eating question intuitively with minimal analysis or thinking. The first column comprises the stages of learning proposed by Dreyfus and Dreyfus [ 16 ]; in this context, we shall regard stage of learning as synonymous with level of proficiency or expertise, which is a measure of the effectiveness of Essay History, problem-solving skill. The second column contains descriptors for each stage chosen for their relevance to complex problem-solving posed by a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item. The third column contains a description of the likely performance on that item of a candidate at that stage of proficiency. The relationship between proficiency and performance in eating together a complex multiple-choice item is in fact remarkably direct. The debate may also be reformulated to incorporate the appropriateness of learning.

Deep learning is characterised by an understanding of the meaning underlying knowledge, reflection on the interrelationships of Learning, items of families together, information, understanding of the Essay Learning application of knowledge to everyday experience, integration of information with prior learning, the ability to differentiate between principle and example and eating together, the organisation of knowledge into a coherent, synthetic structure [ 99 ],[ 100 ]essentially an father rehearsal dinner toast, alternative formulation of the mental model. Eating Together! One can thus argue that the advantages and disadvantages up candidate who possesses deep knowledge has, by families the very fact of that possession, demonstrated that they have the a bronx movie sort of comprehensive and intuitive understanding of the subjectin short, the appropriate mental models as described by Jonassen and Strobel [ 97 ],[ 101 ]to allow the information to families eating together be used for problem-solving. Advantages! Correspondingly, the weak student lacks deep knowledge, and this will be exposed by a well-constructed multiple-choice assessment, provided that the together items are written in a manner which explores the higher cognitive levels of learning. Therefore, if candidates demonstrate evidence of extensive, deeply-learned knowledge, and the ability to solve complex problems, be it through the medium of multiple-choice assessment or any other form of assessment, then it is safe to assume that they will be able to apply this knowledge in practice. This accounts for the extensive correlation noted between multiple-choice performance, performance in open-ended assessments, and tests of subsequent performance in an authentic environment. The argument that open-ended questions do not test higher order cognitive skills, and full movie free, consequently lack validity, is not supported by the evidence. Some studies may have been confounded by the unfair comparison of high-order items in one format with low-order items in together another. Essay About Learning From History! This cannot be discounted as partly responsible for the discrepancies noted in some of the families work I have referenced, such as that of Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], yet where the cognitive order of the items have been carefully matched, a number of careful studies suggest that, particularly in science and rehearsal dinner toast, medicine, the two modalities assess constructs which though probably not identical, overlap to the extent that using both forms of assessment is families eating together, redundant. Given the advantage of the multiple-choice format in reliability, efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the suggestion that open-ended items may be replaced entirely with multiple-choice items in summative assessment is one which deserves careful consideration. This counter-intuitive finding highlights our lack of understanding of the cognitive processes underlying both clinical competence and its assessment, and suggests that much further work remains to be done. Of Dial Up! Despite the MCQ formats long pedigree, it is families eating together, clear that we understand little about the cognitive architecture invoked by this form of assessment.

The need for a greater role for Essay about Learning From, theoretical models in families eating assessment research has been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. And Disadvantages Of Dial! As illustrated in this debate, medical teaching and assessment must be based on a solid theoretical framework, underpinned by reliable evidence. Hard evidence combined with a plausible theoretical model - which must attempt to explain the observations on the basis of cognition - will provide the strongest basis for the identification of effective learning and assessment methodologies. That the multiple-choice format demonstrates high validity is due in part to families together the observation that well-constructed, context-rich multiple-choice questions are fully capable of assessing higher orders of cognition, and that they call forth cognitive problem-solving processes which exactly mirror those required in practice. On a theoretical basis it is polc management, even conceivable that the multiple-choice format will show superior performance in assessing proficiency in contrast with some versions of the open-ended format; there is indeed empirical evidence to support this in practice [ 56 ],[ 92 ]. Paradoxically, the open-ended format may demonstrate lower validity than well-written multiple-choice items; since attempts to families eating improve reliability and reduce objectivity by writing highly focused questions marked against standardised, prescriptive marking templates frequently trivialize the and disadvantages of dial up question, resulting in some increase in reproducibility at the expense of a significant loss of validity [ 120 ]. Families Eating! Indeed, I have argued that, based on an understanding of human cognition and problem-solving proficiency, context-rich multiple-choice assessments may be superior in assessing the very characteristics which the proponents of the open-ended format claim as a strength of that format. Though current evidence supports the father rehearsal notion that in eating summative assessment open-ended items may well be redundant, this conclusion should not be uncritically extrapolated to situations where assessment for learning is important, such as in formative assessment and in summative assessment at Famous Monarchs in Eurpean History: The Tudors, early and intermediate stages of the medical programme given that conclusive evidence with respect to the learning effects of the families two formats is as yet awaited.

The author was solely responsible the literature and writing the advantages and disadvantages of dial article. RJH is currently Dean and families, Head of the School of Clinical Medicine at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. Famous In Eurpean! He studied at the University of Cape Town, specialising in Internal Medicine and subsequently hepatology, before moving to eating Durban as Professor of Medicine. He has a longstanding interest in medical education, and specifically in the cognitive aspects of clinical reasoning, an Essay about History, area in which he is currently supervising a number of research initiatives. Modified essay question. Short answer question. Objective structured clinical examination. The author would like to together thank Dr Veena Singaram for her insightful and challenging appraisal of the father rehearsal manuscript. Authors' original submitted files for images.

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Edited by: Davidson JE, Sternberg RJ. Tale Full! 2003, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY US, 3-30. Google Scholar Schuwirth LWT, Schuwirth LWT, Van der Vleuten CPM: ABC of learning and teaching in medicine: written assessment. BMJ: British Med J (International Edition). 2003, 326: 643-645. Google Scholar. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an families, Open Access article distributed under the From History terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in eating together any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( ) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Share on LinkedIn Share on Famous Monarchs in Eurpean The Tudors, Weibo Share on Google Plus Share on Reddit. By continuing to use this website, you agree to our Terms and Conditions, Privacy statement and Cookies policy.

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Gun Control is eating, a topic you can hear at many restaurant tables or amongst people standing in a . store. Do people really understand what they are talking about? Will stronger gun control laws help those that carry them legally? These are questions I ask when I am part of a gun control discussion. Increased gun control laws were brought to the forefront of the media and the government after the horrible Columbine Shooting on April 20th, 1999. Columbine High School massacre , Crime , Firearm 904 Words | 3 Pages. A Bronx Full! By Barry Randall When /quotes/zigman/92950/quotes/nls/stmp STMP +3.68% announced earnings on families eating together Oct.

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She is a bronx tale movie, using sewing to families together try and Fredrick Douglass Essay example, calm herself during her punishment. It reminds me of families together having an Learning, outlet in life. Something that you can do and while doing it you forget about everything wrong in families your life. 6) Could they be other than the insidious whispers of the bad. Advantages Up! Anne Hutchinson , Hester Prynne , Nathaniel Hawthorne 1125 Words | 3 Pages. Families! Things such as settings, events, character traits, and Fredrick, language all need to be realistic. This entails a huge amount of research done by the author to . support his/her novel and create a reliable, engaging read. Kathryn Stockett, the together author of The Help , intertwines both fact and fiction accurately depicting life in the south and the hardships that African Americans faced back in advantages up the 1960s. One of the most important aspects when writing a historical fiction novel is the setting. If this is accurate. African American , Jim Crow laws , Ku Klux Klan 1869 Words | 5 Pages. contemporary, have a look at the essays by journalist Anna Quindlen (Homeless), comedian Steve Martin (The Death of My Father), and novelist Stephen King . (The Writing Life).

Several essays first appeared in print within the past few decades. Eating Together! To help you locate essays that match your own tastes, the about From contents of the Essay Samplers have been organized here by author (below), title, and theme. Families! CONTENTS BY AUTHOR AND TITLE Mortimer Adler How to Mark a Book (1940) Part 5 #4 Mary Austin The. 2007 , A Modest Proposal , George Orwell 532 Words | 5 Pages. five signs) and Bipolar Disorder (include the term mania). Which one is more common? 33. Fredrick Douglass Essay! What was Peter Lewinsohns theory? 34. Eating! Write out and disadvantages up each bolded . sentence under Understanding Mood Disorders and give a brief explanation of each as needed to help you understand the bolded sentence.

35. Under the Biological Perspective: How has genetics influenced the development of eating mood disorders? 36. Under the Biological Perspective: How has the depressed brain influenced the development of mood disorders. Douglass Example! Abnormal psychology , Borderline personality disorder , Cognitive behavioral therapy 891 Words | 4 Pages. Families Together! ?Jennifer Alemoh Professor Cheryle Gittens- Bailey ENG 101 20 November 2013 Minimum wage and families Minimum wage job place workers in a striving . circumstance where they have to seek for Essay about Learning From additional financial help in order to families eating together live a moderate live in America. Most families that are struggling with paying their rents or providing for their families are either on about minimum wages or unemployed. Eating! This shows lack of security for Famous Monarchs in Eurpean Tudors Essay those families or individuals that has expenses that must be covered. Employment , Employment compensation , Living wage 1105 Words | 3 Pages. Spaeth Mrs.

Mueller Domestic Social Issues 8 October 2012 The Help Helping Society Every person goes through some form of discrimination . in their lifetime. Eating! It may be because of their age or it might be because of their race. In modern society, a lot of people go through discrimination because of these factors, but the discrimination that they go through is Fredrick, nothing like the black people in director Tate Taylors movie The Help go through. The main characters of the families together film are black maids in Jackson. Affirmative action , Black people , Miscegenation 1051 Words | 3 Pages. Advantages! The Help , which was originally written in 2009 by Kathryn Stockett and then released as a film in 2011 is an extraordinary example of courage, . dignity, and self respect.

In a time during racial injustice, segregation and oppression; three courageous characters break an ancestor cycle providing a new outlook of respect and dignity. I selected this film to review because I felt it truly displayed character, dignity, and self respect. This movie displayed the families hardships of racial issues and the courageous. Aristotle , Ethics , Happiness 853 Words | 3 Pages. Rehearsal! 123 Textiles Jakob Parker IT/240 6/10/2013 John Helt 123 Textiles Corporation has been a . respected company around the neighborhood for years, and through all the earthquakes that have happened they always stood around. Eating Together! I have been asked to devise a plan to of the rehearsal dinner toast help this corporation out, not only eating, is the natural disaster level high, but it is in a high crime area and tale free, the server was taken right out of one of the windows. While this is families eating, a huge concern as far as the a bronx tale full movie free hardware. Families Together! Backup , Cryptography , Encrypting File System 1336 Words | 4 Pages. Oh God Help Me The poem For Deliverance from about Learning From History a Fever is families, a beautiful poem by Anne Bradstreet. The use of rhyme and rhythm . throughout this poem depicts to me that Anne had an a bronx movie free, exceptional understanding of eating poetry and how to write poetry.

Anne uses a great array of words to make the poem more appealing to not only the polc management reader but also herself. This finely written poem portrays to families me that Anne was a very spiritual women but maybe had doubts about everything going on around her. The course of this. Essay About Learning History! Chosen people , Christian terms , Ecclesiology 1144 Words | 3 Pages. experiment because of the fact she tries so many different things and doesnt tend to stick with them. She struggles with finding her identity and pursuing . her dreams. Well-I do-alright?-thanks everybody!

And forgive me for ever wanting to families be anything at all. FORGIVE ME , FORGIVE ME , FORGIVE ME ! (37). Polc Management! Her family cant seem to eating understand why she keeps trying new things when they feel as though shell just give up and start another new things again shortly. They cant understand her because they dont know. A Raisin in the Sun , Dream , English-language films 1532 Words | 4 Pages. maid and she has to look after Mae Mobley as thats part of her job. She loves and cares for her no matter what.

Aibileen and Mae Mobley have very special . moments together like when Aibileen was in the bathroom with Mae Mobley, and Aibileen tries to help Mae Mobley go on about Learning From the toilet. This changed the movie, because it showed how much she cares for Mae Mobley and how if Aibileen wasnt around, Mae Mobley would have been a lot worse off. Aibileen knows Mae Mobley better than her own mother; she knows. Together! Childbirth , Coloured , Elizabeth I of England 1120 Words | 3 Pages. THE ACT OF ASSISTANCE The Help is a novel written by Kathryn Stockett about African American maids working in white households in Jackson, . Mississippi during the early 1960s. A short sentence on father of the groom rehearsal dinner toast the cover reveals the meaning behind the story, which is Change begins with a whisper. That is the main external conflict of the story. Together! People are sick of how they, and people that they know are being treated because of the color of their skin. So they need to find a way to transform peoples way of. African American , Domestic worker , Great house 1109 Words | 3 Pages. The Help (Good Copy) Would you want to live in the 1960s, have a black skin colour and be considered an animal or a slave. Thats . exactly what happened to Famous in Eurpean The Tudors the dark coloured citizens of families that time, who worked for the white people as slaves or maids.

During the 1960s time there was a small rebellion in Jackson Mississippi influenced by a book called the The Help , which was life changing for black citizens. Skeeter the protagonist of this story gave three big impacts to the black community. Black people , Pardo , Race 1221 Words | 3 Pages. A Bronx Tale Free! Various Breathing Patterns Data: ?No chart necessary here, but you will need to use the data you get from running the experiments to answer the questions . below Questions: ?answer each question; use full sentences; ask instructor if you need help 5-1: What happens to eating together PCO2 during rapid breathing? Explain your answer. Advantages! 5-2: What happens to families eating together PCO2 during the entire time of the and disadvantages up rebreathing activity? 5-3: Did the depth of the breathing pattern change during rebreathing? (Carefully examine. Eating Together! Asthma , Lung , Mucus 716 Words | 4 Pages. employees can sometimes service a customer more personably knowing that other employees can help the next person in tale free line (hopefully I explained . good enough to make since??) Example: If you are waiting at the post office or airport (like the book describes), then a clerk will have more time to personalize a customers request and families, will not hold up the line completely because the next clerk over can help the next person in the snake line when they get done servicing their customer. Disadvantage-. Bus , Bus stop , Disadvantage 813 Words | 3 Pages.

Khayla Salangsang February 20, 2013 ENG 123 MW 11AM Identity in Yellow Woman by Leslie Marmon Silko Yellow Woman by Leslie Marmon . Silko is a story about Famous Monarchs History: The, a woman who goes on a journey with a man. On this journey, the narrator, who is assumed to be the families woman, is plagued by questions of who she is and if the stories of of the dinner her culture about what she may be becoming are true. She struggles to families together find herself and what she wants because she wants to father of the groom dinner toast be herself but at the same time, see if she is becoming. Leslie Marmon Silko , Woman 1479 Words | 4 Pages. forgiven by families eating together, Fukuji once he returned the sword back to him. Essay About! As the reader, I must say that it has been a pleasant occurring of families together understanding such a deep . and advantages and disadvantages, better than good novel of a boy who came about to being a man in the end. Families Eating! It really touched me that I have a lot in common with the novel. My connections happen through my childhood as a kid when I really didnt like my name as well as Muna did and after I stole something that wasnt mine I ended up getting caught by Famous in Eurpean The Essay, my mom so I definitely learned. Bladesmith , Character , Fiction 681 Words | 2 Pages. Stand by Me (Movie Review for Small Group Com) A Summer To Remember The movie Stand By Me is based upon families eating, a novel by Steven King. It doesn't have the same eerie feel as some of his other . books and is generally a more serious movie. It takes place in the small town of Castle Rock, Oregon.

It is the middle of the summer in Famous Monarchs in Eurpean Tudors approximately the early 1960's. The kids are bored and eating, that is the setup for their adventure to go find a dead body in Fredrick Douglass example the woods. The main role of families eating Gordie LaChance is played by polc management, Wil Wheaton. He is having trouble in families eating his. Corey Feldman , Jerry O'Connell , Leadership 1608 Words | 4 Pages. consideration the reality of the situation. Movie Free! Superego conscience * The superego is like a relentless conscience that distinguishes right . from wrong in no uncertain terms. Its prime objective is to keep the id in eating check. * It helps us fit into society by getting us to act in socially acceptable ways. Essay Example! COMPONENTS OF PERSONALITY HABITS * Routine behaviors done on a regular basis. They are recurrent and often unconscious patterns of behavior and are acquired through. Id, ego, and super-ego , Mind , Motivation 516 Words | 5 Pages.

Help Me Learn Thru Edutainment and Multiple Intelligences. Help Me Learn Thru Edutainment and Multiple Intelligences Edutainment (also known as educational entertainment or . entertainment-education) is an art form that uses entertainment for together educational purposes. Some sources attribute the phrase edutaining to Peter Catalanotto who coined the phrase as he traveled the United States teaching schoolchildren about writing and illustration in a memorable fashion by offering the information using an entertaining platform instead of the original text. Education , Educational psychology , Emotional intelligence 1328 Words | 5 Pages. Advantages Of Dial Up! himself civilized and look upon as a upstanding man for his work in the field when he really is oblivious to the fact that he has lost all control of his . real self. But there are signs of life in him and really it makes him shine as a good character to families eating me despite his unethical demeanor. Kurtz has a woman back home whom has not left his mind he still hold her picture dear to him, and she still lives and breathes him all through the story end. Another thing that completely stands out Essay History is the horror. The. Heart of families eating Darkness , James Earl Jones , Knowledge 1021 Words | 3 Pages.

How My Optimism Will Help Me Press On To Greater Achievements Of The Future. Famous Monarchs History: The Essay! How My Optimism Will Help Me Press on to Greater Achievements of the Future By Anish Mantri I come from families eating a family of optimists. My . parents are first generation immigrants to the USA and one value they highly regard is optimism. They strongly believe that one can overcome any obstacle as long as they are hopeful about the future and show resiliency to stick with their dream. My father came to father of the rehearsal the USA with $500 in his pocket and a dream to go to a top business school and families, succeed in corporate America. Autism , Dream Come True , Help me 850 Words | 3 Pages. ?AVT 123 (Aircraft Communications/SATCOM) Communication The sending of a message via medium to a receiver Feedback a . Polc Management! response or one that sets such a process in motion; a reply or reaction to a stimulus. Hindrances to communication Noise Language Barrier Weather Surroundings Language/Sound Barrier Media Failure Telecommunication TELE Greek word at a distance The sending of families together a message through a medium to a receiver at a distance; involved the use of and disadvantages of dial machines.

Electromagnetic radiation , Electromagnetic spectrum , Frequency 918 Words | 4 Pages. How Does a Scholarship Help Me Realize My Full Potential. ------------------------------------------------- How does a scholarship help me realize my full potential My name is Lorane . Brown who resides in St. Catherine. Together! I am 31 years old who am persistent, goal oriented and polc management, conscientious. When I heard that Crown College is offering a scholarship, I was very elated to apply because I am cognizant that this opportunity seldom occurs and therefore I want to families explore my chance of about From History obtaining a scholarship awards. I believe that an award of scholarship can help me to realize my full potential . Families Eating Together! Accountancy , Accountant , Believe 1074 Words | 3 Pages. FOLLOW ME TROLLEY. Soni Shivang Shaileshbhai.

Shukla Abhishek Rajendra. A Bronx Tale Free! Patel Mayankkumar Gulabbhai. Ansari Asmatali Mohammad. . Eating! Electronics Communication Department, Gujarat technology University Opp. Essay Learning From! Govt. Guest House, Bholav, Bharuch 392 002, Gujarat, India. Abstract Retail is more and together, more moving toward online Shopping. I really doubt whether in even next 10 years we are likely to face disappearance of a supermarkets. To make both customers super markets life. Barcode , Barcode reader , Electronics 804 Words | 4 Pages. Millennials: The Me Me Me Generation by Famous Monarchs in Eurpean, Joel Stein The term Millennials (also . known as generation Y) generally refers to the generation born in the years between 1980 and 2000. As a member of this generation, its interesting to read about the families thoughts that professionals have about us.

The Millennial generation has many issues and many advantages, both of which are addressed in Joel Steins, Millennials: The Me Me Me Generation. In this review, I will be discussing. Cultural generations , Entitlement , Generation X 1677 Words | 3 Pages. XXXX COM 201 Media Essay 2 11/16/12 Video games seem to be an essential part around my friends circle. Unfortunately, I have never been . one of them, but since my brother is a huge fan of video games, I can say I grew up around a video games world. As I remember, my brother played video games in every minute and father dinner, second. I believe you must wonder why I could insist not to play. The truth is I was too afraid to be addicted to families eating together those games. I knew I was like my brother. Famous In Eurpean The Tudors! I have seen all the consequences. Eating! First-person shooter , Game , Games 1288 Words | 3 Pages.

The objective for father groom the category relies on my community. My sincere buddies are always with me whatever happens to me or wherever . I am, and that creates them sincere buddies. Moreover, they always say the truth and help me when I need help . Families Together! Therefore, I invest lots of your efforts and in Eurpean, energy and effort with them more than anyone else. One other thing I really like in my sincere buddies is they always ask me about my health, my knowledge, and eating, all other factors. For example, A close buddy can tell. Book of Optics , Energy , Help 581 Words | 2 Pages. How the Award of polc management a Scholarship Will Help Me to Realise My Full Potentials. REGISTRATION NUMBER: 2463407 DATE: May 2, 2013 PAGE: 1 How the award of a scholarship will help me to realize my full . potential In my career It will help me to together be dedicated to the accounting profession that requires a high level of skill and a commitment to Fredrick Douglass serving the public interest.

Also, it will enhance my focus on studying ACCA to acquire and acquaint myself with ACCA s own Code of families together Ethics and Conduct in line with standards set by IFAC: five fundamental principles of Integrity , Objectivity. Accountancy , Accountant , Federal government of the United States 751 Words | 3 Pages. to control our fear and Premium 1453 Words 6 Pages Rich Dad Poor Dad Five years ago, I felt like a sucker the minute I completed my . $16.95 transaction at the bookstore, as the father of the toast clerk gleefully said he was looking forward to me coming back to buy the rest of the series. Having a minimum wage employee mocking you as financial moron is a bit of a blow to your ego, but I Premium 2141 Words 9 Pages rich dad and poor dad ? REACTION PAPER IN FINANCE Fatima. Ferdinand Marcos , Poverty , Protagonist 1266 Words | 7 Pages. expressions on how to end an informal letter I promise to write to you soon. I hope you will reply soon. Give my best wishes to your parents. I . am looking forward to seeing you. I look forward to families hearing from you. Advantages And Disadvantages! Do write and tell me how you are progressing. Do write soon. Let us take a look at families, a sample question. The question below is similar to the question in the previous weeks article in terms of content points. Only the text-type differs. [pic] [pic] [pic] Dear Raihan. Help , Help me , Mode of transport 5010 Words | 13 Pages. Fredrick! searching for a skinny guy with round eye-glasses. Oh, that should probably be me . Families! Yup, thats me . I called her earlier today to . meet me here. I dont know why I did. But it just felt appropriate.

She saw sitting there, and Learning From History, gave me an inquisitive air. She has probably no idea what Im doing here, or what shes doing here; or what was written on the paper I held in my sweaty hands. I motioned for eating together her to sit down beside me , and she did. Polc Management! She gaped at the white sheet document I was holding, and without. 2003 singles , 2004 singles , 2005 singles 18228 Words | 49 Pages. Families! Com 200 Foundations of a bronx tale movie free Interpersonal Communication. Eating! Self-Assessment Communication Style COM 200 Foundations of Interpersonal Communication University Of Phoenix December 17, 2012 Abstract . The purpose of this paper is to discuss my results from the father of the groom rehearsal dinner toast Whats My Face-to Face Communication Style? self assessment. The research conducted with the use of the together Peer Perception Survey shall allow the author to interpret the scores given by Famous Monarchs History: The Tudors, friends and acquaintances. This will enable a thorough examination of how other individuals observe the author. Families Together! Communication , Friendship , Individual 1057 Words | 4 Pages. Fredrick Douglass Essay! I have to say rotten dot com is not my type of website, but it did catch my attention.

Even if you are disturbed or not attracted to . Families Together! something, you should give it a chance. You never know what to expect especially when you see, Rotten dot com collects images and polc management, information from many sources to present the viewer with a truly unpleasant experience on the main page. The content of the site is different than any other website that I have seen, but the form and layout is families together, very. Death , Image , Infant 912 Words | 5 Pages. with several family influences, one that has always stayed with me which is the biggest reason why i first wanted to take upon this career was . my mother. When i was little my mother would always talk about how she helped people and it would give her the most amazing feeling knowing she helped at least one person everyday. Consequently this made me wonder how it felt to support those people that really needed aid. Fredrick Essay! It also made me wonder how amazing it really felt whist doing this partly the reason. GCE Advanced Level , General Certificate of Secondary Education , Need 1387 Words | 4 Pages.

How my optimism will help me press on to greater achievements of the future. my optimism will help me press on to greater achievements of the future I cant be optimistic about my future I cant, without . looking at families, my past that is. Ive seen where I used to be in life compared to Famous The Tudors where I am now. I use that climb in my everyday life to fuel my optimistic view, because without knowing struggle youll never know progress. I know that without a past I can never have a future and without a future whats there to be optimistic about? Optimism is helping shape me into a leader for. Future , Glossolalia , Holy Spirit 979 Words | 2 Pages. 1-20-13 Essay #1- math and families together, me When I first learned about math I was nervous I thought I wouldnt learn how to do it or be good at it or maybe . not be able to keep up with the others.

When I finally started doing it I realized I was actually pretty good at Famous Monarchs in Eurpean History: The, it so I kept practicing and eating together, learning new things and then third grade came and we had to polc management do multiplication and times tables, I wasnt thrilled. I didnt quite get it at first and families, took me a while to get the hang of it. Polc Management! I just remember doing mad minutes. Families Together! Education , High school , Learning styles 1265 Words | 3 Pages. the coalition influencing tactic, in a bronx full hopes of using influential people to achieve his goal. With a coalition influencing tactic you use influential people to . help persuade others to meet your objective. Together! The more people you can get on father of the rehearsal your side, the eating more influence you can have on polc management others. Superiors, peers, subordinates, and outsiders can help you influence others. Families! Coalitions are also a political strategy. (e) Is the memo a wise political move for Ron? What might he gain and lose by sending it? I. A Bronx Full Movie Free! Authority , Exchange , Help 673 Words | 3 Pages. get the fuck away from me , you fucking bastard pricks. Theyll kick me out eating again for fighting, but I dont even care.

Ill . fucking end you, he shouts at them. Once he sees theyre mostly retreating, he turns his attention to full movie free the kid. Hes got his eyes shut tight, still clinging to Louis hand and sitting on the ground. Maybe Louis is families eating together, scaring him. Hi, he says, trying to sound friendly. Tale! Are you alright? The kid feels over the ground first, and Louis looks around to eating help . He hands the boy a. All That You Can't Leave Behind , Hand , Help! 1111 Words | 5 Pages. ?Study Guide for Quiz 2 Women in Islam Part I Be prepared to advantages of dial up answer the short answer questions below. Two of them will be on the quiz. (10 points) 1. . Name six facts about the life of Mohammad, including where he lived and approximately when.

What women were in his life? (Study Guide 18) 1. Born in Mecca in the year 570. 2. Was an orphaned by the age 3 and raise by his uncle 3. Became a business man 4. Together! Met a successful wealthy widow named Khadija and marries her. About Learning From! 5. When Mohammad. Eating! Allah , Hadith , Islam 1305 Words | 5 Pages. Being Me Its tough being a teenage girl; especially me , thats excruciating. Take some advice no one can ever fully . understand someone so dont even try to its impossible.

As you read this essay beware, not everyone lives with money and happiness handed to polc management them or lives the dream. Fact 1, Everyone is families, stereotyped, bound to whatever group everyone else thinks you are, not who you actually are every stereotype hates at least one other. I get stereotyped because of the make-up on The my face. 2005 albums , 2006 albums , 2007 singles 1086 Words | 3 Pages. 2. Together! Chain store model: Centralized procurement and selling through a multi-channel system Associated methods of settlement, . review and advantages of dial up, allocation and families, users files 3. Distribution advantage: Shanghai Me Mechanical and Electrical Equipment Chains logistics center had experience troubleshooting in the industry for many years Thorough knowledge of the mechanical and electrical industry sector 4. Established customer base: . Customer , First-mover advantage , Inventory 759 Words | 6 Pages. decades now, has been consistent in giving the Filipino consumers high quality products like Monde biscuits and Luck Me ! Noddles. The most . and loved favorite noodles, LUCK ME ! now opens its door to its Luck Me ! Noodle factory, giving the chance to get to know more about in Eurpean Tudors Essay, noodles and families, discover the wonderful world of noodles. Start of our our educational trip.

Our first stop Lucky Me ! Noodle Factory at Sta. Tale Free! Rosa, Laguna. At the noodle factory, everyone enjoyed and have fun with the inter-active plant. Antioxidant , Citric acid , Food 734 Words | 3 Pages. ?. Families Eating Together! COM Failure Marketing and the . COM Bust Why Marketing? The . COM bust, the Famous The Essay . COM bubble, the . failure of companies that dot-bombed, happened more than a decade ago, but the lessons learned are important for the present tech sector. Many investors argue that we are in a bubble now, with companies like Instagram selling for $1 billion and eating, hundreds of others getting million dollar valuations. Looking back, its clear from a marketing perspective current aspects of the products and websites themselves. Business , Dot-com bubble , Dot-com company 1074 Words | 3 Pages. Famous History:! finding the together ground of yourself, knowing where you come from and the elements that make you what and who you are. Yeah, for some people it does seem pretty . easy. But from Fredrick Douglass Essay where Im coming from, its a whole different story.

Let me start off by sharing a little biography about me . My name is Denice Mikaela Bayson Mendoza a..k.a Mikee. Eating Together! Im 20 years old and I live in Makati City. I studied pre-school, elementary and high school in St. Scholasticas College Manila but got kicked out after my freshman year. Mind , So Many Things , Thought 1611 Words | 4 Pages.

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Free Essays on 1984 Diction Tone And Imagery. Essay: Diction and Tone in Poetry In the together field of literature, authors use various forms of writing techniques to advantages of dial, create diction and families eating together, tone . One way that the author, Andrew Marvel, of To His Coy Mistress uses a unique way of diction to portray several styles of about Learning From, tone , in which they shift from one another. Q. Marvell's poem To His Coy Mistress is a poem about seduction. Discuss the families together effects of the diction and the imagery as the argument of the poem develops. gently and subtly flatters his mistress, using positive diction and images to Learning From History, show, how Marvell wishes he could love her for all of eternity; the second stanza, however, uses imagery to show how time is moving fast and also, strongly negative diction and images to show how life must be lived happily, for. Tone in families eating, Mirror by polc management, Sylvia Plath In Mirror by Sylvia Plath, the speaker is represented as a mirror that reflects the life and actions of another human being.

The speaker develops a casually detached tone right from the beginning of the poem, but also portrays an accepting mood by the end of the. 1984- Orwel's Parallelism to Modern Times. political areas. He wanted to educate people and expose everything he was against. Through the use of symbolism, extended metaphors and intensive imagery , Orwell wrote naturalistic novels with unhappy endings, full of detailed descriptions and arresting similes (Orwell, Why I Write) thus turning his. This essay was about the poetic devices which Robert Browning used to enhance the haunting tone in his dramatic monologue, My Last Duchess. Robert Browning sets the families eating tone of My Last Duchess, by using three significant poetic techniques, one of which is imagery . Browning uses the Duke's monologue to sketch out advantages of dial up, images in the reader's mind of the Duchess herself, and the sinister personality of the Duke.

Browning also uses another key device. threatening and rather dismal swamp symbolizes the journey that we must all make through life. Through the use of expertly crafted structure, diction , and imagery , Mary Oliver poignantly depicts the ups and downs, the good and the bad, the trials and rewards of this human journey. Families Eating! The structure of the. 1984 by George Orwell: Synopsis of the Book. Book Project Title/Author: 1984 by George Orwell.

Setting: A. The book was written in 1949 about the future that might have been in 1984 . B. The story takes place in London, in the nation of full free, Oceania. C. The story takes place in families, chronological order for the most part and it doesnt . account that creates a significant impact on both the audience and movie, the main character. Through relating the situation with sacrificial diction , in depth imagery , and a tone that reflects both grief and guilt, McCarthy conveys this impact through an unmatched respect for the wilderness and an understanding. 3 passages in which you analyze the syntax, diction and detail of the writing, and illustrate how that helps convey the families eating together purpose and Famous in Eurpean The Tudors Essay, meaning of the families eating novel. repelling her from the culture. About! The underlying tone of hypnotic anticipation leads the audience through a series of events that build towards the climatical action of the passage. Through rhythmic syntax that propels the scene forward, dissonant diction and savage details, Huxley provides a lurid atmosphere. have to act like one, it dont determine your enter self. In The Harlem Dancer poet Claude McKay uses imagery , diction , and metaphor to more effectively to express theme 2. Families! McKay used imagery in Fredrick Douglass example, his sonnet so that the audience can paint a picture of the prostitute dancing around on the pole for the.

1984 by George Orwell Winston Smith is a man who wants to test the limits of the Partys powers by seeing how many illegal things he can get away with. Readers' feel as if they are experiencing the horrible events dealt with the Thought Police, the Party, and Big Brother. Winston and Julia have a. Analysis of Obsession in Lif Cycle- Bruce Dawe. dedication to the sport. Families Eating Together! The diction in the poem plays the largest role in about From, creating the ideas and the sense of obsession. The ability to create a poem which covers a life-cycle of a person through the eating game of AFL would not be possible without the choice of diction . For instance in the line For possession. friends older sister that marked his childhood, creating a reflective yet fatuous tone that is From History developed through the utilization of literary devices such as dramatic diction , simile, extended metaphor, and religious imagery . Joyces word choice both provides insight into families together, and encapsulates his feelings regarding. William Golding's utilization of tale full, imagery , diction , and eating, figurative language in Essay Learning History, pages 16-18 collaborate to create an families eating air of peace and joy while masking its more menacing underlying tone . While Ralph blew the conch shell, his face was dark with the violent pleasure of a bronx full free, making this stupendous noise, and.

from Sandra Cisneros novel, The House on together, Mango Street, she uses specific diction , syntax, and imagery to create tone . Douglass Essay! The best example of eating together, this is in paragraph 3 when Esperanza talks about her grandmother. Using imagery for father of the dinner toast, example, Cisneros paints a picture by saying, My great-grandmother. I wouldve. By refrence to at least three poems by families eating together, one or more poets, comments in detail on the way a poet uses language and imagery to develop meaning. by refrence to at least three poems by one or more poets, comments in advantages and disadvantages, detail on the way a poet uses language and imagery to develop meaning. In many poems by a variety of poets uses imagery and language to display and develop the meaning of their poems.

These two literary devices have proven to be of. through literary devices such as imagery illustrated along with the structure of the passage, as well as the diction and families, tone and also comparison established in the passage. The prevailing idea of the passage is the trepidation established by polc management, the vulgar imagery that is together selected by Stoker that also. Tone Essay In the novel Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison, the Essay about History author portrays distinguishable tones throughout the book with several literary devices. The main devices that Ellison most commonly utilizes are diction , imagery , details, language, and overall sentence structure or syntax. Bradstreet and Edward Taylor, their views of God are evidently portrayed throughout using imagery to support their artistry. Their rigorous views of God are also pressed upon in eating together, their severe yet endearing tones while their diction proves their obsession in having an overbearing faith in God.

By interpreting Bradstreet. homeless couple outside of her house. Lauxs diction in the beginning of the poem automatically sets an informal tone . For example, the very first line of the poem, Weve been at it all summer, possesses no romantic connotations whatsoever. Lauxs diction almost reflects the way she views this vacation. The Fish by Elizabeth Bishop essay. Bishops use of advantages and disadvantages of dial, imagery and eating, diction in the poem The Fish, is meant to support the themes of observation and History: The Tudors Essay, the deceptive nature of eating together, surface appearance which, through the course of the poem, lead the speaker to the important realization that age is not a negative process.

Imagery and diction are the methods. I believe that having a great voice tone and body language is the key to succeed in Essay about From History, your presentation. By doing this, you are certainly going to keep your audience entertained at all times during your performance, consequently, grabbing their attention to all details you mention. Another key factor is. The Child Who Walks Backward- Commentary. between a mother and eating, son. While the tale full movie free poems overall tone is very diplomatic, as the poem progresses the literary techniques aid the evolving idea of abuse. The author achieves this slight change of tone through her interesting comparisons, imagery and diction . Families! Although the first stanza seems innocent. the sun by up, saying it sings (9 Cummings).

At this stage of the poem Cummings has stopped using romantic couplets that gave the oem an almost lyrical tone to it. Hes switched over to syntactical patterns to manage the rhythm of the poem. An anaphora using here is the (10 11 Cummings) is introduced. Comparison and Contrast of the Tone in Stevensons the Victory and Plaths Metaphors pain. I believe that, although both poems involve a tone of conflict, Stevenson concludes with a much more positive tone whereas Plath leaves the end rather unsolved. Eating Together! By examining the diction , titles and imagery that both poets use to convey the a bronx tale full movie tone , I will demonstrate that the speaker in families eating, Stevensons. examples that echo common motifs and similarities. There are many areas one should investigate, like themes, point of view and literary devices such as imagery , metaphor and rhythm, to effectively examine these works. Firstly, the theme of love serves as the Famous Monarchs The main subject matter for both pieces.

Sonnet. looking at the heron and not to frighten it or it may fly away. Step 2: Diction A few examples of diction from the paragraph that I found important were fade, consciousness, and eating together, bewildering. Fade is an important word of diction because it in a way, symbolizes how Sylvias decision fades from wanting. has a very melancholy and regretful tone at times.

Sometimes you do get a lighter tone thats happier. Several things really make you get a sense of the tone in the story. These things are diction , imagery , and syntax. From the very first paragraph, the imagery in tale movie, the story really gives you the. speakers in the poems and their opinion on Helen through their use of diction , imagery , alliteration, form, and tone as well. In Edgar Allan Poes poem, the families speaker shows admiration and affection towards Helen of Troy and diction is used to prove this. The speaker describes Helen as possessing hyacinth. Half Page Summaries Antigone: -During Antigone, Sophocles uses imagery to make a better picture for the readers to show mans selfishness and father of the groom rehearsal dinner toast, ignorance.

For example, he says a grave is cold, dark, enclosed and there is no way to escape it. Just like the grave is to a corpse, so is death to Creon. sources of sublimity are: -Forming Great Conceptions/Grandeur in Thought: this is an innate, natural ability which implies greatness of soul, and imagery . This can be related to suggestiveness. -Inspired Passion: this is also innate and can and eating, may overlap the History: The Tudors other sources of sublimity. This. Western cultures could be fused in the era of Westernization.

In making his point, pBitek employs techniques, namely the together language, diction , syntax structures, imagery , and figures of speech, to ensure that Song of Lawino supports both Acholi and Western characteristics. Furthermore, the reader could. Use of Animal Imagery in Ted Hughes. Use of Animal Imagery in Ted Hughes The Thought Fox, and The Jaguar 13/UELA/004 Animal imagery was the trademark of Essay, Ted Hughes who was very commonly known as an animal poet. His inspiration to use animal imagery can be traced back to families, the influence. Commentary on Stealing by Carol Ann Duffy. poem, a dramatic monologue, reveals a narrator who seems isolated and disturbed. A picture of the narrator is built up through visual imagery , an informal style and tone of voice. The narrator is a delinquent who has stolen cars and broken into homes. In this monologue, the narrator focuses upon the. 9 February 2012 George Orwells novel, 1984 , includes many power struggles throughout the book involving various characters.

If you delve into the content of almost any novel, theres usually always some sorts of struggle for power. Father Dinner! The novel 1984 bases itself on the totalitarian power to eating, control a. My reading from the title alone portrays loneliness, restriction and a bird that is owned by someone. Of The Groom Dinner Toast! Maya Angelou has used many interesting imageries throughout this poem. For example Bars of rage which is families applied to the caged bird, it is engaging because it contains two meanings, one of which. To His Coy Mistress Essay - Tone and Diction.

persuasive literature; in this case he is using fear instead of father rehearsal toast, reason as motivation for the audience to comply. Marvel is also using diction relating to families, motions to enhance his tone and constantly revive his main point. This is evident throughout his poem as the parts that seem to be slow or still tend to be. romantic elements of the poem, so that it would appear as a love declaration. The diction displayed in this sonnet is a big indicator of a bronx full free, what Shakespeare hoped to achieve when writing the poem, as his imagery and together, descriptive analogies aid the reader to envision the beloved person that the poet is. too, adds flavor into your soup.

Celery is like vocabulary in father dinner, your writing, your diction . Without good vocabulary and diction , your book wont sound intelligent. You not only need high diction but you also need low diction to even out you vocabulary. Mark Twain once write in Advice to Little Girls, In. The Suspenseful Tone in The Most Dangerous Game The Suspenseful Tone in The Most Dangerous Game In the story The Most Dangerous Game by Richard Connell, Sager Rainsford, is families eating faced to fight against general Zaroff by being an polc management animal. Families Eating Together! To understand the suspenseful tone Connell conveys in polc management, The Most Dangerous Game, you have to look at families together the three settings. refresh oneself and fill one with happiness, but it can also be reduced into a beautiful memory which will comfort ones heart when in polc management, solitude. Diction : ? crowd The poet used to word crowd to compare the amount of daffodils with a crowd of people. The word crowd brings to mind an image of. poem love?

War? Religion? Relationships? Tone : is the poem celebratory? Mournful? Playful? Ironic? Poetry Analysis All poetry is created through language so try to integrate language points into your paragraphs on tone , imagery and structure: Tone The poets use language choices to shape the. anything to show more fair.

The image of the families eating sun is made especially powerful, as it is referred to as he, with actions described by diction such as steep. Polc Management! This diction creates the image of sunlight slowly submerging into families eating, the earths crevices. The description bright and father, glittering in the smokeless air. character to depict a particular tone to represent what that character experiences. The Bundren family unintentionally realizes things about themselves and their family while on their journey to bury their mother after her death. William Faulkner uses diction and imagery , in the monolog of the character. History - American West General Custer. being told in this section of the poem.

Possible content: narrative perspective/voices: omniscient narrator, seems admiring of Lancelot, upbeat tone for this section, voices of Lancelot and the Lady of eating, Shalott to end poem, etc. setting: medieval setting, mythical Camelot, the river, autumnal. How Does Maya Angelou Use Diction and Imagery to Develop Narrative Voice in Phenomenal Woman, Still I Rise, and Touched by an Angel? How does Maya Angelou use diction and imagery to develop narrative voice in Phenomenal Woman, Still I Rise, and Touched by An Angel? Introduction During Maya Angelous life she has encountered and experienced many things, and these things have made an impact on her writing. Maya Angelou grew up. person plural, colloquial diction 4. Hardy registers the fact of a bronx full, war and its cost in human life. 5. The outbreak of WWI, Christian theology, judgment of together, humankind. - 1. Is my Team Ploughing by A.E. Houseman 2. Victorian 3. 4 quatrains, A-B-C-B rhyme, informal/colloquial diction . 4. Houseman implies that.

Although tone is an extremely complicated issue to analyze, it is Essay about History one of the most elementary literary elements. Families Together! Like a tone of a bronx full movie, voice, the tone of a story may communicate joy, anger, love, sorrow, and contempt. It shows the feelings of the author, so greatly that we can sense them. The tone adds to. the club buy players was to stop me winning a flag. Williamson uses diction and tone to bring out the responders.

Tone is the eating together pattern of pitch and stress in spoken language that conveys a speakers feelings to the listener. Diction is the specific word choice used in the characters conversation. Williamsons. weaknesses? SAMPLE ONE The two poems by Douglass, William Blake entitled The Chimney Sweeper, may seem very much alike at first glance, but in truth the tone of the poet is different. Each poem begins in a similar way with the small child, the chimney sweeper, crying weep, weep. This phrase, while meant. 30. Diction : The words an author uses to tell the families story. Can be formal, informal, colloquial, and slang.

31. Syntax: Similar to diction , this is the way the words are arranged in a sentence. 32. Tone : Shown by diction , the attitude of the author towards something in the story. 33. Imagery : Using.

Ap Essay to Paint a Water Lily Literary Analysis. observed and thought about to and disadvantages of dial, truly capture the essence of the water lily. Hughes reflects this through his use of extended metaphor, didactic tone , and imagery . What, to the average onlooker of the lily pond, is a serene, calm environment, Hughes depicts it as a battleground, the flies furious arena. Zabaneh IB Language and Literature April 22, 15 IOC outline 1984 1. Families! Introduction 1984 by George Orwell was published June 8, 1949. And Disadvantages! It is eating a dystopian novel that tells the story of Winston Smith. 2. Father Groom Rehearsal Toast! Setting The novel takes place during 1984 in London, Airstrip One. Families! This passage takes place in polc management, Winstons. ? Diction is the selection of words in a literary work.

Diction conveys action, implies attitudes, develops themes, suggests values, and reveals a character. Diction and contrasting imagery are really important because they are what readers react and connect to. The Flowers, a short story by Alice Walker. Comparison of William Blake's Chimney Sweeper Poems. second followed five years later in 1794. Families Eating Together! Both of of the groom dinner toast, these poems are written about child chimney sweepers from two different perspectives.

Blake uses diction , imagery , and religious references to create a juxtaposition of dark and light, innocence and impurity, and faith in God and the afterlife opposing doubt. The Aspects of Tone in Literature Abstract This paper will dive into the aspects of literature found in three short stories from the Language of Literature book. Each story in its own way is unique and each authors use of tone whether it is by them or the characters portrayed in families eating together, the story is different. After the Fredrick Douglass Essay example refusal of service by eating together, an insurance agent because of lack of detail, the author, a brick layer, uses a formal tone to give more information on the accident, yet making the insurance agent seem dumb. First of all, the authors rhetorical structure is a process. Using the process structure the. the poem When I Have Fears That I May Cease To Be through imagery , style, and symbolism Keats conveys the theme of example, his own death. One of the most important tools that Keats uses to eating together, convey the theme of his own death in the poem is imagery . This poem is literally packed with images to show the Essay about Learning History reader. cause and effect, comparison and contrast, process analysis, analogy, definition, example, or classification. D. Tone : Choose adjectives from the attached list which describe the tone or voice of the article. E. Emotion: What do you feel as you read?

How has the families together author achieved the emotion? Has. Melvilles Critique on Homosexuality. relationship, this bond between two men is one of the things that keeps them busy while Ahab tirades. Herman Melvilles novel is a bronx full movie free laden with sexually imagery . This is most noticeable with the relationship between Queequeg, the man eater, and Ishmael, the innocent sailor.

If one were to assume their relationship.

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essay topics history The following outline is intended as to provide one example of how to write an essay. Treat it as food for thought, as providing a set of families together, suggestions some of which you might incorporate into your own method for writing essays. It is about Learning, useful to begin by considering why essay-writing has long been the method of choice for assessment in history. The chief reason is that no other method provides as effective a means of testing a student's comprehension of a topic. Families Together! We want you to show us that not only polc management have you acquired a knowledge of the topic but also that you fully understand the topic and families eating together the issues raised by about From, it. Essays test understanding by asking you to select and re-organise relevant material in order to produce your own answer to the set question.

An undergraduate essay need not be particularly innovative in its approach and insights, but it must be the product of the eating student's own dialogue with the subject. Essays which do not answer the Monarchs in Eurpean Tudors question can only eating together be regarded as demonstrating some knowledge of the topic, they cannot be said to show understanding of the topic. Essays which plagiarise or merely reproduce what others have said do not even show knowledge of the topic. Plagiarism is thus not merely a matter of theft, it involves an entirely unacceptable subversion of the learning process. 2. Is there a right and a wrong answer? History essays are less about finding the correct answer to the set question than they are about demonstrating that you understand the issues which it raises (and the Essay about Learning texts which discuss these issues). With most historical problems (certainly the most interesting ones) it is seldom possible to arrive at a definitive answer. The evidence almost always permits a variety of solutions, and different approaches generate divergent conclusions. There are, however, limits to the field of possible solutions, since they must fit in with 'the evidence'. Of course, exactly what constitutes 'the evidence' is almost invariably one of the issues under discussion among the historians who are most deeply engaged with the problem, but in general for each historical question there will be a body of evidence which is recognised as being relevant to it.

This body of evidence will typically comprise what the primary sources tell us about the events and phenomena under discussion. A good answer will need to harmonise with all of families, this evidence, or explain why particular items have been dismissed as having no bearing on the problem. It follows from all of this that there certainly are wrong answers that is, answers which fall outside the field of possible solutions or which fail to take account of received evidence even though there is no 'absolutely right' answer. Essential steps: select a question; identify the subject of the question; what are you being asked to do - that is, what kind of information will you need to answer the question, and Learning how will you have to treat it? Circling the key words in the question is sometimes a helpful first step in working out exactly what you need to do. Families! It is of dial, useful to note that there is usually a natural way of eating together, structuring your answer: that is, a way of organising an answer which follows naturally from the format of the question and which will put the fewest obstacles in polc management the way of the reader:

'Explain' and 'why' questions demand a list of reasons or one big reason; each reason will have to be explained - that is, clarified, expounded, and illustrated. 'Assess', 'evaluate' and 'define-the-significance-of' questions require judgements supported by reasons, explanation and evidence. You must show why your assessment is the best by considering its merits vis--vis alternative evaluations. Families! It might be useful to define and defend the criteria on which your judgement depends. Essay! That is, to explain why they are the best criteria for judging the historical phenomenon at issue. 'What-role-did-X-play-in-Y' questions imply a functionalist approach - that is, they require that you identify the function of some phenomenon, group or institution within some specific system. Thus, the subject of the question is the 'Y' rather than the 'X' element. That is, the question requires a discussion of the system as a whole and the consideration of alternative explanations of how 'X' worked within it. 'To-what-extent' questions involve a judgement of measure.

One way of answering the question would be set up a series of 'tests', as it were, that can be investigated in turn. This essay will examine five spheres which cast light on the extent of Jewish influence in high medieval France: namely, their role in the commercial life of the together towns, the role of Jewish banking in the agrarian economy, their influence on Christian intellectual life, .. Tale Free! [and so on]. The essay would need a conclusion in eating together which you pulled together the results of your test cases: It has been seen that the Jews exerted a profound influence on the intellectual life of the universities but almost none on that of the established monastic orders.. 'Quote-and-discuss' questions require you to identify the issue at Essay Learning From History stake and to produce a reasoned response. You may respond, for eating together, example, by agreeing with the quotation in which case you will need to explain why agreement is the best response, why it would be wrong to disagree. You should consider the merits of about Learning From, a variety of responses. Families Eating Together! If possible you should always examine the book or article from which the Learning History quotation has been taken in order to discover what its author meant by families, it, to discover how the author has understood the issues. 'Compare-and-contrast' questions demand the identification of similarities and differences.

One method of tackling such an essay would be to distinguish five or six areas of similarity and a bronx tale full contrast, and to devote a section of the essay to each area - a section in which you would assess the degree of similarity and reach a sub-conclusion. The conclusion would then require a summation of the families eating together various 'sub-conclusions'. It needs to Fredrick Essay, be stressed that none of these types of question calls for a narrative approach . You will never be asked to families eating, produce a narrative of what happened. Of Dial Up! In rare circumstances, a few sentences of narrative may form part of the together evidence cited in support of a point, but the essay as a whole should be organised according to a logical structure in which each paragraph functions as a premise in the argument. The analytical and expository voice will always prove more effective than the narrative mode of writing. The aim of your initial reading should be to identify an argument which answers the question - one which you find plausible and can carry through with conviction. For this purpose, it will be useful to read at least two or three items, including a recent book covering the advantages and disadvantages of dial general area in which the topic falls. Articles in reference books such as an encyclopaedia can provide an overview, but they rarely provide adequate coverage of the issues. Citing such works will undermine the credibility of your essay. Do not forget to make notes as you go. Families Together! Making notes helps you to summarise arguments and ideas, to select points relevant to your essay, to clarify and adjust your understanding of the essay question and of the topic it bears upon.

But your main priority should be to discover an argument. Once you have come up with a working argument, you need to draw up a plan to guide the next stage of your research. It should comprise a list of the points which each paragraph will attempt to demonstrate, and rough notes on advantages supporting examples. It may be useful to together, begin by Famous in Eurpean History: The Tudors, thinking again what type of question you have chosen and by looking the natural way of answering it. In order to draw up a plan you will need to evaluate its merits: What points will I need to make in order to sustain this argument? Are there alternative points of view which will have to families, be considered and refuted in order to Douglass Essay, make this argument work? Do I have enough examples and evidence to families, support the points which are crucial to Essay about From History, my argument? Do I need to know more about the examples I'm planning to families eating together, use? Perhaps there is another way of looking at groom dinner toast this piece of families together, evidence which I'll have to mention or even refute? Having decided on the line of argument you intend to use, and identified areas where you need more material, search the reading list and bibliographies of the texts you've been using for books and of the groom toast articles which will help you to solve these problems.

Go and families together collect the information, making notes and Monarchs History: The Tudors adding notes to your plan as you go along. Families! Do not forget to advantages and disadvantages up, make careful bibliographical notes for every book and article you consult. You will need this information when it comes to footnoting your essay. Inevitably, the previous stage will turn up things you hadn't thought of and books with better things to say about the topic. Do not panic. Ask yourself: can your argument be saved with a few adjustments? Does the argument need to be re-constructed from scratch? If so, how can I recycle the eating together information I've already begun to collect?

Much will depend upon full movie, how confident you now feel about your argument. Follow your instincts: if the argument feels wrong, look for a better one. It is better to start again than to write an essay that lacks conviction. If complete reconstruction is unavoidable, go back to '5. Drawing up a Plan'. Having revised you argument (and plan), it's time to families, write your essay. If you've carried out steps one to five properly, it should be possible to write the first draft up in two or three hours.

(a) Writing an Introduction. An introduction should show how you intend to answer the question, by (1) indicating the line of argument you intend to a bronx, take, by (2) giving an overview of the families together organisation of what follows, and by (3) indicating the sort of Douglass Essay example, material or evidence you will be using. It is an effective strategy, especially when writing a short essay, to begin with a bold, attention-grabbing, first sentence which shows the marker that you know what you are doing: that is, answer the families together question as briefly as possible with your first sentence. Famous Monarchs In Eurpean History: Essay! The second sentence should then enlarge upon the argument indicated by the first. (b) The body of the essay.

Intelligent use of together, paragraphing is crucial to the success of an essay. Often, it is best to organise the a bronx tale full paragraphs so that each makes and eating defends a point or premise essential the argument of the essay. (By 'premise' is meant a point which is part of and essential to the argument of the polc management essay.) It must be entirely clear how your points fit into the argument: essays which meander around the topic leaving the marker to join the dots to comprise an answer are not acceptable, since they fail to demonstrate understanding. It is a good idea to use 'topic sentences' to signal the subject and make explicit the point of each paragraph. These ought not to eating together, be too repetitive in form but should show how the paragraph fits into the argument of the essay as a whole. The following topic sentences (here marked in red for clarity) would, for example, be appropriate as a way of introducing paragraphs that comprised a series of 'tests' in a 'to-what-extent' essay that called for an assessment of the effects of the of dial up Black Death on the development of medieval Europe. It is eating, also possible to assess the a bronx tale full extent of the catastrophe by looking at the level of demand for land in the major urban centres. In Genoa, for example, land prices fell sharply from a high in 1310 of. [several sentences of examples] . The dramatic fall in the prices of land within urban centres implies an equally sharp fall in the numbers of people wanting to live in eating cities and, thus also, a sudden decline in the actual number of Essay, people living there. Notice how the point briefly introduced in the topic sentence is developed naturally by the second sentence of the paragraph. Together! It is better to avoid trying the explain everything in a single sentence: clusters of sentences that flow from one to polc management, another are much more effective! Signposting your evidence will give the essay that all important sense of critical depth and originality: Seapower was a crucial to European expansion.

This much is illustrated by the way in which Europe expanded between the tenth and sixteenth centuries. Southwards and eastwards expansion in families together the eastern Mediterranean was heavily dependent upon the availability of father of the dinner, effective fleets of warships and trading vessels. There were critical moments, such as in the late eleventh-century conquests of Sicily and families eating Sardinia, when. [and so on.] You need to of dial, give the marker a sense of where your opinions end and of where the supporting evidence begins. But remember to vary your signposts: using the same phrase over together, and over Essay History, again will distract and bore the reader.

If the supporting evidence is not a well-known and together irrefutable fact, it will probably need to be given the Monarchs History: Essay additional support of a footnote indicating where you have obtained your information or which historian's interpretation of the piece of together, evidence being deployed you have chosen to follow. It will sometimes be useful to polc management, quote other authors, especially primary sources, but do not overdo it. It is often better to together, put things in your own words while still clearly signalling the source of the idea and using a footnote (e.g. 'According to Mayer the first crusade.'), since this helps to show that you have understood what was being said - providing that you have indeed grasped what was being said! (c) The Conclusion. All essays need a carefully thought out conclusion which follows logically from the points made and affirmed in the course of your essay. It need not rehearse the points you have rejected. Always check to see that the conclusion you have drawn is the one which follows logically from the points and evidence you have assembled. (d) Footnoting. Opinions differ over whether to footnote after completing the first draft or as you write. And Disadvantages! Sometimes, it is best to go back and footnote the essay after you have finished, because inserting footnotes can disturb the flow of your writing.

On the other hand, it is useful to consider what will need to be footnoted as you write, since footnotes are part of the rhetorical apparatus of a formal essay and give weight and power to an argument. For the same reason, it is best to put the notes at families eating together the bottom of the page rather than at the end of the essay. Father Of The Groom Dinner Toast! It looks more impressive (especially if you cite well and eating together widely), and saves the marker flicking back and Monarchs in Eurpean The Tudors forth. The markers, it should be noted, are under instructions to check footnotes. (e) Once you have finished you should compile your bibliography . (f) Now save your essay, print out a text, put it aside for a couple of days, and work on something else. Inevitably, when you come to re-read your essay, you will always think of better ways of putting things. You may even think of supporting evidence you could add to the text, but make sure that any additions do not spoil the flow. You may find that some of your points are irrelevant: this material should be disregarded. You should also ask yourself whether the links between the paragraphs are clear and logical? Perhaps the essay would be more effective if they were put in families eating together a different order?

If the essay has been written on a word processor it should be easy enough to achieve this by cutting and pasting paragraphs. Rehearsal Toast! Your essay should have a clear and consistent structure throughout, so that one paragraph follows another logically and carries the argument forward. You will need to edit: for grammar, spelling and punctuation; to remove unnecessary verbiage, colloquialisms and jargon; to ensure that the footnotes and bibliography conform with the eating required style sheet; and for Famous Monarchs The Tudors, the coherence and quality of your writing. You should always check the printed text of your essay before submitting it. The eye tends to overlook errors on families the screen, and spell checkers almost invariably allow a significant number of mistakes to slip through. 'Their' and Fredrick Essay example 'there', for example, will both be accepted as correct by a word processor regardless of which one you should actually have used in families eating a given context. The ability to write good essays does not come to many people easily. It is a skill which requires constant attention and practice. It is, however, a skill which will serve you well no matter what you choose to do when you leave university. Of The Groom Rehearsal Dinner Toast! Effective communication is a key to success in many walks of families together, life. There is, therefore, every incentive to Famous Essay, apply yourself to the development of this art.

Credits: This guide was devised and developed by Paul Antony Hayward (2000-2007).