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A Sample Gym #038; Fitness Center Business Plan Template. Therapy? Are you about blues by james, starting a gym or fitness center? If YES, here#8217;s a complete sample gym or fitness center business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Family? Okay, so we have considered all the To Revolution Essay, requirements for family therapy, starting a gym/fitness center. By James? We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample gym/fitness center marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for gym/fitness centers. Family Therapy? So let#8217;s proceed to Should Permitted Essay, the business planning section. Executive Summary Market Analysis SWOT Analysis Financial Projection Marketing Plan Marketing ideas Strategies. If you very much agree with the saying that goes health is wealth, then you may also very well agree that one of the system, ways of staying healthy is by external of scale keeping fit and having a good BMI. It is very important to not be complacent when the issue of bowen therapy, staying fit comes to fore. This is one of the reasons why there has been the anti smoking campaign, craze for fitness lately all over bowen family system therapy the globe. External Economies? Those who are particular about staying fit know that it is a part of life.

In the United States of bowen system, America for instance; the rate at which folks get obese have continued to economies, be an alarming thing. This is bowen family, no thanks to the junk type of diet that these folks subject themselves to. However, truth is that one can curb being obese and Abortion Should Not be Permitted even totally eradicate those unwanted fats in the body by bowen system therapy simply enrolling in a gym and eating healthy. Movie Radiance? This is bowen family system, one of the sole aims which those who are in the gym business try to pass across. Setting? How Easy Is It to Start a Gym Business?

Starting a gym is bowen therapy, a very interesting and profitable venture. This is because much more than wanting to help other people realize their weight goals, you also can keep and stay fit always. Smoking Campaign? It is pertinent to bowen family system, state that it might be a little capital intensive, as you will have to procure all valuable and vital exercising equipment that will promote your business. Economies? You do not want to be found wanting when clients call for certain types of equipment. You will also need to hire the best of system, instructors that can assist the lab report, people reach their goals pretty faster and systematically. One of the bowen family therapy, basic steps that you will need to movie radiance, take if you want to start on the right path of therapy, any business at all is by writing a business plan. This also applies to the gym business.

You will need to anti, put pen down the bowen family, various sales projections you have, your vision, mission and all what not. This is movie radiance, so that you can have the opportunity to bowen family system therapy, always refer to the drawing board whenever it things seem vague. Writing a business plan to theory, many may not come easy, but the bowen family system, truth is romantic, that you can use an family, existing template to romantic setting, write yours. Here below is a sample Gym business plan that you can effectively use to bowen system, write yours. A Sample Gym Fitness Center Business Plan Template. Sonny's Blues? Gym business is bowen family system, gaining more grounds in recent times as it was in esterification lab report, the 20th century. People are now more aware of the family system therapy, immeasurable benefits they stand to movie radiance, gain when they enroll in bowen system therapy, a gym. And Struggle? It is bowen therapy, now obvious to baldwin, a myriad of therapy, people that they can stay healthy, improve their lifestyle and esterification live longer if they exercised regularly. Statistics has it that there is bowen family system, a steady increase in the number of people that enroll in gyms and smoking the fact that gym facilities is bowen system, now closer to residential areas make this possible. In order words, with the economies of scale, increase in bowen therapy, the number of people that enroll in gyms, comes the increase in and Struggle, the revenue generated by family system gyms.

Some people enroll in what theory, gyms not because they dont have the money to bowen therapy, purchase some of the external economies, basic gym equipment, but because exercising regularly requires discipline and family therapy that is part of what they stand to Abortion Should Not be Permitted, get when they enroll in bowen system, a gym with an instructor at esterification hand. Loads of factors are responsible for the springing up of gyms in system therapy, various locations in Abortion Not be Permitted, the United States of America; chief amongst them is the rise in the number of obese people. Bowen Therapy? Being obese is a risk to setting, ones health, which is why obese people who thoroughly want to bowen therapy, stay healthy and Abortion fit enroll in bowen system therapy, gyms that are close to them. Different people visit gyms and esterification lab report fitness centers for bowen system, various reasons. Esterification? Some people register in bowen system therapy, the gym basically to shed some weight through proper exercising, whilst others go to the gym to Past and Struggle Essay, train and increase their biceps (muscles) i.e. Bowen Therapy? body building and Should Essay other enroll in gym for cardio sessions et al. Researchers, engineers, health and fitness experts are always improvising and inventing fitness equipment that can help people and family gym owners achieve their aims. Abortion? Although gym equipment can be expensive, but the bowen system therapy, truth is that most of the Abortion Not be Permitted Essay, equipment last longer if they are well utilized. Aside from the family therapy, fact that they last longer, acquiring any gym equipment is an investment that is worth the while. Anti? Starting a gym business in bowen family, the United States of of scale, America is less stressful; it requires enough cash to bowen family therapy, equip the blues by james baldwin, gym facility to family system, meet the what is contingency, standard expected by gym users. As a matter of fact, building a swimming pool around the family therapy, gym facility is one of the factors that could attract clients to enroll in Abortion Permitted, gyms. The gym industry is family, not going to go out of blues by james baldwin, fashion anytime soon, but rather the number of people that enroll in bowen family therapy, gyms will continue to be on is contingency theory the increase and family that of course will translate to more monies for economies of scale, gym owners.

Sample Fitness Center Business Plan Template MARKET ANALYSIS. The trend in the gym and bowen system therapy fitness industry is movie radiance, such that if a gym is well positioned in a residential area or a place where people can easily access without much stress, there is the likelihood that the gym will enjoy high patronage. Just like in other business venture, the therapy, owner of gyms and fitness clubs are always looking for ways to esterification lab report, increase their market share; they go as far as signing deals with high schools and also offer home services. What they do is bowen system therapy, that they offer pro bono services for Abortion Permitted Essay, a period of therapy, time, and Abortion Permitted then thereafter introduce a fee gradually and before too long they would have successfully converted some of the people that benefited from family system therapy their pro romantic bono services to loyal members. It is common trend that as gyms grow, it becomes necessary for them to develop new service offerings or install new facilities that will help them attract more people. Little wonder some gyms now have juice bars within their facility to encourage people towards healthy drinking. Bowen Therapy? In order words, it is very important for gyms to continue to movie radiance, improvise if they want to grow their business and generate their target revenues. The target market for family, gyms cuts across people of different walks of life. The fact that people register in gyms and movie radiance fitness clubs for various reasons makes marketing the family system, business interesting.

The target market for external, gym and fitness centers can be categorized into three various groups. The first group is the bowen family therapy, people who are looking towards shedding some weight through proper exercising and under the guidance of a qualified instructor. Esterification Lab Report? The other group of system, people are those who are interested in blues by james baldwin, building their biceps (body building), and the last group of people are those who just want to enroll for cardio sessions under the bowen family therapy, watchful eyes of a qualified trainer. These sessions are a combination of light weights, treadmills and blues baldwin bikes. Fit as Fiddle Gym and Fitness Club will work towards providing services, facilities and bowen therapy environment that will help us reach out to our target market. These are the romantic setting, category of people that we intend marketing our gym and fitness club to; Corporate Executives Business People Household Sportsmen and Sportswomen Schools Young Couples. System? Our Competitive Advantage.

Fit as Fiddle Gym and Fitness Club is centrally located in a densely populated residential area in sonny's, Irving, Texas; this is obviously going to give us an edge amongst our competitors. We equally have a team of highly qualified professionals who will work with all our clients to achieve their aims or enrolling in our gym and bowen family lastly our membership package is one of the external of scale, best that anybody living in Texas can get; it is family therapy, cheap and smoking campaign affordable. We can confidently say that the family system therapy, location of our gym will definitely count as a positive for From Past To Revolution and Struggle, us amongst any competitor that might start a gym and fitness business in same location where ours is family therapy, located. Smoking? We will continue to family, work hard to ensure continuous improvement in esterification, our facility and service delivery. Therapy? As a matter of fact, our services will be second to lab report, none in family, Texas. Sample Gym Business Plan Template SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Marketing Strategy and From and Present: Sales Strategy. Our marketing strategies will be directed towards achieving specific objectives that support the strategic goals of the organization. System Therapy? The truth is that all that we do will be geared towards creating new market channels, increasing sales and increase our market share. We will leverage on esterification lab report improving on our services and facility to ensure that we win new clients and bowen family system retain old members. At Fit as Fiddle Gym and romantic Fitness Club, our marketing strategies will be consistent throughout the bowen family system, marketing mix and we will take into consideration product improvement, promotion, and smoking campaign price.

As part of our sales and marketing strategies, we will pay attention to the promotion of our gym so as to attract people to enroll and family become members of our gym. Abortion Should Not Be Permitted Essay? Our unique selling proposition is that we are well positioned and people can easily access our facility, our prices are affordable and we have a complete package for system therapy, families. Parts of the marketing and sales strategies that we will adopt are; Open our gym and fitness club with a big party in the neighborhood. Advertise our gym and fitness club on Abortion Should Permitted national dailies, local TV stations and family local radio station Promote our gym and is contingency theory fitness club online via our official website and family system therapy all available social media platforms Continuously Improve the performance of lab report, our brands Hire the services of experts to family, make our brands the first choice for people in external, Irving, Texas Deliver consistent customer experiences to all our members; making our first impression count positively to those making use of family system, our gym facility for the first time Make use of attractive hand bills to romantic setting, create awareness and also to bowen family system therapy, give direction to Not be Permitted Essay, our gym and bowen family system fitness club Adopt direct mailing coupon marketing approach Position our signage / flexi banners at strategic places Create a loyalty plan that will enable us reward our consistent members especially those that registered as a family Engage on road shows within our neighborhood to create awareness for is contingency, our gym and fitness club. Our Pricing Strategy. Our pricing system is bowen therapy, going to be based on is contingency what is obtainable in family, the industry, we dont intend to charge more (except for premium and baldwin customized services) and family system we dont intend to setting, charge less than what our competitors charge their members in bowen family system therapy, Irving, TX. What Theory? Be that as it may, we have put plans in family therapy, place to offer discount services once in a while and also to blues by james baldwin, reward our loyal customers especially when they refer clients to us or when they register as a family. The prices of bowen family, our services will be same as what is and Present: and Struggle, obtainable in bowen therapy, the United States open market.

Our payment policy is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the payment options that will be available to clients who want to external of scale, make payment / register for our gym program; Payment by cash Payment by family system check Payment via Point of Past and Present: To Revolution and Struggle Essay, Sale (POS) Machine Payment via online bank transfer (online payment portal) Payment via Mobile money. Bowen Family? In view of the From, above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our payment plans without any difficulty. Sample Fitness Center Business Plan Template Publicity and Advertising Strategy. Family Therapy? Fit as Fiddle Gym and movie radiance Fitness Club is in bowen system therapy, Irving for esterification, serious business, which is bowen therapy, why we have identified key platforms that will enable us achieve our goal of promoting and esterification lab report advertising our business so as to attract the bowen system therapy, crop of external, people that we designed our business for. We have been able to family therapy, enter into and Struggle Essay, alliance with key stakeholders in Irving, Texas to help us use their good will to system, promote our business. We will ensure that we leverage on all conventional and non conventional publicity and advertising technique to promote our gym and movie radiance fitness club. Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise Sean and family system therapy Sharon Hotel, Las Vegas; Encourage our loyal members to help us use Word of Mouth mode of advertisement (referrals) Advertise our gym and fitness club in sports magazines, local newspaper, local TV stations and sonny's blues by james baldwin local radio station Promote our gym and fitness club online via our official website List our gym and family system therapy fitness club on local directories (yellow pages) Sponsor relevant community sport events Leverage on and Struggle Essay the internet and family therapy social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, et al to movie radiance, promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations Direct coupon mailing approach to bowen family therapy, introduce our gym and sonny's blues by james baldwin fitness club to residence Engage in road show from bowen system therapy time to setting, time to create awareness of our gym and family system therapy fitness club in the residential areas around our facility Distribute our fliers and Past and Present: To Revolution handbills in target areas. Family? These are the types of exercise equipment that we will make available in our gym and From Past To Revolution fitness center; Resistance bands Weight machines Flexion machines Pull-up bars Wall bars Weight training Elliptical trainer Street Strider (elliptical cross trainer on wheels) Exercise machine Dumbbell Kettle bell Exercise Fitness (biology) Treadmills Hojo undo Pull-up bar Medicine balls Boxing Gear Gym flooring Barbells Cable Attachments Weight plates Benches Wearable items as proper footgear, gloves, and hydration packs.

Filing Cabinets Notice board Employee Uniform. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for system therapy, Fit as Fiddle Gym and Fitness Club. Should? Fit as Fiddle Gym and Fitness Club is a family business and therapy it will be financed by lab report the owner who is also the bowen family system, gym manager. What? These are the areas where we intend sourcing for bowen family therapy, fund for Past and Present: To Revolution and Struggle, Fit as Fiddle Gym and bowen family Fitness Club; Generate part of the start up capital from esterification lab report personal savings and bowen family therapy sale of his stocks Generate part of the start up capital from family members and friends (soft loans and blues by james baldwin gifts et al) Generate a larger chunk of the bowen family system, startup capital from the is contingency, banks (loan facility). Sample Gym Fitness Center Business Plan Template Sustainability and Expansion Strategy.

We are in business to make profits and to build a popular gym and bowen family system therapy fitness brand in romantic, Irvin, Texas, hence we must do all it takes to grow the business and to system, ensure that the business survives generation after generation. Is Contingency Theory? Part of the plans we have put in bowen therapy, place to sustain our business is to romantic, ensure that we continue to deliver quality services, acquire latest gym and fitness equipment and improvise on family system better and cheaper packages four members and intended members. Our workers will sure continue to enjoy working with us because we will deliberately make it our work environment very conducive and accommodating. Furthermore, we are quite aware that our customers are key components to the growth and romantic survival of our business hence we are going to continuously engage them to give us ideas on bowen system therapy how to serve them better. Esterification Lab Report? We will not waste time in diversifying our services; expand our product and service offerings once the bowen family, need arises.

Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Should Not be Permitted Obtaining Tax Payers ID: In Progress Application for system therapy, business license and permit: Completed Purchase of anti smoking, Insurance for the Business: Completed Acquiring facility and bowen remodeling the facility: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employees Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of movie radiance, The Companys Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of bowen family therapy, employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed gym and fitness equipment, electronic appliances, office appliances and suppliers: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: Completed Creating Awareness for the business both online and in the neighborhood: In Progress Health and From and Present: and Struggle Essay Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress.

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Frequently Asked Questions About Resumes: The Complete Job-Search Resume FAQ. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., and family Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D. This article seeks to be the complete compendium on romantic, the questions that job-seekers most often asked about family, resumes. In creating this Resume FAQ, we have created seven sections with a total of 55 of the most frequently asked questions about job-search resumes. Heres how this Resume FAQ is divided for navigation ease: What is the purpose of a resume? What are the romantic setting absolute, unbreakable rules of resume writing? What about breakable rules of resume writing? Do I need more than one version of my resume? If Ive never created a resume before, how do I get started? What are the bowen therapy most important aspects of a resume, and how can I remember them?

What should be included on a resume? Theres nothing tricky about listing my name, is there? What if my name is hard to sonny's blues, pronounce or it fails to clarify my gender? How should I list my address? What other contact information do I need? III.

Elements to Sharpen a Resumes Focus. Why does a resume need to be sharply focused? How can you sharpen the bowen system therapy focus of what is contingency theory your resume? Should I include my career objective on my resume? What is a branding statement, and how is family, it used in combination with a headline? What about a Profile, Skills Profile, Qualifications, or Strengths section? What are keywords and how should I use them in my resume? What is the Resume Ingredients Rule?

What kinds of Licenses or Certifications should I list? IV. Romantic! Handling Education and Experience on Resumes. What goes first education or experience? What should I always list under the Education section?

What if I have no college degree, no four-year college degree, or did not attend college? Should my other major heading be Employment or Experience? Should the Experience section be further broken down into subsections? How should my jobs be listed under the system therapy Experience section? Should I list company names first or job titles first? How should I list what I did in each job? How do I handle multiple jobs with the same employer?

How far back should I go in my job history to From and Present: To Revolution and Struggle, avoid age discrimination? What if a former employer no longer exists or has changed its name? What are transferable skills, and what is their significance on a resume? How do I handle employment gaps? How can I avoid appearing to be a job-hopper?

What if I have no paid experience? Which transferable skills are most in demand by employers? Why and how should accomplishments and achievements be incorporated in the Experience section? What are Situation - Action - Results statements? What is the bowen family system significance of quantifying on a resume?

What is parallelism, and theory what is family, its significance on a resume? V. Romantic Setting! Other Resume Sections and system therapy Fine-Tuning Resume. What other sections could my resume include? Should I list Hobbies and Interests? Should I list References on my resume? How should I handle references? Should I use the line: References available upon Request?

VI. What Is Contingency Theory! Handling Special Resume Situations. How can I position myself for a career or industry change? How do I handle relocation? As an entrepreneur transitioning back to the workplace, how can I make the most of my resume? How can I ensure my resume will be kept confidential? How many pages should my resume be?

What are the therapy most important design elements for a resume? What kind of paper should I use? How should I duplicate my resume? How should I mail my resume? How can I make sure Ive covered all the bases with my resume? Should I hire a professional resume writer? To get a job interview.

To structure the interview process. To remind the interviewer of you after youre gone. To serve as the basis for Abortion, justifying the bowen family system hiring decision to blues by james, others. What are the absolute, unbreakable rules of resume writing? We believe there are only two absolute rules in system therapy resume writing: These rules, however, are absolutes:

Almost every rule you have ever heard can be broken if you have a compelling reason. What about breakable rules of resume writing? Many of the breakable rules of resume relate to the length a resume should be; all breakable rules are covered in other parts of this FAQ. Do I need more than one version of movie radiance my resume? Most likely, yes. You may need more than one organizational format for bowen family system, your resume. Movie Radiance! See table below for bowen family, the most common organizational formats. We include functional and chrono-functional formats because they can be used in extreme situations, but we recommend chronological resumes for Abortion Should Not be, most job-seekers. Purely functional resumes are the bowen family system therapy least common, least preferred by employers, detested by recruiters and most Internet job boards do not accept this resume format. While the chrono-functional/hybrid/combination resume is movie radiance, slightly more acceptable to employers than the bowen system therapy purely functional format, most employers are unaccustomed to functional formats of any kind, finding them confusing, annoying, and a red flag that something is wrong in your background.

At the very least, they will probably scrutinize a chrono-functional resume more closely to check for details and movie radiance find the flaws that inspired the candidate to use this format. Some employers insist on knowing exactly what you did in each job. Recruiters/headhunters particularly disdain functional formats, so this approach should never be used if you are primarily targeting recruiters with your job search. Employers in conservative fields are not fans of functional formats, nor are international employers. Functional formats, even chrono-functional, also are not acceptable on many online job boards. In summary, the bowen family system therapy chrono-functional resume has very limited uses for extreme cases of problematic or unusual job histories.

If you feel you have no other choice than a chrono-functional resume, we recommend you enlist a professional resume writer to craft the resume into a viable marketing tool. You may need more than one delivery format for your resume. See table below for the most common delivery formats. One additional delivery format to consider is a Portable Document Format (PDF) resume, which offers the advantages of being completely invulnerable to viruses and totally compatible across computer systems (requires software such as Adobe Acrobat Reader, a free download, to be opened and Abortion Should Permitted Essay read). Bowen Family System! A resume converted to PDF, which carries a .pdf file extension, looks virtually identical to the original document from which it was created, thus preserving the resumes visual appeal, and it also appears consistently from computer to computer. Past! A few employers specifically request PDF resume files. Bowen System! However, for resumes placed in employers Applicant Tracking Systems (which comprises most resumes submitted electronically) PDFs are problematic because applicant tracking systems lack a standard way to structure PDF documents, cautions Jon Ciampi, CEO of Preptel, a company that aims to blues by james baldwin, help job-seekers penetrate these systems (as quoted in family system therapy an article on what theory, CIO.com by Meridith Levinson). Read our article, Pros and Cons of PDF Resumes in Job-Search.

For more about delivery methods, see our articles: If Ive never created a resume before, how do I get started? Here are some suggestions for resources to bowen family system, get you started: Try the what is contingency Inexpensive Resume Workbooks from the late Yana Parker. A resume wizard or template in Microsoft Word can be a useful starting point because it will prompt you to fill in appropriate information. Once youve used a Word template to start your resume, its best to customize the layout and design.

We have some issues with the bowen family way information is organized in Abortion Not be Permitted Essay these templates. Worse, so many job-seekers use these Word templates that they dont stand out. Use our Fundamentals of a Good Chronological Resume as a basic template. Get inspiration from our collection of more than 100 Free Sample Professional Resumes. If youre really stuck, consider hiring a professional resume writer. What are the most important aspects of a resume, and how can I remember them? The most important things to bowen family therapy, remember about campaign, writing an effective resume can be encapsulated in a six-letter acronym, FAKTSA, in which the letters stand for: What should be included on a resume? We offer lists of the items that you absolutely must include in your resume and a list of optional items to consider including:

Objective Statement (currently out of fashion; please click the preceding link to see what replaces the objectives statement) Headline and/or Branding Statement (often used instead of an Objective Statement); see more about career branding in our Career Branding Tutorial Professional Profile or Qualifications Summary (use this Professional Profile/Qualifications Summary Worksheet) Keyword Summary Licenses/Certifications Accomplishments/Achievements Transferable Skills Strengths Affiliations/Memberships Languages Foreign travel Presentations Publications Activities Hobbies/Interests Military The notation, References available on request We also offer this list of items that should never be included on a resume: Height, weight, age, date of birth, place of birth, marital status, sex, race, health, social security number (except on an International Resume/CV) Reasons for system therapy, leaving previous job(s) Name of boss or supervisor Street addresses and phone numbers of past employers (city and Abortion Should Permitted Essay state is system, sufficient) Picture of yourself Salary information Specific names of references (more on Abortion Should Not be Permitted, this issue later) The title Resume Religion, church affiliations, political or other controversial affiliations: Any disclosure on your resume that could get you screened out as a candidate is risky. Bowen Family Therapy! You may take the stance that you dont want to work for an employer that would eliminate you because a hiring manager didnt like your political beliefs or religious affiliation. Abortion Should Permitted! But given that, for most candidates, religion, politics, and any other controversial affiliations are not relevant to your next job, its wise to leave them out. Theres nothing tricky about listing my name, is bowen, there? Use the name by which you are known professionally. If you go by your middle name, for example, you can list your name one of movie radiance these ways:

The same goes for bowen system, nicknames. Keep in mind that some nicknames dont exactly project professionalism, but if you are universally known by your nickname, you may want to list yourself that way on what theory, your resume. With your name, list also any professional credentials (M.D., CPA, Ph.D.) that are integral to bowen family system, the job you seek. What if my name is hard to pronounce or it fails to clarify my gender? This issue isnt as silly as it seems. Even if youre well qualified, an sonny's employer may hesitate to phone you for an interview if he or she cant pronounce your name or even doesnt know whether to expect a male or female. For the difficult-to-pronounce name, include a phonetic pronunciation of your name in small type in the letterhead portion of your resume. Example: Sally Hsieh (pronounced Shay). For a unisex name, such as Lee or Dale, consider adding a courtesy title to system, your letterhead, as in Ms. Lee Anderson or Mr. Dale Burns. Especially consider adding a courtesy title if your name is almost always thought of as belonging to the opposite Permitted gender or if it is a non-English name, and English-speakers would not know whether to bowen system therapy, expect a man or a woman: Ms. Michael Crane Mr.

Jocelyn Smith. You could also include a middle name that reveals your gender: Lee Ann Anderson or Dale Robert Burns. Of course, you may consider your ambiguously gendered name an advantage and prefer not to reveal your gender (even though your gender will become obvious if youre called for an interview). List your permanent address Most college students give both a college address and permanent address. *What other contact information do I need? While job-seekers were once advised to include as much contact information as possible, the what is contingency theory emerging trend for contact information on a resume is to include a Website address/URL, city and bowen family therapy state only (no street address), a single phone number (no second/third number, no fax number), and a single email address, says Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for Should Not be Permitted Essay, the Now, the family New the Next in Careers , published by smoking, the Career Thought Leaders Consortium. Make sure your email address is professional. System! You may also want to include links to online profiles, such as on Facebook, Twitter, and romantic LinkedIn. Bowen System Therapy! If you do, however, ensure that your profiles are squeaky clean, with no content or photos that shed a negative light on you. If you are in serious job-hunting mode and employers who call your phone are likely to get voicemail, make sure your voicemail greeting is professional. III. Elements to Sharpen a Resumes Focus.

Why does a resume need to be sharply focused? The reader needs to be able to tell in Abortion Should Permitted Essay a quick glance what you want to bowen system therapy, do and what you would be good at. A recent study indicates that the what is contingency reader will spend as few as 6 seconds screening your resume, so you need to focus the readers attention quickly. How can you sharpen the focus of your resume? Use a branding statement or headline or both atop your resume. System! Add a profile/qualifications summary with keywords relevant to romantic setting, the job you seek. Add a keyword section relevant to the job you seek. See our Resume Keywords Worksheet.

Beef up portrayal of accomplishments and system transferable skills. Be sure to spotlight skills that apply to what you want to do next. See our Accomplishments Worksheet and Transferable Skills Worksheet. Cover Letter and Resume Customization Worksheet to by james, help you sharpen your focus. Bowen Family! For college students and new grads: Consider adding class projects in Abortion Should Not be Permitted your major (or other classes) that are applicable to what you want to do upon graduation. See our College Experience Worksheet for Resume Development. Should I include my career objective on my resume?

Objective Statements have fallen out of bowen family system therapy favor. Many employers and Permitted recruiters claim they dont even read them. Thats because most objective statements are badly written, self-serving, too vague, and bowen not designed to do what theyre supposed to do, which is to sharpen a resumes focus. What is a branding statement, and how is it used in combination with a headline? A headline atop your resume usually identifies the position or type of theory job you seek. A branding statement is a punchy ad-like statement that tells immediately what you can bring to an employer.

A branding statement defines who you are, your promise of value, and why you should be sought out. Your branding statement should encapsulate your reputation, showcase what sets you apart from bowen therapy others, and Abortion Not be describe the system added value you bring to a situation. Think of it as a sales pitch. Integrate these elements into the brief synopsis that is your branding statement: What makes you different? What qualities or characteristics make you distinctive? What have you accomplished?

What is your most noteworthy personal trait? What benefits (problems solved) do you offer? See a good discussion of branding statements and headlines, with samples, starting in this section of our free e-book, The Quintessential Guide to Words to From To Revolution Essay, Get Hired By . What about a Profile, Skills Profile, Qualifications, or Resume Strengths section? Whether or not you choose to include an bowen therapy objective statement, branding statement, and/or headline on anti, your resume, you may wish to family therapy, present a Qualifications Summary or Profile section. In addition to Profile and Qualifications Summary, these resume-topping sections go by From Past To Revolution, numerous names: Career Summary, Summary, Executive Summary, Professional Profile, Qualifications, Strengths, Skills, Key Skills, Skills Summary, Summary of Qualifications, Background Summary, Professional Summary, Highlights of Qualifications. System Therapy! All of these headings are acceptable, but our favorite is Abortion Permitted Essay, Professional Profile.

Twenty-five years ago, a Profile or Summary section was somewhat unusual on a resume. Career experts trace the bowen therapy use of summaries or profiles to include information about candidates qualities beyond their credentials to the publication of the movie radiance late Yana Parkers The Damn Good Resume Guide in 1983. Bowen Family! For the last 20-plus years, resume writers have routinely included these sections; however, the age of romantic setting electronic submissions has now caused the pendulum to swing the other way. On one hand, electronic submission means that hiring decision-makers are inundated and overwhelmed with resumes and have less time than ever before to peruse each document. That means that many of bowen family therapy them do not read Profile or Summary sections. On the other hand, the age of electronic submissions has increased the importance of keywords so that candidates can be found in database searches. Even some of the hiring decision-makers who dont read Profiles and Should Not be Permitted Summaries advise including them as a way to bowen family system therapy, ensure sufficient keywords in the resume. A vocal contingent of decision-makers, especially among recruiters, strongly advocate for smoking campaign, a Summary section but one that is bowen family, quite succinct a short paragraph or single bullet point.

They want to see in a nutshell who you are and what you can contribute. Use our Resume Professional Profile/Qualifications Summary Worksheet to help you develop bullet points for is contingency, this very important resume section. What are keywords and family system therapy how should I use them in my resume? Inundated by resumes from job-seekers, employers have increasingly relied on digitizing resumes, placing those resumes in keyword-searchable databases, and using software to search those databases for specific keywords that relate to job vacancies. Most Fortune 1000 companies, in fact, and many smaller companies now use these technologies.

In addition, many employers search the databases of third-party job-posting and resume-posting boards on the Internet. It is safe to estimate that well over 90 percent of resumes are searched for job-specific keywords. The bottom line is that if you apply for a job with a company that searches databases for keywords, and blues by james your resume doesnt have the family system keywords the company seeks for the person who fills that job, you are pretty much dead in the water. To some extent, job-seekers have no way of knowing what the Abortion Should words are that employers are looking for when they search resume databases. Bowen System! But job-seekers have information and movie radiance a number of bowen family system tools at their disposal that can help them make educated guesses as to which keywords the employer is looking for.

See a detailed discussion of Not be Essay resume keywords and family system how to identify them in sonny's by james baldwin our article, Tapping the therapy Power of Keywords to Enhance Your Resumes Effectiveness and use our Keywords Worksheet to help identify keywords for use in your resume. What is the movie radiance Resume Ingredients Rule? Note: From author Donald Asher. Organize the bowen family system therapy information on your resume in accordance with your desired impact on anti smoking, the reader. This rule should govern which information you present and the order in which you present it. Bowen System Therapy! Thats why you always list your work experience in REVERSE chronological order because your most important and applicable jobs are likely to setting, be the most recent.

You dont want the first thing that the employer sees to family therapy, be bagboy at the supermarket or waitress if youve had more important and relevant jobs. What kinds of Licenses or Certifications should I list? Any that are relevant to the job you seek. IV. Handling Education and Experience on Resumes. What goes first education or experience? It depends on whether your degree or your experience is your best selling point.

Always list the Past most relevant section first If you are a current college student or about to graduate, generally list education first. If you are currently working, generally list experience first. A good cutoff point for moving your Experience section to the forefront of your resume is a year to 18 months after graduation. What should I always list under the bowen family system Education section? If you have multiple degrees, list the most recent first. For each degree, ALWAYS list NAME of your degree FIRST.

Include your college name, city, and is contingency state Include major(s) and usually minor(s) Include graduation date (or expected graduation): Month/Year. Once youve been out of school a year or so, you can omit the month. Consider omitting the graduation date altogether if you are a mature job-seeker de-emphasizing your age. Special note to bowen family therapy, college students and new graduates: At this point in movie radiance the FAQ, you may wish to take a side trip to our special Frequently Asked Resume Questions for College Students and New Graduates. What if I have no college degree, no four-year college degree, or did not attend college? If you have at least some college, list it. Family Therapy! List an associates degree or incomplete studies toward a bachelors degree. For the incomplete degree, list the college, major, location, span of dates you attended, and, ideally, number of credit-hours completed. Your listing of an associates degree, incomplete bachelors degree, or no college at all should be beefed up with any training, professional-development, and Should certificate programs. In the unlikely event that you have absolutely none of these, leave off the Education section. Some employers (and most recruiters) will screen you out, but if you have succeeded in bowen system the past without educational credentials, your professional accomplishments will likely be enough to propel you to an interview.

Should my other major heading be Employment or Experience? Experience, because that heading enables you to list activities other than paid employment, such as volunteer work, internships, sports-team participation, and class projects. Should the what is contingency theory Experience section be further broken down into subsections? While a resume can sometimes include subsections, such as Relevant (or Professional) Experience and Other Experience, we find it confusing when resumes, especially those of college students, list multiple types of system therapy experience internship experience, volunteer experience, extracurricular experience, leadership experience, etc. How should my jobs be listed under the Experience section? List information in this order: Job title; Job subheadings should include name of company, city, and state (Do NOT include street addresses, names of supervisors, contact telephone numbers, or other extraneous data.); Dates of Abortion Should Not be Permitted Essay employment (include month or seasonal descriptor and year); Bulleted list of key accomplishments (more to come on bowen family, this subject); Company description (optional; often sought by recruiters and romantic employers of senior-level job-seekers).

Reporting relationships title of person you reported to family system, and titles and departments that reported to From Past and Struggle, you (optional; often sought by recruiters and employers of senior-level job-seekers). Should I list company names first or job titles first? Generally, list job title first unless you are trying to call attention to the name of family system therapy prominent companies for which youve worked. What Theory! (Example: If you plan to enter the tourism industry, and youve had internships at bowen Disney World, Sea World, and Universal Studios, you could list company names first). Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareers team of movie radiance career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and bowen family system our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr.

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Research Design for a new Burglary Prevention Program. Research Design for a new Burglary Prevention Program. I. Problem Statement. Burglary is a frequent crime in most communities. The first line of defense to deter burglars from ransacking homes and properties lie in the homeowners themselves. There are certain practices and ways one can employ to bowen system, prevent burglars from victimizing their homes. Need essay sample on Research Design for a new Burglary Prevention Program ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. Burglars are, however, a resourceful lot, and would eventually find ways to get into our homes. This is what where the police come in. One of the responsibilities of the police is to ensure not just the safety of the residents in their jurisdiction but the system, safety of the what is contingency theory, homes and properties as well. Burglary prevention programs are deployed with the aim of preventing or decreasing the occurrences of burglaries and theft, but if untested prior to deployments, these government-sponsored programs can fall flat on their faces and end up as mere expenditures without any real and verifiable results.

All the efforts put into the programs deployment would be meaningless. Experimentation and research is necessary prior to deploying Burglary Prevention programs. Research stems from the need for good knowledge, and good knowledge is objective it does not rely on system therapy, the opinions or habits of individual observers. Good knowledge is replicable. This means that any results from Should Essay, research can be replicated should the research be performed again, or if the research is continued to bowen family, cover larger or different areas. Abortion Should Essay. Lastly, good knowledge is communicable. This means that the results can be replicated, the knowledge gained applied, and others can draw information from the research to feed their own need for knowledge (Mitchell Joley, 2007, ch. 2. lecture 2.2).

To verify the effectiveness of a Burglary Prevention Program means to conduct comprehensive research and family experimentation on its effects on the crime rate of communities. The most relevant and effective methods must be used. To ensure this, the and Struggle Essay, research design must be extensive and effective in outlining the bowen family, necessary research and experiments to be undertaken. The research design holds the research project together like glue. The design shows the structure of the research: the methods, the samples, the variables, and the analysis, that all work together to address the central questions of the research (Trochim, 2006, Design). The research design is the backbone of any research and can either validate or invalidate the results, depending on how the Permitted Essay, design was conceptualized. The design can make or break a good research project. This paper aims to design a research that would gauge the effectiveness of the new Burglary Prevention Program by carefully studying its effects on the burglary and bowen system theft rates of specific communities. II.

Literature Review. Literature review is done by consulting other works that might be of relevance to the problem that one is researching about. Information that could facilitate the movie radiance, research process might already be available and so conducting the bowen, literature review would be beneficial to shorten the research duration. The literature review will also identify gaps in previous research so that the romantic setting, current research will be able to system, augment those gaps or avoid the pitfalls of the Not be Essay, previous research. In literature review, the following sources can be consulted: journal articles, books, conference proceedings, government and corporate reports, newspapers, internet, and magazines. The researchers will read materials on previous attempts at bowen family burglary prevention or details and results of burglary prevention programs in other places.

Literature review is necessary in what is contingency, order to understand and investigate a research problem. When conducting a literature review, two things are actually being done at bowen system the same time. 1) The research problem is further defined thru the identification of gaps, questioning, and smoking continuing previous research. 2) Every source relevant to the research problem is consulted (Asian Institute of Technology Language Center, How can I write a good Literature Review). By conducting the literature review, one is able to focus on the relevant information and consequently limit the research area, thereby limiting the factors that would invalidate the research. It could also help the researchers come up with a good research design and conceptualize how the research should be conducted by drawing on the methods employed by previous research done on the field. III.

The Research Design. A good research design will eventually determine the success of a research project, and will ultimately justify the validity of the results. To prove the effectiveness of the new Burglary Prevention Program, we will be employing a Quantitative Research Design as opposed to a Qualitative Research Design. Qualitative Research could be used in bowen family, studying the behavioral aspects of the people covered by the Burglary Prevention Program, but our research focuses mainly on the effects or the causal relationships associated with the and Present: Essay, program, or the what and bowen system therapy not the how and why. What. Qualitative Research relies on therapy, words or testimonies of is contingency theory respondents and not on bowen family therapy, mathematical data, and so it does not adequately serve the purpose of movie radiance our research. According to Burns Grove, Quantitative Research is a formal, objective, systematic process in which numerical data are utilised to obtain information about the world (as cited by Cormack, 1991, p. 140). The aim of Quantitative Research is to determine relationships between variables in a population (Hopkins, 2000). Family Therapy. In this research we will be relying mainly on statistical data to quantify the relationship between two variables. In this case, we shall determine the relationship between the Burglary Prevention Program and the burglary rate.

In this research, we are trying to find a causal relationship between these two variables. We want to find out whether the Burglary Prevention Program has an effect on the burglary rate, and so, the Quantitative Research is the is contingency theory, best way to go. Our research will basically follow the design outlined in bold dotted strokes in this diagram of Quantitative Research Design (Dereshiwsky, 1998, Lesson 4-1-1): The choice of a research design is dependent on system therapy, the feasibility. The best way we can ensure the success of our research is by controlling as many confounding variables as possible in order to anti smoking, reduce errors in our assumptions (Heffner, 2004, ch.

5). The researchers feel that the above-illustrated design is the most feasible way to go for the conduct of this research. Group Comparison or Experimental Research uses highly controlled procedures to ensure that the observed changes in the dependent variable is bowen system therapy caused by the manipulations of the researcher. All scientific disciplines employ this method to understand the laws of nature (cause-and-effect relationships) (Maricopa Center for Learning and Instruction, 2001). In experimental research, the researcher attempts to maintain control over all variables that would have an effect on the results of the experiment.

Simply put, the researcher attempts to anti smoking campaign, predict the outcome of the experiment (Leedy, 1997, p. 185). For experimental research, we need to have or do 4 things (Campbell Stanley, 1963, pp. 9-12): 1) We need to have a hypothesis for causal relationship. In this research, our hypothesis is bowen family system therapy that the new Burglary Prevention Program is effective in reducing and preventing the occurrences of burglaries in anti smoking campaign, the community. 2) We need to bowen system, have a Control Group and a Treatment or Test Group. The Control group is the group that will not be receiving the program, thus remaining conditionally unchanged, while the romantic setting, program will be implemented to the Test Group. The Control and Treatment groups will be randomly assigned and bowen therapy must be statistically equal, meaning, even if the selection had been random, there variances in movie radiance, the groups properties such as population or size, and economic and social standing must not be very large (Cook Campbell, 1979, pp.

64-65). The assignment of the system, control and test groups will be discussed further into what is contingency theory this design. 3) We need to bowen system, eliminate the smoking campaign, confounding variables that might prevent the bowen family therapy, display of a causal relationship. A confounding variable is an romantic setting unforeseen variable that may jeopardize the validity of the experiments outcome. For our research, we will attempt to eliminate these variables by employing the Regression Point Displacement (RPD) method of quasi-experimental research. 4) We need to have larger randomized groups so that accidental differences can become negligible and does not invalidate the results. This need will be addressed by the sampling and grouping methods that we shall use in the later part of this design. Still under the Group Comparison design are research methods that serve individual purposes dependent on what the research aims to achieve. Therapy. Although the true experimental method is considered the most accurate, it is anti a very rigid method, and is seldom applicable to societal research.

The difference between true experimental and quasi-experimental research is that in true experimental research, individuals who would be subjects in the research are randomly selected. In quasi-experimental, pre-existing groups, instead of individuals, are selected (Dereshiwsky, 1998, lesson 4-1-1). Quasi-experimental research mimics true experimental research, but only to a certain degree. Randomization is a property inherent in true experimental research that is considered optional in bowen therapy, quasi-experimental research. In the case of the what, Burglary Prevention Program, we cannot randomly select individual homes, due mainly because if we do this, a very big sample size of individual subjects would be needed, else the experiment would become invalid. There is also no guarantee that the selection of individual homes to bowen family system therapy, serve as samples would be representative of the entire population. For this reason, we shall be utilizing the Quasi-Experimental method of research. There are several quasi-experimental designs available from which we can pattern our experiment. However, the most effective design for our purposes would most likely be the Regression Point Displacement (RPD) Design. The RPD design has important implications especially in the case of community-based research. The problem with community-level research is that there are other factors that can come into play and have an effect on and Present: Essay, the results of the experiment.

To remedy this, the RPD design compares the performance of the therapy, treatment or test unit with a large set of comparison units or several control groups (Trochim, 2006, Other Quasi-Experimental Designs). Unit of Analysis. The main unit of analysis we shall be using in our research is the burglary statistics or rate since the movie radiance, effectiveness of the family, Burglary Prevention program would be best measured by this value. A variable is movie radiance anything that can vary. In experimental research, mainly two types of variables come into play, the independent variable and the dependent variable. The independent variable serves as the input variable while the dependent variable is the output variable. The independent variable is manipulated to determine its effect on family therapy, the dependent variable (Heffner, 2004, ch.

7.2). For the Burglary Prevention Program research, the dependent variable is the burglary rate while the independent variables can consist of time, and the burglary prevention program itself. Another independent variable that could be manipulated to what, further validate the research is the bowen family therapy, size of the police force attending to the sample. Instead of smoking using probability or random sampling, a matching method of sampling could be used, wherein sample groups with similar characteristics as the family, test group are identified and campaign used as the basis for comparison. In this sense, the other groups are not technically control groups, but comparison groups (Neuman Wiegand, 2000, p. 213). For this experiment, we shall divide the city into several sectors, taking into consideration the demographics of each sector. The divisions should have almost equal or similar demographics. Family System Therapy. This can be done by taking the population of each identified sector and comparing it with the others to verify whether the samples are statistically equal.

Racial distribution should also be considered, and factored into the study. The sectors should then be numbered and a test sector can then be randomly selected. Using the demographics and properties of the selected test sector, the romantic setting, remaining sectors should then be evaluated and bowen family system sectors matching the test sector should be identified. These sectors will then be the comparison sectors. To have baseline data to serve for the comparison after implementation, the burglary rates of the test and comparison sectors for the last 6 months should be taken. This information can be taken from existing police records. The program should then be administered to what theory, the test sector for at least 4 months, during which burglary rates will be constantly monitored and recorded for this sector as well as the comparison sectors. There should be no changes in police procedures during this implementation period for the comparison sections.

No changes in the burglary rates of the comparison sectors are to be expected, but other confounding variables beyond the control of the researchers might arise during implementation. Such variables could include the population of the sectors (influenced by the migration of residents), the idiosyncrasies of the criminal minds at work (some burglars might decide to suddenly lie low or strike more than usual), and the attitude of the bowen family system, residents of the sectors towards burglaries. Some residents might take it upon themselves to upgrade their home security systems while the study is ongoing and so this becomes a factor that influences our dependent variable as well. To render such confounding variables statistically negligible, it is recommended that the number of samples or sectors for sonny's by james baldwin comparison be large enough to still be able to bowen, get a valid correlation between our independent and dependent variables. Using the Regression Point Displacement Design, the estimate of effectiveness of the program can be measured by comparing the displacement of the test sectors post-implementation burglary rate with that of the comparison sectors pre-post regression line (Trochim Campbell, in preparation). The method of data analysis will not be discussed in detail here as this is simply a design and not the actual research report. III.

Ethical Considerations. There are various ethical factors to be considered when conducting research on humans or human behavior. It is only ethical to use scientific principles in the study of humans if the potential benefits exceed the Abortion Should Essay, potential harm, and if the potential harm has been minimized (Mitchell Joley, 2007, ch. 2). In the case of the Burglary Prevention Program, the potential benefits that the program offers to the community should it be proven effective can reduce the harm caused by criminality, and so the researchers consider the study or experiment within the ethical bounds of the law. Some ethical questions might be raised on why the program is administered only to one sector and not to bowen family system therapy, the others, thereby denying the setting, other sectors the potential benefits of the program. It should be kept in mind though, that the choice of the test sector was random and should the program be effective, it will be administered to family therapy, the other sectors as well. There is no potential harm in baldwin, denying the program to therapy, the other sectors since it does not alter the current situation of the comparison sectors, it only serves to continue the prevailing condition of the sectors. Asian Institute of Technology Language Center. Anti Smoking. Writing up research: Using the Literature.

Retrieved July 28, 2004 from http://www.languages.ait.ac.th/EL21LIT.HTM. Burns, N. Family System. Grove, S.K. (1993). The Practice of Nursing Research: Conduct, Critique, and Utilization (2nd Ed.) Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. Campbell, D. From And Present: To Revolution And Struggle Essay. T., Stanley, J. C. (1963). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Cook, T. Campbell, D. (1979). Quasi-Experimental Design. Chicago: Rand McNally.

Cormack, D.F. (1991). The research process in family system, nursing (2nd Ed.). Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Scientific Publications. Dereshiwsky, Mary. (1998). Introduction to anti smoking campaign, Research. Northern Arizona University online course. Retrieved July 28, 2007 from family system, http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/ Heffner, Christopher. (2004).

Research Methods. AllPsych Online. Anti Campaign. Retrieved July 28, 2007 from http://allpsych.com/researchmethods/index.html. Hopkins, Will G. (2000). Quantitative Research Design. Bowen. Sportscience 4(1). Retrieved July 28, 2007 from is contingency theory, sportsci.org/jour/0001/wghdesign.html. Leedy, P.D. (1997). Practical research: Planning and design (6th ed.).

Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., p. Bowen Family System Therapy. 232-233. Maricopa Center for Learning and Instruction. (2001). Reseach Methods Laboratory. http://www.mcli.dist.maricopa.edu/proj/res_meth/login.html. Mitchell, Mark L. and Jolley, Janina M. (2007). Instructors Site for Research Design Explained. Retrieved July 28, 2007 from http://www.teachRDE.com.

Neuman, L. Wiegand, B.. (2000). Criminal Justice Research Methods. Smoking Campaign. Boston: Allyn Bacon.

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an evaluation essay The purpose of an evaluation essay is to present an opinion or viewpoint on a subject or body of work. It should firstly provide a summary of the article in question, then using a thorough, well structured argument the writer presents a point-of-view supported with examples and evidence. System Therapy? By nature this essay bears many similarities to the persuasive essay, only is designed to display a more balanced argument. For your evaluation essay to be successful in putting your point across you need a convincing argument. It is important to thoroughly research the Past, subject matter or have comprehensively read and digested the bowen therapy, body of movie radiance, work in question. For your essay to sound convincing it is essential that you know what you are clear and confident in the subject matter you are covering. Gender differences and biases have been a part of the normal lives of humans ever since anyone can remember. Anthropological evidence has revealed that even the humans and the hominids of ancient times had separate roles for family system men and women in their societies, and this relates tot the concepts of movie radiance, epistemology. There were certain things that women were forbidden to do and similarly men could not partake in bowen some of the Abortion Not be Permitted, activities that were traditionally reserved for women.

This has given birth to the gender role stereotypes that we find today. These differences have been passed on to our current times; although many differences occur now that have caused a lot of family, debate amongst the people as to their appropriateness and have made it possible for us to have a stereotyping threat by which we sometimes assign certain qualities to certain people without thinking. Anti? For example, many men are blamed for system therapy undermining women and stereotyping them for traditional roles, and this could be said to be the same for men; men are also stereotyped in many of their roles. This leads to social constructionism since the reality is not always depicted by what we see by our eyes. These ideas have also carried on in the world of advertising and the differences shown between the males and the females are apparent in many advertisements we see today. Anti Smoking? This can have some serious impacts on bowen family system therapy the society as people begin to stereotype the gender roles in reality. Abortion Essay? There has been a lot of attention given to the portrayal of gender in advertising by both practitioners as well as academics and much of bowen family therapy, this has been done regarding the portrayal of women in advertising (Ferguson, Kreshel, Tinkham 40-51; Bellizzi Milner 71-79). This has led many to believe that most of the advertisements and their contents are sexist in nature. It has been noted by viewing various ads that women are shown as being more concerned about their beauty and figure rather than being shown as authority figures in the ads; they are usually shown as the what is contingency, product users. Also, there is a tendency in many countries, including the United States, to portray women as being subordinate to men, as alluring sex objects, or as decorative objects. This is not right as it portrays women as the weaker sex, being only therapy, good as objects.

At the same time, many of the ads do not show gender biases in the pictures or the graphics, but some bias does turn up in the language of the ad. Within language, bias is more evident in songs and smoking campaign dialogue than in formal speech or when popular culture is involved. For example, bias sneaks in through the use of idiomatic expressions (man's best friend) and when the language refer to characters that depict traditional sex roles. One's normative interpretation of these results depends on one's ideological perspective and tolerance for the pace of change. It is encouraging that the limited study of language in family system therapy advertising indicates that the use of gender-neutrality is movie radiance commonplace. Advertisers can still reduce the stereotyping in ad pictures, and increase the amount of female speech relative to male speech, even though progress is evidenced. To the extent that advertisers prefer to speak to people in bowen therapy their own language, the bias present in popular culture will likely continue to be reflected in advertisements (Artz et al 20). Advertisements are greatly responsible for eliciting such views for movie radiance the people of our society. The children also see these pictures and they are also the ones who create stereotypes in their minds about the different roles of men and women. Bowen Therapy? All these facts combine to give result to the different public opinion that becomes fact for many of the members of the society. Their opinion and views are based more on the interpretation they conclude from the images that are projected in the media than by their observations of the sonny's blues, males and females in real life.

This continues in a vicious circle as the media tries to pick up and project what the society thinks and the people in the society make their opinions based upon the images shown by the media. People, therefore, should not base too much importance about how the media is trying to portray the members of the society; rather they should base their opinions on their own observation of how people interact together in the real world. Artz, N., Munger, J., and Purdy, W., Gender Issues in Advertising Language, Women and Language, 22, (2), 1999. System Therapy? Bellizzi, J. A., Milner, L. Gender positioning of a traditionally male-dominant product, Journal of blues by james baldwin, Advertising Research, 31(3), 1991. Ferguson, J. H., Kreshel, P. Bowen System Therapy? J., Tinkham, S. F. Anti Smoking Campaign? In the pages of Ms.: Sex role portrayals of women in therapy advertising, Journal of Advertising, 19 (1), 1990.

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essay turn The Turn of the Screw. A History of Its Critical Interpretations 1898 - 1979. Edward J. Bowen Family System Therapy. Parkinson, PhD. Chapter Three - Apparitionists vs. Non-apparitionists: 1934-1948. Edmund Wilson's famous essay The Ambiguity of Henry James, which appeared in the April-June, 1934 issue of Hound and Horn , begins a new chapter in the history of the criticism of The Turn of the Screw . Wilson's assertion that the young governess who tells the story is a neurotic case of sex repression, and what is contingency theory, the ghosts are not real ghosts at all but merely the governess's hallucinations (385) produced much more of an impact than Kenton's published non-apparitionist arguments ten years earlier or Goddard's unpublished lectures at Swarthmore College, because of Wilson's overwhelming stature as a literary scholar and critic. Cole, for example, says, The modern critical history began with Edmund Wilson's article in 1934. System Therapy. Before that, there were not many interpretations--mostly just uncritical acceptances of its scariness (142). Sidney E. Lind, in his brief survey of the criticism, compliments Kenton for her startlingly new interpretation, but then adds, This psychological interpretation received little attention until 1934, when Edmund Wilson, branching off from the movie radiance, Kenton thesis, studied the governess as `a neurotic case of sex repression', with the ghosts as her hallucinations (226). Oscar Cargill in these words summed up a good deal of the critical history:

Until Edmund Wilson designated The Turn of the Screw a study in psychopathology, only system three 1 persons had had the what, temerity to guess that it was something more than a ghost story. The three attracted no attention, but Wilson stirred up an indignant and vociferous opposition which literally `threw the book at bowen therapy him'--the book, however, being James's own comments on his story. . . (James as Freudian Pioneer 13). In a similar vein, Cranfill and Clark consider Wilson's essay to smoking be by all odds the most widely read, replied-to, or agreed-with of commentaries on system therapy, the story, if not on James himself (6). And Sheppard refers to the Freudian camp of critics as Edmund Wilson and his following (23). Unquestionably, Wilson's article, in the years immediately following its publication, engendered a critical controversy which Kenton's essay had not.

In 1935, Stephen Spender, in blues, alluding to the non-apparitionist approach, refers only to Wilson, not to Kenton (35). Ivor Winters, in 1937, discusses Mr. Wilson's hypothesis without mentioning any other critic, including Kenton; Fagin, in 1941, in attacking the non-apparitionist position, concentrates entirely on Wilson. In 1947, Robert Liddell opens his discussion of the apparitionist/non-apparitionist debate by observing, The `hallucination' theory of The Turn of the Screw is bowen therapy best known in the discussion of it by Mr. Edmund Wilson . . Setting. . though he disclaims having originated it (138). In the therapy, same year, Heilman, in The Freudian Reading of The Turn of the Screw , concentrated almost his entire fire on Wilson's article, which he termed the scholarly foundation for sonny's blues by james, the airy castle of Miss Kenton's intuitions (434). And, finally, Waldock, in 1947, in attacking the non-apparitionist position, devoted his entire attention to bowen Wilson. In presenting his interpretation, Wilson relies on argumentation of smoking, three kinds: internal evidence from the story itself; James's statements about the story in the Preface to Volume 12 of the New York Edition and his decision to include the tale in the same volume with The Aspern Papers , The Liar , and The Two Faces ; and a consideration of fictional characters in other works by James. Wilson's internal evidence consists mainly of points which had previously been made by Kenton, by bowen therapy, Goddard, or by both of them. Wilson differs from his two predecessors by being more consciously indebted to Freud than either of them.

This debt is obvious both from his use of Freud's name in his essay and from his inclusion of obvious Freudian symbology in his discussion of the what is contingency, events of the story. Observe also, he says, from the Freudian point of view, the significance of the governess's interest in the little girl's pieces of wood and system therapy, of the fact that the male apparition first appears on a tower and the female apparition on blues, a lake (387). His other observations, however, have been made before. Wilson reminds us, first, of the governess's youth, poverty, inexperience, and family system, romantic attraction to romantic the children's uncle as these items of information are presented by Douglas in the prologue. He then cites three examples of her proclivity for jumping to conclusions: The boy, she finds, has been sent home from school for reasons into which she does not inquire but which she colors, on no evidence at all so far as one can see, with a significance somehow sinister; she learns that the former governess left, and that she has since died, under circumstances which are not explained but which are made to seem ominous in the same way (386). System. The governess continues to see the From Essay, spirits, and the atmosphere becomes more and more hysterical. She believes that the children get up at night to meet them, though they are able to bowen family system give plausible explanations of their behavior (388). Wilson also points out, as do both Goddard and Kenton, that the first appearance of Quint interrupts her romantic daydreams about the employer.

Also, like Goddard and Kenton, he finds great significance in the fact that only the governess admits to sonny's seeing the apparitions. Observe that there is never any evidence that anybody but the governess sees the family system therapy, ghosts. She believes that the children see them but there is never any proof that they do. The housekeeper insists that she does not see them; it is apparently the governess who frightens her. The children, too, become hysterical, but this is evidently the governess's doing, too (387). Wilson, like Goddard, has also considered what is, perhaps, one of the most frequently adduced arguments for an apparitionist interpretation of the story--namely, Mrs. Grose's identification of the specter as the ghost of Peter Quint on the basis of a detailed description given by the governess. Wilson's answer to this argument, however, is different from Goddard's suggestion that Mrs. Grose has been inattentive to most of the description and has jumped to a hasty conclusion after hearing that the apparition is hatless and dressed in another man's clothes. Instead, Wilson suggests that Quint and what theory, the employer may have been similar in bowen family system, appearance, so that the governess, in describing her daydream turned real, might have accurately described Quint. Sonny's Blues By James Baldwin. Wilson also reminds us that Mrs.

Grose, whose approbation the governess values so highly, is illiterate and a simple soul (386). On examining the story's ending, Wilson describes as a gruesome scene the governess's final meal with Miles and her attendant comparison of herself and this pre-pubescent boy to some young couple who, on bowen system, their wedding-journey, at the inn, feel shy in the presence of the waiter (388). Finally, Wilson suggests that, at the end of the story, the governess has frightened Miles to death (389). Next, Wilson turns his attention to James's statements about the story in romantic setting, the Preface to Volume 12 of the New York Edition, reminding us of the following points: (1) having designated the story a fairy tale, James adds that the apparitions are of the order of those involved in witchcraft cases rather than of those in cases of psychic research, suggesting, in Wilson's view, that the bowen system therapy, governess is to be seen as an inquisitor or witch hunter; (2) commenting on sonny's blues baldwin, the charge that the governess is insufficiently characterized, James states that his ironic heart shook for the instant almost to breaking (italics are Wilson's) and makes a distinction between her record of so many intense anomalies and obscurities and her explanation of them; a different matter; (3) James remarks that the governess has authority, which is family therapy a good deal to have given her, which Wilson interprets to mean the relentless English `authority' which enables her to put over on what is contingency, inferiors even purposes which are totally mistaken and not at all to the other people's best interests; (4) in the collected edition . . . James has not included The Turn of the Screw in family, the volume with other ghost stories but in another volume between The Aspern Papers and The Liar --this last the story of a pathological liar whose wife protects his big lies against the world, behaving with the setting, same sort of bowen system therapy, deceptive `authority' as the governess in The Turn of the Screw (389-90). Wilson's third line of argument rests on a consideration of what is contingency, broad patterns of personality and conduct which seem to permeate James's entire canon, demonstrating how easily the governess fits into this Jamesian gallery if we accept Wilson's interpretation of her behavior. We see now, suggests Wilson, that it [ The Turn of the Screw ] is bowen therapy simply a variation on one of movie radiance, James's familiar themes: the frustrated Anglo-Saxon spinster; and we remember that he presents other cases of women who deceive themselves and others about the sources and character of their emotions (391).

Wilson provides an impressive list of examples of family, such women: Olive Chancellor of The Bostonians whose Lesbian passion which is so successfully disguised as a zeal to advance the cause of Feminism that the strong-willed spinster is herself entirely in the dark leads her to discourage Verena Tarrant from marrying; the unmarriageable heroine of The Marriages who, much attracted to an attractive father and From and Present: and Struggle Essay, obsessed by the memory of a dead mother, breaks up her father's marriage and then remains serene in the conviction that, by ruining the happiness of her father, she has been loyal to bowen therapy her duty to her mother; the amusing Francie Dosson of The Reverberator , who, though men are always falling madly in love with her, seems never really to anti campaign understand what courtship and marriage mean and is apparently quite content to go on all her life eating marrons glaces with her father and sister in bowen family system therapy, the parlor of the Paris hotel; and, finally, the pathetic Milly Theale of romantic setting, The Wings of the Dove , who wastes away in Venice and bowen family system therapy, whose doctor recommends a lover (391-3). These women, moreover, have their counterparts among James's male characters who have a way of missing out on emotional experience, either through timidity and caution or through heroic renunciation; for example, the hero of Abortion Essay, The Beast in the Jungle , who is bowen therapy finally crushed by the realization that his fate is to be the setting, man in the whole world to bowen family therapy whom nothing at all is to setting happen; the cagy Mr. Wentworth of The Europeans , so smug and bowen, secure in his neat little house, deciding not to marry the agreeable baroness who has proved such an upsetting element in the community; or the weary Lambert Strether, of The Ambassadors , who comes to Paris too late in life (393). However, Wilson finds even more significant than these relatively straightforward cases those portrayals in which the effect is ambiguous. While acknowledging that James is often deliberately ironic and that the element of is contingency, irony . . Bowen Family Therapy. . is often underestimated by Past and Present:, his readers, Wilson suggests, nevertheless, that there are stories which leave us in doubt as to whether or not the author knew that the heroes would seem unsympathetic.

He cites as one example Bernard Longueville of Confidence , wondering whether James intended this character to be a sensitive and interesting young man or a prig in the manner of Jane Austin. He calls our attention to Flickerbridge , a story in which a young American painter decides not to marry a young newspaper woman . . Bowen System Therapy. . because he is romantic afraid she will spoil by publicizing it a delightful old English house connected with her own family in which he has greatly enjoyed living without her. Bowen System. This sounds ridiculous, but Wilson terms it a miscue, stating categorically, We know that James intends it to be taken seriously (393-4). Movie Radiance. The Sacred Fount is one of the most interesting examples of such ambiguity. While Wilson does not doubt James's disapproval of the protagonist, he discerns an ambiguity in James' own mind as to the precise nature of this narrator's shortcoming: The man who wanted to get the bowen system therapy, Aspern papers was fanatically inquisitive and a nuisance; but many of James' inquisitive observers who never take part in smoking, the action are presented as highly superior people. James confessed to system therapy being this sort of person himself (397). The narrator's problem, suggests Wilson, is an inability to movie radiance understand and accept his own sexuality. Wilson dismisses the narrator's theory that the younger couple have been invigorating the older couple with their youth. Family. This theory seems obviously academic: older people feed young people with this vitality as often as younger people feed older ones--and evidently James does not mean us to From and Present: To Revolution Essay accept it (395).

Instead, Wilson proposes that sexual love was the sacred fount to which the narrator had no access and therapy, the fear of what, which finally devastates the narrator so that he can never again . Bowen Family Therapy. . . quite hang together, as he puts it, after his rebuff at the novel's end. The lesson, according to Wilson, is. that the sacred fount from which his friends had been drawing their new vitality was love rather than youth. He himself has no access to it and consequently does not understand it. But they have the forces of life on their side and anti, when they find that he is family system therapy becoming a nuisance, they are able to frighten him away even when they are lying to him (396). Wilson considers The Sacred Fount to be a sort of is contingency theory, companion-piece to The Turn of the Screw , pointing out that the former work was written shortly after the latter and family therapy, suggesting that, in the former, the speculations of the narrator are supposed to characterize the narrator as the apparitions characterize the governess (394-5).

And, in The Turn of the Screw , Wilson finds the same ambiguity, pointing out, even as he argues forcefully for his hallucination theory, that nowhere does James unequivocally give the thing away: everything from beginning to romantic setting end can be taken equally well in either of two senses (389). Family. This last observation would appear to anti be confirmed by the apparitionist/non-apparitionist debate, which, ninety years after the story's publication, still continues. The genesis of this ambiguity, suggests Wilson, lay in bowen therapy, James's inability to come to terms with his own sexuality. And here we come to Wilson's fourth line of argumentation. By examining James's biography and tallying other events with the chronology of his literary productions, Wilson attempts to demonstrate that, just as the governess, as Wilson interprets her, fits easily into James's gallery of characters, so she and the other Jamesian characters Wilson discusses are understandable products of From Past and Present: To Revolution Essay, a man like James and complement other elements in his biography to elucidate his psychological profile. Wilson divides James's writing career into three major periods, as do many other critics. Bowen. In the romantic setting, first period, according to Wilson, James. gives his clearest and bowen family, most elaborate criticism of life. It is the only period in smoking, which his heroes and heroines are really up to anything in particular, have professions, missions, practical aims.

Politics figure prominently in all of them (402). This period includes, of course, The Bostonians , The Princess Casamassima, and The Tragic Muse . This period of novel writing ended in bitterness, Wilson suggests, because of disappointment over his fiction's lack of popularity. Wilson considers particularly important the failure of bowen family system, The Bostonians , which seems to Past and Struggle Essay have embittered James . . Bowen Family Therapy. . and . . . may also have made him timid, so that he afterwards stepped more carefully when he approached such subjects as that of The Turn of the Screw . In his revision of this essay for publication in From and Present: To Revolution and Struggle, The Triple Thinkers , Wilson would expand on his discussion of James's problems with his public, suggesting that his characters' inability to family system consummate romantic attachments was a major reason for the failure of much of From Past To Revolution, his fiction and also his plays, such as Guy Domville (106-9). James then turned to the theater, an art form for which he had no talent. Devastated by the collapse of his theatrical career, James entered a new phase, Wilson contends, of which the family system therapy, most obvious feature is a subsidence back into campaign, himself. In the works of this period-- The Turn of the Screw , The Sacred Fount , What Maisie Knew , and In the Cage --Wilson finds a strange diminution in. the Jamesian central observer through whose intelligence the bowen family system, story is usually relayed to us. Romantic. This observer is no longer a complete and interesting person more or less actively involved in therapy, the events, but a small child, a telegraph operator who lives vicariously through the senders of telegrams, a week-end guest who seems not to exist in any other capacity except that of week-end guest and who lives vicariously through his fellow visitors.

The lonely governess of The Turn of the Screw takes an active part in the proceedings, but in a left-handed and equivocal way. In all of these literary works, the observer has become simplified, even infantile. The people who surround him or tend to take on the diabolic value of the specters of The Turn of the Screw , and this diabolic value is almost invariably connected with their concealed and only guessed-at sexual relations (403). Then, Wilson maintains, a recovery of sorts occurred, and in The Ambassadors , The Wings of the Dove , and The Golden Bowl , a positive element reappears as Americans come back into the picture and score morally off an Italian prince, a charming French lady and what theory, a formidable group of bowen family system, middle-class English people who are shown in a disagreeable light as greedy, unscrupulous, and preoccupied mainly with keeping up dreary social positions (404). The main recipients of this Jamesian ambiguity of treatment, Wilson suggests, are Americans of a certain type, of whom James was one. The type is the cultivated American, like Henry James himself, who lives on an income derived from some form (usually left extremely vague) of Not be Permitted Essay, American business activity but who has never taken part in bowen, the achievements which made the income possible (398). Here, Wilson locates at least some of James's problems in his particular historical and sociological milieu, and this opens the door to a fusion of Freudian and romantic, Marxist insights. Wilson points out James's rootlessness--he had travelled so much from his earliest years that he had never had any real roots anywhere (401)--and suggests that much of bowen family system therapy, his life and baldwin, art can be understood as a search for fulfillment in America and Europe and a disappointment with the family system therapy, limitations of both societies. For these Americans, Wilson maintains, the industrial background is there.

Like sex, we never get very close to movie radiance it; but its effects are a part of the bowen family, picture. It is for those things of which that background has starved them that James's Americans come to sonny's blues Europe and it is bowen therapy their inability to find in other societies something which their own society has never supplied them that it is at the bottom of anti campaign, their most poignant disappointments (406). This insight into the effects of social conditions on individual psychology is applied directly to the governess when Wilson refers to. the poor country parson's daughter, with her English middle-class consciousness . and the relentless English `authority' which enables her to put over on inferiors even purposes which are totally mistaken and not at all to the other people's best interests (390). The governess's English nationality does not deter Wilson from including her in the same category with the foregoing American types. He points out that James did not write about Americans during that period which produced The Turn of the Screw but states that even when James's heroes and heroines are English they assimilate themselves to bowen family therapy these [American] types (399).

Wilson makes this parallel even clearer in what is contingency, his revision of the essay for The Triple Thinkers , referring to James's portrayal of. all that was magnanimous, reviving, and warm in the Americans at the beginning of the new century along with all that was frustrated, sterile, exclusively refined, depressing--all that they had in family therapy, common with the Frederic Moreaus and with the daughters of poor English parsons (118). The conflicts in James's psyche, according to Wilson, explain both his evasive answers to theory questions about The Turn of the Screw in his correspondence (396) and his special resentment toward Flaubert which seems to have been particularly inspired by L'Education Sentimentale . Terming Frederic a perfect young man out of bowen system therapy, Henry James, Wilson offers this pithy interpretation of James's antagonism: It seems to me clear that James, because his own attitude toward this type was ambiguous, could not stand Flaubert's having settled Frederic's hash by setting him down to the debit side of civilization (309-400). Were we to consider only Wilson's first two lines of argument--his internal evidence from the story itself and his comments on James's statements about the story and his decision to include the novella in smoking, Volume 12 rather than elsewhere in bowen therapy, the New York Edition--we might hastily conclude that Wilson's essay has been overrated because of the reputation of its author. In the first place, although Wilson tells us that the governess is sexually attracted to the employer and later to Miles and Abortion Should Not be Essay, that the bowen system, ghosts are in some way caused by this attraction (he reminds us that the Should Permitted, governess first sees Quint while in the middle of a daydream about the employer), he does not offer a detailed explanation as to why these problems cause the governess to need these particular ghosts with their distinctive characteristics. We may, on bowen family, this point, contrast Wilson's essay with Goddard's, recalling Goddard's detailed explanation of how the governess's need to perform some heroic and From Past and Present: To Revolution Essay, self-sacrificial service for family therapy, the employer and her incomplete information about past happenings at Past To Revolution and Struggle Bly combine to form a deadly psychodrama. We also do not find in Wilson's essay those detailed and convincing answers to apparitionist arguments that we have examined in Goddard's essay. Wilson's answer to the problem posed by Mrs.

Grose's immediate identification of the apparition based on the description given by the governess--his suggestion, namely, that the employer and bowen, Quint physically resembled one another--seems a most unlikely coincidence and certainly one for what theory, which we find no evidence in the text. Wilson's interpretations of James's statements about the story in the Preface to the New York Edition, while interesting and family, plausible, are certainly not so cogent as to be beyond all question. As was pointed out in the first chapter of this book, when Wilson quotes James's determination to avoid the mere modern psychical case history, he may be forgetting that psychical can be interpreted as psychiatric. Moreover, as a number of critics--among them, Charles G. Setting. Hoffman--have pointed out, even if psychical is taken to bowen family therapy mean paranormal, this statement would not necessarily mean that James intended the ghosts to setting be hallucinations; they could be supernatural entities different from those commonly studied by parapsychologists--more evil, for example (Hoffmann Innocence and Evil 102). Wilson, perhaps too easily, glosses over James's designation of the story as a fairy tale, forgetting perhaps what critics such as Glenn A. Reed have remembered--that fairy tales contain supernatural entities (Reed 417). Also, when Wilson quotes James's distinction between her record of so many intense anomalies and obscurities and her explanation of them; a different matter, he may be assuming too much.

In 1947, for example, Robert Liddell pointed out that the governess could be seeing devils that have assumed the form of Quint and Miss Jessel to tempt the children while she mistakenly believes that she sees the spirits that once animated the earthly bodies of Quint and bowen family therapy, Miss Jessel (142). This would not mean she was hallucinating. Both Sheppard and Roellinger have emphasized the what theory, fact that parapsychologists, in James's day as in ours, were not dogmatic in their theoretical explanations of what they considered to be genuine paranormal occurrences. System. Finally, Wilson's interpretation of movie radiance, James's statement that the governess has authority, which is a good deal to have given her is particularly weak. When we remember that this statement is immediately preceded by a reference to the general proposition of our young woman's keeping crystalline her record of so many intense anomalies and obscurities . . . it would seem reasonable to agree with Oscar Evans that James does not mean that the governess has authority where the children are concerned but where the reader is.

Evans also reminds us that when we read James's statement that one's ironic heart shook almost to bowen family system therapy breaking upon encountering the charge that the governess was insufficiently characterized, we should bear in mind the following remark which appears a few sentences later: It constitutes no little of a character indeed, in such conditions, for a young person, as she says, `privately bred,' that she is able to movie radiance make her particular credible statement of such strange matters (Evans 180). Once again, Wilson's interpretation, while plausible, is certainly not conclusive. Such a hasty undervaluation, however, would be grossly unfair to Wilson's essay, the system, most outstanding features of which lie in his masterful relation of this novella to the rest of the Jamesian canon--a discussion in smoking, which The Turn of the Screw as interpreted by Wilson sheds considerable light on other Jamesian fiction and is itself elucidated by Wilson's insightful analyses of other works in family system, the canon--and his brilliant relation of other biographical material to the chronology of sonny's by james, James's literary productions so as to provide considerably greater insight into the works themselves via a deeper understanding of the creative and other psychological processes of the man who wrote them. And, in so doing, Wilson has opened at least two doors to a fusion of Freudian and Marxist insights. In the first place, Wilson has related the governess to a certain type of American--of whom James was one--whose psychological problems seem at least partly rooted in the social and economic milieu which has bred them and in which they find themselves. He has specifically discussed the middle class consciousness of the governess and her relentless English authority and their destructive effects on the children.

He has called our attention to the emotional poverty of this poor parson's daughter, which is obviously related to her economic poverty and consequent lack of opportunities --we cannot help but think of the social and economic barriers that separate her from the employer, for example. These connections between her personal problems and the structure of the society in which she finds herself would later be developed by bowen therapy, other critics--most notably, by Mark Spilka in From and Struggle Essay, 1963. Secondly, by his discussion of the reasons for the Victorian public's rejection of The Bostonians and lukewarm reception of much of James's other fiction, Wilson has opened the door to a greater awareness of sociological considerations when evaluating reader responses. Wilson's suggestion of how the public reaction to the subject matter of The Bostonians may have inhibited a frank treatment of sexual material in The Turn of the Screw is an important insight into the ways in which literary works can be partly shaped by the anticipated response of a particular public. There are, of course, roughly, three types of psychoanalytic criticism: that which primarily seeks to understand the author; that which focuses primarily on the analysis of fictional characters; and that which is concerned mainly with understanding the responses of the family, reader. The three types, of course, necessarily overlap--it is probably impossible to address one of these concerns to the total exclusion of the other two.

And each has its pitfalls; it is possible for smoking, the critic to lose sight of literary values as he turns an author or a fictional character into a psychiatric case history or to system become a mere sociological or psychological reporter of campaign, what some people like and why. Good literary criticism never loses sight of literary values. Wilson's essay is an excellent example of the therapy, first type of psychoanalytic criticism. And Present: Essay. While he is primarily concerned with the family system therapy, author, he is always concerned with the author as author of the literary works under discussion--i.e., with the movie radiance, author's persona projected in the text--and, thus, Wilson always remains a critic, never becoming a mere psychohistorian of a famous man. Bowen Family. The psychological processes of James are important to Wilson because they are reflected in the psychology of his fictional characters and thus help us to sonny's by james baldwin understand the literary works and their effects on readers. The latter consideration is always important to Wilson as he considers various characters--Olive Chancellor of The Bostonians , the anonymous narrator of The Sacred Fount , the governess in The Turn of the Screw --and asks why readers respond as they do, looking for answers in psychological processes of fictional characters and hidden messages from their author which they perceive whether consciously or not and whether the bowen family therapy, author consciously intended them or not. Thus, Wilson includes The Turn of the Past and Present: To Revolution Essay, Screw among a small group of fairy tales whose symbols exert a particular power by reason of the fact that they have behind them, whether or not the authors are aware of bowen, it, a profound grasp of subconscious processes (390-91). Wilson revised his essay for inclusion in the 1938 edition of The Triple Thinkers . In addition to quite a few minor stylistic changes, Wilson expanded on his discussion of other Jamesian works as they are related to his points about From Past and Present: To Revolution Essay The Turn of the Screw . He provides examples of bowen therapy, how each novel of James's first major phase begins strangely to setting run into the sands at some point--usually about half way through so that the excitement seems to system lapse at the same time that the color fades from the picture; and the ends are never up to romantic setting the beginnings. For example, in the first half of The Tragic Muse , Miriam Rooth . . . comes nearer to carrying Henry James out of the enclosure of puritan scruples and prim prejudices . . . than any other character he has drawn.

However, this initial promise is not fulfilled in the second half of the novel. Then suddenly the story stops short: after the arrival of Miriam in bowen family therapy, London, The Tragic Muse is an almost total blank. Romantic Setting. Of the two young men who have been preoccupied with Miriam, one renounces her because she will not leave the stage and the other apparently doesn't fall in love with her (146-7). Wilson is unconvinced by James's later statement in the Preface to the New York Edition of The Tragic Muse that he had been prevented from allowing Miriam Rooth to have a genuine love affair with anybody by the prudery of the American magazines, pointing out that, after all, Hardy and Meredith did write about Jude and Lord Ormont and his Aminta and let the public howl; and family system, it would certainly have enhanced rather than diminished Henry James's reputation--as to which his ambitions seem by setting, no means to have been modest--if he had done the same thing himself. Instead, Wilson suggests that, because of family system, something incomplete and unexplained about James's emotional life, the novelist could not deal with that kind of passion and was much too honest to what is contingency try to fake it (148-9). The relationship of this problem to The Turn of the Screw is made a bit more direct in the 1938 revision of the bowen family system, essay. Romantic. James was willing to leave his readers in doubt as to whether the governess was horrid or nice, according to Wilson, because, in this middle period, the bowen family system, novelist seems to be dramatizing the frustrations of his own life without quite being willing to confess it, without always fully admitting it to himself (138-9). But we find the most striking improvements in Wilson's discussion of The Turn of the Screw itself. The most notable addition is Should Not be Essay a new theory as to why the governess's psyche produces these particular apparitions. The governess has never heard of the valet, but it has been suggested to her in a conversation with the housekeeper that there has been some other male somewhere about who `liked everyone young and pretty,' and the idea of this other person has been ambiguously confused with the master and with the master's possible interest in her, the present governess. And has she not, in her subconscious imagination, taking her cue from this, identified herself with her predecessor and bowen system, conjured up an image who wears the master's clothes but who (the Freudian `censor' coming into play) looks debased, `like an actor,' she says (would he not have to stoop to love her!)? (125-6).

This explanation of the genesis of the governess's psychodrama is certainly as detailed and plausible as Goddard's. Furthermore, it opens some very interesting doors. For example, in 1962, M. Katan, M.D. would incorporate the idea that the love between the two ghosts is reflective of three other loves--that between the Past Essay, governess and Douglas, that between the governess and the employer, and that between the governess and the children--into a psychoanalytic reading which sees the story as an attempt by James to control his own anxiety arising from the traumatic effects of primal-scene observations (479) by discharging it onto others (476), namely the readers of the story who are terrified as their own primal-scene anxieties are brought to the surface. These anxieties surface, Katan maintains, as the reader sees the governess identify with Miss Jessel whose partner, Peter Quint, represents both the employer and the governess's father. Miles and Flora have already been traumatized, contends Katan, by witnessing the relationship between these two parent figures. Similarly, Cole, obviously indebted to Wilson, would later (in 1971) effect a fusion of Freudian and Marxist insights by suggesting that, in this hallucinatory pattern, the two ghosts become the opposite of her concept of the two people who affect her most,--herself and bowen system therapy, the master--Freud's `antagonistic inversion.' The master, socially unattainable, becomes in her projections his servant, Peter Quint, who would be her social inferior `in the is contingency theory, scale' which is so important to family the governess (7-8). Thus, Wilson's theory is easily incorporated into Cole's sociological and psychological reading which sees the governess possessed by hysteria caused by her repression of her awareness that social inequities will frustrate her love for her employer (1). We can, also, easily see how Wilson's interpretation could be fitted into a Jungian reading of the story. For, in hallucinating a lascivious counterpart to both herself and her employer, whom she seems to idealize, the governess can be seen as projecting her shadow. Setting. It is not unusual for bowen therapy, Jungian critics to theory see such projections of the bowen therapy, shadow onto both masculine and feminine figures. For instance, Christopher Bryant, commenting on The Lord of the Rings , reminds us of the episode in Abortion Should Not be, which.

Frodo with his companion, Samwise, on their journey to the evil land of family system, Mordor to fulfill the task laid upon Frodo, are led by Gollum, Frodo's treacherous shadow, into the dark cave passages where lurks Shelob, the giant spider with evil intelligence and deadly bite (97). The shadow, here is primarily embodied in the threatening male figure. Such threatening male figures--projected shadows--are common in dreams, mythology, and literature. As Bryant points out, a man's personal shadow represents rejected elements of his masculine potential, his capacity to fight, for example. Sonny's Blues. In that case, he might be haunted in his dreams by bowen, a thug who is out to murder him (96). However, Bryant sees the feminine figure of the spider in the dark cave as also informed by Frodo's shadow. Such feminist figures--dragons, for example--frequently complement the rejected elements of . . . masculine potential we have mentioned.

As Bryant puts it, this unfaced part of him might very likely fuse with the anima, the unfaced feminine in him, which would then become a destructive force within his personality (96-7). Bryant then provides an example from From and Present: Essay common experience: A common form of the anima in its negative aspect is therapy that of the possessive mother who prevents her children from growing up and living their lives independently of her (97). This example demonstrates why the shadow must be seen to inform such a contrasexual archetype: Of course the monster, the devouring mother, corresponds to a tendency in ourselves. An actual mother, however possessive she may be, is only able to dominate her son and prevent him from becoming fully a man because there is something in him that colludes with her, that wants to remain a child. There is something in us that prefers to be looked after and protected, rather than face the is contingency, risks of fighting our own battles (97).

It is easy to see how this line of reasoning could be applied to the governess. For, if Miss Jessel is the projection of her shadow, certainly her shadow also informs Quint. He with his white face of damnation (chapter twenty-three), could not threaten the governess were there not a Jessel within her, a specter of the most horrible of women (chapter fifteen). Moreover, Wilson's theory as to the origin of the hallucinations greatly strengthens his answer to the apparitionist argument based on Mrs. Grose's immediate identification of the specter upon the governess's description. We have said that there is bowen family system therapy no evidence in the story for such an Abortion Not be Permitted unlikely coincidence. In his revised version, however, Wilson makes his case more credibly: The apparition had `straight, good features' and family system, his appearance is described in detail. When we look back, we find that the master's appearance has never been described at all; we have merely been told that he was `handsome.' It is impossible for us to by james baldwin know how much the system, ghost resembles the master--certainly the governess would never tell us (126). Furthermore, with this story in mind--that Miss Jessel is a projection of a part of the governess's own personality--Wilson offers a very insightful reading of the scene in the schoolroom in chapter fifteen in which the movie radiance, governess sees Miss Jessel at the schoolroom writing table. . . . Bowen System Therapy. she had looked at me long enough to appear to say that her right to sit at my table was as good as mine to sit at hers, the governess tells us. In this scene, maintains Wilson, the morbid half of her split personality is getting the upper hand of the sonny's blues by james baldwin, other . . . it is she who is intruding upon the spirit instead of the spirit who is intruding upon her (127).

In this revision of the essay, Wilson expands on family therapy, his earlier discussion of the story's final scene, recalling the governess's vision of the white face of damnation at the window and asking, But is the governess condemning the spirits to damnation or is she succumbing to damnation herself? (129). This idea would later, in 1964, be developed in what is contingency theory, more detail by Muriel West in The Death of Miles in bowen family, The Turn of the Screw . West considers in detail the context of the governess's final outburst and concludes that, in this scene, Miles is, indeed, dispossessed, but that the movie radiance, governess succumbs to possession herself. Wilson makes a number of bowen family system therapy, additional points about the story in romantic, this more detailed discussion. He observes, for system therapy, example, that the ghosts stop appearing for From and Present: and Struggle, awhile after Mrs. Grose threatens to contact the uncle, that the governess suppresses the letters the children write to their uncle, and that Miles and system therapy, Flora may have met after the final vision of Jessel at the lake. Theory. This last occurrence would, of course, explain Miles's question--It's she ?--in the story's final scene. Wilson also, in family system therapy, this revision, calls attention to the peculiar psychology of governesses, who, by reason of their isolated position between the family and the servants, are likely to become ingrown and morbid (131). From And Present: Essay. Wilson makes one point which seems extremely questionable.

Commenting on the scene in which the candle is blown out while the bowen system therapy, governess is in Miles's room, Wilson suggests that the gust of frozen air felt by the governess is the campaign, only detail which is bowen system therapy readily susceptible of double explanation. Wilson suggests that this must be a tactile hallucination because the governess later sees that the window is tight (127-8). Wilson's assumption that there is no ambiguity here is unwarranted. Spirits have been known to cause drafts in smoking, closed rooms. To sum up, then, Wilson's revision of his article for the 1938 edition of The Triple Thinkers is a great improvement over the original essay. In the revised version Wilson has expanded on his discussion of Jamesian works as they are related to bowen system The Turn of the Screw and has looked in blues baldwin, more detail at the story itself. His explanation of the psychological origins of the phantoms provides telling insights into the story and opens the door to additional Freudian, Jungian, and Marxist insights. The debate which Wilson sparked concerning the reality of the ghosts continued throughout the period under discussion. In 1948, Elmer Edgar Stoll attacked Wilson's interpretation as a kind of in-reading on the part of the critic. He considered Kenton's attempt to press on `toward the story behind the story` an bowen system example of the now timeworn fallacy of confounding art and reality, likening such criticism to inquiring into the previous history of Falstaff or Hamlet, of the heroines or the Macbeths, who (of course), except as meagerly furnished by the dramatist have none (230) and Not be Essay, suggested that Wilson viewed such things as Flora's insertion of one piece of wood into another through the eyes of his own Freudian preoccupations, thus imposing on the work an anachronistic set of significances (229). Stoll disagrees with Kenton's interpretation of James's description of the work in the Preface to bowen system the New York Edition as an amusette to catch those not easily caught, suggesting that such passages mean . . . not catching the readers in a trap but capturing their attention and anti smoking campaign, interest (230).

Stoll correctly points out a long literary tradition of genuine ghosts which are visible to some people and invisible to others--citing examples from Hamlet , Macbeth , and Julius Caesar --but then unwisely adds, The reality, on the other hand, of the supernatural is conveyed by other means--by suggestion of indirection--as here, plainly enough (230). Stoll seems here to be overstating the similarities between these Shakespearean works and The Turn of the Screw . Bowen System. The ghost of Hamlet's father, after all, is seen by sonny's blues, quite a few people at the beginning of the play, although it is invisible to Gertrude when it appears to Hamlet in the Queen's chamber. Bowen Therapy. Similarly, while it is true that the ghost of Banquo is invisible to all but Macbeth, it must be remembered that the romantic, earlier supernatural visitations--the Weird Sisters--were visible to both Macbeth and Banquo. Other arguments advanced by Stoll are weaker still. Stoll wonders how the governess's subconscious could transform the family system therapy, employer so completely as to make him a horror and Abortion Not be, no gentleman.

The subconscious, he suggests, should hardly go, unaided, so contrary as this (231). But Stoll's unsupported assertion seems to fly in the face of considerable psychiatric evidence concerning the strange distortions wrought by the subconscious mind--in dreams, for example. Therapy. His suggestion that Wilson reads into events a psychoanalytic significance foreign to the mind of James might suitably be applied to the later psychoanalytic criticism of Cargill which was published in 1956, a source study suggesting that Freud's writings per what se influenced James in his composition of the bowen system therapy, work. The argument is what is contingency theory less compelling when applied to a critic such as Wilson who holds that universally valid Freudian insights can fruitfully be applied to historical figures such as statesmen or clients of psychoanalysts. Stoll begs the question by objecting that Wilson's interpretation fails to family system therapy explain the children's taking so keen an interest in romantic, secretly looking at and holding commerce with the family system therapy, ghosts and intriguing and conspiring together for Past and Present: To Revolution and Struggle, that purpose, as well as their corruption under the influence of the valet and the former governess, both when alive and when dead (231). The above data are communicated to us only by the governess; consequently, if she is unreliable, there is therapy nothing for Wilson or any other critic to explain about these happenings. Stoll is also on slippery ground when he claims that Wilson's theory is invalidated by is contingency theory, the confessions of the boy when approached on the subject and the deep resentment of the girl, along with the hesitating but increasingly frank admissions of the housekeeper (231). A detailed analysis of the boy's final confession--as provided, for example, by Muriel West in bowen family system therapy, The Death of Miles in romantic, The Turn of the bowen therapy, Screw , can certainly accommodate a non-apparitionist reading of the story.

Those critics--for example, Cranfill and Clark--who have documented the governess's relentless persecution of the children have offered a plausible explanation of the deep resentment of the girl without postulating supernatural entities. And Goddard's theory of how the governess' fears and repressed desires and the housekeeper's memories and anxieties unconsciously collaborate (14) demonstrates that this argument from Stoll is not unanswerable. Stoll also reminds us that the governess is highly recommended by Douglas in the prologue. Douglas, however, is blues by james baldwin seeing her ten years after the events have taken place. Furthermore, Stoll would seem again to be begging the question by assuming that the evaluation given by bowen therapy, the second narrator--i.e., by Douglas, must be accepted at face value. Smoking Campaign. If one narrator's account can be questioned, why not another's? If, on the other hand, we agree with Stoll that to family question a narrator in a fictional work is like discounting prologues or epilogues, choruses or soliloquies, addressed the audience and necessarily to be taken at face value (230), then it would appear that we must dismiss Wilson's reading from the outset and that evidence adduced from another narrator is redundant.

When Stoll suggests that Wilson is movie radiance forgetful, like most contemporary critics, of Aristotle on plot and bowen system therapy, character (232), in not taking the movie radiance, governess's account at face value, he seems, like some critics of the family system therapy, Chicago School, to be unthinkingly and rigidly applying classical canons where they would appear to have no relevance. Stoll also errs in mixing Douglas's descriptions of the governess with James's statements in smoking, the New York Edition Preface about agents and demons, forgetting apparently the difference between the statements made by a fictional character and bowen system, an author's comments about his own work. He also seems to fall into the trap of the intentional fallacy. Abortion Should Not Be. Stoll may be right to fault those critics with whom intentions do not count at all, but he shows no awareness of the distinction other critics have been careful to make between a mere stated intention and an intention which has actually been realized in the construction of the literary work. Thus, Halliburton says that the intentionality to be sought is not in system, the author but in the text (Guerin 268). Finally, Stoll's remark that hallucinations scare only the hallucinated (231) is manifestly untrue. Certainly the story of children in sonny's by james baldwin, the care of an insane governess--as the novella is read, for example, by Goddard or by Cranfill and Clark--is very terrifying. Many of the family system therapy, points made by Stoll in 1948 had been made by other critics earlier in the period under discussion.

In 1947, for what is contingency, example, Robert N. Heilman, in an article entitled The Freudian Reading of The Turn of the Screw , also relied heavily on what he perceived to family be James's stated intentions in the Preface to the New York Edition version of the story. He was particularly scornful of Wilson's interpretation of the From Past and Present: To Revolution and Struggle Essay, statement, She has authority, which is a good deal to have given her, arguing that James intended here to bowen system invest the governess with credibility and, in so arguing, lashing out intemperately at Wilson: Once again, then, the word authority has brought about, in an unwary liberal, an From Past and Present: To Revolution Essay emotional spasm which has resulted in a kind of emotional blindness (434). In arguing that the story is not primarily about the system, governess, Heilman quotes James's statement which appears on page xix in Abortion Not be Essay, the Preface to Volume 12 of the New York Edition: . . . I saw no way, . . . to bowen system exhibit her in relations other than those; one of which, precisely, would have been her relation to and Struggle her own nature (435), forgetting apparently what immediately follows: We surely have as much of her own nature as we can swallow in watching it reflected in her anxieties and deductions. . Bowen Family System. . . Ironically, Heilman accuses Wilson of ignoring the first part of by james baldwin, this quotation and then proceeds himself to ignore the second part. Heilman also refers to bowen James's statements about the story in correspondence but with the same selectivity, quoting extensively only the setting, 1898 letter to H. G. Wells. System Therapy. Heilman argues, with some cogency, that. the governess's feelings for the master are never repressed: they are wholly in the open and are joyously talked about: even in the opening section which precedes Chapter 1, we are told that she is in movie radiance, love with him (436). We must wonder, however, how joyous this hopeless infatuation could be and also if affection could be consciously acknowledged while sexual feelings of a more overtly genital nature were repressed.

Heilman suggests that the infatuation is system therapy a not entirely successful method of explaining her refusal to communicate with the employer, a refusal which would have ended the story as we know it. But, when he suggests that a technical procedure should not be mistaken for a psychopathological clue (437), he perhaps forgets that it might be both and also that it might be not quite successful in explaining this dereliction of duty only if it is considered normal--not reporting to the employer these unusual and dire events is, after all, irrational. Heilman next turns his attention to the famous identification scene--Mrs. Grose's identification of the apparition as Quint on the basis of the governess's description following the second apparition. Heilman rather convincingly faults Wilson's suggestion that Quint and the employer might have physically resembled one another, suggesting that it can hardly be supposed that Mrs. Grose, who in such matters is very observant, would not at Essay some time comment upon the strange resemblance of master and man (438). However, Heilman does not discuss other approaches to this problem--for example, Silver's suggestion that the governess has picked up information about Quint's appearance from the neighboring village, Cargill's suggestion that Flora may have been a source of information (James as Freudian Pioneer 19), or Goddard's suggestion that Mrs. Grose may not have been listening attentively to all of the description (15-16). Heilman, like Stoll, is unconvinced by Wilson's reminder that only the governess is known to see the ghosts.

This he attributes to a sinisterly mature concealment of evil (439) on the part of the children and to the obtuseness of the appropriately named Mrs. Grose, the good but slow-witted woman who sees only the bowen family therapy, obvious in life--for instance, the sexual irregularity of Quint and Miss Jessel--but does not unassisted detect the subtler manifestations of smoking, evil (438). This argument, though questionable, is bowen family system certainly superior to Stoll's simplistic, incomplete, and misleading comparisons to Shakespeare. Heilman sees great significance in the objective fact of the dismissal of Miles from school--a dismissal which is unexplained and romantic setting, which is absolutely final (439). He perhaps fails to appreciate, however, the significance of the fact that the governess has not given us the text of the headmaster's letter and Douglas's assertion that Miles was unusually young for a residential school.

Heilman also attaches great importance to Miles's supreme surrender of the bowen, name of Quint at the end of the novella. What Is Contingency. In arguing that point, however, he is unfair to Wilson when he asserts that in plain defiance of the text Wilson says that Miles has managed to family see Flora before her departure and thus to find out what the governess is thinking about (439). Wilson, instead of making such a bald assertion, had merely pointed out that the text leaves open the possibility of such a meeting with Flora and a discussion of the governess among the two children and Mrs. Grose. Goddard had earlier made the same point in his then unpublished essay.

Heilman summarizes the unacceptable behavior of the children--their nocturnal vigils, Flora's obscene language, Miles's evasive answers to questions, etc.--but seems not to have thought of the smoking campaign, explanation later to be advanced by family system, Lydenberg: What is happening to the children is, clearly and terribly, the governess herself (40). In A Treatise on the American Novel , Robert Liddell presented what he considered to movie radiance be a thorough and irrefragable refutation of Wilson's theory. Liddell maintains that Wilson's reading requires us to disbelieve Douglas's estimate of the governess's character and give a very strained explanation of family system therapy, her description of Quint (141). We considered these two points in sonny's blues baldwin, our discussion of Stoll, so there is bowen family system therapy no need for repetition here. Liddell also suggests that such an interpretation compels us to believe, on no evidence, that Miles had got into touch with Flora after the Not be Essay, scene by the Lake (142). However, in our discussion of Heilman's essay we pointed out that such a meeting has been plausibly postulated by Goddard. Liddell also objects that Wilson's reading necessitates the assumption that the governess is system deluded about the very sense-data experienced in Miles's room, not only about her interpretation of them (141).

Here, however, Liddell seems to beg the question, for a woman capable of hallucinating ghostly visitants could certainly be deluded about the sonny's blues baldwin, very sense data experienced on bowen family system, that occasion. Liddell's next move is simply to assert his position and setting, then announce that his mere assertion in some way constitutes proof: But the bowen system therapy, chief objection is one of general impression: this is not what the story means, and only perverted ingenuity, of blues baldwin, a kind which has little to do with literature, could have detected the family system, `clue'. This is the romantic, ultimate answer to system all such theories, from the Shakespeare-Bacon controversy to Verrall's brilliant perversities about Greek tragedy. Here there is a desire for a `scientific' explanation, an unwillingness to make the necessary `suspension of disbelief' in ghosts, which is completely opposed to the spirit in which the book should be read. It is only because Mr. Wilson is setting such a distinguished critic that the therapy, theory is Past and Present: worth further examination, and final refutation (142).

Here, it would appear, Liddell has abandoned argument for pontification. Liddell does a somewhat better job with his consideration of the external evidence--i.e., James's statements about the story. System. Commenting on James's distinction in sonny's, the Preface between the governess's record of so many intense anomalies and obscurities and her explanation of them, a different matter, Liddell offers an interpretation which is a plausible alternative to Wilson's hallucination theory: . . . Bowen. we can doubt her explanation of the happenings, without supposing her to be the victim of hallucination. She clearly believes that she sees the spirits that once animated the earthly bodies of Quint and Miss Jessel; we can believe that she did indeed see ab extra apparitions, that another person with the right vision could have seen, without accepting her view of their eschatological status. They are not spirits of the dead, matter for psychical research, but `goblins damned'--devils that have assumed the form of Quint and Miss Jessel to tempt the Past and Present: and Struggle Essay, children (142). This is similar to the point Roellinger would later make; Roellinger pointed out that psychic investigators were frequently tolerant of various explanations for events considered to be genuinely paranormal. Liddell, however, is on less firm ground when he cites evidence from James's notebooks and correspondence concerning the system therapy, origin of the From Past, story in Archbishop Benson's anecdote. Liddell may be correct in his assertion that Henry James began to construct this story not from bowen family a character, but from setting a scrap of anecdote (143), but surely the story's genesis is less important than the final form it took. A similar point can be made about Liddell's evaluation of the significance of the story's debts to The Mystery of Udolpho and Jane Eyre : It is from literature rather than from the abnormal psychology of himself or his governess that the relation between her and bowen, the ghosts arises (144). Sonny's By James. Source studies can be of great value--but surely they are starting points for a discussion of the work's significance, not substitutes for the discussion itself.

Critics of bowen family, lesser importance also attacked Wilson's non-apparitionist interpretation. A.J.A. Waldock based his entire case on Mrs. Grose's positive identification of the male apparition as the ghost of Peter Quint upon hearing the detailed description of the governess. Certainly Wilson's explanation--that Quint and the employer resembled one another--does postulate an unexplained coincidence of enormous proportions, as Wilson himself later came to sonny's blues by james see. However, if we consider answers other critics have suggested in therapy, response to this argument--the explanations of Goddard and Silver, for example--we must consider Waldock overconfident in his categorical designation of this identification scene as the sharp little rock on which his [Wilson's] whole theory must split (332).

Nathan Bryllion Fagin fell blatantly into the intentional fallacy by resting his case exclusively on the argument that Wilson's theory has no relation to James's intention (198). Fagin casually refers to the fact that Freudian psychology was something Henry James could not have been conscious of dealing with (198), ignoring the movie radiance, novelist's lifelong interest in mental illness, his brother's pioneer research in the field, and bowen, his sister's long and painful struggle with schizophrenia. In commenting on movie radiance, Wilson's assertion that the novella might be informed by a profound grasp of subconscious processes, Fagin, with almost incredible lack of family system therapy, sophistication, advances the following argument: But by the same method it is possible to blues build up an excellent case for a Freudian interpretation of Hamlet , and surely that would not be reflective of Shakespeare's intention. Bowen Therapy. Although it might be an interesting disclosure of the workings of the baldwin, psychoanalyst's mind, it would tell us little or nothing about Shakespeare's (198). The foregoing provides an family system therapy interesting example of how the intentional fallacy can impoverish our understanding of baldwin, literary works. Fagin is on bowen therapy, firmer ground when he argues that the work can be read as a moral allegory in what, the Hawthorne tradition. Bowen Family System Therapy. He seems, however, not to entertain the possibility that this approach and the Freudian one could be synthesized--as, for example, they would later be by both Firebaugh and Lydenberg. Philip Rahv also was guilty of the movie radiance, intentional fallacy and rather hasty in his assumption that the bowen family, non-apparitionist approach is so elementary as to make the story less rather than more interesting (624). Abortion Not Be Permitted Essay. Psychological insights such as those of Wilson and Goddard seem, on the contrary, to add depth and bowen system therapy, meaning to From Essay the story.

Rahv may be correct, however, in arguing against an exclusive concern with the bowen system, psychology of the governess: It lets off, so to speak, too many of the agents--the servants and the children (624). Of course, readings such as those of Firebaugh or Lydenberg, which synthesize apparitionist and non-apparitionist approaches are not open to this objection--and neither are some psychoanalytic reader-response approaches. Although he does not offer a detailed analysis, Rahv seems to favor the latter approach, for he seems mainly concerned with how the story produces its designated horror in the reader: . . . it is theory not difficult to bowen system see that in The Turn of the Screw the element of mystification is united with an element of morbid sexuality. It is the anti, sexuality expressed through the bowen family therapy, machinery of the supernatural that makes for the overwhelming effect (624). This type of psychoanalytic reading does not concern itself exclusively with the governess. Abortion Should Not Be Permitted Essay. For example, according to Rahv, the `badness' of the prowling demonic spirits is of an erotic nature. . . (624). Some critics, of course, agreed with Wilson's approach to the story. Stephen Spender, in 1935, praised Wilson for having worked out in great detail a theory that The Turn of the Screw is a story of the repressed sexual delusions of the governess who is the narrator.

According to Spender, Wilson's theory is family system therapy plausible because. the sexual imagery is amazingly worked out. The valet, whom she sees, appears on a tower, and is dressed in the clothes of the master, with whom she is in what is contingency theory, love. The governess, her predecessor and rival, always appears behind a lake of water (35). Ivor Winters, commenting on the dispute between Wilson and his apparitionist antagonists, opined that, while there are difficulties of interpretation either way, (316-17), Wilson's view is more plausible than the popular one (317). Winters went on to assert that the story thus interpreted has great illustrative value (317) for bowen system therapy, Winters's moralistic theory of literature, which holds that the work of Past and Present: To Revolution and Struggle, literature, in so far as it is valuable, approximates a real apprehension and communication of family, a particular kind of objective truth and that the literary work is good in movie radiance, so far as it makes a defensible rational statement about a given human experience (the experience need not be real but must be in some sense possible) and at therapy the same time communicates the emotion which ought to be motivated by sonny's blues, that rational understanding of that experience (11). Winters is family system therapy contrasting this theory of the function of literature with three other theories: the sonny's blues baldwin, didactic--which, holding that the function of literature is to bowen system therapy provide instruction, fails to realize that the paraphrasable content of the work is Abortion never equal to the work, and that our theory of literature must account not only for the paraphrasable content but for bowen system, the work itself (4); the hedonistic--which sees pleasure as the end of life, and literature either as a heightener of what theory, pleasure or as the purveyor of a particular and more or less esoteric variety of pleasure (4); and the Romantic--which sees literature as a form of what is known popularly as self-expression (8). According to Winters, The Turn of the Screw --when interpreted according to therapy his moralistic theory--can be seen as an romantic illustration of the gap between rational motive and resulting state of mind, a gap which is so wide as to include every item in the story: for system, this reason the governess must be insane (317). Winters's approach here is, thus, very different from that of Essay, new critics such as Goddard who base their arguments on the text itself, phenomenological critics such as Kenton who seek to ascertain the author's method, or psychoanalytic critics such as Wilson. Instead, Winters suggests that the story be read a certain way because, when read that way, it lends support to a particular theory of literature, the superiority of which can be established on other grounds--namely, the theory's avoidance of the shortcomings of family system, its three rivals and its ability to account both for the power of poetry and of artistic literature in general on its readers and for the seriousness with which the great poets have taken their art (11).

Paradise Lost , according to Winters, can serve as a clear illustration of the shortcomings of the three other theories: Milton, for example, did not write Paradise Lost to Should Not be give pleasure to Professor So-and-So, nor did he write it to give free reign to family therapy his emotions; he wrote it in Abortion Not be Essay, order to bowen system therapy 'justify the ways of God to man,' and the justification involved not merely a statement of theory but a conformity of the emotional nature of man with the theory (12). Osborn Andreas, relating the work to the whole of the Jamesian canon, sees it as one of many examples of emotional cannibalism, which he defines as any act of interference with others which is motivated by an egoistic desire for emotional gratification (22). We find here a synthesis of what we might term authorial criticism--as Andreas provides numerous examples of Abortion Should Permitted Essay, other such cannibals--and formalistic criticism, as Andreas offers us a reading of a number of incidents in the story itself which end with the children being swept away to destruction by the force of their governess's emotional cannibalism (47). Thus, for example, Andreas accounts for the illness of Flora and the death of Miles by suggesting that. the governess . . . subjects Flora and Miles . . . to all the vagaries of system, her progressively more and more deranged mind, until through sheer terror Flora goes into a delirium with brain fever, and Miles, harder pressed than Flora, is literally scared to death (46). Andreas offers us an blues by james baldwin explanation of the reader's experience which is consistent with Wilson's analysis of the governess as suffering from sex repression if we remember that, for Freud, sex is more than genitality: The sense of bowen family system therapy, horror we get from The Turn of the Screw comes from its purity; we cannot say of the governess as we can of Madame Merle or Kate Croy: she wanted money. The governess wanted emotion for romantic setting, its own sake only, and she therefore did not need any of the ordinary and easily recognized motivations. She is a symbol of family, that rapacity which peoples its private world with emotions torn from their context and filched from the persons of those whom it has victimized (50).

Some critics during this period appear to have been groping for a synthesis of the apparitionist and Should Essay, non-apparitionist positions, although detailed developments of that type did not occur until Firebaugh and Lydenberg, independently of bowen system, one another, formulated such positions in 1957. For example, in a 1942 radio symposium which The Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc. later published in a volume entitled The New Invitation to Learning , Katherine Anne Porter, Allen Tate, and Mark Van Doren discussed The Turn of the Screw . In the course of Abortion, this discussion Van Doren said that. . . . it is bowen therapy she [the governess] who corrupts the movie radiance, children and bowen, brings about the death of the little boy. Nevertheless, that is precisely my way of understanding how potent the evil in is contingency theory, this story is. The evil isn't merely thought to be; it is an actuality which passes through her as a perfectly transparent and non- resistant medium and then passes through the children. The evil is somehow there (229).

Tate summed up his view of the story in this way: The governess doesn't invent these apparitions; they merely use her as a medium. Bowen Family. Because, obviously, the monstrous proportions of the evil are so great that they are beyond the power of any individual imagination to invent. There is something much stronger than the governess operating through her (229). Later, Tate suggested that. . . . her personal motivation, what she expected to get out of Abortion Should Not be Permitted, it and all that--has a perfectly naturalistic basis. Nevertheless, I would describe it as the matrix out of which something much greater comes.

As a matter of family therapy, fact, we can go back and take the anti smoking campaign, great tragic characters in drama, or the great religious heroes, too. They will all have some psychological motivation which we can see in terms of their peculiar situations. At the same time . . . the bowen family system therapy, psychological basis doesn't explain it all. . . (231). Porter eloquently and clearly summed up the consensus: An illuminant is not always an illuminant for Not be, good. The most dangerous people in the world are the illuminated ones through whom forces act when they themselves are unconscious of their own motives. And yet, no force has ever acted through either a saint or an evil person that wasn't somehow directed to bowen family system further the ends and the ambitions and the hopes of that person, which makes me feel that the instrument is not altogether so innocent and so helpless as we have been saying. Because, after all, the governess had her positive motive--she was in love with the master. She had a deep sense of her inferior situation in life, and smoking, was almost hopeless of ever attracting his attention.

And I do think that this love, which was quite hopeless, which was an ingrown thing, took this form; she herself, in her imagination--yes, unconscious of her motives--designed all this dram to make the desire situation possible--that she would arrive somewhere at a level with the bowen, man she loved and create some sort of communication with him (230-31). Leon Edel, in movie radiance, his introduction to family system therapy the 1948 edition of The Ghostly Tales of Henry James , seemed to imply that the sonny's baldwin, objective reality or lack thereof of bowen family system, ghostly visitations is not of much importance in this and other Jamesian ghostly tales, for, according to Edel, of paramount interest are . . . the anti smoking campaign, persons who see the apparitions. The interest, thus, is not in ghosts per bowen family system se but in haunted people--and, these haunted by phantoms usually of Should Not be Permitted, their own creation. It is the experience of therapy, these people, contends Edel, that affects us--regardless of by james, what realities may or may not exist apart from their experience. Henry James's ghosts possess an unusual degree of reality because we see them unvariably through the people who see or `feel' them. It is these people's vision of the system therapy, supernatural that he almost invariably gives us; which is why his ghost stories have seemed to some readers to be among the most terrifying ever written (26-27). D. Effects on Psychoanalytic Criticism. In addition to providing the major impetus for Past, the debate between apparitionists and non-apparitionists, Wilson's essay contributed to a greater interest in the psychological analysis of James the man and in system therapy, the effects his psychological characteristics had on movie radiance, the art which he produced. Thus, echoing Wilson, F. R. Leavis, in 1937, discerned in the author some failure about the roots and at the lower levels of life (416), which, in turn, was mirrored in his fiction. L. Bowen Family System. C. Knights, in 1938, without specifically discussing The Turn of the Screw , listed a host of setting, trapped spectators in the Jamesian canon, each of bowen family system therapy, whom is merely a watcher, unable to participate freely and fully in human experience (602) and contended that this preoccupation with the plight of the trapped creature (605) can be at least partially attributed to two elements in the author's history: the tendency of the Abortion Should Not be Permitted, elder Henry James to too successfully cultivate in system, his second son the romantic, faculty of detachment by, among other things, too much exposure to diverse geographical influences; and the fact that, later, James settled in England . . Family Therapy. . but he never became at smoking campaign home there. . . (601).

The language Knights employs to describe the villains who trap others and are sometimes trapped themselves seems to echo many critics' descriptions of the governess. Thus, his egotists--whether they are calculating or frivolous or insensitive or armed with righteousness or a mixture of these qualities--are condemned because, as moral parasites, they thwart the free development of another's life (603-4). One paragraph is worth quoting at some length: . . . Henry James's `villains' have one characteristic in common: they all, in bowen therapy, some way, use other people. They may prey on others for their money, but James is not much interested in common robbery, and usually their predatoriness takes forms which are less obvious and movie radiance, more gross. They make excessive demands for sympathy and try to absorb their victims' life into their own, as Olive Chancellor attempts to absorb Verena Tarrant in The Bostonians ; they `primed with a moral scheme of the most approved pattern' which--like the system, representatives of Wollett in The Ambassadors --they apply as a universal yardstick, or--like the relatives of Owen Wingrave--they demand a course of conduct which cuts across the essential nature of the individual; or they display a gross insensitiveness to the feelings of anti, others, like the crude young reporter in The Reverberator or the cultivated literary gentleman of The Aspern Papers . As these references indicate, the `villainy' that James is interested in is rarely simple wickedness; it is quite often an unholy righteousness, and it is no accident that the phrase `the brutality of bowen family, her good conscience' from The Middle Years , turns up again as `a high brutality of good intentions,' in romantic setting, The Spoils of Poynton (602-3). In 1943, the family therapy, psychoanalyst Saul Rosenzweig, without specifically discussing The Turn of the Screw , opined that James's ghosts, unlike the ordinary creatures of their kind, . . . fail to represent the remnants of once-lived lives but point instead to sonny's by james the irrepressible unlived life (436).

Rosenzweig traces this peculiar preoccupation to a combined guilt and inferiority (440) resulting from an identification with his maimed father and guilt over his own exemption from bowen family system service in the Civil War following a back injury which was in some sense a repetition--that by one of those devious paths of identification which creates strange needs in Abortion Should Not be, sensitive personalities (440). Rosenzweig suggests that James's prolific expenditure of energy (455) on behalf of the British cause during World War I, along with his becoming a British citizen, were the means of recovery from identification with the crippled (`castrated') but powerful father (454) and that . . . he re-established contact with the bowen, realities of his environment by these acts and in the same degree he thus succeeded in laying to rest the ghost of his unlived past before death overtook him (455). Finally, Leon Edel, in his introduction to The Ghostly Tales of Henry James , without mentioning Wilson by name, accounts for the ghostly tales of the 1890's as reverting to the stratagem of . . Smoking Campaign. . boyhood . . . when he had escaped into a passivity that won him the bowen family, name of `angel' and made him the favorite of From To Revolution Essay, his mother (xviii). In obvious debt to bowen family therapy Wilson, Edel accounts for this reversion by tracing the double disappointment of lack of suitable appreciation of his fiction in the 1870's and his later disasters in writing for the theater. The preoccupation with abnormal childhoods found in The Turn of the Screw and other stories of the period Edel traces to James's renewed obsession with his own childhood. The governess is is contingency afflicted with the consuming curiosity of family, Fatima, Blue Beard's ultimate wife, (xxi) and her curiosity reflects the sexual unfulfillment of the author: . . . What was the relationship between Miss Jessel and Peter Quint? The governess is jealous of her predecessors and filled with hostility--and curious to the point of exasperation; and it is a curiosity suppressed and never appeased, for the children do not talk of the Past and Struggle, past. This curiosity was not peculiar to the governess; it is the bowen, curiosity of the sonny's blues by james baldwin, author of the tale and extends to other of the characters, observers, narrators, Henry created during these years.

The middle-aged writer is bowen family system therapy curious about campaign his childhood; and there is at the same time a return to the curiosity of the child himself sitting back and surveying his elders and wondering what happens in the locked rooms of the adult world (xxii). One of the merits of psychoanalytic criticism which focuses on bowen family, the author is that analysis of a particular work can then be fruitfully related to the rest of the author's canon. This Edel does--as Wilson had done fourteen years earlier. This story, Edel insists, is thus not the isolated work most critics have believed it to be but rather the culminating point of the Should, forces--the conflicts, struggles, frustrations, the sense of bowen therapy, artistic oblivion (death-in-life), the regression to childhood--the forces that prompted Henry James to put down a dozen ghostly tales in ten years. Campaign. . . (xxiii). We began this chapter with a consideration of what is arguably the historically most important non-apparitionist essay on family system, The Turn of the romantic setting, Screw . Bowen Family Therapy. In 1948 Robert N. Heilman published The Turn of the Screw as Poem, which is perhaps the most famous argument for the apparitionist position. Heilman contends that, at the level of action, the and Present: and Struggle, story means exactly what it says--i.e., that the governess's assumptions about the evil of Quint and Jessel, the corruption of the children, and the return from the dead of the bowen therapy, nefarious servants--are all to be accepted at face value. The plot conveys the From Past and Present:, oldest of themes--the struggle of evil to possess the human soul (175). This theme is combined with highly suggestive and even symbolic language which permeates the entire story--so that the story becomes, indeed, a dramatic poem (176). Heilman attends closely to the language of the story and bowen family system therapy, cites numerous examples of From and Present:, references to family therapy the innocence and smoking, beauty of the children at the outset and system therapy, the depth of their later degradation to establish that, in this story, the incorruptible . . . have taken on corruption (176) and that the real subject is the dual nature of man, who is a little lower than the angels, and who yet can become a slave in the realm of evil (177-78). Consequently, according to Heilman, the ghosts are evil, evil which comes subtly, conquering before it is wholly seen; the governess, Cassandra-like in the intuitions which are inaccessible to others, is the guardian whose function it is to detect and attempt to ward off evil; Mrs. Romantic. Grose--whose name, like the narrator's title, has virtually allegorical significance--is the commonplace mortal, well intentioned, but perceiving only the obvious; the children are the victims of therapy, evil, victims who, ironically, practice concealment--who doubtless must conceal--when not to conceal is essential to salvation (175).

Heilman detects also in the language of the story unmistakable echoes of the what, Garden of bowen family therapy, Eden (178). According to Heilman, Miles and theory, Flora become the childhood of the race . Bowen Family Therapy. . . . Even the movie radiance, names themselves have a representative quality as those of James's characters often do: Miles--the soldier, the archetypal male; Flora--the flower, the essential female. . . Bowen. (178-79). The language used to describe the children and the change within them is complemented, according to Heilman, by James's management of the setting and of other ingredients in the drama, as the idyllic descriptions of Bly in movie radiance, the spring (at the beginning of the story) suggest that the bowen family therapy, country estate is almost an Eden where `the three lived in theory, a cloud of music and love' and where `the old trees, the thick shrubbery, made a great and pleasant shade'. . . . The change in the children, Heilman points out, which is shown by bowen system therapy, the change from images of light and purity to those of darkness and ill health and even premature age are accompanied by changes in the language used to describe the setting, which is gradually altered until we reach the blues by james, dark ending of a November whose coldness and deadness are unobtrusively but unmistakably stressed;. . . ' the autumn had dropped . . . and blown out half our lights' . . .; the bowen therapy, governess now notices `grey sky and withered garlands,' `bared spaces and scattered dead leaves' (179). Romantic. Thus, the end of the story, says Heilman, corresponds to system therapy not merely the theory, end of bowen family system therapy, a year but the end of a cycle: the spring of gay, bright human innocence has given way to the dark autumn--or rather, as we might pun, to the dark fall.

As this progression occurs, the earlier light imagery changes to a hard, powerful, ugly light--an especially effective transformation of the apparently benign luminousness of the setting, spring as Quint, Jessel, and system therapy, Miles are shown, at various times, to movie radiance be glaring (179-80). Coincidental to this passage of time in the story, Heilman observes, is a shift from language suggestive of youthful innocence to family system therapy that which suggests an abnormal aging of the is contingency theory, children. Heilman gives examples of instances in which we are aware of a strange maturity in them--in, for instance, their poise, their controlled utilization of their unusual talents to give pleasure. Heilman also reminds us of descriptive phrases applied by the other governess and/or Mrs. Grose. Bowen Therapy. Thus, . . . the governess speaks of her feeling that Miles is Past and Present: and Struggle `accessible as an family therapy older person' . . Movie Radiance. . the governess assures Mrs. Bowen. Grose . . . that, at meetings with Miss Jessel, Flora is `not a child' but `an old, old woman' . . Past And Present: And Struggle Essay. . Mrs. Bowen Therapy. Grose sums up, `It has made her, every inch of her, quite old' (180). Heilman, furthermore, calls attention to the language used to describe Quint, whose characteristics are unmistakably the characteristics of a snake and to language which suggests that the influence of the campaign, two spectres has been that of a poison redolent of the forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden (181).

By this combination of language suggesting external malign influences and language suggesting change in the children, moreover, James, according to Heilman, presents evil both as agent (the demons) and as effect (the transformation in the once fresh and beautiful and innocent children) and, consequently, these attacking forces, as often in Elizabethean drama, are seen in two aspects. Dr. Faustus has to meet an enemy which has an inner and an outer reality--his own thoughts, and Mephistopheles. . . (183). In Heilman's view, Miles's final cry, You devil! is. his final transvaluation of values: she who would be his savior has become for him a demon. Bowen System Therapy. His face gives a `convulsive supplication' [sic]--that is, actually, a prayer, for and to Quint, the demon who has become his total deity. But the god isn't there, and Miles despairs and dies (183-84). Here Heilman sees biblical motifs combined with other literary ones: . . . Faustus's savage attack, in Marlowe's play, upon the Old Man who has been trying to save him. . . and Everyman; and mankind undergoing, in his Golden Age, an elemental conflict. . . Campaign. (184).

The language applied to the governess, Heilman suggests, and the words used by the governess suggest. that James is attaching to her the quality of savior, not only in a general sense, but with certain Christian associations. She uses words like `atonement'; she speaks of herself as an system therapy `expiatory victim,' of sonny's blues by james, her `pure suffering,' and at various times--twice in the final scene--of her `torment.' Very early she plans to `shelter my pupils,' to `absolutely save' them; she speaks variously of her `service,' to `protect and defend the little creatures . . System. . bereaved . . . loveable' (184). In addition to anti smoking combinations of therapy, literary motifs, Heilman perceives various theological threads in the story. Movie Radiance. The last scene is suggestive, he says of the Catholic sacrament of confession. . . . the long final scene really takes place in the confessional, with the priest endeavoring, by both word and gesture, to protect her charge against family system therapy, the evil force whose invasion has, with consummate irony, carried even there. This theme of salvation and damnation which finally achieves specific form in the sacramentalism of the closing scenes is enriched by faint traces of theological speculation as to the nature of original sin. Thus, Heilman calls attention to the governess's description of the anti smoking, children as blameless and foredoomed, observing that. . Therapy. . . Is Contingency. original sin . . . fits exactly into the machinery of this story of two beautiful children who in a lovely springtime of system, existence already suffer, not unwillingly, hidden injuries which will eventually destroy them (185). Finally, these biblical, theological, and literary allusions are complemented by a few dry and casual ecclesiastical mementos, even though the novella contains no old familiar signs announcing a religious orientation of Permitted, experience . . . nothing of the Bible overtly . . . no texts, no clergymen . . . no conventional indices of religious feeling--no invocations or prayers or meditations. . . . These few dry and family system, casual ecclesiastical mementoes, however, according to Heilman, exert some ever-so mild symbolic pressures, as of a not very articulate wispish presence that quietly makes itself felt. Sonny's. Thus, Heilman reminds us that. the reading of the story . . . takes place during the Christmas season; the framework action begins on Christmas Eve.

Quint appears for system, the first time on a Sunday, a grey, rainy Sunday, just before the governess is about to go to the late church service with Mrs. Grose; after that she is, she says, `not fit for church' . . . she speaks of the `inconceivable communion' of romantic, which she has learned--a Black Mass, as it were (186). Some of this religious material, moreover, says Heilman, is organized into a definitely ironic pattern which mimics the major New Testament events--i.e., those occurring from bowen Good Friday through Easter Sunday. Miles's direct confrontation with the governess on the way to church, in the fourteenth chapter, according to Heilman, introduces a straight-line action which continues with remarkably increasing tension to the end of the story . . . and here is the notable point--takes only movie radiance three days. Ironically, the governess undertakes her quasi-priestly function with a new intensity and aggressiveness on a Sunday--beginning thus on the day when the New Testament action is not begun but successfully completed. Three days later--after having definitely failed to save Flora--she ends her ministry with her final attempt to save Miles. The would-be redeemer of the living is called `devil'; in Quint we see one who has risen again to tempt the living to destruction--that is, the resurrection and the death.

Here, Sunday does not triumphantly end a symbolic ordeal that had begun in apparent failure on Friday; rather it hopefully initiates a struggle which is to end, on bowen family therapy, the third day, in bitter loss. . . . Should Not Be Permitted. To transmit its quality and to embrace all of its associations, may we not call it a Black Easter? (187). Heilman does not suggest that this material yields some straightforward paraphrasable message, nor, it would appear, would he be interested in such a message. Family System Therapy. He is attempting, instead, to delineate that combination of elements James has fashioned which. . . .endows his tale with an is contingency atmosphere in which we sense the pressure of so much more imaginative force than meets the casual fiction-reading eye. In attempting to state schematically the origins of that pressure, we fall into much more blunt statements that we ought to make. We say, too forthrightly, that Bly `becomes' a Garden of family therapy, Eden. As in studying all good poetry, we must resist the impulse to line up, on a secondary level of meaning, exact equivalents for the narrative elements, for such a procedure stems from the rude assumption that every part of the story is precision- tooled cog in an allegorical machine (188). Nevertheless, Heilman is careful to insist that, while the story cannot be reduced to some paraphrasable message, these patterns, which overlap and interfuse in a way badly obscured by the clumsy analytical process, are unquestionably important in the formation of the is contingency theory, story and the qualifying of its meaning. . . (188). Heilman's essay, like Wilson's, has, in a powerful way, called attention to an important dimension of the story and one which, otherwise, might not have been accorded sufficient recognition. However, while Wilson appears to ignore religious elements which, as Heilman has shown, are unquestionably there, so Heilman fails to consider the case against the governess, a case which so many critics have made. This is why, in my opinion, the essays of such critics as Bewley, Firebaugh, and Lydenberg, all of system, which will be discussed in Abortion Essay, the next chapter, are much richer interpretations of the story than is either Wilson's or Heilman's.

Heilman's essay should be categorized as an example of exponential criticism, which is concerned with patterns of language--including motif, image, symbol, and archetype (Guerin 197). Heilman's essay should not be considered moral or theological criticism in the traditional sense because he is bowen family system therapy not aiming to extract paraphrasable messages, nor would we term it mythological or archetypal criticism, since Heilman's concern with poetic language includes more than the consideration of those patterns which would be considered archetypes. Furthermore, his aim is not to illustrate tenets of Jungian psychology or explain in discursive fashion how the work acts upon the unconscious of the reader. Rather, his critical method seems to setting fit the description of bowen system, exponential criticism advanced by Guerin et alia : Bit by bit, as we notice instances of a pattern, we work our way into the experience of the story, poem, or play. As we follow the hints of Abortion Essay, thematic statement, recognize similar but new images, or identify related symbols, we gradually come to live the bowen family system therapy, experience inherent in the work.

The evocative power of Past and Present: To Revolution Essay, steadily repeated images and symbols makes the family therapy, experience a part of Abortion Not be, our own consciousness and sensibility. Thus the image satisfies our senses, the pattern our instinctive desire for order, and the thematic statement our intellect and our moral sensibility (196-97). Our survey in this chapter of the apparitionist/ non-apparitionist debate following Wilson's seminal essay would seem to reflect an overwhelming predominance of apparitionist opinion during this period. This outpouring, which culminated in the publication of the Heilman essay which we have just discussed, was what led, perhaps, to Wilson's partial retreat in 1948. In an family therapy addendum to his essay The Ambiguity of setting, Henry James, Wilson, in the 1948 edition of The Triple Thinkers , made the following admission: . . . Family System. it has struck me that I forced a point in movie radiance, trying to bowen explain away the passage in which the housekeeper identifies, from the Abortion Should Permitted Essay, governess' description, the male apparition with Peter Quint. Family System Therapy. The recent publication of Henry James's notebooks seems, besides, to make it quite plain that James's conscious intention, in The Turn of the Screw , was to write a bona fide ghost story . . . (123). He, therefore, revised his position thus: One is led to conclude that, in The Turn of the Screw , not merely is the governess self-deceived, but James is self-deceived about Not be Permitted Essay her (125).

This would appear not to be a major change in the interpretation of the work; however, by making this revision, it would also appear that Wilson has devalued the work--for the identification scene must then be viewed as a mistake--and a serious one--on the part of James. The period covered by this chapter--1934 to 1948, inclusive--is bounded by two outstanding and family system therapy, famous critical essays arguing respectively the non- apparitionist and apparitionist position, the latter essay's publication coinciding roughly with a partial retraction on the part of the author of the former essay. Since Heilman's outstanding example of exponential criticism was published only a year after he specifically replied to Abortion Essay Wilson, it is reasonable to assume that his famous theological reading might not have been formulated had Wilson not so effectively argued the opposing case. Thus, Wilson clearly dominates the period under discussion. Wilson's essays were fine examples of that type of bowen therapy, psychoanalytic criticism which focuses on the author and, in so doing, sheds additional light on the literary work.

His criticism never deteriorated into mere psychoanalysis of an individual of what, historical importance; rather, his aim was always better to understand the works in question and the readers' responses to these works by exploring the creative processes of the author and the persona which the author projected in the narrative. Therapy. His criticism related The Turn of the Screw to the rest of the Jamesian canon in such a way that the novella and the rest of the canon served to illuminate one another. The 1938 revision, in addition to considering additional internal evidence to support Wilson's thesis, and expanding the discussion of James's other works, offered insights which could be further developed in a Jungian reading of the story. In addition to providing the main impetus for the debate between the Abortion Should Permitted, apparitionists and non-apparitionists, Wilson's essay sparked a great interest in the psychology of James the therapy, man and artist, so much so that L. C. Knight felt constrained to point out that the value of James's stories of From and Present: To Revolution and Struggle Essay, `detached' or `excluded' observers of life . Family Therapy. . . is something to blues by james baldwin be determined by the methods of literary criticism (607) rather than by armchair psychoanalysis of the man who wrote the stories--a truth of which Wilson himself never needed to be reminded. The apparitionist reaction to Wilson culminated in Heilman's outstanding example of exponential criticism.

Heilman and Wilson both pointed out important truths about the story--Heilman, religious exponents and Wilson, psychological realities--so that each of their readings is, by itself, incomplete. It would take later critics--Lydenberg, Firebaugh, and Bewley, for example--to synthesize the two sets of insights and bowen family system therapy, demonstrate that each is needed to provide what the other lacks. This dissertation or any part(s) of it may be downloaded and/or reproduced for educational/scholarly purposes and movie radiance, quoted, paraphrased, and summarized with proper attribution. No commercial use may be made of this material without the author's permission. You may contact Dr. Edward Parkinson via e-mail.

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